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An EASEworks Manufacturing Tutorial

Lean Manufacturing

Index
INTRODUCTION WORK SIMPLIFICATION Process Chart Multiple Activity Chart Flow Diagram Summary How is it Done? IMPLEMENTATION PART SIMPLIFICATION CONCLUSION EASE Inc. Services, Clients and Contact Numbers.

EASEworks
This presentation will help you to.....

LOWER COSTS

By eliminating useless work; simplifying necessary work; proper utilization of materials; reducing scrap

IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY

By utilizing machines; tools; equipment and facilities to capacity; reducing bottlenecks and developing a smooth ow of materials and communications

SAVE EFFORT

By eliminating or reducing fatiguing and waste motions; long transports and involved paperwork through easier methods and mechanization.

IMPROVE QUALITY

By improving tooling and inspection techniques.

REDUCE ACCIDENTS

By eliminating accident hazards; reviewing working conditions and encouraging plant and job cleanliness.

You Must Plan Your Operations & Improve Your Methods!


To meet competition eectively and to continue to grow - you must constantly seek to reduce your cost.
Sample Distribution of Income

3% 2% 7% 20%
Payrolls between 4% and 20%

Material&OpExp. Payrolls All Taxes 68% Earnings Retained Dividends Paid to Shareowners

Each of the Elements of Cost; Labor; Burden; and Materials can represent millions of dollars in your company. To reduce only one of them by as little as 5% would represent a huge saving. A portion of each of these costs is excess cost if it represents unnecessary labor, unbalanced workload, waiting time, lost time, backtracking of materials, wasted material, spoiled parts and duplicate clerical work that should be ELIMINATED or REDUCED.

This presentation shows you how to use certain tools for nding excess costs, getting new ideas, developing new methods and for selling new methods so that......

Your Costs Will Be REDUCED

You will learn how to REDUCE COST through. . .


1. WORK SIMPLIFICATION: The commonsense, step-by-step way of studying jobs to nd easier and better ways of doing them. PART SIMPLIFICATION: A systematic study of materials and parts, to simplify them and reduce their cost.

2.

In order to get a better understanding of how a business operates, lets take a look at the relationship of cost, price and pro t. The study of this relationship comes under the heading of....

ECONOMICS

Economics of the Manufacturing Industry


The COST of manufacturing your product is made up of..

MATERIAL

LABOR

BURDEN

COST

PROFIT is the money left over (if any) from the customers dollar after all expenses and taxes are paid:

Products MATERIAL PROFIT BURDEN Manufacturing Plant LABOR Money LOWER COSTS BRING GREATER MARKETS

Customer

Supply & Demand


A SMALL demand and a BIG supply tend to lower the price

Supply & Demand A BIG demand and a SMALL supply tend to raise the price

As the selling price is lowered to meet competition, pro t decreases until loss results. The lower the cost, the lower the price can be and still produce a pro t. The company with the lowest cost can stay in the market the longest and can assure its employees of...

GREATER SECURITY

You Can.....
Make Work Easier Reduce Costs Improve Quality

Through.......

PART #I. WORK SIMPLIFICATION


by...
1. ELIMINATING unnecessary steps of the job
2. COMBINING and REARRANGING other steps of the job, and

3.

SIMPLIFYING the necessary steps of the job.

Improving Methods Enables You to Improve Your Product

With Less Eort In Less Time Without Hurrying With Greater Safety With Lower Cost

Through...
The LOWERED COSTS

LOWER POSSIBLE SELLING PRICE which in turn leads to

MORE SALES which means

MORE EMPLOYMENT & GREATER SECURITY

For EVERYONE in the Company!

But....
WORK SIMPLIFICATION can only be started with an open mind. You must not take any methods for granted - no matter how long it has been done that way, or how good you may think the present method is.

REMEMBER There is ALWAYS a BETTER WAY

How Work Simpli cation is Done


The technique in work simpli cation is really very simple. It is such a logical way of solving a problem that you will recognize it as just good COMMON SENSE.

The steps in Work Simpli cation are....

1. Select the job to be improved 2. Break down the job in detail 3. Question the job and each detail of the job 4. Develop the new method 5. Apply the new method

#1. SELECT THE JOB TO BE IMPROVED


Work Simpli cation will apply to any job, but it is more productive on some jobs than others.

To be most productive it is suggested that you look rst to jobs such as....

Pick a BOTTLENECK job - one on which any improvement will help a whole group of workers or speed up a whole process.

Select a job on which a LOT OF TIME is spent each year. Savings possibilities are greater on these than on small-time jobs. Work on SIMPLE JOBS until you learn the technique.

A job on which there is much CHASING AROUND usually has great improvement possibilities. Pick a job that involves HARD WORK and make it easy to do If your materials are expensive - then a job on which much MATERIAL IS USED or SCRAPPED is a good one to study. Select a job on which the INSPECTION of the product can be improved or eliminated.

Improve a job where the WORKING CONDITIONS are disagreeable.

BITE OFF A LITTLE AT A TIME and CHEW WELL


Nothing succeeds like success! The only way youll learn is by doing. Select a job in one of the above classes if you can - but, more important -SELECT A JOB and

LETS GO.........

#2. BREAK DOWN THE JOB IN DETAIL

WHY A BREAKDOWN?

Because you can eectively pay attention to only one thing at a time. In order to improve a process, you must list everything that happens in that process. You must nd out.....

WHAT WHERE WHEN WHO HOW

is being done? is it being done? is it done? does it? is it done?

Your garage mechanic cant gure out why your car wont run unless he checks each possible cause separately. There are several tools which are helpful in breaking down a job. They are . . . . . . . A. The PROCESS CHART B. The MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART C. The FLOW DIAGRAM

A. How to Make a Process Chart


A PROCESS CHART is a picture of all the operations, transportations, inspections, storages and delays that are performed BY AN EMPLOYEE or TO A MATERIAL.
For additional information click on Process Plan

A PROCESS CHART is is dierent to a PROCESS PLAN. Process Plans dont hold transports and storages - typically only being concerned with the assembly process of operations and inspection.

In creating a process chart, the steps are illustrated by symbols.

OPERATION

Something is being changed or created or added to. (Install engine to chassis). Something is moved from one place to another. (Moving parts between work centers) Something is checked or veri ed but not changed. (Gauging a part). Something remains in one place awaiting further action. (Waiting for hand truck to be loaded). A delay in the sequence of events e.g. work waiting between consecutive operations.

TRANSPORTATION

INSPECTION PERMANENT STORAGE TEMPORARY STORAGE OR DELAY

A PROCESS CHART like the one shown later in this presentation is a handy utility that will help you organize your problem. However, it is not necessary to have this program to make a process chart. If you dont have the program, make up the chart on paper BUT......

MAKE IT UP
and

(the chart)

BREAK IT UP

(the work)

Steps in Making a Process Chart


1. 2. State the JOB to be studied Choose the SUBJECT to be followed

A PERSON

MATERIAL A FORM

Task Header

Follow the same subject through the entire study DONT CHANGE. Each detail in the description must be about the ONE selected subject.

3. Pick a STARTING and ENDING point Be sure you cover only the ground you wish. No more - no less.

4. Enter a brief description of each detail. 5. Apply the symbols. The description determines the symbol. 6. Enter TIME and DISTANCE. Enter approximate time for each detail where you think this will tell a more complete story. Enter distance in feet for all transportations..

Element Summary shows Work Content

7.

SUMMARY. All times and distances are totaled for you.

Check List for a Process Chart


Basic Principles
Reduce number of steps. Arrange steps in best order. Make steps as economical as possible. Reduce handling Combine steps if economical Shorten moves Provide most economical means for moving Cut in-process inventory to workable Use minimum number of control points at most advantageous places

Check List for a Process Chart


1. Can any step be eliminated?
As unnecessary. Ask: Why it is Done? Use new equipment. Ask: Why is present equipment used? By changing the place where it is done, or kept. Ask: Why is it done there? By changing the order of work. Ask: Why is it done in its present order? By changing the product design. Ask: Why design it this way?

Check List for a Process Chart


2. Can any step be combined with another?
Are there any possible changes that would make this feasible in: Workplace Equipment Order of steps Product design Speci cation of supply or any raw material

Can the steps be rearranged in order to make any shorter or easier? Can any steps be made easier?
(If this looks like a possibility, make further detailed analysis of this step).

Task Header with Comparison

Element Summary showing revised Work Content

Each PROCESS CHART is used when only one operator, one part, one material or one form is being followed. When several employees work together, or when an employee works with a machine, another type of chart is used. This is known as a........

Multiple Activity Chart

B. How to Make a Multiple Activity Chart


A MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART is a time picture of the various activities performed by each employee.

Working IN A GROUP or working WITH MACHINES


Each thing an EMPLOYEE or a MACHINE does is shown as a vertical bar.The length of the bar indicates the length of time it usually takes to perform that element.

1. 2.

State the PROCESS to be studied. Set up a COLUMN for each job and each machine involved in the process.

3.

List ELEMENTS done by each employee & each machine to be charted. (Dont break down the operation too ne.

4. Enter the TIME for each element.

5.

VIEW the chart and move the elements into the order and starting position in which they are used.

Check List for Multiple Activity Chart


Basic Principles Balance the work of the crew. If a machine is involved, consider increasing % of use. Ease the job of the most-loaded person. Eliminate steps. Combine steps. Make steps as easy as possible.

1. Can any operation be eliminated?


As unnecessary? By changing the order of the work? By new or dierent equipment? By changes in the layout?

2. Can any movement be eliminated?


By leaving out operations? By shifting some operations to another job into which they t more conveniently? By changing the equipment? By changing the layout? By changing the order of the work? By conveyors? (Make sure they are economical).

3. Can any delays be eliminated?


By changing the order of the work? By changing the layout? By new or dierent equipment?

4. Can inspection or counting be eliminated?


Are they really necessary? What happens after they are done and the information obtained? Do they give unnecessary duplication? Can they be performed more conveniently by another person? Are they done at the best point in the sequence?

5. Can operations be combined?


By changing the order of the work? By changing the layout? By new or dierent equipment?

6. Can movements be combined?


By changing the order of the work? By changing the layout? By changing the quantity handled at one time?

7. Can delays be reduced?


By changing the order of the work? By changing the layout? If they provide rest, can they be grouped better?

8. Can the inspection or counting be combined?


By changing the order of the work? By changing the layout?

9. Can steps be made safer?


By changing the order of the work? By changing the layout? By new or dierent equipment?

10. Can any operation be made easier?


By a better tool? By changing position of control or tools? By using better material, containers, racks, bins or trucks? By using inertia where possible and avoiding it where work must overcome it? By lessening visual requirements? By better workplace heights?

By using better muscle groups in this list that are strong enough for the task? Finger Shoulder Wrist Trunk Elbow

By jigs or xtures? By better workplace heights?

11. Can any movement be made easier?


By a change in layout, shortening distances? By a change in direction of movements? By changing its place in the sequence to one where a distance that must be traveled is shorter By lessening visual requirements? By better workplace heights?

12. Can any delays by one person, that is caused by another person, be eliminated?
By a changing the number of people? By changing the number of machines that are used. (You must take into account the following four possibilities).

1.

Reduction of operator delays to the minimum required for rest and personal time. There may be considerable machine delay.

2. Reduction of machine delays to the minimum required to provide the operator with rest and personal time, at which times the machine is unattended. There may be considerable other operator delay. 3. Reduction of machine and operator delays such that they will provide the most economical balance. 4. Reduction of both operator and machine delays to the minimum required to provide the operator with rest and personal time.
By redistribution of the work among the crew. By changing the order of work of the crew.

By changing the sequence of the work, the total time to complete the task has been reduced by 31%.

You can see the eects of the improvements illustrated on this screen.

MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTS are especially helpful in nding:


How work can be divided between members in a group on a more equal basis How the time for certain elements can be reduced. How the elements can be rearranged to reduce the overall time for the job. How machine time can be used more eectively.

When the operation involves a lot of walking or transporting, it may be advisable to make a FLOW DIAGRAM

Lets see how a FLOW DIAGRAM is made......

C. How to Make a Flow Diagram

A FLOW DIAGRAM is a picture of the path followed by an employee or a group of employees in performing their operations. It is an additional help in visualizing the process.

Steps in Making a FLOW DIAGRAM


1. 2. 3. Draw a rough layout of the area where the process is done Trace the path followed by the employee, the material, the part or the piece of equipment Show by arrows the direction in which the movement was made

#3 QUESTION THE JOB, & THEN EACH DETAIL

In order to develop better methods, you must take nothing for granted, but instead QUESTION everything that is being done, from.....

The Process Chart The Multiple Activity Chart The Flow Diagram and. . .

You know all about each step in the process or the operation you are studying, including the what, where, when, who and how.

You are now ready to ask the question WHY? of each of the details.

KNOWING
THAT its done

YOU ASK
WHY is it done at all? What else could be done to accomplish the same result WHY it is done there? Where else could it be done?

WHERE it is done?

WHEN it is done?

WHY it is done then? At what other time could it be done? WHY does this person do it? Who else could do it?

WHO does it?

HOW it is done?

WHY is it done this way? In what way could it be done?

It should be noted that by double-questioning each detail like this, you either make sure that the present methods are OK or you list other methods to be tried.

Work with FACTS not opinions Opinions only produce arguments - FACTS produce conclusions. A FACT does not disappear when you ask WHY? Work on CAUSES not eects A bucket under a leak in the roof will never x the leak. Work with REASONS not excuses An excuse leads to foggy thinking.

At the end of this questioning, you will have POSSIBLE ANSWERS alongside each detail on the charts. But these are as yet only possibilities that may or may not be practical.

NOW you are ready to develop

THE NEW METHOD


This is STEP FOUR. . .

#4 DEVELOP THE NEW METHOD

In developing the new method, it is best to assume that the present method is all wrong and that almost any dierent way is better. It may surprise you to nd how often this is true!

DONT SAY
INSTEAD SAY

It cant be done You never know until you try!

When something has been done a particular way for 15 or 20 years it is a pretty good sign in these changing times, that it is being done the wrong way.

Applying the question WHY to these ve prompters

Tends to result in following

the actions

WHAT WHERE WHEN WHO HOW

ELIMINATE COMBINE CHANGE SEQUENCE SIMPLIFY

Now Lets Consider these Actions in Detail


ELIMINATE asking the question WHY of the prompter WHAT, often results in the answer that there is no good reason for doing the operation at all.

Consequently, that operation can be ELIMINATED. Entirely too many operations that are studied for improvement, should instead be eliminated.

COMBINE

the answer to WHERE, WHEN and WHO may lead to improvements by COMBINING OPERATIONS.

If two operations can be combined, the labor cost after combining is often no more than the cost of one of the operations before. Also, the combining of two operations automatically eliminates the transports and storage between the operations.

CHANGE SEQUENCE

sometimes the answers to WHY or WHERE, WHEN and WHO lead to possibilities of changing the sequence or the order in which operations are done.

This possibility comes up quite often when improving group operations.

SIMPLIFY

after every possibility for ELIMINATION, COMBINATION, and CHANGE IN SEQUENCE has been noted, the development of HOW should be made.

This should not be done until all the other steps are completed.

As a result of the preceding study, all unnecessary steps in the process will have been ELIMINATED; all POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS of operations and all advisable CHANGES IN SEQUENCE will have been made.

You must be sure that these remaining, necessary operations are done in the right way. A study of HOW will reveal many ways of making the job easier.

Click ABOVE for an example of detailed task analysis

In order to improve an operation, you must apply......

The Principles of Motion Economy For many years, leading industrial companies and universities have been studying the human body and the motions it goes through in performing work.

As a result of these studies, certain rules, or principles, have been established that should be followed in developing easier work methods. Altogether, there are some 20 of these principles, originally set down by the Gilbreths (the parents in Cheaper by the Dozen.)

1. Workers should be COMFORTABLE Making the operator as comfortable as possible reduces fatigue and improves morale. Improvements to increase worker comfort pay o real returns in increased output and in better feeling of the workers. Workers can be made more comfortable by reducing the eort required and by eliminating disagreeable surroundings like dust and fumes. If possible, arrange the workplace so that the operator can either sit or stand at his work. Ergonomic Analysis
Click ABOVE for more details of an Ergonomic Analysis

2. Motions of the Worker should be within EASY REACH

The materials, tools, levers and controls which a worker has to handle should be located so they can be reached without having the worker bend over or turn around.

3. Hands should be RELIEVED of all work that can be done easier by the feet

Quite often foot pedals or knee levers can be used to advantage in making a job easier.

4. Two or more tools should be COMBINED wherever possible

It is usually quicker to turn a small combination tool end-for-end than it is to lay down one tool and pick up another.

5. GRAVITY use wherever possible


Gravity feed bins and containers should be used to deliver materials on parts close to the point of use.

6. Motions should be PRODUCTIVE


All wasted motions should be eliminated. Every motion should bring the end result closer. Hands should not be used for holding. Instead jigs, xtures, vises and clamps should be substituted for the hands as holding devices.

7. Tools and Materials should be Pre-positioned


Tools and parts are best stored in holders that permit them to be grasped in the same manner in which they will be used.

8. Levers, Cranks, Valves etc. should be located for EASY OPERATION


Many machine controls such as levers, cranks, valves, etc., are located where they are hard to operate. A worker can pull down a lever overhead with less eort than he can push up. Likewise, if the lever is waist height, it will be easier to push down. Below the knees, however, it is usually easier to pull up than push down.

Dont assume that the present position of a lever is the right one. Try the operation yourself. Make the machine to suit the man - you cant rebuild the man to t the machine!

Take the Work out of Work Dont take it easy

Make it easy!

Make and Analyze a..... PROCESS CHART MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART FLOW DIAGRAM And now that the new method is developed.....

Record the Proposed Method on a New.....


PROCESS CHART, or a new MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART, or a new FLOW DIAGRAM Samples of charts for improved methods are shown on the following screens......

Follow the same procedure used in making-up the charts for the present method. These new charts are made up so that......... 1. All concerned will know how you expect the job to be done. 2. It gives you records for reference when other changes are planned.

Calculate the Savings The only way to judge the value of a new method is to calculate how much it will save.. Many of the improvements will result in actual dollar savings which you can gure and show. Other improvements will result in intangible savings to which you cannot apply a dollar value.

On the PROCESS CHART, compare the before and after tasks.

On the MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART, compare the before and after tasks.

On the FLOW DIAGRAM, summarize the savings at the top of the diagram. List the intangible savings and bene ts in the text eld.

You are now ready for the last step in WORK SIMPLIFICATION which is.......

#5. APPLY THE NEW METHOD

Your proposed method may be very good, but, unless you can install it and make it work, it will save no eort or money. In applying the new method there are two important considerations...

THE

TECHNICAL

AND THE

INDIVIDUAL

CONSIDER THE

TECHNICAL

Will the new method work? Will it save money? Will it aect other operations? What will it cost to install?

First try to improve methods as much as possible with present equipment. New equipment is expensive, may be hard to get and takes time to install. But dont let the cost of new equipment frighten you out of a good suggestion. Dont ASSUME the cost of equipment will be too high. Work with your management to get the FACTS on how much it will cost.

CONSIDER THE

INDIVIDUAL

Many times the new methods developed through work simpli cation require employees to learn new ways of doing their job. Even though the new method may use less eort, the employee may not like it because it requires him to change. Its human nature to..... Resist change Resent criticism Be suspicious of what you dont understand

This must be kept in mind when applying a new method. The operator on the job can make or break your idea. Therefore, they must be sold on the new method - and you cant SELL them by forcing the method down their throat!

When the Change is made be sure to...... Get the results expected See if your idea can be applied someplace else Follow up and be receptive to new improvements that may develop from the change

Remember the steps......


1. Select the job to be improved 2. Break down the job in detail 3. Question the job and each detail of the job 4. Develop the new method 5. Apply the new method

Now youve got the know-how, dont let the tough ones stump you. Keep at it! Others are using work simpli cation and getting recognized for it.

WHY DONT YOU?

PART #2. PART SIMPLIFICATION


PART SIMPLIFICATION is the systematic study of materials and parts to simplify them and reduce their costs. The steps in part simpli cation are...

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SELECT a part to improve ANALYZE the part from every angle NOTE possible improvements MAKE the improvements DECIDE what changes to make The following screens tell how each step is done......

#1. Select a Part to be Improved


Just as work simpli cation will apply to any job, part simpli cation applies to any part or material. However, the savings possibilities on some parts are greater than on others. To be most productive, select a job in one of the following classes.....

1. 2. 3.

Select a part or material for which the company spends a LOT OF MONEY Study a part of which the company buys LARGE QUANTITIES Pick a part that is COMPLEX in design

1. Work on a part on which the SCRAP OR REWORK is high. 2. Parts on which MANY OPERATIONS are performed usually oer good possibilities for part simpli cation. 3. Pick an assembly that might oer possibilities for PART COMBINATIONS 4. Work on the redesign of a part that is DIFFICULT TO MAKE

BUT here again, it is more important that you pick a part and GET GOING to the next step Which is.......

#2. Analyze the Part from every Angle

The analysis of parts and materials can become quite complex and lead into many areas.

In order to keep this analysis SIMPLE and THOROUGH you can use a design for assembly program such as Lean Design. It is possible, but obviously more time consuming to do this manually.

The steps in this procedure are as follows......

A.

ENTER THE ASSEMBLY HEADER Fill out the heading completely, including the name and number of the part, quantity used per year, unit and annual cost. These gures will in uence your whole approach to the problem of reducing the cost of this part.

B. GET DATA FOR EACH STEP IN THE CURRENT OR PROPOSED ASSEMBLY PROCESS - Get all the information - dont assume that it will have no bearing on your problem. Work with facts if you dont know the answers, nd someone who does. Check the answers - get the truth. Enter the data in the spaces provided. The following screen shows the rst step in analyzing an existing assembly.

Side Arm Assembly Upset Rivet 2 Top Side Arm

Rivets Clinch Nut Pivot

#3. Note Possible Improvements

This step in PART SIMPLIFICATION involves the exploring of possibilities that develop from the information collected and entered into Lean Design

IS THIS PART NECESSARY?

What is its purpose?

DOES IT NEED TO

MOVE?

NO?

COMBINE/ELIMINATE

DOES IT NEED TO BE A DIFFERENT MATERIAL? NO? COMBINE/ELIMINATE

TOP STAMPING 1 Here you are deciding whether a part is a good part (necessary) or a bad part(unnecessary). You also gather costing information and how the part interfaces with other parts and the operator. All this data helps you decide if the part needs modi cation.

IS THIS PART NECESSARY?


What is its purpose? IS IT TO DECORATE? ELIMINATE

IS IT TO PROTECT?

COMBINE

IS IT TO OPERATE? CHANGE

IT MAY?

What happens when you leave the part o? Is it worth the cost? Does it really protect?

DECORATE

BUT
PROTECT

Does the customer like it? Is it ever used? Would something else do just as well?

OPERATE

In many instances, the particular part under consideration is an integral part of an assembly so that this question of assembly cannot adequately be answered without considering the entire assembly as a unit. This part may be necessary if the entire assembly is to perform its function - BUT perhaps the entire assembly is unnecessary, OR perhaps the entire assembly could be redesigned to incorporate this part in another part of the assembly, THUS in eect ELIMINATING this part by COMBINING its function in another part.

BEFORE
You go a step further, be sure the part is necessary. Why worry about making a part cheaper or better if a little study would show it could be.....

WHEN you have assured yourself that the part is really necessary, then, and ONLY THEN, should you go to the next step.

IS IT SERVING ITS PURPOSE?


A part that has been properly designed for its function has ALL the characteristics it NEEDS and NO special characteristics it DOESNT NEED

CONSIDERING

IS THE PART INADEQUATE

IS THE PART TOO ADEQUATE

STRESS IMPACT CORROSION WEAR OPERATION MAINTENANCE REPLACEMENT TEMPERATURE

TOO WEAK TOO LIGHT SUBJECT TO CORROSION DECORATIVE INCONVENIENT

TOO STRONG TOO HEAVY TOO ACCURATE TOO GOOD TOO PROTECTIVE TOO EXPENSIVE

IDEALLY
A machine should be built to operate a given length of time and be completely worn out. This ideal is never reached, BUT...... Too many parts are made much better than they need be!

GET THE FACTS

FIND OUT

THEN DECIDE

What stresses the part is subjected to What uses is it put to What features does the customer want How is the present part performing How many repair parts are sold yearly

How strong the part should be How the part should look What its characteristics should be What should be changed

IS IT AVAILABLE AT A LOWER COST?


THROUGH STANDARDIZATION

On the PARTS

Can a part used elsewhere now be used here? Can this part be used on another machine?

On the SIZE

Should the size of this part or material or form be changed to conform with other parts or materials or forms?

On the MATERIAL

Is this a special material? Can a dierent material used on other parts be used on this part too?

On the DESIGN

Should the design of the part be changed to be identical with the design of other parts?

On the MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

Does this part require special equipment? Could regular standard equipment be used on this part too?

THROUGH

CHANGE IN ORDERING QUANTITY

Purchase Order Quantity

Should LARGER quantities be ordered?

Manufacturing Order Quantity

Could SMALLER quantities be ordered to advantage?

THROUGH

OUTSIDE PURCHASE Could it be brought from another vendor at a lower price?

If the part is purchased from outside now

What changes would the present vendor suggest to reduce the cost and price? Should the method of shipping or the shipping container be changed?

If the part is manufactured in the plant

Could it be bought on the outside at less cost?

The question of whether to BUY or MAKE always involves a consideration of BURDEN absorption but outside vendor prices sometimes throw interesting light on a companys own costs.

SO dont close your eyes to competition.

Know Your Competition and Meet It!


Hold on - theres more.....

THROUGH

INSIDE MANUFACTURE

If the part is now being bought on the outside

Could it be made at a lower cost in the companys own plant?

By a change in MATERIAL Is a material with better machinability available? Would a dierent material produce less scrap or rework? By a change in DESIGN To make the part easier to manufacture To reduce the number of operations To make the part more accessible To allow more liberal tolerance To reduce the number of parts

By a change in PROCESS Can any operations be eliminated? Can any operations, transports, or inspections be combined? Can the part be made with less scrap or less rework? Can machine utilization be improved? Can labor utilization be improved? Can quality be improved? Can the operation be made less hazardous?

KEEP AN OPEN MIND - Dont be beaten before you start.

Remember that....

PROGRESS IS ONLY POSSIBLE THROUGH CHANGE


Note all possible improvements, regardless of whether you think they are good or bad and then....

Go to the next step....

#4. Decide What Changes to Make

A study of the POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS will show....

Some are IMPRACTICAL Some are TOO EXPENSIVE Some will not DECREASE COST

BUT many of the possibilities WILL work WILL reduce cost

Remember...

If you get enough ideas, youll nd one that will work

NEVER SAY DIE - Its always the NEXT idea that will work. Edison developed the rst electric light lament only after many, many failures.

Be sure to get ALL the information. Be sure to get the CORRECT information. Now.... Review the current design, come up with your proposed design, then compare at the Executive summary. A sample of this is shown next...

Side Arm Assembly Top This screen shows all the details for the current assembly. In reviewing the data most of the parts and assembly steps are unnecessary. Side Arm

Rivets Clinch Nut Pivot

New Arm Bracket Assembly The new design is a one piece mold.

Executive Summary Comparison

The executive summary compares the original design with the new design.

#5. Make the Improvements


When worthwhile improvements have been found and reported be sure to

FOLLOW UP A good suggestion does not save money until it is installed, so....

HELP the proper individuals Install it Get it working See that it gets a fair trial

CHECK the savings Calculate ALL the savings Be fair Be truthful GIVE CREDIT To those who helped you Dont worry about getting credit yourself,& lastly....

FEEL PROUD That youve had a hand in reducing costs Increasing sales Assuring pro ts, & increasing security

IMPLEMENTATION
TO SELL YOUR IDEAS SUCCESSFULLY
WORK OUT YOUR PROPOSAL COMPLETELY & THOROUGHLY

Then present your proposal clearly to those involved so that they can see the advantages. Your various charts will help you do this.

GET THOSE CONCERNED TO HELP YOU


Try out your proposal. Accept any good ideas they may suggest. Dont be guilty of turning down a new idea just because it wasnt yours. You want others to consider your ideas dont be guilty of turning down any yourself. By helping you develop your proposal, others will feel it is their idea too, and they will try hard to make it work.

GIVE CREDIT TO THOSE RESPONSIBLE


FOR SUGGESTING BETTER METHODS Dont be worried about getting credit yourself. If the idea is really yours, it will become apparent. You wont get anywhere stealing someone elses idea. Ask the questions and through them get the other person to make the suggestion you think will work.

REMEMBER TO LET THE OTHER PERSON HAVE YOUR WAY

In conclusion the BEST WAY to solve any problem....


1. OBSERVE
Have an open mind Maintain a questioning attitude Consult with others (look at the job from all angles).

2. THINK
Work with causes (not eects) Work with facts (not opinions) Work with reasons (not excuses) Consider reaction of others

3. DECIDE
Use all the important facts in making the decision

4. ACT
Expect resistance to change and overcome it

Expect fear and resentment of criticism and eliminate them Gain acceptance through cooperative action

5. FOLLOW THROUGH
Check the new operation. The job is done only when successfully applied. Get the results anticipated

To be SUCCESSFUL a cost reduction program must KEEP ROLLING!

Never give up Keep Moving Slow but Sure

Have a planned program AT IT

KEEP

Remember the lesson of the parachute. Keep an open mind. Use the techniques youve learned from this presentation and APPLY THEM to... REDUCE COSTS INCREASE PRODUCTION IMPROVE MORALE Prices can be lowered. Sales can be increased More products can be developed

IMPROVE QUALITY REDUCE ACCIDENTS

Employees can be assured of greater security

Process Planning
Process Planning is a core component of: Work Measurement Work Instructions Estimating

ROUTE HEADER SUMMARY Printout

Route Header Summary

Op Summary Screen

OPERATION DETAIL Shows all the elements necessary to complete the operation. What If scenarios can easily be accomplished here.

OPERATION GRAPHIC Work Instructions can be added to a process plan covering Text, Reference Documents, Graphics, Video and Sound Files.

OPERATION GRAPHIC

EASEworks Element Generator


EASEworks Element Generator allows you to create:
Standard Data for re-use Current Tasks for What If?

This illustrates how the Task or Standard is created

Here you can see the ow

Here we are comparing one method against another

Here we are comparing the value added

Determining Value/Non-Value Added Activities Value Added: Activities that


must be performed to meet customer requirements
PROCESS STEPS CONTRIBUTES TO CUSTOMER DEMANDS? ASSEMBLY METALWORK PACKAGING

YES

VALUE ADDED

YES

NO

NECESSARY TO PRODUCE OUTPUT

NO

CONTRIBUTES TO BUSINESSR DEMANDS?

YES

ESSENTIAL NON-VALUE ADDED

FINANCIALS SCHEDULING MINIMAL MATERIAL HANDLING

Non-Value Added: Activities that do not contribute to meeting customer requirements. These activities can possibly be eliminated.

NO

NON-VALUE ADDED

MOVEMENT REWORK STORAGE

This is an example of the clerical Element Generator for Clerical screens.

ErgoEASE Version 5.1


For a detailed ergonomics analysis of manufacturing tasks, ErgoEASE Version 5.1 provides unsurpassed analysis and problem solving techniques.

The Task Header is used to describe the task

Which is further documented with photos, videos, drawings and reference information

Video clip can be an AVI or MPC le

This is the Task Analysis with problem motions shown in RED

A summary screen graphically illustrates potential risks to the operator

This can be correlated with an employee discomfort survey.

The task can be compared with a printout rst. The suggestion is probably unacceptable from a manufacturing viewpoint as the cycle time has been increased.

Who is EASE Inc?


EASE Incorporated is an international corporation, founded in 1986. EASE is headquartered in Southern California with satellite oces in Europe and the United States.

EASE Incorporated provides productivity improvement services through the application of the EASEworks Software, training, consulting services and implementation support.

The Service
Our major focus is to oer sustainable productivity improvements and cost reductions for our clients. We can provide you with consulting assistance for. .

Equipment Evaluation Facility Layout Establishing Best Practices Competitive Benchmarking Design Engineering Process Engineering Production Engineering Implementing Ergonomic Improvements

Training and Training Support & Certi cation Improving Labor Eciency Productivity Analysis Implementing Lean Manufacturing Manufacturing Engineering ISO 9000 Implementation Developing Work Standards Process Mapping

EASE will provide engineers with extensive experience in YOUR industry. Your engineers will have the ability to take over, with con dence, where we leave o.

Software
EASEworks Software modules cover:

n Work Standards n Product Cost Estimating n Line Balancing

n Work Instructions n Ergonomics n Design For Assembly

EASE Inc. provides full training, start up assistance and consulting services for all modules. Software customization services are also available.

Contact Info
Shawn Faircloth, EASE Inc 949-348-7511 sfaircloth@easeinc.com easeinc.com