Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 61 Chapter 3 nonperiodic, or random shedding and the vertical motion of an automobile on a sinusoidal road surface  chapter 2

This free vibration dies out with time under each of the three possible conditions of damping and under all possible initial conditions. •The steady-state motion is present as long as the forcing function •The maximum amplitude of x p(t);

X  F
0

2

st

n



2 

n 0 expressed; X
1
2
st
1   
n
Frequency ratio, r

Magnification factor, amplitude ratio 0 cos  mx  k x F cos t
0
Case 2:
 1, the denominator is negative
n
The harmonic response is,
x
t 
 
X
cos 
t
p
st
X 
2
 1
 
 
n t t The total response of the system can also be expressed x t
( )
A
cos
 
t
n
x t
( )
A
cos
 
t
n

st

2

n

st

n

2

n



n •  A weight of 50 N is suspended from a spring of stiffness 4000 N/m and is subjected to a harmonic force of amplitude 60 N and frequency 6 Hz. Find (a) the extension of the spring due to the suspended weight, (b) the static displacement of the spring due to the maximum applied force, and the amplitude of forced motion of the weight •  x 0= 0.1m, v 0= 0 lb. t  0

2

2

2

2

1/ 2

  Dividing X by k and substituting; k
m
X
st



n 2 mk

k

1

1

1

 

n

tan

1

2

 

2

2

n

2

2

1/ 2

tan

1 2
2
1
r
2
r
 2

• 2

r

1  

n

2

1 r

• 2



n  •  The reduction in M in the presence of damping is very significant at or near resonance when 2

n 2
•  The maximum value of X is

st

max

 1
2
2
1 

st

 

n

2 •  For ζ> 1/√2, the graph of M monotonically decrease with increasing r response and excitation are out of phase  The complete solution, for an underdamped system, x t
 
X e

t

n
cos
t
X
cos
  
t
0
d
0
x t  0  x
and x t  0
 x
X 
st
For the initial condition,
2
0
0
2
1
r
2 r
 2
x
X
cos
X
cos
0
0
0
r
x 
 

X
cos
 
X
cos
 
X
sin
 1
 tan
0
n
0
0
d
  2
 
2
1  r

2
2
 1/ 2
X
sin
X
X cos
 X
sin 
tan
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
cos
0
0 solution representing the motion of the mass. st

small

st

 

n

2 2

1

1

2

1

n

2

2

2

2

2

2

n

2

 

1 0

2

2

2

2

1/ 2

i

 tan

 1  p

0

2

2

2

2

1/ 2

i

t



 kX
F
0

2

1/ 2

t  F
0
k

F 0

F 0

t wavelength of 6m.     Asint     A  Y k  c The steady state response of the mass,

p

t  2

2

2

2

1/ 2

1

k  1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1/ 2

1

3

2

2

1

3

2

2

  p

2

i

t

H i •  For r< √2, smaller damping ratio lead to larger values of T d. r 

m 1
1/ 2
2
1
  
8
1
2 2

2

2

2



2



1/ 2 Force transmissibility,
1/ 2
2
1
2
r
F T
2
 r
2
kY
2
2
1
r
2
r 2

2

2

2

1/ 2

1

Relative Motion, z = x – y, 2
m Y
Z 
 Y
2
2
k m
c
2

 2
r
2
2
1
r
2
r
 2
2
r 
 1
2
1  r wavelength of 6m.  machine relative to the base. wheel are a rigid body of weight 5000 N   •  One of the tail rotor blades of a helicopter has an unbalanced mass of m=0.5 kg at a distance of e = 0.15 m from the axis of rotation , as shown in the figure. The tail section has a length of 4 m, a mass of 240 kg, a flexural stiffness (EI) of 2.5 MN – m 2, and a damping ratio of 0.15. The mass of the tail rotor blades, including their drive system, is 20 kg. Determine the forced response of the tail section when the blades rotate at 1500 rpm    me sin t x

p

( )

t

X

sin

 

t

Im

me

M

n

2

H i

e

i

t

2

2

2

2

2

1/ 2

 me 
M
n

2

2

2

2

   unity, and the effect of damping is negligible. max

 1
2
2
  
1