Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 61
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
 A mechanical system is said to undergo forced vibration whenever external energy is supplied to
  • A mechanical system is said to undergo forced vibration whenever external energy is supplied to the system during vibration

  • External energy can be supplied to the

system through either an applied force or an

impose displacement excitation

  • The applied force or displacement may be harmonic, nonharmonic but periodic,

nonperiodic, or random

 Harmonic or transient responses  Dynamic response of a single degree of freedom under harmonic
  • Harmonic or transient responses

  • Dynamic response of a single degree of

freedom under harmonic excitations

  • Resonance

  • Examples: unbalanced rotating response, the

oscillation of a tall chimney due to vortex

shedding and the vertical motion of an automobile on a sinusoidal road surface

m  x   cx   k x  F  t  Homogenous

mxcxk x F t

Homogenous solution;

mxcxkx 0

The solution;

  • x h

t

 chapter 2

This free vibration dies out with time under each of the three possible conditions of damping and under all possible initial conditions.

m  x   cx   k x  F  t  Particular

mxcxk x F t

Particular solution;

  • x p

t .....

The general solution eventually reduces to a particular solution x p (t), which represents the steady-state vibration

The steady-state motion is present as long as the forcing function

mx  k x F cos  t   0 The homogeneous solution; x h

mx  k x F cos t

0

The homogeneous solution;

x

h

t

C

1

cos

n

t

C

2

sin

n

t

The particular solution;

x

p

t

X

t

cos

The maximum amplitude of x p (t);

X

F 0
F
0

k m

2

st

1   

n

2

mx  k x F cos  t   0 The total solution is; 

mx  k x F cos t

0

The total solution is;

 

x t

h

C

1

cos

n

t

C

2

sin

n

t

F

0

k m

2

cos

t

Using the initial conditions x(t=0) = x 0 and v(t =0)=v 0

C x

1

0

F

0

2

k m

C

2

x

0

n

mx  k x  F cos  t 0  The maximum amplitude can be
  • mx k x



F cos t

0

mx  k x  F cos  t 0  The maximum amplitude can be

The maximum amplitude can be

expressed;

X 1  2     st 1      
X
1
2
st
1   
n
Frequency ratio, r

Magnification factor, amplitude ratio

F cos  t 0 mx  k x   The response of the system

F cos t

0

F cos  t 0 mx  k x   The response of the system
  • mx k x



The response of the system can be

identified to be of three types; Case 1:

0

n

1, the denominator is positive

The harmonic response is,

  • x p

t

X

t

cos

mx  k x F cos t   0 Case 2:   1, the
mx  k x F cos t
0
Case 2:
 1, the denominator is negative
n
The harmonic response is,
x
t 
 
X
cos 
t
p
st
X 
2
 1
 
 
n
mx  k x F cos  t   0 Case 3:   n

mx  k x F cos t

0

Case 3:

n

1, the amplitude become infinite

Resonance: the forcing

frequency is equal to the

natural frequency The harmonic response is,

x

p

 

t

 

st

n

t

2

sin

n

t

mx  k x F cos  t   0 The response of the system

mx  k x F cos t

0

The response of the system at resonance becomes;

 

x t

x

0

cos

n

t

x

0

sin

n

n

t

 

st

n

t

2

sin

n

t

mx  k x F cos  t   0 The total response of the

mx  k x F cos t

0

The total response of the system can also be expressed

x t ( )  A cos    t    n x
x t
( )
A
cos
 
t
n
x t
( )
A
cos
 
t
n

st

2

1  

n

st

1  

n

2

cos

t

;

cos

t

;

for

1

n

for

1

n

 A weight of 50 N is suspended from a spring of stiffness 4000 N/m and
  • A weight of 50 N is suspended from a spring of stiffness 4000 N/m and is subjected to a harmonic force of amplitude 60 N and frequency 6 Hz. Find (a) the extension of the spring due to the suspended weight, (b) the static displacement of the spring due to the maximum applied force, and the amplitude of forced motion of the weight

 Consider a spring – mass system, with k=4000 N/m and mass, m=10 kg, subject to
  • Consider a spring mass system, with k=4000 N/m and mass, m=10 kg, subject to a

harmonic force F(t) = 400 cos 10 t N. Find the total response of the system under the following initial condition;

  • x 0 = 0.1m, v 0 = 0

 The spring actuator shown in the figure operates by using air pressure from a pneumatic
  • The spring actuator shown in the figure operates

by using air pressure from a pneumatic

controller (p) as input and providing an output

displacement to a valve (x) proportional to the

input air pressure. The diaphragm, made of a

fabric-base rubber, has an area A and deflects

under the input air pressure against a spring of

stiffness k. Find the response of the valve under

a harmonically fluctuating input air pressure p(t)=p 0 sinωt for the following data:

  • p =10 psi, ω=8 rad/s, A=10 in 2 , k=400 lb/in, weight of spring = 15 lb, and weight of valve and valve rod = 20

0

lb.

 t   F cos  t 0 mx     cx

F t

F cos t

0

  • mx 

cx k x

F cos t

0

The particular solution;

  • x p ( t ) X

cos

t

 t   F cos  t 0 mx     cx

X

F

0

[ k m

2

2

c ]

2

2

1/ 2

tan

1

c

k m

2

Dividing X by k and substituting; k  m X   st c c c

Dividing X by k and substituting;

 
k  m X   st
k
m
X
st

c

c

c

c

2

 

F

0

n

c

c

2 m

n

2 mk
2 mk
 

m

n

st

k

 

1

1

 

 
 
 

1

 

n

tan

1

2

 

2

2

n

2

2

1/ 2

tan

1

2  2  1  r   2  r  2
2
2
1
r
2
r
 2

  • 2

r

1  

n

2

1 r

  • 2

 
 

r

 

n

 Some characteristics of the magnification factor;  Any amount of damping reduces the magnification factor
  • Some characteristics of the magnification

factor;

  • Any amount of damping reduces the magnification factor

  • For any specified value of r, a higher value of

damping reduces the value of M

  • In the degenerate case of a constant force (r=0), the value of M=1

  • The reduction in M in the presence of damping is very significant at or near resonance

 The amplitude of the forced vibration becomes smaller with increasing values of the forcing frequency
  • The amplitude of the forced vibration becomes smaller with increasing values of the forcing frequency ( that is M0 as r → ∞)

  • For 0 ≤ ζ≤ 1/√2, the maximum value of M occurs

when

2
2

r 1 2or 1 2

n

2
2
  • The maximum value of X is

X   

st

 

max

1 2 2  1  
1
2
2
1 

X

 

st

 

 

n

 

1

 

2

 For ζ= 1/√2, dM/dr =0 when r=0.  For ζ> 1/√2, the graph of M
  • For ζ= 1/√2, dM/dr =0 when r=0.

  • For ζ> 1/√2, the graph of M monotonically decrease with increasing r

 Some characteristics of the phase angle;  For an undamped system ( ζ =0), the
  • Some characteristics of the phase angle;

    • For an undamped system (ζ=0), the phase angle is 0 for 0< r < 1 and 180° for r > 1. This implies that

the excitation and the response are in phase for 0 < r < 1 and out phase for r > 1

  • For ζ > 1 and 0 < r < 1, the phase angle is given by 0 < φ < 90°, implying that the response lags the excitation

  • For ζ > 0 and r > 1, the phase angle is given by 90° < φ < 180°, implying that response leads the excitation

  • For ζ > 0 and r = 1, the phase angle is given by φ = 90°, implying that the phase difference between the excitation

and the response is 90°

  • For ζ > 1 and large values of r, the phase

angle approaches 180° ,

implying that the

response and excitation are out of phase

 For ζ > 0 and r = 1, the phase angle is given by φ
The complete solution, for an underdamped system, x t    X e  

The complete solution, for an underdamped system,

x t    X e   t   n cos t 
x t
 
X e

t

n
cos
t
X
cos
  
t
0
d
0
x t  0  x
and x t  0
 x
X 
st
For the initial condition,
2
0
0
2
1
r
2 r
 2
x
X
cos
X
cos
0
0
0
r
x 
 

X
cos
 
X
cos
 
X
sin
 1
 tan
0
n
0
0
d
  2
 
2
1  r

2
2
 1/ 2
X
sin
X
X cos
 X
sin 
tan
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
cos
0
0
 For a vibrating system, m = 10 kg, k = 2500 N/m, and c =
  • For a vibrating system, m = 10 kg, k = 2500 N/m, and c = 45 N-s/m. A harmonic force 180

N and frequency 3.5 Hz acts on the mass. If the initial displacement and velocity of the mass are 15mm and 5 m/s, find the complete

solution representing the motion of the mass.

The quality factor, Q, is the value of the of the amplitude ratio at resonance. For

The quality factor, Q, is the value of

the of the amplitude ratio at

resonance.

For small values of damping, (ζ<0.05),

X

st

small

 

X

st

 

n

 

1

 

2

Q

The points R 1 and R 2 , where the amplification factor falls to Q/√2, are called half power

points because the power absorbed by the

damper is proportional to the square of the

amplitude:

W cX

2

The difference between the frequencies associated with the half power points is called bandwidth 2 R

The difference between the frequencies associated with the half power points is called bandwidth

2

R

1

r

1

2

1

n

2

1

2

R

2

2

2

r

2

2

n

2

1

2

 

   2

2

1

n

Q

1

2

n

 

2

1

The harmonic forcing function can be represented in complex form as F(t)=F e mx  cx

The harmonic forcing function can be represented

in complex form as F(t)=F 0 e iωt

mx cx k x Fe



i

t

Assuming the particular solution;

x

p

 

t Xe

i

t

X

F

0

2

k mic

X

F

0

2

2

c

2

2

1/ 2

k m

e

i

tan

1

 

c

k m

2

The steady-state solution; x p   t  F 0 2   2 

The steady-state solution;

x

p

 

t

F

0

2

2

c

2

2

1/ 2

k m

e

i

 

t

The Frequency Response,

X

F

0

2

k mic

kX

F

0

1

1

r

2

i

2

r

H i

H icomplex frequency response

The Frequency Response,

The absolute value ,

H i

kX F 0
kX
F
0

1

r

  • 2

2

2

r

1

  • 2

1/ 2

x

p

 

t

F 0 k
F
0
k

H i

e

i

 

t

velocity

 

x t

p

i

F

0
0

k

H i

e

  • i

 

t

i x

p

accel.

 

 x t

p

i

2

F

0
0

k

H i

e

  • i

 

t

 

2

x

p

( )

t

( )

t

 The figure shows a simple model of a motor vehicle that can vibrate in the
  • The figure shows a simple model of a motor vehicle that can vibrate in the vertical direction while traveling over a rough road. The vehicle

has a mass of 1200 kg. The suspension system

has a spring constant of 400 kN/m and a

damping ratio of 0.5. If the vehicle speed is 20

km/hr, determine the displacement amplitude of

the vehicle. The road surface varies sinusoidally with an amplitude of Y = 0.05 m and a

wavelength of 6m.

 tan  1     c  k    m 
 tan  1     c  k    m 
 tan  1     c  k    m 

tan

1

 

c

k

mxc( xy) k ( x y) 0

if y(t) Y sin t

mxcxkx ky cy

kY sin t cY cost

 Asint

 tan  1     c  k    m 
 tan  1     c  k    m 

2

  • 2

A Y k c

The steady state response of the mass, x p ( ) t  2  

The steady state response of the mass,

x

p

( )

t

The steady state response of the mass, x p ( ) t  2  

2

2

Y k c

[

k m

2

2

c

  • 2 ]

1/ 2

sin

t

 

1

1

tan

1

c

k m

2

tan

1

c

k

The response can be rewritten as, x ( ) t  A sin   t

The response can be rewritten as,

x

p ( )

t A

sin

t

Displacement transmissibility,

X

Y

1

2

k c

2

k

m

2

2

c

2

2

1

2

r

2

1

r

2

2

2

r

2

1/ 2

tan

1

mc

3

2

c

2

k k m

 

tan

1

2

r

3

1

2

1

2

4

r

The harmonic excitation of the base expressed in complex form as ( ) y t 

The harmonic excitation of the base expressed in complex

form as

( )

y t

Re(

Ye

i

t

)

The response of the system ,

x

p

( )

t

Re

  1 i 2 r

 

1

2

r i

2

r

Ye

i

t

X

Y

T

d

1

2

r

2

1/ 2

H i

 Some characteristics of the displacement transmissibility;  The value of T is unity at r=0
  • Some characteristics of the displacement

transmissibility;

  • The value of T d is unity at r=0 and close to unity for small value of r

  • For an undamped system (ζ=0), T d →∞ at resonance (r=1)

  • The value of T d is less than unity for values r > √2

  • The value of T d =1 for all values of ζ at r= √2

  • For r< √2, smaller damping ratio lead to larger values of T d .

 Some characteristics of the displacement transmissibility;  For r> √2, smaller damping ratio lead to
  • Some characteristics of the displacement

transmissibility;

  • For r> √2, smaller damping ratio lead to smaller values of T d

  • T d attains a maximum for 0<ζ<1 at the frequency

ratio r = r m < 1;

r

m

1   1/ 2 2 1    8 1 2 
1
1/ 2
2
1
  
8
1
2
A force is transmitted to the base or support due to the reaction from the spring

A force is transmitted to the base

or support due to the reaction from

the spring and the dashpot,

F k x y cxy mx

2

F mX sin

t F

T

sin

t

Force transmissibility,

F T

kY

2

r

1

2

r

2

1

r

2

2

2

r

2

1/ 2

Force transmissibility, 1/ 2  2 1   2  r   F T
Force transmissibility,
1/ 2
2
1
2
r
F T
2
 r
2
kY
2
2
1
r
2
r
Relative Motion, z = x – y, 2 mx  cz kz my m  Y

Relative Motion, z = x y,

2

  • mx  cz kz my mY sin t

 



 

z t

m

2

Y

sin

 

t

m

2

2

c

2

k

1/ 2

Z

sin

 

t

1

Relative Motion, z = x y,

2 m Y  Z   Y  2 2  k m  
2
m Y
Z 
 Y
2
2
k m
c
2

1

tan

1

c

k m

2

  tan

2 r   2 2 1  r   2  r  2
2
r
2
2
1
r
2
r
 2
2
r 
 1
2
1  r
 The figure shows a simple model of a motor vehicle that can vibrate in the
  • The figure shows a simple model of a motor vehicle that can vibrate in the vertical direction while traveling over a rough road. The vehicle

has a mass of 1200 kg. The suspension system

has a spring constant of 400 kN/m and a

damping ratio of 0.5. If the vehicle speed is 20

km/hr, determine the displacement amplitude of

the vehicle. The road surface varies sinusoidally with an amplitude of Y = 0.05 m and a

wavelength of 6m.

 A heavy machine, weighing 3000 N supported on a resilient foundation. The static deflection of
  • A heavy machine, weighing 3000 N supported on a resilient foundation. The static deflection of the foundation due to the weight of the machine

is found to be 7.5 cm. It is observed that the

machine vibrates with an amplitude of 1 cm

when the base of the foundation is subjected to

harmonic oscillation at the undamped natural

frequency of the system with an amplitude of

0.25 cm. Find (a) the damping constant of the foundation, (b) the dynamic force amplitude on

the base, and (c) the amplitude of the of the

machine relative to the base.

 A precision grinding machine is supported on an isolator that has a stiffness of 1
  • A precision grinding machine is supported on an

isolator that has a stiffness of 1 MN/m and a

viscous damping constant of 1 kN-s/m. The floor

on which the machine is mounted is subjected to

a harmonic disturbance due to the operation of

an unbalanced engine in the vicinity of the

grinding machine. Find the maximum

acceptable displacement amplitude of the floor

if the resulting amplitude of vibration of the grinding wheel is to be restricted to 10 -6 m. Assume that the grinding machine and the

wheel are a rigid body of weight 5000 N

 One of the tail rotor blades of a helicopter has an unbalanced mass of m=0.5
  • One of the tail rotor blades of a helicopter has an unbalanced mass of m=0.5 kg at a distance of e = 0.15 m from the axis of rotation , as shown in the figure. The tail section has a length of 4 m, a mass of 240 kg, a flexural stiffness (EI) of 2.5 MN m 2 , and a damping ratio of 0.15. The mass of the tail rotor blades, including their drive system, is 20 kg. Determine the forced response of the tail section when the blades rotate at 1500 rpm

F t

2

mesin t

 t  2  me  sin  t 2 Mx  cx kx

2

Mx  cx kx mesin t

The particular solution;

x

p

( )

t

X

sin

 

t

Im

me

M

n

2

H i

e

i

t

X

me

2

[

k M

2

2

c

2

2

]

1/ 2

me        M    n
me 
M
n

H i

tan

1

c

k M

2

MX

me

r

2

1

r

2

2

2

r

2

r

  • 2 H i

tan

1

2

r

1 r

2

 The following observation can be made from the equations;  All the curves begin at
  • The following observation can be made from the equations;

    • All the curves begin at zero amplitude. The amplitude near resonance is markedly affected by damping. Thus if the machine is to be run near

resonance, damping should be introduced

purposefully to avoid dangerous amplitudes.

  • At very high speeds(ω large), MX/me is almost

unity, and the effect of damping is negligible.

 The following observation can be made from the equations;  For 0 < ζ <
  • The following observation can be made from the equations;

    • For 0 < ζ < 1 /√2, the maximum of MX/me is

MX

me

max

1 2 2    1
1
2
2
  
1

The peaks occur to the right of the resonance value r=1

  • Forζ > 1 /√2, MX/me does not attain a maximum. Its value grows from 0 at r=0 to 1 at r→∞.