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UNIT-I

BASIC CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENTS


METROLOGY:
Metrology is a “Science of measurement’ . The most important parameter in metrology is
the length. Metrology is divided into Industrial Metrology and Medical Metrology under
consideration of its application and may be divided into metrology of length and Metrology of time
under consideration of its quantity.
Metrology is mainly concerned with:
v Unit of measurement and their standards.
v Errors of measurement.
v Changing the units in the form of standards.
v Ensuring the uniformity of measurements.
v New methods of measurement developing.
v Analyzing this new methods and their accuracy.
v Establishing uncertainty of measurement.
v Gauges designing, manufacturing and testing.
v Researching the causes of measuring errors.
v Industrial Inspection.

FUNCTIONS OF METROLOGY:
The functions of metrology are
v To ensure conservation of national standards.
v Guarantee their accuracy by comparison with international standards.
v To organise training in this field.
v Take part in the work of other National Organization.
v To impart proper accuracy to the secondary standards.
v Carry out Scientific and Technical work in the field of measurement.
v Regulate, supervise and control the manufacturer.
v Giving advice to repair of measuring instruments.
v To inspect and to detect guilty of measurement.
APPLICATIONS:
v Industrial Measurement
v Commercial transactions
v Public health and human safety ensuring.

NEED OF INSPECTION
To determine the fitness of new made materials, products Or component part and to compare
the materials, products to the established standard.
It is summarised as
v To conforming the materials or products to the standard.
v To avoid faulty product coming out.
v To maintain the good relationship between customer and manufacturer.
v To meet the interchangeability of manufacturer.
v To maintain the good quality.
v To take decision on the defective parts.
v To purchase good quality raw materials.
v To reduce the scrap.

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BASIC CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENTS:
1. Measurement is the outcome of an opinion formed by observers about some physical quantity.
2. Measurement is an essential part of the development of technology.
3. Measurement is a complex of operations carried out by means of measuring instruments.
The means of Measurement classified as:
Standards —Used to reproduce the values of given quantity.
Fixed gauges —Used to check the dimensions, form.
Measuring instruments —Used to determine the measured values.
The important elements of a measurement is
v Measurand
v Reference
v Comparator
1. Measurand:
It is a physical quantity or property (length, diameter, thickness, angle etc.).
2. Reference:
Reference is a physical quantity or property and comparisons are made by them.
3. Comparator:
Comparing measurand with some other reference.

NEED FOR MEASUREMENT


v To determine the true dimensions of a part.
v To increase our knowledge and understanding of the world.
v Needed for ensuring public health and human safety.
v To convert physical parameters into meaningful numbers.
v To test if the elements that constitute the system function as per the design.
v For evaluating the performance of a system.
v For studying some basic laws of nature.
v To ensure interchangeability with a view to promoting mass production.
v To evaluate the response of the system to a particular point.
v Check the limitations of theory in actual situation.
v To establish the validity of design and for finding new data and new designs.
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
1. Direct comparison with Primary or Secondary Standard.
2. Indirect comparison with a standard through calibration system.
3. Comparative method.
4. Coincidence method.
5. Fundamental method.
6. Contact method.
7. Transposition method.
8. Complementary method.
9. Deflection method.
1) Direct method:
The value to be measured is directly obtained. Examples: Vernier calipers, Scales.
2) Indirect method:
The value of quantity to be measured is obtained by measuring other quantities. Example:
Diameter measurement by using three wires.
3) Comparative method:

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In this method, the quantity to be measured is compared with other known value. Example:
Comparators.
4) Coincidence method:
The value of the quantity to be measured and determined is coincide with certain lines and
signals.
5) Fundamental method:
Measuring a quantity directly in related with the definition of that quantity
6) Contact method
The sensor or measuring tip of the instrument touches the area (or) diameter (or) surface to
be measured. Example: Vernier caliper.
7) Transposition method:
In this method, the quantity to be measured is first balanced by a known value and then it is
balanced by other new known value. Example: Determination of mass by balancing methods.
8) Complementary method:
The value of quantity to be measured is combined with known value of the same quantity.
Example: Volume determination by liquid displacement.
9) Deflection method:
The value to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of pointer. Example: Pr
measurement.
PRECISION AND ACCURACY
v Precision refers to the “repeatability of a measuring process”. It is connecting with
the performance of the instrument.

v Accuracy refers Closeness or conformity to the true value of the quantity under
measurement.
v Error refers the difference between true value and measured value is known as
measurement error.
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The accuracy of measurement depends upon
v The ability of the operator.
v . Variation of temperature
v Method adopted for measurement
v Deformation of the instrument

ELEMENTS OF MEASURING SYSTEM:


1) Measuring Instruments
2) Calibration Standards
3) Work piece
4) Person who is carrying out the measurement
5) Environment
The above said five elements composed into the acronym “SWIPE”.
Where, S —Standard
W —Work piece
I —Instrument
P —Person
E —Environment
The factors affecting these five elements:
1. Standard: - Affected by Temperature, time, thermal expansion and elasticity.
2. Work piece: - Surface finish, cleanliness, supporting elements, and elastic properties.
3. Instrument: - Friction, error. mechanical parts.
4. Person: - Ability to measure, training, cost estimation.
5. Environment: - Light. Temperature, Humidity.

RELIABILITY:
Reliability is defined as the probability that a given system will perform its function
adequately for its specified period of lifetime under specified operating conditions.
(or)
The probability of successful performance of any machine or part. The most common
measures of reliability are
1. Failure rate
2. Mean time between failures (MTBF)
3. Survival percentage
1. Failure rate:
The rate which the components in a population fail and this is called failure rate (or) hazard
rate.
Mathematical Expression for Reliability R(t):

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If ‘ N’ components are tested in a test, out of which the number of components that survived during
time ‘ t’ is “N (1)”. The number of failures that occurred during the same time is “Nj

2. Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF):


The reciprocal of the failure rate (1/X)is called the “Mean time between failures”.

The failure rate for most components follows the BATHTUB CURVE
shown in fig.

There are three types of failure from this curve.


1. The quality rated failure.
2. The stress related failure.
3. The wear out failure.
The sum of these three failures gives the overall failure rate of component or system.
The failure of components in early age is called infant mortality”. The middle portion of the figure
represents design failure and mainly stress related and the third portion indicates old age failure i.e.
product grows old and it reaches a wear-out phase which increases the failure rate.

ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT:
Error is the difference between the measured value and the true value.
Error in measurement = Measured Value —True value
The errors in measurement can be expressed either as an absolute error or on relative error.
TYPES OF ERRORS

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1. Static error:
It is from the physical nature of the various components of measuring system. The static
errors due to environmental effect and other properties which influence the apparatus also reason
for static errors.
a) Characteristic error:
v The deviation of the output of the measuring system from the nominal performance
specifications is called characteristic error.
v The linearity, repeatability, hysteresis and resolution are part of the characteristic error.
b) Reading errors:
v It is exclusively applied to the read out device. The reading error describes the factors
parallax error and interpolation error.
v The use of mirror behind the readout indicator eliminates the occurrence of parallax error.
v Interpolation error is a reading error resulting from the inexact evaluation of the position ‘ of
index.
(c) Environmental errors:
v Every instrument is manufactured and calibrated at one place and it is used in some other
place where the environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure, and humidity are
changes.
2. Loading errors:
Loading means the measuring instrument always takes input from the signal source. Due to
this, the signal source will always be altered by the act of measurement known loading.
Example: If steam flow through the nozzle, it is very difficult to find the perfect flow rate.
This is called loading error.
3. Dynamic error:
This is due to time variations in the measurand. The dynamic errors are caused by inertia,
friction and clamping action. The dynamic errors are mainly classified into
a) Systematic errors or Controllable errors.
b) Random errors.
a) Systematic errors:
v The systematic are constant and similar in form. These are controllable in both their sense
and magnitude. The systematic errors are easily determined and reduced, hence these are
also called as controllable errors.
Systematic errors includes
1. Calibration errors.
2. Ambient or Atmospheric conditions
3. Avoidable errors.
4. Stylus pressure;
1. Calibration errors:
Calibration is a process of giving a known input to the measurement system and also taking
necessary actions to see that the out of the measurement system matches with its input.
If the instrument is not calibrated, the instrument will show very high degree of error.

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2. Ambient errors:
This is due to variation in atmospheric conditions (Example: Pressure. Temperature and
moisture) normally the instruments are calibrated at particular pressure and temperatures.
Temperature will not be equal at all places. If the temperature and pressure varies, the ambient error
will be formed. Standard temperature of 20°C and pressure of 760mm Hg is taken as ambient
condition.
3. Avoidable errors:
This type of error due to parallax, non-alignment of work piece centers, and improper
location of measuring instrument. For example placing a thermometer in sunlight for measuring air
temperature will cause the Instrument location error.
4. Stylus pressure:
Whenever a component measured under pressure the deformation of the work piece and
surface deflection will occur. The pressure involved is generally small but this is sufficient to cause
appreciable deformation on stylus and the work piece
b) Random errors:
These types of errors occurs Randomly and reason for this type of errors cannot be
specified.
The source for this type of errors are
1. Displacement of level joints in the measuring instrument.
2. Small variation in the position of settings.
3. Reading scale error due to operator.
CAUSES OF ERRORS
1. Calibration error:
These are caused due to the variation in the calibrated scale from its normal value.
2. Environment errors:
These errors are caused due to humidity condition, temperature, and altitude.
3. Assembly errors:
The assembly errors are due to 1.. Displaced scale i.e. incorrect fitting of the scale. 2. Non-
uniform division of the scale. 3. Due to heni or distorted pointer.
4. Random errors:
There is no specific reason for causing of Random errors. It may naturally occur.
5. Systematic errors (or) Bias errors:
These type of errors caused due to repeated readings.
6. Chaotic errors:
Chaotic errors are caused due to vibrations, noises, and shocks.
IMPORTANT TERMS IN MEASUREMENT
v Calibration: If a known input is given to the measurement system the output deviates from
the given input, the corrections are niade in the instrument and then the output is measured.
This process is called calibration.
v Sensitivity:

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v True size and Actual size: True size mean theoretical size of a dimension which is free from
errors.
Actual size mean size obtained through measurement with permissible error.
v Range: The physical variables that are measured between two values. On is the higher
calibration value H, and the other is Lower value L.The difference between H and L, is called
range.
v Span: The algebraic difference between higher calibration values to lower calibration value.
Example: In a measurement of temperature higher value is 200°t and lower value is 150°C
means span = 200 —150 = 50°C
v Resolution: The minimum value of the input signal is required to cause appreciable change in
the output known as resolution.
v Threshold: The minimum value of input signal that is required to make a change or start from
zero.
v Back lash: The maximum distance through which one part of the instrument is moved without
disturbing the other part.
v Uncertainty: The range about the measured value within the true value of the measured
quantity is likely to lie at the stated level of confidence
v Repeatability: - Imperfections in mechanical systems can mean that during a Mechanical cycle,
a process does not stop at the same location, or move through the same spot each time. The
variation range is referred to as repeatability.

PART-A
1. Define –Metrology
2. State any two need for measurement.
3. Define error. How is it related to accuracy?
4. Differentiate precision and accuracy.
5. Define the form “reliability”.
6. Define the form “calibration”.
7. What is meant by precision?
8. What are the different types of errors?
9. Define the form “backlash”.
10. Define the form “resolution”.
11. Define the form “sensitivity”.
12. Define the form “uncertainty”.
13. Define the form “repeatability”.
14.Name the elements of measurement?
15.Give any five methods of measurements?
16. Define the form “Precision”.
17. Define the form “Accuracy
18.Name the elements of measuring system?
PART-B
1.Explain the needs for measurements in Metrology?
2.(a) What are the objectives of measurements.
(b) Explain briefly various types static errors involved in measurements.
3.(i) Describe with a good example precision and accuracy.
(ii) How does the reliability play the important role in quality?
4. Mention the various types of error and explain instrument loading errors and dynamic errors.
5.(a) State and explain the five basic elements of measuring system.
(b) Describe the following types of errors

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(i) Environmental error
(ii) Parallax error
(iii) Cosine error.
6. Differentiate between(i) Absolute error and relative error and (ii) Repeatability and
reproducibility of measurement.
7. Explain the following terms.
(i) Calibration (ii) Reproducibility (iii) Sensitivity (iv) Magnification.
8.Define –Error. Explain about the errors in measurements and its causes in detail