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Volume 23 Number 2 Journal of Food Legumes June 2010

ISSN 0970-6380 Online ISSN 0976-2434

Journal
of

Food Legumes
Volume 23 Number 2 June 2010

Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development


I SPR D
1987

Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur, India

INDIAN SOCIETY OF PULSES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (Regn. No.877) The Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development (ISPRD) was founded in April 1987 with the following objectives: To advance the cause of pulses research To promote research and development, teaching and extension activities in pulses To facilitate close association among pulse workers in India and abroad To publish Journal of Food Legumes which is the official publication of the Society, published four times a year. Membership : Any person in India and abroad interested in pulses research and development shall be eligible for membership of the Society by becoming ordinary, life or corporate member by paying respective membership fee. Membership Fee Indian (Rs.) Foreign (US $) Ordinary (Annual) 350 25 Life Member 3500 200 Admission Fee 20 10 Library/ Institution 3000 100 Corporate Member 5000 The contribution to the Journal, except in case of invited articles, is open to the members of the Society only. Any non-member submitting a manuscript will be required to become annual member. Members will be entitled to receive the Journal and other communications issued by the Society. Renewal of subscription should be done in January each year. If the subscription is not received by February 15, the membership would stand cancelled. The membership can be revived by paying readmission fee of Rs. 10/-. Membership fee drawn in favour of Treasurer, Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development, through M.O./D.D. may be sent to the Treasurer, Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development, Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur 208 024, India. In case of outstation cheques, an extra amount of Rs. 40/- may be paid as clearance charges.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL : 2010-2012 Chief Patron Dr. S. Ayyappan President Dr. N.D. Majumder Patron Dr. S.K. Datta Vice President Dr. J.S. Sandhu

Co-patron Dr. N. Nadarajan Secretary Dr. A.K. Choudhary

Joint Secretary Mr. Brahm Prakash Councillors Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IV : : : : Dr. (Mrs) Livinder Kaur PAU, Ludhiana Dr. H.K. Dixit IARI, New Delhi Vacant Dr. Vijay Prakash ARS, Sriganganagar Zone V Zone VI Zone VII Zone VIII Editorial Board Dr. P.M. Gaur, ICRISAT, Hyderabad Dr. R.K. Varshney, ICRISAT, Hyderabad Dr. V.K. Shahi, RAU, Pusa Dr. S.C. Gupta, ARS, Durgapura Dr. Servjeet Singh, PAU, Ludhiana Dr. Shantanu Kumar Dube, IARI, New Delhi Dr. B.G. Shiv Kumar, IARI, New Delhi : : : :

Treasurer Dr. K.K. Singh

Dr. K.K. Nema RAK College, Sehore Dr. Ch Srinivasa Rao CRIDA, Hyderabad Vacant Dr. Anoop Singh Sachan IIPR, Kanpur

Dr. Aditya Pratap, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. Narendra Kumar, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. Mohd. Akram, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. P. Duraimurugan, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. Jitendra Kumar, IIPR, Kanpur Er. M.K. Singh, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. C.P. Srivastava, BHU, Varanasi

Journal of Food Legumes


(Formerly Indian Journal of Pulses Research)

Vol. 23 (2)

June 2010

CONTENTS
REVIEW PAPER
1. Vegetable pigeonpea a review K.B. Saxena, R.V. Kumar and C.L.L. Gowda 91-98

RESEARCH PAPERS
2. Significance and genetic diversity of SPAD chlorophyll meter reading in chickpea germplasm in the semi-arid environments Junichi Kashiwagi, Hari D. Upadhyaya and L. Krishnamurthy 3. Varietal characterization of urdbean for distinctiveness, uniformity and stability P. K. Katiyar, G.P. Dixit and B.B. Singh 4. Genetic diversity among selected genotypes of M4 generation in horsegram N. B. Patel, S. B. S. Tikka and J. B. Patel 5. Genetic analysis for yield and yield traits in pea K.P. Singh, H.C. Singh and M.C. Verma 6. Diallel analysis for nodulation and yield contributing traits in chickpea Preeti Verma and R. S. Waldia 7. Production potential of finger millet and Frenchbean intercropping under rainfed conditions of Uttarakhand 121-123 Rashmi Yadav 8. Growth and yield of groundnut in relation to soil application of panchgavya and foliar spray of endogenous plant leaf extracts R.N. Kumawat, S.S. Mahajan and R.S. Mertia 9. Integrated phosphorus management on yield and nutrient uptake of urdbean under rainfed conditions of southern Rajasthan D.S. Rathore, H.S. Purohit and B.L. Yadav 10. Effect of date of sowing on nodulation, growth, thermal requirement and grain yield of kharif mungbean genotypes Guriqbal Singh, H.S. Sekhon, Hari Ram, K.K. Gill and Poonam Sharma 11. Performance of pulses during pre and post-WTO period in Andhra Pradesh: district-wise analysis I.V.Y. Rama Rao 135-142 132-134 128-131 124-127 117-120 113-116 110-112 106-109 99-105

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
12. Combining ability for yield and its components in fieldpea Inderjit Singh, J.S. Sandhu and Johar Singh 13. Genetical analysis and heterosis for green pod yield and its components in pea K.P. Singh, H.C. Singh, B. Singh and J.D. Singh 14. Integrated nutrient management in lentil with organic manures, chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers Guriqbal Singh, Navneet Aggarwal and Veena Khanna 15. Effect of planting time and seed priming on growth and yield of lentil under rice-utera system Malay K. Bhowmick 16. Effect of sowing time and fertilization on productivity and economics of urdbean genotypes S.S. Rathore, L.N. Dashora and M.K. Kaushik 17. Effect of different soil moisture regimes on biomass partitioning and yield of chickpea genotypes under intermediate zone of J&K Anjani Kumar Singh, S.B. Singh, A.P. Singh, Awnindra K. Singh, S.K. Mishra and A.K. Sharma 18. Co-inoculation effect of liquid and carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium ciceri and PGPR on nodulation, nutrient uptake and yields of chickpea Pratibha Sahai and Ramesh Chandra 19. Bio-efficacy of insect growth regulator against tobacco caterpillar in blackgram S. Malathi 20. Population fluctuations of pod fly on some varieties of pigeonpea Ram Keval, Dharmpal Kerketta, Paras Nath and P.S. Singh 21. 22. List of Referees Proceedings of General Body Meeting of the ISPRD held at CSK HPKV, Palampur (H.P.) on May 18, 2010 166 167 164-165 162-163 159-161 156-158 154-155 152-153 149-151 146-148 143-145

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 91-98, 2010

Vegetable pigeonpea a review


K.B. SAXENA, R.V. KUMAR and C.L.L. GOWDA International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru-502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India; e-mail: k.saxena@cgiar.org
(Received: August, 2010; Accepted: October, 2010) Communicated and edited by A.K. Choudhary ABSTRACT
Among sub-tropical legumes, pigeonpea or red gram (Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millspaugh) occupies an important place in rainfed agriculture. This crop has a wide range of uses and its use as fresh or canned green peas is common in parts of India, Africa, Central America and the Caribbeans. Vegetable pigeonpea is characterized by large pods and seeds because of easy shelling. Some parts of India prefer green pod colour but the study revealed that pod colour does not play an important role in determining the organo-leptic qualities of vegetable pigeonpea. The anti-nutritional factors like phyto-lectins are also present in pigeonpea, but it is heat sensitive and destroyed during cooking. Vegetable pigeonpea can be grown in backyards, field bunds and also as a commercial crop. The fresh seeds can also be frozen and canned for commercialization and export. The Dominican Republic stands first in exporting commercialized vegetable pigeonpea to United States and other countries. Vegetable pigeonpea is a good source of protein, vitamins (A, C, B complex), minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu), carbohydrates and dietary fibre. In comparison to green peas (Pisum sativum), the vegetable pigeonpea has five times more beta carotene content, three times more thiamine, riboflvin and niacin content and double vitamin C content. Besides it has higher shelling percent (72%) than that of green peas (53%). These all factors indicate that pigeonpea is nutritionally rich vegetable and it can be used in daily cuisine. Key words: Vegetable pigeonpea, Antinutritional factors, Beta carotene, Shelling percent

priority lies in the calorie-filled cereals, the issue of protein availability assumes a greater significance from health point of view. Among legumes, pigeonpea or red gram [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh] occupies an important place in rainfed agriculture. Globally, it is cultivated on 4.67 million ha, out of which, 3.30 million ha is confined to India alone. Although the crop is known to be grown in 22 countries, the major producers are only a few. In Asia besides India, Myanmar (570,000 ha), China (150,000 ha), and Nepal (20,988 ha) are important pigeonpea producing countries; while in Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, and Mozambique produce considerable amounts of pigeonpea. The Caribbean islands and some South American countries also cultivate a reasonable area with pigeonpea. Pigeonpea is cultivated in a wide range of cropping systems and so is its usage. In the northern India, its dehulled split cotyledons are cooked to make dal while in the southern parts of the country, its usage as sambar is very popular. Also in some parts of India including Karnataka and Gujarat, the use of immature shelled seeds is very common as fresh vegetable. Besides this, in the tribal areas of various states, the use of pigeonpea as green vegetable is very common. The recipes prepared with green pigeonpea seeds are nutritive and tasty and are consumed with rice as well as chapati. During the off-season in southern and eastern Africa, southern America, and the Caribbean islands, the whole dry seeds are used in making porridge while in the crop season, its immature seeds are used as fresh vegetable. Green peas in the form of frozen or canned products are also available for use as vegetable in the markets of USA and Europe. Its nutritious broken seeds, husks, and pod shells are fed to cattle and the dry stems make it a popular household fuel particularly in rural areas. Pigeonpea is credited to be the most suitable crop for subsistence agriculture that needs minimum external inputs. It is known to produce reasonable quantities of food even under unfavorable production conditions mainly due to its qualities such as drought tolerance, nitrogen fixation, and deep root system. Its seeds contain 20-22% protein and reasonable amounts of essential amino acids. A. Important attributes of vegetable pigeonpea Fresh Pod colour: There is a large variation for fresh pod colour in pigeonpea and for vegetable market, green podded

Pulses are known to be rich in edible proteins. In India, the most commonly grown pulses, in order of their importance, are chickpea, pigeonpea, green gram, black gram, peas, common beans, and cowpea. In spite of their high nutritive value and being important part of daily cuisine, most farmers give low priority to pulses in cultivation and are assigned to rainfed and relatively less productive portions of their fields. However, recent escalation in prices of pulses has brought about some changes in the mind set of some farmers and they are taking the cultivation of pulses more seriously than before. At present, protein availability among rural masses in the developing world is less than one - third of its normal requirements and with continuously growing population and stagnation of productivity, and expensive animal protein, the nutritional programmes associated with protein supply are facing tough challenges to meet the demand of unprivileged group of masses. Since in most households, food production

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pods fetch better price in the market. Saxena et al. (1983) studied the effect of pod colour on important organo-leptic properties of vegetable pigeonpea. They found that fresh seeds harvested from purple pods had poor texture, flavour, and taste as compared to those of green seeds; but after cooking operation such differences disappeared, suggesting that the pod colour does not play any important role in determining the organo-leptic qualities of vegetable pigeonpea. In a survey conducted in Gujarat state of India, where vegetable pigeonpea is consumed on a large scale, it was found that the rural consumers preferred pods with green base colour with minor or dense streaks on its surface. In contrast, the urban consumers preferred green colour pods. Yadavendra and Patel (1983) reported that the pods produced on cultivar ICP 7979 were the most preferred because of their good taste, attractive green colour, less stickiness, and easy shelling. Pod and seed size: For vegetable purposes, generally large pods are preferred for they are attractive and relatively shelled easily. Although seed number/pod in the germplasm ranges between 2 and 9, but on an average, the optimum seed number/ pod that is easily marketed is 5-7. Recently, the new vegetable types have been developed with up to 8 9 seeds/pod. In pigeonpea, seed and pod size is invariably correlated with large podded types having large immature as well as dry seeds. On the contrary, in some vegetable type lines, the immature seeds are large but their size reduces gradually with approaching maturity. Saxena (2008) observed that in the long podded genotypes, all the ovules did not develop properly to their full size due to ovule abortion. The exact reason for the loss of ovules is not fully understood but there appears to be some sort of blockage in the supply of carbohydrates and other vital nutrients to the growing ovules resulting in their pre-mature cessation. Important Quality Parameters: The green pigeonpea seeds are considered superior to dal in general nutrition. The observations recorded at ICRISAT and some other laboratories show that pigeonpea dal is better than vegetable with respect to starch and protein (Table 1). On the contrary, the green pigeonpea grains have higher crude fibre, fat, and protein digestibility. As far as trace and mineral elements are concerned, the green peas are superior in phosphorus by 28.2%, potassium by 17.2%, zinc by 48.3%, copper by 20.9%, and iron by 14.7% (Table 2). The dal however, has 19.2% more
Table 1. Comparison of green pigeonpea seeds and dal for important quality constituents
Green seeds 48.4 21.0 66.8 5.1 8.2 2.3 Dal 57.6 24.6 60.5 5.2 1.2 1.6

calcium and 10.8% more manganese. Singh et al. (1977) reported that the vegetable type pigeonpea had higher amount of poly-saccharides and low crude fibre content than dal irrespective of their seed sizes. They also reported that crude fibre content in vegetable pigeonpea was similar to that of garden pea (Pisum sativum).
Table 2. Trace and mineral elements (mg/100g) identified in green seeds of a vegetable variety ICP 7035 and dal of a pigeonpea variety C11
Green seeds (ICP 7035) Dal (C 11) SEm Superiority of vegetable grains (%) 28.2 17.1 () 19.2 48.3 20.9 14.7 () 10.8 --

Element

Phosphorus 264* 206 Patassium 1498* 1279 Calcium 92.3 114.3* Zinc 3.07* 2.07 Copper 1.39* 1.15 Iron 5.16* 4.50 Manganese 0.99 1.11* Magnesium 108.3 108.5 *Adopted from Singh et al. (1984)

3.95 12.74 1.98 0.01 0.08 0.06 0.02 0.86

Like other legumes, pigeonpea seeds also contain some anti-nutritional factors. In dry pigeonpea seeds, polyphenol compounds are present which inhibit the normal activity of some digestive enzymes. These include trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, poly-phenols, and tannins (Table 3). According to Kamath and Belavady (1980), pigeonpea seeds have appreciable amounts of unavailable carbohydrates which adversely affect bio-availability of certain vital nutrients. Some of the anti-nutritional factors such as phyto-lectins are heat sensitive and are destroyed during cooking. Some of the flatulence causing oligo-saccharides such as staychyose, raffinose, and verbascose are also present in pigeonpea seeds.
Table 3. Major anti-nutritional factors and toxic substances identified in pigeonpea seed
Range 8.1-12.1 2.1-3.6 22.5-34.2 0.24-1.05 0.35-0.86 3.0-18.3 0.0-0.2 400 Mean 9.9 3.0 26.9 0.47 0.49 10.7 0.03 400

Constituent Protease inhibitors (units/mg) Trypsin Chymotrypsins Amylase inhibitors (units/g) Oligo-saccharides (100/g) Raffinose Stachyose Poly-phenols (mg/g) Total phenols Tannins Phyto-lectins (units/g) Source: Singh (1988)

Constituent Starch content (%) Protein (%) Protein digestibility (%) Soluble sugars (%) Crude fibre (%) Fat (%)

Seed development in relation to chemical changes: Pigeonpea plants produce profuse flowers and pods under normal growing environments. The number of pods on the plants is also genetically related to their pod size. It has been observed that in small seeded varieties, pod load on an individual plant is much higher than those of large seeded

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varieties. Under sub-tropical growing conditions, it takes about 45 - 50 days from pollination to seed maturity. During this period, both pods and seeds pass through a number of physiological, morphological, and chemical changes. It has been observed that three days after fertilization, the floral petals wither completely and the ovary starts emerging. A young pod of about one centimeter long is generally visible after one week. Such pods grow rapidly and reach their full size in about 25 days. During this period of pod growth, the young seeds (ovules) inside pods remain alive and intact but do not gain noticeable size and weight. Soon after achieving the potential pod size, a greater proportion of food reserves of the plant start diverting into the ovules and rapid increases in seed sizes and weights are observed for the next 10 - 12 days. From nutrition and marketing view points, it is essential that the growing pods are harvested at a right stage to optimize the gains with respect to their yield and quality. To determine the optimum pod age for harvesting, two commercial vegetable pigeonpea cultivars ICP 7035 and T 15-15 were selected and the changes in the levels of principal dietary constituents and minerals were studied (Singh et al. 1991) at different stages of seed development. To record observations, over 3000 flowers of the same age were tagged and hand pollinated in a single day. The crossed pods were sampled on different dates for chemical analysis of their seeds. It was found that the two cultivars differed grossly in their dry matter accumulation rate with ICP 7035 being faster than T 15-15, and it was attributed to their respective seed sizes. In the growing seeds, starch content was negatively associated with their protein and sugar contents. The amount of crude fibre content in the growing seeds increased slowly with maturation, while soluble sugars and proteins decreased proportionately. The starch content recorded rapid increases between 24 and 32 days after flowering. ICP 7035 exhibited relatively high soluble sugars in each sample that was studied (Singh et al. 1991). Meiners et al. (1976) also showed that minerals and trace elements such as calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, and copper did not produce significant changes during seed development in pigeonpea. It was also found that these minerals play an

important role in improving cooking quality of pigeonpea seeds (Sharma et al. 1977). B. Breeding vegetable pigeonpea Popular vegetable pigeonpea varieties are characterized by their large pods and large seeds. It has been generally observed that in most germplasm, these two traits are linked together and such lines are invariably photo-sensitive, late maturing (>180 days at 17oN), and perennial in nature. These cultivars flower at the onset of short photo-periods and produce fresh vegetable pods for about 40 - 50 days, allowing a maximum of 2-3 pickings. However, to ensure good profits and run the processing factories for longer periods, a regular supply of quality green pods for extended periods is essential. Besides this, the vegetable pigeonpea should have good appearance, taste, and other organo-leptic properties. The breeding objectives in a vegetable pigeonpea breeding programme revolve around such traits. Breeding objectives: In an ideal vegetable pigeonpea breeding programme, in general, the prime objectives include early podding with round-the-year production, annual as well as perennial varieties, high multiple harvest potential, long attractive green pods with fully grown ovules, non - sticky pod surface with easy shelling, good taste, large white dry seeds, and long shelf life. Available germplasm: ICRISAT has a global responsibility for collection, characterization, maintenance, and distribution of pigeonpea germplasm, and at present a total of 13,632 accessions representing 76 countries are available for use in breeding programmes. Since long pod size is the most important characteristic of vegetable pigeonpea, the accessions with more than 5.5 mean seeds/pod are considered in this group. At present, there are 231 such accessions in this group. In this material, 50% flowering ranged from 80 to 229 days. The plant height ranged from 85 to 285 cm, while pod length varied from 3.2 to 11.6 cm (Table 4). It was also observed that the majority of long - podded accessions originated from Africa, South America, the Caribbean islands, and tribal areas of India, where traditionally large - white seeded cultivars and landraces are cultivated.

Table 4.
Region

Variation for some important traits within vegetable type pigeonpea germplasm
No. of accessions available 106 17 4 13 26 16 39 8 2 231 Days to Flowering 117 - 229 131 194 141 166 142 156 106 151 132 158 80 175 134 201 156 - 174 80 229 Maturity 166 - 270 163 260 215 232 194 218 167 202 182 230 133 235 190 264 222 - 237 133 270 Plant height (cm) 130 - 270 185 - 260 200 230 17 250 85 240 100 285 85 230 140 210 210 - 260 85 285 Seeds/ pod 5.4 6.7 5.4 6.1 5.4 5.6 5.4 5.6 5.4 7.2 5.4 6.1 5.4 7.2 5.4 5.9 5.4 5.8 5.4 7.2 Pods/ plant 26 406 33 154 74 - 130 67 246 19 160 27 420 55 830 24 119 137 19 830 Pod length (cm) 5 - 12 5 - 11 7-9 7 10 7 11 5 11 39 59 9 3 - 12

Eastern Africa Southern Africa Central Africa Western Africa Central America South America South Asia South-east Asia Europe Total

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Genetics of important traits: For productive plant breeding, a good understanding of the genetic systems controlling important qualitative and quantitative characters is essential. The presence of both additive and non-additive gene actions for yield and other characters have been reported in literature (Saxena and Sharma 1990). DCruz et al. (1970) reported that streaked pod colour was dominant over green, and that a single gene was responsible for streaked pods. A dihybrid F2 segregation was reported by de Menezes (1956) and DCruz and Deokar (1970), while Deokar et al. (1972) found that the colour development in unripe pigeonpea pods was due to interaction of four genetic factors. Saxena et al. (1984) for the first time reported intra-plant pod colour variation in a pure breeding pigeonpea germplasm ICP 3773 and postulated that the pod colour variation and its unpredictable expressivity were governed by the presence, absence, or interaction of one or more unstable genes. The genetics of seed colour in pigeonpea is complex and is reported to be influenced by some basic and inhibitory genes, and modifiers. Deokar et al. (1972) reported the dominance of brown seed colour over white and it was controlled by a single gene. But, Deokar and DCruz (1971) observed a di-hybrid F2 ratio of 9 brown: 7 white seed colour. Similar results were also recorded by Chaudhary and Thombre (1977), Marekar and Chopde (1985). Patil et al. (1972) reported that brown seed colour was governed by three duplicate dominant genes. Gene action and heritability of key traits: In pigeonpea, both additive and non-additive gene actions control grain yield and other quantitative characters, but critical information on the extent of non-additive effects, particularly dominance and epistasis components is not very decisive. Saxena et al. (1981) observed predominance of additive gene action for yield and yield components. Reddy et al. (1981) and Sidhu and Sandhu (1981) reported the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions, while the predominance of non-additive gene action was observed by Dahiya and Brar (1977). Sharma et al. (1972) reported predominance of additive gene action for seed size and the genes controlling smaller seed size were found to be dominant over the large seeds. Gupta et al. (1981) also confirmed additive gene action and reported that seed size differences were determined by only 2 or 3 genes. For days to flower, Dahiya and Satija (1978) reported additive genetic variance with partial dominance for earliness, while Gupta et al. (1981) reported predominance of additive gene effects. The heritability estimates provide a guideline on the efficiency of selection as they refer to the proportion of the phenotypic variance that is due to genetic factors. A high heritability estimate suggests that the concerned character can be selected easily in a given test environment. In pigeonpea, a number of reports on heritability estimates for various quantitative traits have been published. Together these estimates provide a good idea about the ease of selection

for a particular character. In pigeonpea, a large variation in the estimates of heritability has been reported for all the important agronomic traits. However, most of the studies suggest that characters such as seed yield, pods/plant, and protein content have low heritability. On the contrary, days to flower, plant height, and seed size have high heritability estimates (Saxena and Sharma 1990). C. Breeding Methods Globally, very little work is being undertaken to breed vegetable type pigeonpea. However, some efforts were made in the West Indies, Dominican Republic, and ICRISAT to breed new varieties that produce vegetable pods early in the season and produce several flushes of flowers and pods. Vegetable pigeonpea breeding programmes in most countries are predominantly based on selection and purification of native germplasm. Selection from germplasm: The local landraces are generally well adapted in the area but the natural out-crossing has made them genetically impure. With 25-30 per cent natural outcrossing, the pure lines become heterozygous and heterogeneous. Breeders generally select individual plants of interest within such materials with due consideration to plant type, pod colour, seed colour, and the like. One or two branches of such plants are bagged. At maturity, these selfed branches are harvested separately and their seed is used for evaluation in progeny rows in the subsequent season. Selection should be made among lines and in each selected progeny, five plants should be bagged again for raising their single plant progenies. In the subsequent generation, again 4 - 5 plants are selfed in each selected progeny. The self seeds are used as nucleus seed for further multiplication. Hybridization and selection: To breed varieties with definite objectives in mind, the selection of parents for hybridization is the first step towards breeding. For example, early maturing varieties should be used as female parents. This will help in identifying the self plants present in an F 1 population. Emasculation should be done carefully and fresh pollen buds be collected for pollination and a piece of thread is tied on the pollinated flowers. In the F1 generation, the selfed plants that would resemble early maturing parent should be removed. Plants flowering around mid-parent value should be selfed. Selection in F2 generation should be exercised for pod colour, seed colour, and their size and maturity. These plants can be handled further using classic pedigree selection method. D. Available Varieties India: The most popular vegetable pigeonpea cultivars have long pods and large seeds (weighing at least 15 g/100 seeds when dry). These cultivars are grown as a normal field crop, but immature pods are harvested at an appropriate stage for use as vegetable. This practice is more prevalent around cities where green pods can readily be marketed at attractive

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prices. After harvesting green pods, the crop is left for producing dry seeds. Such dual purpose varieties are very profitable for periurban farmers. Cultivars with white seed coat are preferred because the cooking water remains clear when such seeds are cooked. Sweetness of fully grown immature seed is also a preferred trait. Normal sugar levels in green pigeonpea seeds are around 5.0 %; but researchers at ICRISAT have identified a line ICP 7035 with a sugar content as high as 8.8 %. This germplasm was collected from Bedaghat Township located near Jabalpur city in Madhya Pradesh, India. Its flowers are dark red that produce purple colour pods. The seeds of ICP 7035 are large and purple with a mottle pattern. It produces an excellent quality of vegetable. Its pods are 7 8 cm long and, on an average, each pod contains six seeds (Fig. 1). Another cultivar T 15 15 is widely grown in Gujarat

Southern and Central America and the Caribbean regions: In these regions, Dominican Republic is the highest pigeonpea growing country (17000 ha) with an average yield of 945 kg/ ha (FAO, 2008). The other pigeonpea growing countries are Panama, Venezuela, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Puerto Rico, and Grenada. Pigeonpea in these countries is essentially a small farmers enterprise but at national levels, it is an important crop. The first vegetable type variety released in the West Indies was Prensado. It was early in maturity and determinate in growth habit. Subsequently, three more varieties Tobago, St.Augustine, and Lasiba were released, which were similar to traditional types in their phenology and are still under cultivation. In Dominican Republic, pigeonpea is mainly grown by small farmers and about 80% of the annual harvest is exported in the form of canned or frozen green peas. According to Mansfield (1981), in Dominican Republic four pigeonpea varieties are recognized. These are Kaki, Pinto Villalba, UASD, and Year-round. All these varieties have long pods with large and white seeds. In Puerto Rico, Kaki is the most popular pigeonpea variety (Aponte 1963) and 2B Bushy is another early maturing semi-dwarf variety. Subsequently, a few vegetable type varieties such as Panameno, Amarillo, Kaki, Saragateado, and Totiempo (Rivas and Rivas 1975) were also released. Also, there have been recent releases of pigeonpea varieties in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic. These include Guerrero and Cortada, and Navideo. According to Rivas and Rivas (1975), in Venezuela a cultivar Panameno was released in 1972. E. Cultivation of vegetable pigeonpea Pigeonpea is known to be highly sensitive to major environmental factors such as photo-period and temperature which influence the development of plant phenology. Late maturing non - determinate types require 40,000 50,000 plants/ha for optimum yields. Backyard and bund cultivation: For domestic use, many families grow pigeonpea plants in their backyards (Fig. 2).

Fig 1. Green pods and seeds of ICP 7035, a popular vegetable variety

state for both green and dry seed harvests. In southern India, the large - seeded lines such as HY - 3C and TTB - 6 are also popular as vegetable. In hilly tribal areas of India, a large number of large - seeded landraces are traditionally grown for vegetable purpose. Scientists at ICRISAT have also bred an early maturing determinate variety ICPL 87 which is also used for dual purpose. It produces pods for relatively longer time and allows 2 - 4 pickings within a year. Africa: The first early maturing variety ICPL 87091 was released in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, and Tanzania for vegetable as well as dry seed production. In eastern and southern Africa, about 20% of the farmers have adopted new medium maturing pigeonpea varieties like ICEAP 00554 and ICEAP 00557 both for grain as well as green vegetable purposes. In Tanzania, about 50% of the farmers in Babati district have adopted new varieties and pigeonpea production area has now extended to the neighbouring districts of Karatu and Mbulu (SN Silim, personal communication). The adoption of a late maturing, market preferred variety ICEAP 00040 in northern and central Tanzania, Kenya, and Malawi has resulted in increased grain yields.

Fig 2. Vegetable pigeonpea plants in the backyard

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Such plants are maintained up to 4 - 5 years and they attain a height of over 3 m. The plants start flowering at the onset of short days and pods are picked for house-hold use as and when required. Under normal moisture conditions, new flowers are produced for extended periods and one can see buds, flowers, young, mature, and harvestable pods on the same branch. No specific agronomic practices are followed for this system of cultivation. For local market, relatively large populations are grown on field bunds, mainly around rainy season paddy fields (Fig. 3). In this system, generally 3 - 4 seeds are sown in a single hill. Plants produce a large number of branches on either side of the bunds. In such plantings, if a few plants die due to any reason, the branches of other plants compensate for the loss of biomass. The green pods are picked manually and sold in market either as whole pods or shelled seeds.

of isolation distance of at least 200 m, roguing of all the offtypes at flowering or as soon as they are spotted, sun drying of seeds for a few days to bring down seed moisture level to 9.0%, treating seed with fungicides and packing it in small polyethylene bags for storage. G. Commercial processing of vegetable pigeonpea Commercial vegetable pigeonpea is commonly processed into canned or frozen peas. Among the countries involved in commercialization of vegetable pigeonpea, Dominican Republic stands first from where vegetable pigeonpea is exported to the United States and other countries. The literature on various aspects of processing is scanty and the author could access only one good publication (Mansfield, 1981), which gave details of vegetable pigeonpea processing technology. The following steps are essential in canning and freezing procedures of vegetable pigeonpea. Vining and cleaning: To maintain freshness of harvested green pods, they should be shelled as quickly as possible. This will not only avoid fermenting but also make available necessary oxygen to maintain the quality. Vining (shelling) of small lots of pods is usually done manually and the shelled peas are generally consumed in local market either as fresh or frozen peas. The bigger lots are used for commercial purpose where vining and cleaning are performed mechanically (Fig. 4). Most commercial canners feed the green pods directly into the vining machine while some use a pre-treatment of heat for better yields and clear brine. For local market, the shelled peas are washed and cleaning operation is carried out to remove unwanted peas and inert materials. The mechanically vined peas are cleaned soon after shelling. For this purpose, the shelled peas directly fall onto conveyors for cleaning and washing. The dry cleaning operation is performed by passing the shelled peas through an air blast which helps in removing small pieces of pods or vine, dust, etc. The cleaned lot passes through a mesh screen that allows

Fig 3. A vegetable pigeonpea plant growing on rice bund in Kerala

Peri-urban commercial crop: Since pigeonpea cannot withstand water-logging, low - lying fields should be avoided for vegetable pigeonpea production. Application of 100 kg/ ha of di-ammonium phosphate and other soil amendments for the known soil deficiencies is advisable. Green pods are harvested for sale as fresh vegetable in nearby township and cities. Since for vegetable purpose, fully grown bright green seeds are preferred, the pods are harvested just before they start loosing their green colour. F. Production and maintenance of quality seed Maintenance of genetic purity of elite genotypes is essential to get high quality performances repeatedly. In a crop like pigeonpea where cross-pollination takes place (Saxena et al. 1990), the maintenance of seed quality is not only difficult but also expensive. Therefore, adoption of appropriate isolation distance is essential, and it requires extra precautions to maintain variety purity. Some of the important steps that would help in quality seed production include purchasing good quality seed from a reliable source, adoption of normal sowing time, selection of good field, maintenance

Fig 4. Mechanical shelling of vegetable pigeonpea in China

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the peas to drop through it but retains large size peas and extraneous materials. Subsequently, the product passes through a fine mesh that retains shelled peas but removes fine dirt and splits. This dry cleaning operation is followed by washing for removing floating dirt, skins, split peas, and worms. The washing is carried out more than once in various types of flotation washers with cold running water. After washing, the shelled peas are forced to pass through rotary rod washers where splits, undersize, and mashed peas are separated. The washed peas fall on a belt where off-colour and remaining worm - damaged, and broken peas are removed manually for further processing (Mansfield 1981). Blanching: Heat treatment or blanching is an essential treatment for both freezing as well as canning. This helps in stabilizing colour and flavour besides improving the texture of seeds. According to Mansfield (1981), the blanching operation also helps in producing clear brine by discarding mucous substances, starch particles, and inter-cellular gases. The best blanching is done by heating the peas to 185o F for five minutes in hot water followed by cooling in cold (80oF) water (Sanchez Nieva et al. 1961). Melmick et al. (1944) showed that steam is excellent in preserving nutrients of fresh peas but in most cases this process is not cost effective. After the above mentioned series of treatments, the processed peas could be used either for canning or for freezing. These two follow-up treatments are summarized below: (a) Freezing: According to Mansfield (1981), the following two methods of freezing peas are used in Dominican Republic. In the automated freezing system the peas are cooled in water at ambient temperature soon after blanching and then taken to fluidized bed freezer. In this freezer, operating between -10o F to -20o F, the peas are quick-frozen individually while moving inside a vibrating conveyor screen which receives a rapid moving current of cold air from the lower side (Mansfield, 1981). The frozen peas are then hand picked and kept in wax treated cartons. These cartons are stored at 0o F. In batch freezing system, a blast freezer is used for small quantities of shelled peas. The blanched peas are dropped in cold water tanks and then the peas are hand picked in polyethylene bags and placed for freezing in a batch freezer between -2o F to -10o F for 4 to 10 hours. These packets are stored at 0o F (Mansfield, 1981). (b) Canning: For canning purpose, the blanched peas are taken to volumetric filler through an elevator. Here the cans are filled with peas and 2% brine at near-boiling (195-200o F) temperature. No additives are used for canning (Mansfield, 1981). For closing the cans, if near-boiling brine is maintained, then the exhaust or steam closure is not adopted. This follows a thermal processing to check the growth of any thermo-philic bacterium. After the thermal processing, the cans must be cooled immediately to reduce the thermal quality losses by putting the cans in cool water ponds to bring down their temperature to 90-105o F.

H. Marketing of vegetable pigeonpea In southern America, green pigeonpea pods are collected from the farm gate by the representatives of canning plants. The processed cans are sold to wholesalers for export to the United States, Puerto Rico, and other Latin American countries. In India and Africa, the marketing of vegetable pigeonpea is not well organized. Generally, local venders buy the product from whole-sale vegetable market and sell in local retail market. I. Conclusions The importance of vegetables in human diet can not be under-emphasized. Vegetable pigeonpea can be good sources of valuable proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, and dietary fibre for humans. Vegetable pigeonpea complements the nutritional profile of cereals, and is a good source of protein, vitamins (A, C, B complex) and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu). Vegetable pigeonpea scores manifold advantages over green peas (Pisum sativum). It has more than five times beta carotene content, three times more thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (Vitamin B2), and niacin. The ascorbic acid content is more than two times over peas. Similarly, it scores over peas in terms of minerals such as calcium and copper (more than two times higher), and magnesium. Besides all, the shelling percentage of vegetable pigeonpea is 72% compared to 53% of green peas. All these factors render vegetable pigeonpea a highly nutritive potential crop for all ages. It can become one of the most nutritionally rich vegetables of the daily cuisine, especially for the poor in India, Nepal and Myanmar. It is already a vegetable of choice for Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, and the Caribbean. REFERENCES
Aponte AF. 1963. El cultivo de gandulus en Puerto Rico. Caribbean Agriculture 197: 7. Chaudhari AN and Thombre MV. 1977. Genetic studies in pigeonpea : Round leaf x N.P. 51. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural University 2: 17-20. DCruz R and Deokar AB. 1970. Genetic studies in pigeonpea. I.N. Green x Red grained. Research Journal of Mahatma Phule Agricultural University 1: 44-53. DCruz R, Manke BS and Deokar AB. 1970. Genetic studies in pigeonpea. IV. Rahar x Red grained. Poona Agricultural College Magazine 60: 23-26. Dahiya BS and Brar JS. 1977. Diallel analysis of genetic variation in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). Experimental Agriculture 13:193-200. Dahiya BS and Satija DR.1978. Inheritance of maturity and grain yield in pigeonpea. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 38:4244. De Menezes OB. 1956. Genetics and improvement of the pigeonpea (Cajauns indicus Spreng). Ceres Mias Gerais 10:20-44. Deokar AB and DCruz R. 1971. Genetic studies in pigeonpeaIII.Round leaf x Creeping 3-2-3.Journal of the University of Poona 40: 23 30.

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International, Wallingford, U.K. Pp. 137-158. Saxena KB, Byth DE, Wallis ES and De Lacy IH. 1981. Genetic analysis of a diallel cross of early flowering pigeonpea lines. In: International Workshop on Pigeonpea. Volume 2, 15-19 December 1980, ICRISAT, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pp. 81-92. Saxena KB, Faris DG and Kumar RV. 1984. Breeding for special traits. Pigeonpea Breeding Annual Report, International Crops Research for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India. P 99. Saxena KB, Singh L and Gupta MD. 1990. Variation for natural out-crossing in pigeonpea. Euphytica 46:143-148. Saxena KB, Singh U and Faris DG. 1983. Does pod colour affect the organoleptic qualities of vegetable pigeonpeas? International Pigeonpea Newsletter 2:74-75. Saxena KB. 2008. Genetic improvement of pigeonpea- A review. Tropical Plant Biology 1: 159-178. Sharma D, Singh L, Baghel SS and Sharma HK. 1972. Genetic analysis of seed size in pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan ). Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 14: 545-548. Sharma YK, Tiwari AS, Rao KC and Mishra A. 1977. Studies on chemical constituents and their influence on cookability in pigeonpea. Journal of Food Science Technology 14: 38-40. Sidhu PS and Sandhu TS. 1981. The role of genetical studies in developing new cultivars of pigeonpea for nontraditional areas of north India. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pigeonpea, Volume 2, 15-19 December 1980, ICRISAT, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pp. 117-128. Singh L, Singh N, Shrivastava MP and Gupta AK. 1977. Characteristics and utilization of vegetable types of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.). Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 14: 8-10. Singh U, Jain KC, Jambinathan R and Faris DG. 1984. Nutritional quality of vegetable pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). Mineral and trace elements. Journal of Food Science 49: 645-646. Singh U, Rao PV, Saxena KB and Singh L. 1991. Chemical changes at different stages of seed development in vegetable pigeonpeas (Cajanus cajan). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 57: 49-54. Singh U. 1988. Anti-nutritional factors of chickpea and pigeonpea and their removal by processing. Plant and Foods Human Nutrition 38: 251-261. Yadavendra JP and Patel AR. 1983. Consumer preference of vegetable pigeonpea cultivars. International Pigeonpea Newsletter 2: 73-74.

Deokar AB, Manke SB and DCruz R. 1972. Genetic studies in pigeonpea. VI. Leaflet shape, pod and seed coat colour. Indian Agriculturist 16: 193-197. FAO Stat. 2008. http://www.faostat.fao.org. Gupta SC, Saxena KB and Sharma D. 1981. Inheritance of days to flower and seed size in pigeonpea. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pigeonpeas, 15-19 December 1980, ICRISAT, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pp. 61-66. Kamath MV and Belavady B. 1980. Unavailable carbohydrates of commonly consumed Indian foods. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 31:194-202. Mansfield GM. 1981. Processing and marketing of green pigeonpea: the case of the Dominican Republic. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pigeonpeas, volume 2, 15-19 December 1980, ICRISAT, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pp. 344-350. Marekar RV and Chopde PR. 1985. Inheritance studies in pigeonpea. III. E.B.3 x Multifoliate. Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth Research Journal 9:5-12. Meiners CR, Denise NL, Lay HC, Grews MG, Ritchey SJ and Murphy EW. 1976. The contents of nine mineral elements in raw and cooked mature dry legumes. Journal of Agriculture Food and Chemistry 24: 1126-1130. Melmick E, Hachberg M and Oser BL. 1944. Comparative study of steam and hot water blanching. Food Research 9:148-153. Patil JA, Deokar AB and Maslekar SR. 1972. Inheritance of leaflet number, flower and seed coat colour in redgram ( Cajanus cajan Millsp.). Research Journal of Mahatma Phule Agricultural University 3: 6-11. Reddy LJ, Green JM and Sharma D. 1981. Genetics of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. x Atylosia spp. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pigeonpeas, volume 2, 15-19 December 1980, ICRISAT, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pp. 39-50. Rivas N and Rivas EG. 1975. Estudio de la calidad para enlatado de la variedad de quinchonchos (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) Panameo, Rav Fac Agron (Maracay) 83: 77-81. Sanchez Nieva F, Rodrigues AJ and Benero JR. 1961. Improved methods of canning pigeonpeas. University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 157, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Saxena KB and Sharma D. 1990. Pigeonpea Genetics. In: The Pigeonpea, YL Nene, SD Hall and VK Sheila (Eds), CAB

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 99-105, 2010

Significance and genetic diversity of SPAD chlorophyll meter reading in chickpea germplasm in the semi-arid environments
JUNICHI KASHIWAGI1, HARI D. UPADHYAYA2 and L. KRISHNAMURTHY2
1

Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan; 2 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India; E-mail: jkashi@res.agr.hokudai.ac.jp
(Received: January, 2010; Accepted: August, 2010) ABSTRACT 1990, Subbarao et al. 1995). Enhancing early maturity could lead the chickpea crops to escape from severe soil water depletion that generally occurs during the reproductive stage. ICCV 2, an early maturing chickpea variety, successfully brought in the yield stability in shorter duration drought-prone environments (Kumar et al. 1985). Recently, chickpea germplasm with deep and prolific root systems have attracted the attention as means to improve the drought tolerance through enhanced water uptake (Kashiwagi et al. 2006). During extensive characterization of the root traits, several chickpea genotypes with a prolific root system were identified, and brought into molecular marker assisted breeding programs (Chandra et al. 2004). Under drought, the plants would also face difficulties in nutrient uptake for maintaining a proper growth in addition to soil water acquisition as nutrient absorption requires water. The chickpea acquires water soluble nitrogen contained in the soil via the roots, and also the nitrogen synthesized via biological nitrogen fixation in the nodules on their root systems. The biological nitrogen fixation is also influenced by drought as the rhizobial activities are adversely affected by heat as well as water deficit in the soil (Zahran et al. 1999). Thus, the leaf nitrogen concentration in chickpea is expected to be reduced under drought environments as both the nitrogen acquiring mechanisms are suppressed under such conditions, which would result in the serious yield reduction. Therefore, for a drought tolerance breeding program, it is important to characterize the chickpea germplasm and to identify sources of drought-tolerant chickpea germplasm that are efficient in nitrogen acquisition even under drought environments. Leaf nitrogen content, in situ, could be estimated through SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR). The SPAD chlorophyll meter is a simple portable diagnostic tool that measures the greenness or relative chlorophyll content of leaves (Inada 1963, 1985; Richardson et al. 2002) and these readings are dispayed in Minolta Company (Konica-Minolta Inc. Japan ) defined SPAD (soil plant analysis development) values. There has been a strong linear relationship between the SPAD values and weight-based leaf N concentration (Nw) but this relationship varies with crop growth stage and variety (Takebe and Yoneyama 1989; Turner and Jund 1994) mostly because of leaf thickness or specific leaf weight (Peng et al.

The SPAD chlorophyll meter reading is a measurement of the leaf chlorophyll contents, viz., the nitrogen acquisition capability, and so it is often used to improve the yield through improved nitrogen status. The genetic diversity of the SCMR was investigated in the chickpea mini-core germplasm collection plus five control cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) (n = 216) of ICRISAT Genebank under field conditions during two consecutive post rainy seasons of 2005-06 and 200607. A large genetic variability for SCMR was observed among the 216 chickpea accessions. The SCMR at 62 days after sowing was positively correlated with the seed yield under drought environments. The SCMR at the earlier or later growth stages or under irrigated environment was not related to yield under drought environment, indicating that the selections for SCMR in chickpea need to be done at about mid pod-fill stage under drought stress conditions. A known drought avoidant chickpea genotype, ICC 4958 that has prolific and deep rooting system also showed the best SCMR performances among the 216 chickpea germplasm. ICC 4958 can be a potential donor parent for both root systems and SCMR advantages. In addition, few other outstanding genotypes such as ICC 1422, ICC 10945, ICC 16374 and ICC 16903, with the higher SCMR, were also identified in this study. This genetic variability for SCMR in the mini core provides valuable baseline knowledge in chickpea for further progress on the selection and breeding for drought tolerance through nitrogen acquisition capability. Key words: Breeding, Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), Genetic diversity, Mini-core collection, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR)

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third important food legume in terms of the cultivated area (11.7 million hectares) and in total annual production (9.3 million tons in 2007) (FAO Stat 2009). The major chickpea cultivation occurs in the developing countries that fall in the arid and semi-arid zones. The crop is largely grown rainfed, and therefore drought stress is one of the most serious constraints for the productivity (Ryan 1997). In the last two decades, the chickpea yield under drought environments have been increased through improving some physiological, morphological and phenological characteristics that have been recognized to be significant in crop adaptation to drought stress during soil drying (Ludlow and Muchow

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1993). Similarly, across crops also, the SCMR shows a linear correlation with extractable leaf chlorophyll (Yadava 1986). Particularly in chickpea, a significant close relationship between them (r2 = 0.81) was obtained (Esechie and Al-Maskri 2006). The SCMR, therefore, could be taken as a good proxy for the chlorophyll contents in chickpea crop. The chlorophyll quantity in the plant leaves have good correlation with leaf nitrogen concentration since the leaf chloroplasts contain 70% of the leaf nitrogen (Bullock and Anderson 1998). Because of these, the SCMR is used to improve the yield via monitoring the nitrogen status. Although it is desirable, it is practically not feasible to characterize/phenotype the whole chickpea germplasm collection for SCMR due to their large numbers (about 20, 000 at present). The genebank of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has developed a core collection of 1,956 germplasm accessions representing the diversity of entire collection (Upadhyaya et al. 2001) and from this core collection, a chickpea mini-core germplasm collection (211 accessions) has been developed (Upadhyaya and Ortiz 2001). In our previous studies, the characterization of the mini-core chickpea germplasm has led to the identification of sources of deep and prolific rooting known to assist enhanced drought tolerance (Kashiwagi et al. 2005) as well as sources of salinity tolerance (Vadez et al. 2007). It would also be valuable to characterize this mini-core set for other relevant drought related traits so that a comprehensive and integrated drought tolerance data base could be developed for supporting a drought tolerance breeding program in chickpea. Thus, the main objective of this study was to i) characterize the chickpea germplasm for SCMR and to identify the superior chickpea germplasm in terms of the nitrogen acquisition capability, and ii) investigate the significance of SCMR for further plant breeding aimed towards improving the drought tolerance in chickpea. MATERIALS AND METHODS Field trials: The measurements of the SPAD chlorophyll meter readings in chickpea mini-core collection were carried out in Vertisol fields (fine montmorillonitic isohyperthermic typic pallustert) at ICRISAT Center, Patancheru (17o 53 N; 78o27E; altitude 545 m) in two crop seasons, 2005-06 and 2006-2007. The water holding capacity of these fields in lower limit: upper limit was 0.26: 0.40 cm3 cm-3 for the 0-15 cm soil layer, and 0.30: 0.47 cm3 cm-3 for the 105-120 cm soil layer. The available soil water up to 120 cm depth was 165 mm, and the bulk density was; 1.35 g cm-3 for the 0-15 cm soil layer and 1.42 g cm-3 for the 105-120 cm soil layer (El-Swaify et al. 1985). A total of 216 chickpea genotypes comprising all of the chickpea mini-core germplasm collection of C. arietinum (211 accessions) plus 5 control cultivars (Annigeri, ICC 4958, Chafa, ICCV 2, and ICC 898) were used. Annigeri is an

early-maturing desi cultivar grown in large areas of Peninsular India (Ali and Kumar 2003). ICC 4058 is drought avoidant desi germplasm lines with highly desirable root traits (Saxena et al. 1993, Kashiwagi et al. 2005). ICCV 2 (ICC 12968) is an ICRISAT-bred early-maturing kabuli cultivar released in India (Kumar et al. 1985). Chafa is the first variety of chickpea (desi type) released through selection in Wai at Niphad, in 1948 Maharashtra, and in 1960 in Gujarat, India (Dua et al. 2001). ICC 898 is a desi landrace from Rajasthan, India. The crop was sown on November 15 and November 2 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The experimental design was an alpha lattice design (6 36 blocks) with three replications. The field managements were the same in both the seasons. Before sowing, the field was solarized with polythene mulch in both the seasons to prevent the incidence of Fusarium wilt, and then18 kg N/ha and 20 kg P/ha was applied as di-ammonium phosphate. A sprinkler irrigation (20 mm) was applied immediately after sowing to ensure uniform emergence. During both the seasons, the fields were inoculated with Rhizobium strain IC 59 using liquid inoculation method. The plots were kept weed free by hand weeding and intensive protection measures were taken against pod borer ( Helicoverpa armigera). Two irrigation treatments, rainfed and optimally irrigated, were included as main plots. The rainfed treatment received no irrigation after the 20-mm post-sowing irrigation. The irrigated treatments, received three furrow irrigations besides the post-sowing one at 27 days after sowing (DAS), 50 DAS and 66 DAS in 2005-06 season, and 25 DAS, 48 DAS and 75 DAS in 2006-07 season. An earlier preliminary survey showed a significant variation on the SCMR at different leaf positions. The SCMR of the top and the second top leaf was significantly lower than that of the other basal leaf positions, viz., a stable SCMR was obtained below the third leaf position. Therefore, the third leaf from the top was used for SPAD evaluation in this study. In 2005-06, the SCMR was recorded at 62 and 90 DAS and at 40 and 62 DAS in 2006-07. At final harvest, the shoot biomass, seed yield and other yield components were evaluated from an area of 1.5 2.5 m in both the seasons after removing the plot border on either end of the plot. The shoots were dried in hot air dryers at 45C for three days, and the dry weights were recorded. Then, the shoots were threshed, and the extracted seeds were weighed. Statistical analysis: The data from each trial were analyzed using a linear additive mixed effects model as described by Upadhyaya (2005). By using this model, the statistical procedure of residual maximum likelihood (ReML) was employed to obtain the unbiased estimates of the variance components 2b, 2g and 2e, and the best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) of the performance of the chickpea accessions. Heritability was estimated as h2 = 2g/ (2g+2e). As the block effects within each replication are separately

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worked out with ReML, the heritability values calculated are much more precise than the broad sense heritability and yet not that precise as that of the narrow sense heritability. In the phenotypic variability, which contain genetic as well as environmental variability, observed in the mini-core collection plus several entries, the significance of genetic variability was assessed from the standard error of the estimate of genetic variance 2g, assuming the ratio 2g /S.E. (2g) to follow normal distribution asymptotically. The above model was extended for over-season analysis if traits recorded in both seasons, assuming season effect as fixed, with genotype by season interaction effect being a random effect assumed to have a mean of zero and constant variance 2gE. The significance of G S was assessed in a manner similar to that of 2g. The significance of the fixed effect of the season was assessed using the Wald statistic that asymptotically follows a 2 distribution and is akin to the F-test in the traditional ANOVA. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Genetic diversity of SCMR in chickpea mini-core germplasm: The chickpea cropping season was dry during both 2005-06 and 2006-07 (Fig 1). Total precipitation during the cropping season was only 3.1 mm and 17.2 mm, in 2005-06 and 2006-07 respectively, and the pattern and amount of evaporation was similar between the years. The dynamics of temperature was also almost the same between the years, but the minimum temperature across 2006-07 season was higher than that in 2005-06. In addition, the air was drier in 2006-07 than in 200506. It can be concluded that 2006-07 was more droughty year than 2005-06. Irrespective of irrigation treatments, there was a significant difference on SCMR among the germplasm accessions at any measurement stages in both the years (Table 1). ICC 16374 was a noteworthy genotype as it showed the highest SCMR under rainfed condition at 62 DAS in 2005-06, and also under irrigated condition at 62 DAS in 2006-07. Under the rainfed (drought) conditions in 2006-07, the genotype ICC 4958 showed the highest SCMR at 62 DAS and ICC 7571 at 40 DAS. Genotypes ICC 12654 (62 DAS in 2005-06), ICC 4567 (40 DAS in 2006-07), ICC 11627 (62 DAS in 2006-07)
Table 1.

showed the lowest SCMR under drought environments. The heritability values estimated under irrigated conditions ranged from 0.38 (at 90 DAS in 2005-06) to 0.56 (at 62 DAS in 2005-06), and were higher than that in drought stress conditions showing between 0.13 (at 90 DAS in 2006-07) and 0.24 (at 62 DAS in 2005-06) (Table 1). In one of our previous studies, shoot biomass at 35 DAS and root biomass at the same time possessed heritability values of more than 60% and 50%, respectively, which was seen to decline to 14% at 50 DAS (Kashiwagi et al. 2005). Irrespective of the irrigation treatments, the heritability of SCMR in 2006-07 did not show big reduction at 62 DAS compared to that of 40 DAS although the heritability under rainfed conditions were very low as 17% at 40 DAS and 13% at 62 DAS, respectively. Such poor heritability values indicate that larger populations would be required for

Fig 1. Weather at experimental site (ICRISAT, Patancheru) during the crop growing season of the years 2005-06 and 2006-07.

Trial means, range of best linear unbiased predicted means (BLUPs) and analysis of variance of SCMR of the entries in the field trials in 2005-06 and 2006-07.
Mean 47.4 57.6 53.4 57.5 58.6 49.2 64.0 *, ** Significant at Range of predicted means Minimum Maximum 40.1 52.0 49.1 53.1 61.4 58.6 Component 5.07 6.08 5.21 4.97 1.92 5.01 2.67 S.E. 0.63 1.32 0.82 0.74 0.55 0.77 0.97 Significance ** ** ** ** ** ** * Heritability S.E. h2 0.56 0.24 0.38 0.42 0.17 0.40 0.13 0.070 0.052 0.060 0.062 0.049 0.061 0.047

SCMR 2005-06 Irrigated at 62DAS Rainfed at 62DAS Irrigated at 90DAS 2006-07 Irrigated at 40DAS Rainfed at 40DAS Irrigated at 62DAS Rainfed at 62DAS DAS = days after sowing

52.8 62.0 56.2 60.8 43.6 54.4 61.6 66.4 P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively

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SCMR Rainfed Rainfed at 40DAS-2006 Rainfed at 62DAS-2005 Rainfed at 62DAS-2006 Irrigated Irrigated at 40DAS-2006 Irrigated at 62DAS-2005 Irrigated at 62DAS-2006 Irrigated at 90DAS-2005

selections to improve the SCMR of chickpea thereby enhancing the drought tolerance. The SCMR values in the drought environments were greater compared to the irrigated conditions (Table 1), which was similar to the SCMR response made in groundnut (Nigam and Aruna 2008). This phenomenon is an expected drought response in crop plants. Leaf area expansion gets more affected in response to drought with adversely affecting the specific leaf area (SLA), thereby reducing the leaf size so that the plants could minimize the water loss via the leaf surface. As a consequence of increased leaf thickness, the leaves could have greater concentration of the chlorophyll density in the leaves to maintain relatively better photosynthesis. Because of the denser chlorophyll content and thicker leaves, the SCMR is expected to be increased as repeatedly observed in groundnut (Nageswara Rao et al. 2001, Bindu Madhava et al. 2003, Upadhyaya 2005). In groundnut, a clear significant negative correlation between SLA and SCMR, and between the SLA and transpiration efficiency (TE) had been observed (Wright et al. 1994, Bindu Madhava et al. 2003) suggesting that SCMR could be used as an easily measurable surrogate for TE for improving the drought tolerance (Nigam and Aruna 2008). This approach of screening for TE via SCMR can be applicable also to chickpea to improve the drought tolerance. However, further studies with chickpea are needed to confirm the extent of clarity in such relationships as observed in groundnut. Significance of SCMR in chickpea to the yield under drought conditions: At 62 DAS, under drought environments, there was a significant positive correlation between the SCMR and the seed yield in both the cropping seasons, whereas under irrigated conditions, only in one season, 2006-07, such relationship was observed between the SCMR and yield but not in 2005-06 (Table 2). In many crops, such as groundnut (Nigam and Aruna 2008), sorghum (Xu et al. 2008), wheat (Silva et al. 2007), and maize (Zaidi et al. 2008), this strong correlation was observed between SCMR and seed yield under drought environments. Interestingly, the SCMR at the 62 DAS under drought environments also showed significant positive relationship with the shoot biomass and harvest index in chickpea (Table 2). Thus, the SCMR could be considered as one of the traits that should be incorporated into breeding programs aimed at improving the drought tolerance in chickpea. On the other hand, at earlier growth stage, 40 DAS, the SCMR did not show any such significant relationship with the shoot biomass, harvest index, and seed yield, but a significant relationship between the SCMR and yield was observed at 90 DAS. It is that the SCMR of chickpea accessions is an adaptive trait and some of the genotypes are capable of adjusting their leaf thickness/leaf nitrogen content under drought stress as seen in the current case at 62 DAS, and that could reflect in a maximized vegetative as well as reproductive growth particularly under drought stress. Similar

Correlation coefficient between SCMR and the yield and yield components
Shoot biomass 0.053 0.342** 0.161* 0.034 0.000 -0.069 0.171* Harvest index 0.091 0.230** 0.301** -0.109 0.056 0.209** 0.237** Yield

0.087 0.341** 0.329** -0.098 0.042 0.138* 0.389**

DAS = days after sowing *, ** Significant at P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively

behavior of SCMR had been reported in groundnut mapping population derived out of a high (ICGV 86031) and a low TE (TAG 24) parents (Krishnamurthy et al. 2007). The SCMR at 62 DAS under drought conditions alone exhibited its contribution to the seed yield (Table 2). A significant linear relationship of the SCMR at 62 DAS in rainfed conditions was observed between 2005-06 and 2006-07, although the G E interaction was not significant (F prediction = 0.732 ns). The regression coefficient, however, was low (r2 = 0.202, P<0.01) (Fig 2), as an indicator of the heritability presented in Table 1. Thus, the promising genotypes which showed constantly higher SCMR in both years were identified among 216 accessions on a biplot chart (Fig 2). The top 20 accessions with the best SCMR in each year are presented in Table 3 (the best 10% of the total 216 accessions). Five genotypes were the common ones that appeared on the lists of both the years. The genotype ICC 4958 that originated in India happened to be the most outstanding, showing the highest SCMR of 66.4 in 2006-07 and 60.4 with the fourth rank in 2005-06. In our previous study, the same chickpea mini67.0 ICC14 22 ICC49 58

66.0
SCMR at 62 DAS in 2006-07

65.0

y = 0.236x + 50.434 2 r = 0.202

64.0

ICC163 74 ICC169 03 ICC109 54

63.0

62.0

61.0 50.0

52.0

54.0

56.0

58.0

60.0

62.0

SCMR at 62 DAS in 2005-06

Fig 2. Relationship in the SCMR at 62 DAS under rainfed conditions between the year 2005-06 and 2006-07. The vertical and horizontal lines indicate the mean of SCMR in 2005-06 and 2006-07, respectively.

Kashiwagi et al.: Significance and genetic diversity of SCMR in the chickpea germplasm Table 3.
Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

103

Twenty top ranking chickpea germplasm on SCMR among 216 accessions in each year
Accession ICC 4958 ICC 1882 ICC 1422 ICC 5383 ICC 283 ICC 15868 ICC 13124 ICC 7441 ICC 16374 ICC 15618 ICC 8318 ICCV2 ICC 16903 ICC 13863 ICC 10945 ICC 10399 ICC 7571 ICC 14778 ICC 8855 ICC 14669 2005-06 Origin India India India India India India India India Unknown India India India India Ethiopia India India Israel India Afghanistan India Mean (n=216) S.E. SCMR 66.4 66.3 66.2 66.1 66.0 65.8 65.7 65.7 65.7 65.6 65.5 65.5 65.4 65.4 65.3 65.2 65.2 65.2 65.2 65.1 57.6 1.32 2006-07 Accession ICC 16374 ICC 4872 ICC 4495 ICC4958 ICC 14402 ICC 2580 ICC 13461 ICC 16903 ICC 12155 ICC 15435 ICC 7308 ICC 7272 ICC 4463 ICC 15802 ICC 10945 ICC 1422 ICC 1431 ICC 2884 ICC 6263 ICC 2990 SCMR 61.4 60.9 60.8 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.2 60.2 60.1 60.1 60.1 60.0 60.0 59.9 59.8 59.8 59.8 64.0 0.97

DAS = days after sowing *, ** Significant at P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively

core collection plus 5 popular varieties were characterized for the root traits (Kashiwagi et al. 2005). Interestingly, ICC 4958, a genotype identified to possess one of the most prolific and deep root systems, showed the best SCMR performance among the 216 chickpea germplasm in the present study. This genotype happens to be one of the most promising breeding material for improving the drought tolerance of chickpea in terms of not only the soil water acquisition but also nitrogen acquisition. The accessions ICC 16374 (origin unknown), ICC 1422 (India), ICC 16903 (India) and ICC 10945 (India) were also noteworthy as they exhibited high and repeatable SCMR values. Investigations on the existence of any association between our previous results on various root traits and the SCMR did not exhibit any relationship (root length density and SCMR: r = 0.102 ns, and rooting depth and SCMR: r = 0.094 ns). In maize, however, the genotypes with extensive and deep root systems had been shown to have the advantage of acquiring greater amount of nitrogen under drought conditions (Banziger et al. 1999, Kamara et al. 2001). It would be because the extensive roots in the surface soil layer allowed the crops to use the soil inorganic nitrogen effectively, while the deeper roots were able to extract nitrate leached to deeper soil layers. However, in our current study on chickpea, it showed that the soil nitrogen acquisition of chickpea is independent of the root systems. This could more likely be due to the nitrogen compensation provided by the biological nitrogen fixation in chickpea in addition to the root system acquisition advantage. Interactions between the rhizobial activities and the chickpea genotype-rhizobium affinity under

drought condition would influence the nitrogen acquisition. Our results suggest that the use of two different genetic sources, i.e. one for the root system advantage (viz., water uptake) and the other for the SCMR advantage (nitrogen acquisition ability) could be a more beneficial strategy for genetic improvement of drought tolerance in chickpea. Alternatively, a single genotype ICC 4958 also can be the source for the twin alleles such as the best root system and the best SCMR. The accessions/genotypes listed on Table 3 would be valuable sources of nitrogen acquisition capability for further breeding programs to improve the drought tolerance in chickpea. A large genetic variability for SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), as a proxy to the nitrogen acquisition capability, was observed among the 211 mini-core chickpea germplasm accessions plus 5 cultivars from the ICRISAT genebank. The SCMR seemed to be an adaptive trait. A significant relationship between the SCMR and seed yield under drought environment was observed only at 62 DAS, a stage when the crop had already experienced considerable drought stress, while this relationship could not be noticed in early growth stages and soil moisture environments. Therefore, selections for SCMR need to be made at a stage when the crop has been adequately subjected to drought stress and at later stages of crop growth such as mid pod-fill stage. A known drought-avoidant genotype with the most prolific and deep root system ICC 4958 also showed the best SCMR performances among the 216 chickpea germplasm accessions. This genotype will remain to be a unique promising breeding material for improving not only the soil water but

104

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010


Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Upadhyaya HD, Krishna H, Chandra S, Vadez V and Serraj R. 2005. Genetic variability of drought-avoidance root traits in the mini-core germplasm collection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica 146: 213-222. Kashiwagi, J, Krishnamurthy L, Crouch JH and Serraj R. 2006. Variability of root characteristics and their contributions to seed yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) under terminal drought stress. Field Crops Research 95: 171-181. Krishnamurthy L, Vadez V, Jyotsna Devi M, Serraj R, Nigam SN, Sheshshayee MS, Chandra S and Aruna R. 2007. Variation in transpiration efficiency and its related traits in a groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mapping population. Field Crops Research 103: 189197. Kumar J, Haware MP and Simthson JB. 1985. Registration of four short-duration fusarium wil-resistant kabuli (garbanzo) chickpea germplasm. Crop Science 25: 576-577. Ludlow MM and Muchow RC. 1990. Critical evaluation of traits for improving crop yields in water-limited environments. Advances in Agronomy 43: 107-153. Nigam SN and Aruna R. 2008. Stability of soil analytical development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) and specific leaf area (SLA) and their association across varying soil moisture stress conditions in groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.). Euphytica 160: 111-117. Nageswara Rao RC, Talwar HS and Wright GC. 2001. Rapid assessment of specific leaf area and leaf N in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) using chlorophyll meter. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 189: 175-182. Peng S, Garcia FC, Laza RC and cassmann KG. 1993. Adjustment for specific leaf weight improves chlorophyll meters estimation of rice leaf nitrogen concentration. Agronomy Journal 85: 987-990. Richardson AD, Duigan SP and Berlyn GP. 2002. An evaluation of noninvasive methods to estimate foliar chlorophyll content. New Phytol 153: 185-194. Ryan JG. 1997. A global perspective on pigeonpea and chickpea sustainable production systems: Present status and future potential. In: Asthana AN, Ali M, eds. Recent Advantages in Pulses Research. Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development. Pp. 1-31. Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR), Kanpur, India. Saxena NP, Krishnamurthy L and Johansen C. 1993. Registration of a drought-resistant chickpea germplasm. Crop Science 33: 1424. Silva MA, Jifon JL, Silva JAG and Sharma V. 2007. Use of physiological parameters as fast tools to screen for drought tolerance in sugarcane. Brazilian Journal Plant Physiology 19: 193-201. Subbarao GV, Johansen C, Slinkard AE, Rao RCN, Saxena NP and Chauhan YS. 1995. Strategies for improving drought resistance in grain legumes. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 14: 469-523. Takebe M and Yoneyama T. 1989. Measurement of leaf color scores and its implication to nitrogen nutrition of rice plants. Japan Agricultural Research 23: 86-93. Turner FT and Jund MF. 1994. Assessing the nitrogen requirements of rice crops with a chlorophyll meter method. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34: 1001-1005. Upadhyaya HD, Bramel PJ and Singh S. 2001. Development of a chickpea core subset using geographic distribution and quantitative traits. Crop Science 41: 206-210.

also soil nitrogen acquisition. In addition, some other outstanding genotypes such as ICC 1422, ICC 10945, ICC 16374 and ICC 16903 with the best SCMR were also identified. This can be used as valuable baseline information in future breeding programs to improve the drought tolerance and QTL mapping of nitrogen acquisition capability in chickpea to develop high yielding cultivars for drought environments. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research was partly supported by the unrestricted funds from the Japanese Government earmarked for drought tolerance research and breeding in ICRISAT. REFERENCES
Ali M and Kumar S. 2003. Chickpea research in India. An over view. In: Masood Ali, Shiv Kumar, Singh NB (Eds), Chickpea research in India. Pp. 1-13. Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India. Bnziger M, Edmeades GO and Lafitte HR. 1999. Selection for Drought Tolerance Increases Maize Yields across a Range of Nitrogen Levels. Crop Science 39: 1035-1040. Bindu Madhava H, Sheshshayee MS, Shankar AG, Prasad TG and Udayakunar M. 2003. Use of SPAD chlorophyll meter to assess transpiration efficiency of peanut. In: Cruickshank AW, Rachaputi NC, Wright GC, Nigam SN, eds. Breeding of drought resistant peanuts. ACIAR Proceeding No. 112, Pp. 3-9. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. Bullock DG and Anderson DS. 1998. Evaluation of Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter for nitrogen management in corn. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21: 741-755. Chandra S, Buhariwalla HK, Kashiwagi J, Harikrishna S, Rupa Sridevi K, Krishnamurthy L and Serraj R. 2004. Identifying QTL-linked markers in marker-deficient crops. 4 th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia. Dua RP, Chaturvedi SK and Sewak S. 2001. Reference varieties of chickpea for IPR regime, Pp. 7. Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India. Esechie HA and Al-Maskri AY. 2006. Relationship between SPAD-502 meter values and extractable chlorophyll in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.). Research on Crops 7: 313-317. El-Swaify SA, Pathak P, Rego TJ and Singh S. 1985. Soil management for optimized productivity under rainfed conditions in the semiarid tropics. Advances in Soil Science 1: 1-64. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2009. FAO Statistical Databases. Available at http://faostat.fao.org/ FAO, Rome. Inada K. 1963. Studies on a method for determining deepness of green color and chlorophyll content of intact crop leaves and its practical applications. 1. Principle for estimating the deepness of green color and chlorophyll content of whole leaves. Proceedings of Crop Science Society of Japan 32: 157-162. Inada K. 1985. Spectral ratio of reflectance for estimating chlorophyll content of leaf. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 54: 261-265. Kamara AY, Kling JG, Ajala SO and Menkir A. 2001. Vertical rootpulling resistance in maize is related to nitrogen uptake and yield. Pp. 228-232. 7 th Eastern and Southern African regional Maize Conference. Feb 11-15 2001.

Kashiwagi et al.: Significance and genetic diversity of SCMR in the chickpea germplasm
Upadhyaya HD and Ortiz R. 2001. A mini core subset for capturing diversity and promoting utilization of chickpea genetic resources in crop improvement. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 102: 12921298. Upadhyaya HD. 2005. Variability of drought resistance related traits in the mini core collection of peanut. Crop Science 45: 1432-1440. Vadez V, Krishnamurthy L, Serraj R, Gaur PM, Upadhyaya HD, Hoisington DA, Varshney RK,Turner NC and Siddique KHM. 2007. Large variation in salinity tolerance in chickpea is explained by differences in sensitivity at the reproductive stage. Field Crops Research 104: 123-129. Wright GC, Nageswara Rao RC and Farquhar GD. 1994. Water use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination under water deficit conditions. Crop Science 34: 92-97.

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Xu W, Rosenow DT and Nguyen HT. 2008. Stay green trait in grain sorghum: relationship between visual rating and leaf chlorophyll concentration. Plant Breeding 119: 365 367. Yadava UL. 1986. A rapid and nondestructive method to determine chlorophyll in interact leaves. Horticultural Science 21: 14491450. Zahran HH. 1999. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Review 63: 968-89. Zaidi PH, Mamata Yadav, Singh DK and Singh RP. 2008. Relationship between drought and excess moisture tolerance in tropical maize (Zea mays L.). Australian Jornal of Crop Science 1: 78-96

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 106-109, 2010

Varietal characterization of urdbean for distinctiveness, uniformity and stability


P. K. KATIYAR, G.P. DIXIT and B.B. SINGH Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur 208 024, Uttar Pradesh, India; Email: goldikatiyar@yahoo.com
(Received: July, 2009; Accepted: October, 2010) ABSTRACT
Morphological characterization of urdbean varieties is essential for their protection under Plant Variety Protection (PVP) legislation, because varietal testing for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) are the basis for granting protection of new variety under PPV&FR Act, 2001. Keeping this in view, a total of 46 released varieties of urdbean were grouped for various agro-morphological descriptors. All the varieties showed similar expression for each character over the years depicting the stability of varieties. None of the attribute showed intra-varietal variation. On the basis of 21 descriptors, varieties were grouped into different categories for each character and may be used as reference varieties. Key words : Characterization, Cultivars, Urdbean, Vigna radiata

Urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] is the third most important pulse crops of India and is grown primarily as intercrop with jowar, bajra, pigeonpea, etc., during kharif and as sole crop during of rabi and spring seasons. On account of its short duration, photo-insensitivity and dense crop canopy, it assumes special significance in crop intensification and diversification, conservation of natural resources and sustainability of production systems. Improvement in urdbean was initiated during 1950s, when breeders mostly applied pureline selections from land races and after multilocational testing, superior genotypes were recommended as improved varieties. With the inception of AICRP in sixties, collective efforts were diverted by the breeders to develop high yielding varieties through hybridization and mutation breeding which led to increase in area and production. Further, varietal testing for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) is the basis for grant of protection of new plant varieties under the protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers right Act, 2001 (PPV & FR, 2001) as the act has provision to compare the candidate variety with the varieties of common knowledge on a set of relevant characteristics prescribed in the Draft National Test Guidelines for DUS testing of urdbean and commonly accepted for this purpose at the time of filling of application. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective to characterize 46 released varieties of urdbean on the basis of qualitative morphological characters and to establish distinctiveness of the candidate variety from all other varieties including extant varieties developed in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of forty six urdbean varieties viz., Azad Urd 1, Azad Urd 2, AKU 4, CO 5, GU 1, JU 2, KU 96-3, LBG

20, LBG 17, LBG 611, LBG 623, LBG 645, LBG 648, LBG 685, LBG 402, Manikya, Mash 1, Mash 2, Mash 414, Naveen, NDU 1, PDU 1, RBU 38, Sekhar U 1, Sekhar U 2, Sekhar U 3, Sarla, TU 94-2, TAU 1, TAU 2, T 9, TMV 1, TPU 4, Uttara, UG 218, Vamban 1, Vamban 2, WBU 108, G 338, Mash 1008, Pragya, Pant U 19, Pant U 30, Pant U 35, Pant U 31, and Pant U 40 released and notified in India were evaluated during kharif season, at Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur in a Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications over three years (2006 to 2008). Each plot consisted of four rows of 5 m length, spaced 45 cm apart with interplant distance of 15 cm. Varieties were evaluated for 21 characters viz., anthocyanin colour, growth habit, plant habit, stem colour, stem pubescence, plant height, leaf shape (terminal), leaf colour, leaf pubescence, vein colour, petiole colour, peduncle length, days to 50% flowering, pre-mature pod colour, mature pod colour, pod pubescence, mature pod length, seed colour, seed coat lusture, seed shape and seed size. These descriptors were recorded as per IBPGR (IBPGR, 1992). The observations were recorded on 10 plants in each replication at specified stages of crop growth period when the characters under study had full expression. Anthocyanin colour was observed at cotyledons unfolded stage whereas time of flowering was observed on 50% plants with atleast one open flower. Nine characters viz., time of flowering, growth habit, plant habit, stem colour, stem pubescence, leaf shape (terminal), foliage colour, leaf vein colour and leaf pubescence were observed at 50% flowering. Similarly, petiole colour, colour of pre-mature pod and pod pubescence were observed at fully developed green pods while plant height, peduncle length, pod colour and pod length were observed at maturity. Further, four attributes, viz., seed colour, seed lusture, seed shape and seed size were recorded of mature seeds. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Among the 46 urdbean varieties studied, considerable variation was observed for all the important attributes under study except for anthocyanin colour, stem pubescence, leaf pubescence, petiole colour, peduncle length, and seed size. The characterization of blackgram varieties under study is presented in Table 1 and frequency distribution of each descriptor of released varieties alongwith example varieties is depicted in Table 2. Three types of growth habit (erect, semi-spreading and spreading) are seen in the Indian varieties. The erect type

Katiyar et al.: Varietal characterization of urdbean for distinctiveness, uniformity and stability Table 1. Characterization of urdbean varieties
Leaflet (terminal) shape Premature pod colour

107

Plant Growth habit

Mature pod colour

Pubescence on pod

Antocyanin colour

Time of flowering

Stem Pubescence

Seed coat lusture

Leaf pubescence

Leaf vein colour

Peduncle length

Petiole colour

Plant height

Stem colour

Seed colour

Leaf colour

Plant habit

Seed shape

Pod length

Genotype

Azad U 1 Azad U 2 AKU 4 CO 5 Gujarat U 1 JU 2 KU 96-3 LBG 17 LBG 611 LBG 623 LBG 645 LBG 648 LBG 685 LBG 402 Manikaya Mash 2 Naveen NDU 1 PDU 1 Pant U 19 Pant U 30 Pant U 35 RBU 38 Sekhar U 1 Sekhar U 2 Sekhar U 3 Sarla TU 94-2 TAU 1 TAU 2 T9 TMV 1 TPU 4 Uttara UG 218 Vambn 2 Vamban 1 WBU 108 G 338 LBG 20 Mash 1 Mash 414 UG 1008 Pragaya Pant U 40 Pant U 31
State of characteristics according to national test guidelines

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

3 5 3 3 5 5 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 5 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 5 7 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 7 7 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 7 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
1=determinate, 2=indeterminate

2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

3 3 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 3 5 3 5 5 3 5 3 7 3 7 5 5 7 3 7 5 5 3 5 5 5 3 3 7 3 3 5 7 5 5 7 5 3

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3
1=deltoid, 2=ovate, 3=lanceolate, 4=cunate

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

3 3 3 7 5 5 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 3 5 5 5 3 7 5 5 3 7 7 7 7 7 5 3

3 7 7 7 3 3 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 3 5 5 5 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 5 3 3 7 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 7 3 5

1 1 3 3 1 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 3

9 9 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 9 9 9 9 9 9

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1=green, 2=greenish brown, 3=brown, 4=black, 5=mottoled

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2

1=green, 2=green with purple splashes, 3=purple

1=green, 2=greenish purple, 4=purple

3=short, 5=medium, 7=long

3=short, 5=medium, 7=long

3=erect, 5=semi-erect, 7=spreading

1=Absent, 9=Present

1=green, 2=dark green

1=absent, 9=present

3=small, 5=medium, 7=large

3=yellowish green, 5=green, 7=dark green

3=small, 5=medium, 7=long

1=globose, 2=oval, 3=drum

3=early, 5=medium, 7=late

1=buff, 2=brown, 3=black

1=absent, 9=present

1=absent, 9=present

1=green, 2=purple

1=shiny, 2=dull

Seed size

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

108 Table 2.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Frequency distribution and example varieties of some important attributes of 46 released varieties of urdbean
Range in expression Absent Present Early (< 40 days) Medium (40-50 days) Late (>50 days) Erect Semi-erect Spreading Determinate Indeterminate Absent Present Deltoid Ovate Lanceolate Cunate Green Dark green Green Purple Absent Present Green Green with Purple splashes Purple Yellowish Green Green Dark Green Absent Present Short (<5 cm) Medium (5-10 cm) Long (> 10 cm) Small (< 5 cm) Medium (5-7 cm) Long (> 7 cm) Buff (Off-white) Brown Black Shiny Dull Short (<45 cm) Medium (45-60 cm) Long (>60 cm) Green Greenish Brown Black Small (<3 g) Medium (3-5 g) Large (>5 g) No. of varieties 0 46 8 20 18 30 11 5 7 39 0 46 0 16 29 1 41 5 34 12 0 46 0 46 0 22 13 11 4 42 0 46 0 43 3 0 22 10 14 6 40 20 19 7 2 13 31 46 Example varieties Nil IPU 94-1, Pant U 35 Pant U 19, T 9 Sekhar U 3 LBG 17, LBG 402 T 9, TAU 1 Pant U 35, NDU 1 Vamban 1, Naveen T 9, Pant U 19 Vamban 1 NDU 1, RBU 38 CO 5 Pant U 19, WBU 108 Vamban 1 PDU 1, Mash 1 Uttara, NDU 1 Pant U 19, NDU 1 Pragya Nil KU 96-3, WBU 108 Nil NDU 1, RBU 38 Nil PDU 1, Sekhar U 2 Pant U 19, T 9 Uttara T 9, TAU 2 Pant U 19, NDU 1 Nil NDU 1, PDU 1 Nil Azad U 2 Sekhar U 2 Nil PDU 1 Sekhar U 2, TU 94-2 Uttara, TAU 1 LBG 17 Uttara, NDU 1 T 9, WBU 108 Sekhar U 1 PU 30, RBU 38 Sekhar U 2 JU 2 Uttara Nil Uttara, Pant U 30 Nil

Plant descriptors Anthocyanin colour Time of flowering

Plant growth habit

Plant habit Stem pubescence Leaflet (terminal) shape

Foliage colour Leaf vein colour Leaf pubescence Petiole colour

Pod colour (Premature pod) Pod pubescence Peduncle length

Pod length

Pod colour (mature)

Seed lusture Plant height

Seed colour

Seed size

generally have a determinate growth habit while others have indeterminate growth habit (Singh 1997). It is generally believed that evolution has been from indeterminate spreading to determinate upright plant types (Smartt 1985, Smartt 1990, Steele and Mehra 1980). Early selections from the landraces (T 27, T 77, T 65, Gwalior 2, BR 68, etc.) are indeterminate spreading types and have been in cultivation predominantly as intercrop with cotton, sugarcane, pigeonpea, sorghum, etc. Cultivation of erect and determinate types have been

increasing steadily for the past three decades because of the ease in cultivation in sole cropping system and their ability to avoid some diseases. In the present study, all the varieties of determinate types viz., Pant U 19, Pant U 30, T 9, Uttara, UL 338, UG 218, G 338 and Pant U 31 were also erect in growth habit. Further, the urdbean crop is a tropical one but it is grown in kharif, rabi and summer season in India. An indeterminate plant type of 50-60 cm height (Pant U 40 and Shekhar U 1) may be desirable for the kharif season (Singh

Katiyar et al.: Varietal characterization of urdbean for distinctiveness, uniformity and stability

109

1997) whereas, determinate growth habit with 30 cm plant height and greater early vigour are desirable for spring/summer/ rabi season. Among the cultivars studied, T 9 is the only variety suitable for spring season. Further, reduced plant height is also an important attribute and majority of the varieties viz., Azad Urd 1, Azad Urd 2, GU 1, JU 2, KU 96-3, LBG 611, LBG 648, LBG 685, LBG 17, NDU 1, Pant U 35, Sarla, UG 218, T 9, UL 338, Vamban 2, WBU 108, G 338, Pant U 31, Manikya and Pant U 19 were observed under this category. Seven varieties exhibited plant height more than 60 cm whereas the remaining had height between 45 to 60 cm. The urdbean varieties were largely of medium to late flowering except some spring season varieties which belong to early flowering category. Short duration varieties are often less sensitive to photoperiod than the late maturing ones. Earliness and photo-insensitivity are recessive traits and under the control of major gene (Singh and Dhaliwal 1971, Sinha 1988, Tiwari and Ramanujam 1976), and thus can be manipulated with relative ease. Early maturing types are dwarf due to short internodes and tend to mature after the first flush of flowers (Singh 1997). Therefore, in selecting early maturing genotypes, early vigour is an important component. Foliage colour varied from light green to dark green in the varieties studied eg. Uttara, NDU 1, Manikya, UL 338 and Pragaya exhibited dark green colour and rest showed light green foliage colour. Considerable variation was also observed for leaflet (terminal) shape. Varieties like CO 5, LBG 17, LBG 611, LBG 645, LBG 623, LBG 648, LBG 685, LBG 402, Mash 2, Uttara, LBG 20, Mash 414, Pragaya, Naveen, Mash 1-1 and Sekhar U3 were of ovate types while Vamban 1 showed cunate leaf shape. Rest varieties showed lanceolate leaf shape. Leaf vein colour is another character with sufficient variability in urdbean varieties. Purple leaf vein colour was observed in 12 varieties viz., Uttara, Azad U 2, CO 5, KU 96-3, LBG 611, LBG 645, LBG 685, LBG 402, LBG 648, PDU 1, TAU 2 and Pragaya and the other varieties depicted green leaf vein colour. Plants bearing more pods along with more seeds/pod would be desirable as the number of pods/plant has the highest positive and significant correlation with yield (Singh 1997). In the present study, only four attributes related to pods viz., pod colour (premature pod), pod pubescence, pod length and pod colour (mature pod) were studied. The trait premature pod colour was categorized into three categories namely, yellowish green, green and dark green. For example 13 varieties depicted green colour, 11 showed dark green and the remaining showed yellowish green. Pod pubescence was noticed in all the varieties except for AKU 9904, TAU 2, T 9 and LBG 20. On the basis of pod length, urdbean varieties can be classified into three categories viz., short (< 5 cm), medium (57 cm) and long (> 7 cm). However in the present study, only three varieties i.e. Sekhar U 1, Sekhar U 2 and Sekhar U 3 had medium pod length while rest of cultivars showed short pod length. In respect of pod colour, 14 varieties depicted black pod colour, 10 varieties with brown and rest showed buff (off-white) pod colour.

Attractive seed colour has been the consumer preference as they offer good market price. In certain pockets, green seed varieties are preferred over black seeded types. The green seeded varieties are generally grown as mixed crop with sorghum, pigeonpea and cotton and popular among consumers of certain areas of the country (Singh 1997). In the present study, seeds were classified into three groups, namely green, black and greenish brown. Thirty one cultivars are of black seeded types, 13 greenish brown and two (Sekhar U 1 and Sekhar U 2) are green types. Further, six cultivars, viz., LBG 623, LBG 20, LBG 645, LBG 17, LBG 685 and LBG 648 exhibited lustrous seed and the remaining showed dull seed. In relation to seed shape, twelve varieties depicted drum shape seed and others were oval. Seed size of urdbean cultivars may be grouped into three categories viz., small (< 3 g / 100seed), medium (3 to 5 g / 100-seed) and large seeded (> 5 g / 100-seed). In the present study, all the cultivars belong to medium category. On the basis of present preliminary characterization, these varieties were grouped into different categories for each character and may be used as reference cultivars. In the past breeding efforts in the development of varieties have utilized only a fraction of the vast available diversity as was evident from their pedigree. While 30 parents involved in the ancestry of 32 cultivars developed through hybridization, only a few were frequently utilized with specific objectives such as incorporation of earliness, diseases and pest resistance. Prebreeding or genetic enhancement needs emphasis for transfer or introgression of genes and gene combinations from unadapted sources into more usable breeding material. There are indications that novel and useful traits can be successfully combined from related species. REFERENCES
IBPGR. 1992. Descriptor of Vigna sp. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. PPV & FR. 2001. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Right Act (No. 53 of 2001). Dept. of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Gov. of India, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi. Singh, DP. 1997. Tailoring the plant type in pulse crop. Plant Breeding Abstracts 67(9): 1213-1220. Singh KB and Dhaliwal HS. 1971. Combining ability and genetic of days to 50% flowering in blackgram. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 41: 719-723. Sinha RP. 1988. Early maturity, dwarf mutant of urdbean. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology 17: 61-62. Smartt J. 1985. Evolution of grain legume III. Pulses in the genus vigna. Experimental Agriculture 21: 87-100. Smartt J. 1990. The evolution of agriculturally significant legumes. Plant Breeding Abstracts 60: 725-731. Steele WM and Mehra KL. 1980. Structure, evolution and adaptation to farming system and environment in Vigna. In: RJ Summerfield and AH Bunting (eds), HMSO London, UK. Pp. 393-404. Tiwari AS and Ramanujam S. 1976. Genetics of flowering response in mungbean. Indian Journa of Genetics 36: 418-419.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 110-112, 2010

Genetic diversity among selected genotypes of M4 generation in horsegram


N. B. PATEL, S. B. S. TIKKA and J. B. PATEL S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat, India; Email: nbprg@yahoo.co.in
(Received: December, 2008; Accepted: August, 2010) ABSTRACT
Effect of different doses of gamma rays (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) in three varieties of horsegram viz., AK-21, AK-42 and Maru-K-1 was studied under field conditions at the Main Pulses Research Station, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during summer, 2004 to kharif, 2005. In all, eleven clusters were formed. Cluster I (34), followed by cluster IV (12), cluster V (4) and cluster VI (4) were found to be the largest. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VI and cluster X. It was observed that the genotypes were clustered irrespective of their eco-geographical regions. Test weight was the main contributor towards the total divergence. Yield per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, days to maturity, plant height, days to 50% flowering and number of pods per plant had moderate contribution towards total divergence. Key words: Cluster, Gamma rays, Genetic divergence, Horsegram

MATERIALS AND METHODS Seeds (250g) of three cultivars of horsegram viz., AK 21, AK 42 and Maru K-1 were obtained from the germplasm pool maintained at the Main Pulses Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar and were treated with different doses of gamma rays at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay with gamma rays intensity of 1.8 kR per minute. The doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 kR in all the three varieties, thus, making 27 treatments. The mutated seeds were grown during summer, 2004 to kharif 2005. The M1 was raised following proper package of practices in single replication. From each treatment in M1 generation, 25 normal appearing plants were randomly selected to provide material for M2 generation up to 20 kR. M2 generation was raised to assess induced polygenic variability and to score the types of macro-mutations and their frequency. The M2 and M3 were raised in Compact Family Block Design with three replications. 25 seeds from each selected plants in M1 were sown in a row for each replication. The selected 25 plants from each treatment in M1 generation became families in M2 generation. The row-to-row spacing was kept 45 cm and plantto-plant 15 cm. Similarly M3 generation was sown in Compact Family Block Design. M4 generation was raised in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The selected 58 lines that yielded higher than respective checks in M3 generation were selected and sown for their superiority in M4 generation along with respective checks. Transformation of original means of various characters (X1s) to uncorrelated variables (Y1s) was carried out by pivotal condensation as the common dispersion matrix by computer. This made D2 value as a simple sum of squares of differences in transformed values for various characters. Grouping of the genotypes in different clusters was done by using Tochers method (Rao 1952). The inter-cluster distance was calculated by measuring the distance between clusters I and II, I and III, II and III, and so on. Likewise, one by one all the clusters were taken and their distances from each other were calculated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Plant breeders are always interested to assess the genetic diversity among the germplasm/varieties/advanced breeding material available with them, so as to utilize them in the breeding programme because genetically diverse parents are likely to produce high heterotic effects (Griffing and

Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. verdc, Dolichos biflorus) is well known for its versatility to perform well under adverse edaphic and climatic conditions. It is a hardy grain legume with an ability to withstand protracted droughts. It performs well in almost all types of soils, except highly alkaline soils. The grains may be utilized in multifarious ways ranging from whole boiled seeds as dal to grind flour mixed with main calory sources like wheat flour. The seeds have an immense medicinal value and work like panacea for those suffering from kidney stone which is the most prevalent problem in arid and semi arid areas due to nagging poor quality of potent water. Besides food, feed and medicinal uses, the crop has immense pertinence in sustaining and enhancing soil fertility by checking erosion and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. In south India, the crop is especially grown as a preparatory crop in newly reclaimed lands to improve the soil fertility and organic matter status (Sen and Bhowal 1959). Genetic diversity is a basic criterion to the crop plants whether through natural selection or by directed plant breeding. In plant breeding, genetic diversity plays an important role because hybrid between lines of diverse origin generally displays a greater heterosis than those between closely related parents. D2 analysis (Mahalanobis 1936) is an extreme tool in quantifying the degree of divergence among the biological populations at genotypic level to assess the relative contributions of different components to the total divergence.

Patel et al.: Genetic diversity among selected genotypes in M4 generation in horsegram

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Lindston 1954). The distantly related parents within the same species when utilized in cross breeding programme are likely to produce a wider spectrum of variability. To a plant breeder single character is not of much importance as the combined merit of a number of desirable traits becomes more important, when he is concerned with a complex trait like yield per plant. Hence, for improving yield, selection of parents based on number of characters having quantitative divergence is required which can be fulfilled by D2 statistic developed by Mahalanobis (1936). In the present study, D2 statistic estimated in 61 genotypes of horsegram isolated from M3 generation (58 mutants + 3 checks) on the basis of their per se performance for nine characters showed that generalized distance (D) between two populations varied from 0.00 to 11.04. Clustering of 61 genotypes was carried out following Tochers method (Rao 1952). Over all, eleven clusters were observed (Table 1). Cluster I, followed by cluster IV, cluster V and cluster VI were found to be the largest with 34, 12, 4 and 4 genotypes, respectively. Seven more clusters, each having single genotype, were observed. Genetic drift and selection in different environments might result in greater diversity than geographical distance. Moreover, free exchange of seed material along different geographical regions changes the
Table 1.
Cluster I

character constellation associated with particular region. Absence of parallelism between genetic diversity and geographical origin was reported in upland cotton and castor (Bhatt and Reddy 1987). Similar conclusion was derived by Ganeshaiah (1982). The maximum inter-cluster distance (D = 11.04) was observed between clusters X and VI, followed by clusters X and II (D = 9.86) and clusters X and V (D = 8.68) (Table 2). Large distances between clusters (inter-cluster) were reported by Balan et al. (1992) and Patil et al. (1993). High heterotic combinations are obtained when the genotypes of distantly placed clusters are inter-crossed. In the present investigation, genotypes of cluster X, if crossed with those of cluster VI, might give high heterosis. Similar results may be obtained by crossing cluster X and cluster II and cluster X and cluster V. Cluster VII depicted the lowest mean values for days to 50% flowering and plant height, while cluster III depicted the lowest mean value for days to maturity. Cluster X showed highest mean values for number of effective branches per plant and test weight. Similarly, cluster XI for number of pods per plant, cluster VIII for pod length, cluster IX for number of seeds per pod and cluster III for yield per plant exhibited the highest mean values (Table 3). Inter crossing of genotypes among these clusters will induce variability for the respective traits.

The distribution of 61 genotypes of horsegram to different clusters on the basis of D2 statistics


Number of genotypes Genotypes 34 AK-42 15 kR 20, MK-1 15 kR 10, AK-42 5 kR 10, MK-1 15 kR 13, AK-21 15 kR 14, AK-42 10 kR 5, AK-42 20 kR 12, MK-1 15 kR 19, MK-1 5 kR 17, AK-21 20 kR 15, AK-21 5 kR 13, MK-1 20 kR 4, MK-1 20 kR 11, AK-42 20 kR 23, AK-21 20 kR 3, AK-42 20 kR 1, AK-42 control, AK-42 5 kR 8, MK-1 15 kR 7, AK-42 15 kR 6, MK-1 5 kR 7, AK-21 5 kR 20, AK-21 5 kR 22, AK-42 15 kR 23, MK-1 15 kR 2, MK-1 5 kR 21, AK-21 15 kR 5, MK-1 20 kR 16, AK-21 20 kR 17, AK-42 5 kR 3, AK-21 5 kR 4, MK-1 5 kR 13, MK-1 15 kR 4, MK-1 15 kR 9 1 MK-1 10 kR 10 1 AK-21 10 kR 12 AK-21 10 kR 9, MK-1 10 kR 17, AK-21 10 kR 8, MK-1 5 kR 22, AK-21 10 kR 20, AK-21 10 kR 17, MK-1 20 kR 12 18, AK-42 10 kR 2, AK-21 10 kR 4, AK-21 10 kR 6, AK-21 20 kR 23, MK-1 10 kR 19 4 AK-21 control, MK-1 control, MK-1 15 kR 23, AK-21 15 kR 12 4 AK-42 10 kR 14, MK-1 10 kR 8, AK-42 10 kR 7, AK-42 5 kR 4 1 AK-42 5 kR 24 1 AK-42 15 kR 25 1 AK-21 5 kR 11 1 AK-21 15 kR 2 1 MK-1 5 kR 2

II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI

Table 2.
Cluster 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Average intra and inter-cluster (D) values for 61 genotypes of horsegram


1 2.79 2 3.40 0.00 3 3.81 5.72 0.00 4 4.54 6.53 3.02 3.00 5 3.69 3.96 5.14 5.27 3.45 6 4.76 3.46 6.79 7.58 5.25 4.17 7 3.85 5.04 3.77 4.18 4.87 6.16 0.00 8 3.71 4.99 4.67 4.34 4.29 5.55 4.76 0.00 9 3.93 4.52 4.41 5.06 5.59 5.85 2.83 4.51 0.00 10 7.68 9.86 5.56 4.93 8.68 11.04 7.07 6.96 7.11 0.00 11 5.56 6.57 5.38 5.40 7.13 7.93 3.60 6.24 3.34 6.43 0.00

112 Table 3.
Cluster Number

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Cluster means for different characters of 61 genotypes of horsegram
Number of genotypes 34 1 1 12 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 Days to 50% flowering (no) 57.04 59.45 55.44 56.11 57.67 54.67 54.00 55.22 56.00 59.22 58.00 Plant height (cm) 58.91 58.80 56.53 57.58 53.73 60.59 48.74 57.49 53.09 62.22 61.73 Effective branches/ plant (no) 3.09 2.83 2.89 2.97 3.15 2.82 3.00 2.92 2.83 3.21 2.58 Pods/ plant (no) 38.23 40.59 38.84 37.91 36.27 39.94 43.42 31.13 35.65 29.89 44.89 Pod Length (cm) 4.03 4.08 3.64 4.00 3.75 4.11 3.87 5.00 4.68 4.70 4.37 Seeds/ pod (no) 4.84 5.00 5.38 4.61 4.26 4.70 4.89 3.93 5.44 4.92 5.00 Days to maturity (no) 105.50 105.92 102.56 107.18 110.28 104.79 107.00 105.78 103.33 104.11 105.56 Test weight (g) 3.49 3.31 3.69 3.76 3.45 3.26 3.62 3.57 3.55 4.02 3.71 Yield/ plant (g) 7.39 8.07 8.37 6.98 6.72 7.55 6.85 5.20 6.23 5.56 6.21

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI

The results revealed that test weight was the main contributor towards the total divergence (Table 4). Similar results were obtained by Ramakrishnan et al . (1979) in horsegram and Renganayaki and Rangasamy (1991) in green gram. Yield per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, days to maturity, plant height, days to 50% flowering and number of pods per plant had moderate contribution towards total divergence, while number of effective branches per plant had least contribution to the total divergence. The clustering pattern could be utilized for identifying the best cross combinations in generating variability with respect to various traits. Superior genotypes for hybridization programme can also be selected on the basis of inter-cluster distance and cluster means. In the present investigation, the significant correlation in positive direction with yield per plant was observed by days to 50% flowering, number of effective branches per plant and number of pods per plant in AK-21; number of effective branches per plant, number of pods per plant, and number of seeds per pod in AK-42 and days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of pods per plant, pod length and number of seeds per pod in MK-1. Maximum cluster mean was observed for yield per plant (cluster III), number of pods per plant (cluster XI) and number of seeds per pod (cluster IX). Therefore, for creating wide spectrum of
Table 4.
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

variability and improving yield, the genotypes included in cluster III, cluster XI and cluster IX should be inter crossed. The foregoing discussion clearly demonstrates that the genetic variability induced by physical mutagen both at morphological and quantitative levels in majority of the character broadens the scope of selection for desired characters and plant type for future breeding programme. Mutation breeding could not perform miracles but still it was very successful in opening new horizons for a crop like horsegram, which is strictly self pollinated and crossing is very difficult due to tiny structure of flower. REFERENCES
Balan A, Ramasamy P and Sivasamy N. 1992. Genetic diversity in horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum L. Verdec). Indian Journal of Pulses Research 5: 78-81. Bhatt Dipika and Reddy TP. 1987. Genetic divergence and heterosis in castor ( Ricinus communis L.). Indian Journal of Botany 10 : 21-26. Ganeshaiah KN. 1980. Multivariate analysis for yield and its contributing characters in horse gram ( Dolichos biflorus L.). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences 14 : 125. Griffing B and Lindston EW. 1954. A study of combining abilities of corn inbreds having varying proportions of corn belt and non-corn belt germplasm. Agronomy Journal 46 : 545-552. Mahalanobis PC. 1936. On the generalized distance in statistics. Proceedings of National Institute of Science, India 2 : 49-55. Patil RA, Jahagirdar JE, Shinde VS and Ghodke MK. 1993. Mungbean variety BM-4 is suitable for central zone. Indian Farming 42 : 12. Ramakrishnan A, Marappan PV and Sivasamy N. 1979. Genetic divergence in horse gram. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49 : 719-723. Rao CR. 1952. Advanced Statistical Methods in Biometrical Research (Edn. I), John Willey and Sons, Inc., New York. Pp. 337-363. Renganayaki K and Rangasamy SR. 1991. Genetic divergence in Vigna species. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 4 : 159-164. Sen NK and Bhowal JG. 1959. Genetic studies in horse gram. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 19 : 228-233.

Per cent contribution of each character towards the total divergence


Number of times Contribution character ranked (%) first 94 5.14 109 5.96 20 1.09 90 4.92 122 6.67 166 9.07 111 6.07 937 51.20 181 9.89

Character

Days to 50% flowering (no) Plant height (cm) Effective branches/plant (no) Pods/plant (no) Pod length (cm) Seeds/pod (no) Days to maturity (no) Test weight (g) Yield/plant (g)

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 113-116, 2010

Genetic analysis for yield and yield traits in pea


K.P. SINGH, H.C. SINGH and M.C. VERMA Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding; C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur208 002, UttarPrdesh, India; E-mail: koshendra63@gmail.com
(Received: September, 2009; Accepted: September, 2010) ABSTRACT
All possible crosses excluding reciprocals were made among 10 diverse genotypes of field and table pea. General and specific combining ability variances were significant for all the traits in both F1 and F2 generations. Higher values of variance due to gca for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, pod length, number of developed ovules per pod, shelling percentage and green pod yield per plant showed presence of additive gene action while it was non additive for number of productive branches per plant and number of pods per plant based on both the generations. Parents KS-226, KS-225, KS-136, Azad P-1 and Azad P-3 were good general combiners for green pod yield based on both the generations. The average performance of table pea parents were better than field pea parents. Cross combinations namely KPMR-184 KS-136, Rachna KS225, KS-195 AP-3, KPMR-184 Mutant pea and Mutant KS-136 in F 1, KS-195 KS-225, KPMR-184 AP-3, Mutant KS-226, KS-226 AP-1 and KPMR-65 KS-226 in F2 were found as good specific combinations for green pod yield. The majority of these crosses falls in the high x low general combiners. The crosses between table x field pea gave higher yield than table x table or field x field pea. Key words: Combining ability, Field pea, Gene action, Green pod yield, Pisum sativum L., Table pea

MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 10 diverse genotypes of field and table peas namely Rachna, KPMR-65, KPMR-184, mutant of P-43, KS-136, KS-195, KS-225, KS-226, Azad P-1 and Azad P-3 were crossed in all possible combinations excluding reciprocals. The F0 seeds were advanced to get F1. The final experiment including 10 parents 45 F1s and 45 F2s each were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Vegetable Research Farm, Kalyanpur, Kanpur in the year 2003-04. Each parents and F1s were sown in single row of five meter length while F2s in two rows each spaced at 45 cm x 5 cm between rows and plants, respectively. The recommended package of practices was adopted to raise a good crop. Observations were recorded on ten randomly selected plants in parents and F1s and 20 plants each in F2s for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of productive branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of developed ovules per pod, shelling percentage and green pod yield per plant. The mean data were used for diallel analysis following Griffing (1956) method 2 model 1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Analysis of variance for combing ability showed highly significant differences both for gca and sca for all the characters based on both the generations. It indicates the role of both additive and non-additive genet effects for controlling these traits (Table 1). A perusal of the table revealed higher the magnitude of s2gca for characters namely days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, pod length and yield /plant (F2) indicating that these traits were under control of additive gene action. Similar results were also reported by Singh et al. (2006). The characters number of branches per plant, pods per plant, shelling percentage and green pod yield per plant (F1s only) showed higher the value of sca variances than corresponding gca variance revealing the presence of non additive gene action. The ratio of s 2 gca/s2sca also showed similar pattern. These results are in accordance with Kumar et al. (2006) and Singh and Singh (2003). The gca effect and mean performance of the parents are listed in Table 2 which revealed that none of the parents showed desirable gca effects for all the characters hence it is

Peas are major source of protein in vegetarian diet of India. It also plays an important role in soil improvement by virture of its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through its symbiotic association with Rhizobium. Exploitation of hybrid vigour and selection of parents on the basis of their combining ability have opened a new avenue in crop improvement. Among various techniques developed, diallel analysis is a very convenient one for gathering information about combining ability effects which helps in selection of parents for hybridization and ultimately the isolation and development of superior genotypes. The present study was undertaken to understand the genetic architecture of yield and its components through diallel analysis.

* Author for Correspondence : Assistant Seed Production Officer, Breeder Seed Production Unit, Section of Seed and Farms, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002, UttarPrdesh, India

114 Table 1.
Source of variation

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Analysis of variance for combining ability for yield and related traits in peas
d.f. Days to flowering (no) F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2 9 9 45 45 108 108 325.45** 332.40** 5.87** 8.13** 0.55 0.41 26.63 27.02 5.32 7.72 5.00 3.50 Days to maturity (no) 374.81** 348.65** 9.39** 12.20** 0.36 0.52 30.45 28.03 9.03 11.68 3.37 2.39 Plant height (cm) 16403.86** 12635.93** 1256.25** 516.30** 8.80 10.37 1262.30 1009.96 1247.45 505.93 1.01 1.99 Mean sum of squares Productive Pods/ Pod branches/ plant length plant (no) (no) (cm) 0.48** 0.48** 0.20** 0.06** 0.01 0.003 0.02 0.03 0.19 0.05 0.10 0.60 143.10** 64.08** 74.02** 7.85** 2.14 0.58 5.75 4.68 71.88 7.27 0.07 0.64 5.46** 5.05** 0.08** 0.16** 0.004 0.005 0.44 0.40 0.07 0.15 6.28 2.66 Developed ovules/pod (no) 3.00** 2.53** 0.46** 0.30** 0.006 0.006 0.21 0.18 0.45 0.29 0.46 0.62 Shelling percent Green pod yield/ plant (g) 2741.37** 2881.16** 761.23** 134.86** 14.33 8.30 165.01 228.85 746.90 126.56 0.22 1.80

gca sca Error 2g 2s 2g/2s

40.14** 20.95** 9.29** 6.03** 0.02 0.02 2.57 1.41 9.27 6.01 0.27 0.23

** Significant at P = 0.01

Table 2.
Parent

Estimates of general combining ability effects of the parents for yield and yield related traits in peas
Days to flowering (no) F1 F2 7.05** 4.71** 6.29** -3.73** -4.64** -1.20** 0.21** 3.60** -3.64** -8.65** 0.03 0.07 Mean 71.40 64.50 68.83 48.27 45.23 52.27 56.10 61.93 46.70 32.37 F1 7.10** 4.85** 7.37** -4.35** -5.28** -2.04** 0.19** 4.21** -3.64** -8.42** 0.03 0.06 6.99** 4.29** 6.64** -4.04** -4.40** -1.61** 0.40** 3.55** -3.48** -8.34** 0.04 0.09 Days to maturity (edible pods) (no) F2 7.25** 4.85** 6.92** -3.65** -4.78** -1.57** 0.05 3.36** -3.97** -8.47** 0.04 0.09 Mean 104.83 97.50 101.67 81.20 75.37 82.50 85.97 92.17 76.83 62.40 F1 62.46** 43.26** 42.04** 12.55** -28.84** -22.72** -27.42** -13.23** -31.71** -36.41** 0.66 1.47 Plant height (cm) F2 42.62** 48.68** 44.25** 3.42** -21.49** -23.97** -20.86** -16.62** -29.27** -26.77** 0.78 1.73 Mean 203.67 184.83 180.97 98.37 86.00 85.63 93.70 92.27 64.13 37.47 Productive branches/plant (no) F1 -0.37** 0.36** 0.04** 0.07** -0.09** -0.07** 0.19** 0.09** -0.16** -0.07** 0.0009 0.002 F2 -0.12** -0.42** -0.02** -0.14** -0.04** -0.13** 0.21** 0.15** -0.23** -0.10** 0.0003 0.0006 Mean 3.00 3.70 2.63 2.23 2.90 2.73 3.53 3.23 2.60 2.93

Rachna KPMR-65 KPMR-184 Mutant of P-43 KS-136 KS-195 KS-225 KS-226 Azad P-1 Azad P-3 S.E. (g i) S.E. (gi gj)

**Significant at P = 0.01

Table 2. Cont..
Parent Pods/plant (no) F1 F2 0.96** 0.69** 6.89** 5.34** 1.80** -0.53** 3.27** -0.97** -3.94** -1.74** -1.43** 1.39** -0.57** -0.24** 0.25 0.93** -4.27** -2.24** -2.97** -2.64** 0.16 0.04 0.36 0.10 Pod length (cm) F1 F2 Mean -0.33** -0.52** 6.90 -0.88** -0.80** 6.33 -0.45** -0.39** 7.03 -1.19** -1.11** 5.27 0.71** 0.56** 9.27 0.08** 0.12** 7.93 0.49** 0.49** 8.63 0.60** 0.64** 8.90 0.49** 0.52** 8.67 0.48** 0.49** 8.97 0.0003 0.0003 0.0007 0.0008 Developed ovules/pod (no) F1 F2 Mean -0.47** -0.31** 5.83 -0.66** -0.72** 4.60 -0.41** -0.41** 4.93 -0.45** -0.52** 3.63 0.94** 0.62** 6.57 0.03** 0.06** 5.53 0.14** 0.24** 5.90 0.17** 0.22** 6.03 0.49** 0.48** 6.30 0.23** 0.34** 6.07 0.0005 0.0004 0.001 0.001 Shelling percent F2 1.31** -0.64** 0.80** 1.81** 0.53** -0.71** -1.81** -2.52** 0.71** 0.52** 0.001 0.003 Green pod yield/plant (g) F1 F2 Mean -6.44** -13.53** 81.47 -9.38** -4.45** 85.33 -11.74** -13.52** 78.50 -28.37** -29.07** 44.23 9.78** 7.40** 130.27 -0.74 7.84** 119.03 17.01** 13.98** 134.60 23.92** 24.20** 148.77 0.96 5.49** 118.77 5.00** 1.65 106.13 1.07 0.62 2.39 1.38

Rachna KPMR-65 KPMR-184 Mutant of P-43 KS-136 KS-195 KS-225 KS-226 Azad P-1 Azad P-3 S.E. (g i) S.E. (gi gj)

Mean 26.87 32.40 25.07 21.43 23.13 28.13 26.73 27.93 23.60 19.53

F1 2.60** 1.40** 0.68** 1.93** 0.18** -0.77** -2.71** -2.91** 0.40** -0.80** 0.001 0.003

Mean 53.30 53.30 55.67 54.03 50.90 47.80 45.03 48.23 52.80 51.33

**Significant at P = 0.01

Singh et al.: Genetic analysis for yield and yield traits in pea Table 3. Ranking of top five desirable crosses for yield and yield related traits in peas
sca effect Mean value gca status P1 P2
Character/cross Rachna x Azad P-3 F2 KPMR65 x Azad P-3 Rachna x Azad P-3 KPMR65 x Mutant KPMR184 x Azad P-3 Mutant x KS226 Pod length (cm) F1 KS195 x Azad P-3 Rachna x KPMR65 Azad P-1 x Azad P-3 KPMR184 x KS136 Rachna x KS225 F2 KPMR184 x Mutant Rachna x Mutant Rachan x KPMR65 KS225 x Azad P-3 KS195 x KS225 Developed ovules/pod (no) F1 KS136 x KS225 KS195 x Azad P-3 Mutant x KS136 KS136 x KS226 KS195 x Azad P-1 F2 KS136 x Azad P-3 Mutant x KS226 Azad P-1 x Azad P-3 KS195 x Azad P-1 KPMR184 x KS225 Shelling (%) F1 KPMR65 x KS225 KS195 x Azad P-3 KS136 x Azad P-3 Mutant x Azad P-1 KS225 x Azad P-1 F2 Rachna x KPMR65 KPMR184 x KS226 KS195 x Azad P-3 Mutant x KS225 Rachna x KS136 Green pod yield/plant (g) F1 KPMR184 x KS136 Rachna x KS225 KS195 x Azad P-3 KPMR184 x Mutant Mutant x KS136 F2 KS195 x KS225 KPMR184 x Azad P-3 Mutant x KS226 KS226 x Azad P-1 KPMR65 x KS226

115

Character/cross Days to flowering (no) F1 Rachna x KS195 Rachna x KS225 Rachna x Mutant Mutant x KS226 KPMR184 x Mutant F2 Rachna x KS225 KPMR184 x Mutant Mutant x KS195 Rachna x KS136 Mutant x KS226 Days to maturity (no) F1 Rachna x KS195 Mutant x KS226 KS195 x KS225 Rachna x KS225 KPMR184 x Mutant F2 Rachna x KS225 KPMR184 x Mutant Rachna x KS136 Mutant x KS195 Rachna x Mutant Plant height (cm) F1 KPMR65 x KPMR184 Rachna x KPMR184 KS195 x Azad P-1 KPMR184 x Mutant Rachna x KPMR65 F2 KPMR65 x Mutant Rachna x KPMR65 KS136 x KS225 KS136 x KS195 KPMR65 x KPMR184 Productive branches/plant (no) F1 KPMR184 x Mutant KPMR184 x Azad P-3 KPMR65 x KS225 KS195 x KS226 KPMR65 x Azad P-1 F2 KPMR65 x Mutant Rachna x Mutant Rachna x KS226 KPMR65 x KPMR184 KPMR184 x Mutant Pods/plant (no) F1 KPMR184 x Mutant KPMR65 x Mutant KPMR184 x Azad P-3 KPMR184 x KS136

sca effect Mean value gca status P1 P2 9.27** 45.17 H L 7.26** 5.58** 4.42** 4.13** 3.26** 37.93 31.60 36.77 28.93 31.20 H H H L L L L L L H

4.37** 3.41** 3.34** 0.10 2.73** 6.26** 4.30** 4.25** 4.24** 3.04**

55.93 58.90 54.53 51.30 54.80 53.37 50.63 43.20 50.53 49.20

L L L H L L L H L H

H L H L H L H H H L

0.50** 0.35** 0.30** 0.27** 0.24** 0.59** 0.42** 0.41** 0.41** 0.38**

8.67 6.73 8.87 8.13 8.00 6.60 6.30 6.60 8.90 8.50

H L H L L L L L H H

H L H H H L L L H H

5.01** 4.58** 4.49** 4.37** 4.20** 6.78** 5.46** 4.81** 4.46** 3.75**

85.93 81.17 79.53 88.80 84.70 83.27 80.57 80.40 73.07 82.60

L H H L L L L L H L

H L L L H L H H H H

1.37** 1.35** 1.13** 1.10** 0.80** 0.22** 0.99** 0.89** 0.88** 0.66**

8.17 7.33 7.33 7.93 7.03 7.83 6.33 7.37 7.07 6.13

H H L H H H L H H L

H H H H H H H H H H

34.76** 33.10** 32.80** 31.52** 29.21** 26.90** 24.13** 22.08** 18.79** 18.75**

195.47 216.33 57.70 168.00 221.43 158.80 200.77 69.17 69.33 207.77

L L H L L L L H H L

L L H L L L L H H L

6.83** 5.96** 4.13** 3.95** 2.93** 3.76** 3.38** 2.49** 2.46** 2.40**

56.37 184.57 153.33 108.10 168.80 55.37 52.60 53.23 53.40 55.17

H L H H L H H L H H

L L L H H L L H L H

1.05** 0.60** 0.54** 0.50** 0.49** 0.41** 0.38** 0.33** 0.30** 0.29**

4.57 3.97 4.50 3.93 4.10 3.67 3.10 3.33 3.67 3.10

H H H L H H L L H L

H L H H L L L H L L

57.65** 44.20** 37.77** 36.68** 35.82** 18.02** 15.90** 15.44** 15.04** 14.05**

198.23 197.30 184.57 139.10 159.77 144.80 109.00 115.53 149.70 138.77

L L L L L H L L H L

H H H L H H H H H H

19.30** 12.04** 11.30** 9.84**

62.27 60.10 48.03 45.60

H H H H

H H L L

116

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010

not possible to pickup a good general combiner for all the characters. However, for days to flowering and maturity parents namely AP-3, KS-136, Azad P-1, mutant of P-43 and KS-195 showed significant negative gca effects along with less number of days taken. These genotypes might be useful for getting early recombinants. Parents AP-3, AP-1, KS-136, KS-225, KS-195 and KS-226 with significant negative gca effects were good general combiners for plant height and might be possessing favourable genetic system for reducing height in their progenies. For number of productive branches per plant, only three parents i.e. KPMR65, KS-225 and KS-226 possess desirable positively significant gca effects based on both the generations. For number of pods per plant KPMR-65 followed by Rachna, KS-226 based on both the generations; KPMR-184 and Mutant P-43 based on F1 generations possessed significant positive gca effects. Similarly for pod length; parents KS136 followed by KS-226, AP-1, KS-225, AP-3 and KS195, for number of developed ovules per plant six parents, KS-136, KS-195, KS-225, KS-226, AP-1 and AP-3; for shelling percentage Rachna, KPMR-184, Mutant P43, Azad P-1, KS-136 were found promising. For green pod yield, parents KS-226, KS-225, KS-136, Azad P-3 and Azad P-1 expressed positive and significant gca effects based on both the generations which may produce high yielding recombinants in their progenies and may be utilized in future pea improvement programme. Five top ranking desirable cross combinations selected on the basis of sca effect and per se performance have been presented in Table 3. None of the selected cross combinations exhibited significant and desirable sca/ per se performance in both the generations for all the characters under study. However, some crosses showed significant sca effect for other yield traits along with green pod yield in either of the generation eg. KPMR-184 KS-136 having significant sca effect for green pod yield, pod length and number of pods per plant. Similarly KPMR-184 Mutant had significant sca effects for number of pods per plant, number of productive branches per plant, plant height, days to flowering and days to maturity (earliness) besides green pod yield. These heterotic crosses showed high low and low low gca status. The combination of high low general combiners can produce transgressive segregants if additive effect of one parent and complementary effect of other parent works in same direction as also stated by Redden and Jenson (1974) in self pollinated crops. The cross combination showed that low low general combiners might be produced due to non-additive gene effects and as such could not be exploited in self pollinated crops like pea but assumed that they can be intermated in F2 by any suitable design to produce transgressive segregants after breaking the tight linkage if any as also reported by Pederson

(1974). In present study desirable and promising crosses like KS-195 KS-225 and KS-226 Azad P-1 in F2 generations showed high high gca status for green pod yield per plant. These crosses might have asisen due to additive and/or additive additive type of gene interaction which is fixable in nature and can be handled by simple pedigree or modified pedigree method as suggested by Brim (1966). Other yield contributing traits also showed such type of gca effects like KPMR Mutant, KPMR-65 KS-225 for number of productive branches per plant and number of pods per plant: KS-165 AP-3, AP-1 AP-3 for pod length, KS-136 KS225, KS-195 AP-3, KS-136 KS-226, KS-195 AP-1 (both in F1 and F2) for number of developed ovules per pod and Mutant AP-1 for shelling percentage. It is also notable that majority of the crosses for yield contributing traits showing high sca effects and per se performance involved one parents of field pea and other of table pea genotypes. For utilization of genetic variation related to nonadditive or non-fixable in nature, population improvement programmes such as biparental mating followed by recurrent selection method of Frey (1975) and Rachie and Gardner (1975) would be more appropriate. REFERENCES
Brim CA. 1966. A modified pedigree method of selection in soyeans. Crop Science 6: 220. Frey KJ. 1975. Breeding concept and techniques for self pollinated crops. In: Proceeding of International Workshop on Grain Legumes, ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. Pp. 257-278. Griffing B. 1956. Concepts of general and specific combining ability in relaiton to diallel crossing system. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 9: 463-493. Kumar Subhash, Srivastava RK and Ranjeet Singh. 2006. Combining ability for yield and its component traits in field pea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 19: 173-175. Pederson DG. 1974. Arguments against intermating before selection in self fertilized species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 45: 14716 2. Rachie KO and Gardner CO. 1975. Increasing efficiency in breeding partially out crossing grain legumes. In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Grain Legumes, ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. Pp. 28529 7. Redden RJ and Jenson NF. 1974. Mass selection and mating systems in cereals. In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Grain Legumes, ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. Pp. 345-350. Singh HC, Srivastava RL and Rajendra Singh. 2006. Additive, dominance and epistatic components of variation for some metric traits in field pea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 19: 170-172. Singh JD and Singh IP. 2003. Combining ability analysis in field pea (Pisum sativum L.). Indian Journal of Pulses Research 16: 98-100.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 117-120, 2010

Diallel analysis for nodulation and yield contributing traits in chickpea


PREETI VERMA and R. S. WALDIA Department of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, CCSHAU, Hisar 125 004, Haryana, India; Email: preetiarskota2005@hotmail.com
(Received: July, 2010; Accepted: September, 2010) ABSTRACT
The experiment consisting six genetically diverse chickpea lines and their fifteen F1s made in diallel fashion was conducted for combining ability analysis for nodulation and seed yield components. Genetic analysis revealed that both additive and non-additive genetic components of variation are important for inheritance of all the characters. However, the magnitude of non-additive (sca) variance was considerably higher than additive (gca) variance. The parents HC 3 for 100-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, nodule weight and root weight ; HC-1 for harvest index and plant weight ; HC-2 for number of nodules and nitrogen content and H96-99 for number of pods and leghaemoglobin content were identified as good general combiners. The cross combination ICC 4993 HC 3 was the best for seed yield per plant, biological yield, harvest index and plant weight while crosses involving H96-99 and HC-1 as one of the parent were recorded as better combinations for leghaemoglobin content, nitrogen content and number of nodules. In view of parallel role of both additive and non-additive genetic effects determining the inheritance of different characters, their simultaneous exploitation through adoption of biparental approach/early generation mating is suggested. Key words: Additive genetic variance, Chickpea, Non-additive genetic variance

The interpretation of the results from present diallel analysis are restricted to the specific materials used in the experiments as the parents and cannot be regarded as a random sample from any population. The results have been discussed in view of the most appropriate breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of agronomic characters in chickpea. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diallel set of crosses were made excluding reciprocals involving six diverse genotypes (chosen on the base of previously assessed nodulation ability) of chickpea viz., ICC 4918, ICC 4993 (non-nodulating), H96-99, HC-1 (medium nodulating), HC-2, HC-3 (high nodulating). The material comprising twenty one genotypes including 6 parents and their 15 F1s were sown in a randomized block design with three replications during rabi 2004-05 at CCSHAU, Hisar. The row and plant spacing were 30 and 15 cm, respectively. Five random plants were selected from each genotype in each replication and observations were recorded for 13 characters viz., plant height (cm), number of secondary branches, number of pods per plant, 100-seed weight (g), biological yield (g), seed yield (g), number of nodules, nodule weight (g), nitrogen content (%), leghaemoglobin content (mg/g), harvest index (%), root weight (g) and plant weight (g). The nitrogen content was estimated by Kjeldahls steam distillation method (Bremer 1965) and leghaemoglobin content by Hartree (1955) method. The combining ability analysis was made following Griffings method (1956). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences among the genotypes for all the thirteen characters indicating thereby considerable amount of variability for all the characters thus, justifying the use of the material in the present study (Table 1). Analysis of variance for combining ability (Table 2) revealed significant general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) variances for all the characters studied, indicating the importance of both additive as well as non additive genetic components of variation in the inheritance or expression of these attributes. The importance of both types of gene effects has been observed earlier also in chickpea for seed yield and related attributes (Jahagirdar et al. 1994, Patil et al. 2006, Bhardwaj et al. 2009). The magnitude of the non additive (sca) variance was considerably higher

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) commonly known as gram, is one of the most important leguminous crop of India, playing a crucial role in agricultural production due to its symbiotic potential to fix nitrogen in association with rhizobia. In India it is grown in 8.25 mha area giving an annual production of 7.05 million tonnes. (Chaturvedi 2009). In any crop production system high yielding varieties are must to harvest high yield despite other inputs, for breeding these varieties a defined breeding programme is to be followed. The choice of breeding method depends on the gene action involved in the inheritance of the characters. Diallel analysis developed by Jinks and Hayman (1953) and Griffing (1956) is one of the most potent technique for the evaluation of the varieties in terms of their genetic makeup as it provides information on the nature and magnitude of genetic parameters and general and specific combining ability of parents and their crosses, respectively. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to assess the nature of gene effects for nodulation and yield related components for deciding efficient breeding methodology following the diallel analysis.

Present address : Agricultural Research Station (under MPUAT, Udaipur), Kota 324001, Rajasthan, India

118 Table 1.
Source

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Analysis of variance for thirteen characters in chickpea
D.F. Mean Square Plant Secondary Pods 100-seed Biological Seed Nodules Nodule Nitrogen height branches (no) weight yield yield (no) weight content (cm) (no) (g) (g) (g) (g) (%) 2 1.254 2.427 70.266 1.196 62.029 5.198 0.062 0.004 1.355 20 149.82** 308.47** 9489.80** 53.81** 2712.34** 462.73** 5.782** 0.33** 1.041** 40 29.04 9.12 248.37 1.78 81.37 16.07 0.054 0.004 0.016 Lb Harvest Root Plant content index weight weight (mg/g) (%) (g) (g) 0.0109 1.493 0.016 1.433 2.92** 39.103** 1.23** 40.46** 0.01 3.195 0.04 1.86

Replications Treatments Error

*, ** Significant at P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively

Table 2.
Source

Analysis of variance for combining ability for thirteen characters in chickpea


D.F. Plant Secondary height branches (cm) (no) Mean Square 100- Biological Seed Nodules (no) seed yield yield weight (g) (g) (g) 67.66** 1907.06** 44.75** 466.78** 78.29** 4.40** 114.54** 3582.00** 9.001** 1049.89** 179.56** 1.10** 3.04 82.79 0.591 27.12 5.355 0.018 Pods (no) Nodule Nitrogen Lb Harvest Root Plant weight content content index weight weight (g) (%) (mg/g) (%) (g) (g) 0.28** 0.05** 0.001 0.72** 0.22** 0.005 2.05** 0.61** 0.004 19.07** 0.73** 21.20** 11.02** 0.30** 10.91** 1.065 0.013 0.619

gca effects sca effects Error

5 15 40

55.775* 47.992 9.679

*, ** Significant at P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively

Table 3.
Parents

Estimates of general combining ability effects and the mean performance (in parenthesis) of parents for thirteen characters in chickpea
Plant height (cm) -2.389** (62.00) 0.0972 (63.333) 4.944** (80.333) 0.653 (73.333) -1.764 (52.667) Secondary branches (no) 4.431** (17.66) 0.086 (12.933) -0.209 (18.667) -2.743** (21.200) -3.415** (15.200) 1.850** (18.667) 0.562 0.871 0.05 and Pods (no) -3.500 (33.77) 100-seed Biological weight yield (g) (g) -1.326** (18.10) -3.983** (33.33) Seed Nodules yield (no) (g) -0.89** 3.095** (0.00) (6.00) Nodule weight (g) Nitrogen content (%) Lb content (mg/g) -0.240 (0.00) Harvest index (%) Root weight (g) Plant weight (g)

ICC 4918

-0.196** -0.388** (0.00) (2.70)

-2.357** -0.547** -1.786** (18.420) (1.471) (13.962)

ICC 4993

H 96-99 HC-1 HC-2 HC-3

-0.472 (65.333) SE (gi) 1.004 SE (gi-gj) 1.555 *, **Significant at P =

0.761** -2.842 -1.266 -0.843** 20.106** (17.400) (34.400) (7.100) (0.000) (55.667) 24.023** -1.214** 6.646** 2.109** -0.062 (132.533 (18.200) (74.200) (22.433) (19.233) ) 5.673 -1.656** 1.208 1.868** 0.429** (77.933) (19.033) (64.667) (25.367) (15.000) -1.068** -11.042** 0.936** 11.635** 3.664** (18.333) (40.333) (27.167) (74.733) (15.067) 5.544 4.503** 10.013** 4.048** 0.429** (92.800) (32.933) (99.667) (33.367) (23.333) 2.936 0.248 1.680 0.746 0.043 4.549 0.384 2.604 1.157 0.067 0.01, respectively

-0.266** -0.353** -0.810** -1.338** 0.041** -1.935** (0.000) (2.953) (0.000) (20.753) (1.890) (13.176) 0.014 (1.027) 0.137** (0.903) 0.112** (0.849) 0.200** (1.065) 0.012 0.019 0.102** (3.268) 0.148** (3.466) 0.358** (3.317) 0.133** (3.361) 0.023 0.036 0.681 (2.413) 0.144 (2.118) -0.063 (2.518) 0.288 (2.565) 0.020 0.031 0.322 -0.028 (30.283) (2.223) 1.277** (16.654)

1.799** 0.208** 1.646** (41.070) (2.129) (14.902) 0.800** -0.013 (37.623) (1.271) -0.514** (12.847)

0.774** 0.338** 1.311** (33.547) (2.191) (14.097) 0.333 0.038 0.254 0.516 0.059 0.393

than additive (gca) variance for all the characters indicating the preponderance of non additive genetic effects (dominance and epistasis) in controlling the expression of these characters. Earlier studies also showed predominantly non additive genetic control for one or more of these characters (Bajaj et al. 1984 and Bhaduoria et al. 2002). However, others (Chander et al. 2001, Muhammad et al. 2003, Bhardwaj et al. 2009) reported additive gene effects to be more prominent for these characters in their material. Such disparities in the observations may arise from differences in the genetic constitution of the parental materials studied, variation in the environment, the techniques used in analyzing the data and the precision of the experiment (Singh et al. 1992). The estimates of gca effects (Table 3) showed that none

of the parent evinced good gca for all the traits so it was difficult to pick good combiners for all the characters together because the combining ability effects were not consistent for all the yield components, possibly because of negative association among some of the characters (Gowda and Bahl 1978). This shows that genes for different desirable characters would have to be combined from different sources (Kumari 1999). The gca effects indicated that parent H96-99 was high general combiner for plant height, number of pods and leghaemoglobin content. Parents ICC 4918 and HC-3 showed high gca effects for number of secondary branches. The parent HC-3 was good general combiner for 100-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, nodule weight and root weight while HC-1 was good general combiner for harvest index and plant weight. For number of nodules and nitrogen

Verma and Waldia : Diallel analysis in chickpea for nodulation and yield contributing traits

119

content, HC-2 showed high gca effects. An overall perusal of parental lines for general combining ability revealed that the high nodulating variety HC-3 was superior over rest of the chickpea parental lines for yield and component traits. The per se performance of parents was also highly correlated to the estimates of gca effects thereby, simplifying the selection of the parents based on the per se performance. So these parents may be extensively used in hybridization programme. It is evident that HC-3, H96-99, HC-1 and HC-2 were the best parents having high gca effect coupled with good per se performance not only for seed yield per plant but also for nodulation and yield components so these parents can be exploited for the development of improved lines of chickpea. The genotypes showing good general combining ability for particular components may be utilized in component breeding for effective improvement in particular components, ultimately seeking improvement in seed yield itself (Singh et al. 1983). The sca effects of hybrids (Table 4) revealed that 8 crosses viz., ICC 4918 ICC 4993, ICC 4918 H96-99, ICC 4918 HC-1, ICC 4993 H96-99, ICC 4993 HC2, ICC 4993 HC-3, H96-99 HC-1 and HC-1 HC-2 exhibited positive significant sca effects for seed yield per plant. The cross combinations viz., ICC 4993 HC-3 was found to be the best for seed yield per plant, biological yield, harvest index and plant weight; ICC 4993 H96-99 for leghaemoglobin content and root weight, ICC 4918 ICC 4993 for 100-seed weight and nodule weight; ICC 4918 HC-3 for number of secondary branches and number of pods; HC-1 HC-2 for plant height; ICC 4918 HC-1 for number of nodules and ICC 4918 H96-99 for nitrogen content. Preponderance of non additive gene effects for yield and yield components offers a good scope for the exploitation of hybrid
Table 4.
F1 s

vigour and therefore, heterosis breeding may be rewarding for improving chickpea. But the practical production of hybrid gram is not biologically feasible due to small size and cleistogamous nature of the flowers and strong hybridization barriers. In view of such problems, the possibility of deriving purelines performing better than or as well as F1 hybrids in chickpea have been reported (Singh 1974). This suggest that a large proportion of non additive effects in self pollinated crops seems to be due to additive x additive effects and that selection be deferred to later generations (Singh et al. 1992). It may be inferred from sca effects that most of the superior cross combinations for seed yield and related traits involved either both or atleast one parent with positive and significant gca effects which implies that additive x additive or additive x dominance genetic interactions respectively, are operating in the crosses studied. The high yield potential of cross combinations with high low gca effects were attributed to interactions between positive alleles from good general combiner and negative alleles from poor combiner (Dubey 1975). These crosses would throw the desirable transgressive segregants if additive genetic system is present in the good combiner and complementary epistatic effects in F1 acts in the same direction to maximize the desirable plant attributes (Patil et al. 1987). Such cross combinations should be fully exploited for the isolation of higher yielding purelines. This is perhaps the most rational breeding policy in pulse crops until hybrid varieties become a reality. Thus, the sca effect of a cross was reflected through the gca of its parents which demands inclusion of atleast one good combining parent in producing superior hybrids. However, a few of the superior crosses involved both of the parents with poor combining abilities. This suggests that high sca effect of any cross combination does not necessarily depend on the gca effects of the parental lines involved. This

Estimates of specific combining ability effects for thirteen characters in chickpea


Biological yield (g) 26.020** 23.199** 26.970** 4.987 15.166** 27.858** -20.505** 17.545** 47.858** 16.008** 8.658 -18.596** 39.829** -7.859 -16.909** 4.510 6.889 6.378 Seed yield (g) 6.781** 13.672** 14.814** -2.088 0.733 10.210** -10.815** 5.783** 27.071** 3.943** 1.742 -7.704** 13.750** -6.663** -5.684** 2.004 3.061 2.834 Nodules (no) 0.805** 0.928** 1.129** 0.345** 0.288** 0.292** 1.050** 1.008** 0.531** -0.543** -0.910** -0.427** 0.955** -0.277** 0.310** 0.116 0.178 0.165 Nodule weight (g) 0.813** -0.022** 0.250** 0.399** 0.004 -0.134** 0.161** 0.038 0.287** -0.080** -0.116** -0.048 0.005 0.004 0.022 0.033 0.050 0.047 Nitrogen content (%) 0.301** 0.657** -0.063 0.128** -0.344** -0.799** -0.538** 0.386** 0.618** 0.554** 0.251** -0.518** -0.113 -0.142** 0.368** 0.063 0.096 0.089 Lb Harvest Root content index weight (mg/g) (%) (g) 0.929** 2.134** -0.386** 0.397** 4.892** -0.609** 0.687** 4.034** -0.008 -0.226** -2.281** 0.462** 0.686** -0.655 -0.228** 1.176** 2.018** 0.650** -0.045 -2.520** -0.051 -0.728** 0.992 -0.101 -1.138** 6.292** 0.633** -0.073 -1.511 -0.100 0.087 -1.353 0.069 -0.255** -1.126 -0.207** -0.972** -0.906 0.648** 0.178** -3.226** 0.445** -0.014 -0.525 0.688** 0.055 0.893 0.102 0.084 1.365 0.156 0.077 1.264 0.144 Plant weight (g) -3.939** -0.093 1.628** 0.957 -1.926** 0.358 -2.221** -3.213** 6.617** 3.095** 0.239 -0.105 3.888** 2.083** 2.073** 0.681 1.041 0.964

Plant Secondary Pods 100-seed weight height branches (no) (no) (g) (cm) ICC 4918 ICC 4993 -0.179 10.184** -35.839** 4.621** ICC 4918 H96-99 -7.762 9.016** 12.132 -1.038 ICC 4918 HC-1 1.530 -3.984** 90.549** -0.829 ICC 4918 HC-2 6.280** 3.241** 2.790 -1.650** ICC 4918 HC-3 -3.012 19.199** 112.978** -3.854** ICC 4993 H96-99 2.821 2.760 47.938** 1.542** ICC 4993 HC-1 -12.887** -0.173 -12.512 -2.717** ICC 4993 HC-2 5.863** 2.699 28.996** 0.196 ICC 4993 HC-3 4.238 14.267** 43.817** 3.358** H96-99 HC-1 -10.470** 4.656** 49.359** -0.475 H96-99 HC-2 2.613 2.595 -3.466 0.871 H96-99 HC-3 2.321 -1.937 -10.779 -3.400** HC-1 HC-2 8.571** 5.128** 44.350** 0.846 HC-1 HC-3 -0.387 -3.737** -40.762** -2.758** HC-2 HC-3 -5.304** -2.465 -4.521 -2.446** SE (Sij) 2.694 1.510 7.879 0.666 SE (Sij-Sjk) 4.1156 2.306 12.036 1.017 SE (Sij-Skl) 3.8103 12.135 11.143 0.942

*,**Significant at P=0.05 and 0.01, respectively

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Bhardwaj R, Sandhu JS and Gupta SK. 2009. Gene action and combining ability estimates for yield and other quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 79 : 89790 0. Bremer JM. 1960. Determination of nitrogen in soil by Kjeldahl method. Journal of Agricultural Science 55 : 11-13. Chander S, Ram D, Ram K, Chander S, Dhari R and Kumar R. 2001. Variation in selected recombinant inbred lines of two crosses in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.). Annals of Biology 17 : 29-34. Chaturvedi SK, Mishra DK, Vyas P and Mishra N. 2009. Breeding for cold tolerance in chickpea. Trends in Biosciences 2 : 1-6. Dubey RS. 1975. Combining ability in cigarfilter tobacco. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 35 : 76-92. Gowda CLL and Bahl PN. 1978. Combining ability in chickpea. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 38 : 245-251. Griffing B. 1956. A generalized treatment of the use of diallel crosses in quantitative inheritance. Heredity 10 : 31-34. Hartree EF. 1955. Heamatin compounds. In: K Paech and MV Tracy (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 197-211. Jahagirdar J E, Patil RA, Ghodke MK and Kardile KR. 1994. Combining ability studies in chickpea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 7: 2124 . Jha SK, Jaiswal HK and Saha AK. 1997. Genetic analysis of some quantitative characters in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.). Annals of Agricultural Research 18 : 420-426. Jinks JL and Hayman BI. 1953. The analysis of diallel crosses of Nicotiana rustica varieties. Maize Genetics Newsletter 27 : 48-54. Joshi AB. 1979. Breeding methodology for autogamous crops. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 39 : 567-578. Kumari V. 1999. Genetics of yield and its component characters in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Annals of Agricultural Research 20 : 73-76. Muhammad A, Bakhsh A, Zubair M and Abdul G. 2003. Genetic variability and correlation studies in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) Pakistan Journal of Botany 35 : 605-611. Nagaraj K, Salimath PM and Kajjidoni ST. 2002. Genetic variability created through biparental mating in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 62 (2): 259-260. Patil JA, Pathak AR, Zaveri PP and Shah RN. 1987. Combining ability analysis in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 47 : 183-187. Patil JV, Kulkarni SS and Gawande VL. 2006. Genetics of quantitative characters in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) New BotanistInternational Journal of Plant Science Research 33 : 1-4. Singh KB. 1974. Exploitation of heterosis in pulse crops. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 34A: 731-808. Singh O, Gowda CLL, Sethi SC, Dasgupta T and Smithson JB. 1992. Genetic analysis of agronomic characters in chickpea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 83 : 956-962. Sharma RK and Mani SC. 2001. Combining ability studies for grain yield and other associated characters in Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Improvement 28 : 236-243. Singh R, Bhullar GS and Gill KS. 1983. Combining ability over environments in durum wheat. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 43 : 152-156.

superiority of sca effects may be due to complementary type of gene action or involvement of non allelic interaction of fixable and non fixable genetic variance (Sharma and Mani 2001). Thus, the hybrid combinations ICC 4993 HC-3, ICC 4918 HC-3, ICC 4993 H 96-99 and HC-1 HC-2 with high means, with favourable sca estimates and involving atleast one of the parents with high gca would tend to increase concentration of favourable alleles, a situation of great interest for breeding. These could be expected to yield transgressive and stable performing segregants possessing enhanced yielding ability. The results of the present investigation revealed the importance of both additive and non additive genetic effects for the different characters. Under such a situation where both additive and non additive genetic variances are important factors of inheritance, maximum grain production may be attainable with a system that can exploit both additive and non additive genetic effects simultaneously. Therefore, in such cases, it is advisable to practice biparental mating in F2 among selected crosses by way of intermating the most desirable segregants alternately with selection to isolate superior genotypes or use of recurrent selection scheme (diallel selective mating system) to enhance the frequency of desirable recombinants with high yield potential (Joshi 1979, Nagaraj et al. 2002). This will help in building the population from which desirable purelines could be developed simultaneously. Linkage is another factor that complicates the problem in selection. If linkages are predominantly of the repulsion type, a generation of intercrossing to increase the opportunity of recombination may become important (Singh et al. 1992). It can also be concluded from the data that genetically diverse and high combining parents should be used in formulating cross combinations. Selection by progeny testing as well as recurrent selection can then be used to evolve lines which may transgress both the combining parents. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The first author gratefully acknowledges Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for providing her financial assistance in terms of Senior Research Fellowship during the period of the study. REFERENCES
Bajaj RK, Sandhu TS and Sra SS. 1984. Regressions, correlations and combining ability of some quantitative characters in chickpea. Journal of Research-Punjab Agricultural University 21 : 155-158. Bhaduoria P, Chaturvedi SK, Awasthi NNC and Bhaduoria P. 2002. Gene action for grain yield and agronomic characters in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Progressive Agriculture 2 : 34-37.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 121-123, 2010

Production potential of finger millet and Frenchbean intercropping under rainfed conditions of Uttarakhand
RASHMI YADAV G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal 249 199, Uttarakhand, India; Email: rashmiyadav74@rediffmail.com
(Received: January, 2010; Accepted: July, 2010) ABSTRACT
In order to find out the best combination of finger millet + Frenchbean intercropping system and nutrient management practices under rainfed conditions, an experiment was laid out in spilt plot design with three replications during 2007 and 2008 with various intercropping combinations in main plot and fertilizer levels in sub plot. Among the intercropping systems, finger millet + Frenchbean (3:1) gave significantly highest grain (21.61 and 27.30 q/ha during 2007 and 2008, respectively) than the sole crop of finger millet (16.85 and 17.77 q/ha during 2007 and 2008, respectively). Among the treatments tried, application of recommended dose of NPK gave significantly higher grain yields (21.59 and 22.46 during 2007 and 2008, respectively) followed by Vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each source) + seed inoculation (20.63 and 21.28 q/ha during 2007 and 2008, respectively) which was at par with recommended dose of NPK. NMR and B: C ratio was also higher with finger millet + Frenchbean (3:1) intercropping. The study suggested that introducing a new crop like Frenchbean as intercrop with finger millet along with vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each source) + seed inoculation can increase the production of finger millet + Frenchbean intercropping and it will also improve the socio-economic condition of the farmers as Frenchbean is used as a cash crop in the mid hills of North-West Himalaya. Key words: Finger millet, Frenchbean, Intercropping, Yield

and imbalanced use of fertilizers. The risk of crop failure is very high in this region because of purely rainfed cultivation. To overcome with these problems the cereal - legume intercropping systems is the right option to take full utilization of resources of this area and to minimize the risk of crop failure. So, the inclusion of Frenchbean as intercropping with finger millet may change the economics of the cropping sequence and meet out the need of the household with saleable surplus. In this region, wild apricot is found abundantly and its cake is a rich source of nutrients (2-2.5% N, 1.2-1.3% P2O5, 1.5-1.8% K2O, 0.8-1.07% S) which can be used as a good source of organic manure. Therefore, it was considered important to evaluate the productivity of finger millet based intercropping with Frenchbean and its nutrient management under rainfed conditions of Uttarakhand. MATERIALS AND METHODS The field experiment was conducted at GBPUAT, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, during kharif 2007 and 2008 under rainfed conditions. The soil of experimental area was silty clay loam in texture with pH of 5.8, available N 215 kg/ha, available P 12.6 kg/ha and 421 kg/ha of available K. The treatment combinations comprised various finger millet + Frenchbean intercropping row ratio viz. finger millet sole crop, Frenchbean sole crop, finger millet + Frenchbean (1:1), finger millet + Frenchbean (2:1), finger millet + Frenchbean (3:1) and farmers practice assigned to main plots and fertilizer management viz., recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer (40:20:20), FYM 7.5 t/ ha, vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each source) + seed inoculation in sub plot, were taken in spilt plot design with three replications. Finger millet variety PRM 1 and Frenchbean Contender was taken for the evaluation. The sowing of finger millet was done at plant geometry of 20 10 cm and Frenchbean was sown in the replacement series as per treatment. Entire quantity of phosphorus and potassium was applied uniformly to all the plots, whereas nitrogen was given as per treatments separately to both the crops. The top dressing of N in finger millet and intercropping was given at the close proximity line of respective crop. The system-wise finger millet yield equivalents were calculated based on market price of produce (Rs. 7.0/kg for finger millet and Rs. 20/kg for Frenchbean). LER was calculated by taking into consideration the yield of both crops. The profitability in terms of net return with benefit: cost ratio was calculated for various crop sequence row ratio

Poor yields and uncertainty of production are twin problems of rainfed areas. The research has clearly indicated that there still exist a lot of potential to enhance the productivity in rainfed areas which can be exploited by adopting suitable agronomic and resource management practices. Selecting suitable cropping system like intercropping will not only help in increasing production of crop but also increase crop intensity. Intercropping is a potential agronomic system for maximizing crop production on dry lands over space and time in subsistence farming situations besides effective utilization of natural resources (Willey 1979). Intercropping also minimizes risk of crop failure and improves crop production in rainfed areas. In Uttarakhand hills, finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn) is one of the important crops under rainfed farming and Frenchbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is also an important kharif vegetable grown for its tender pods and has great potential among other traditional crops of the region. However, the average productivity of finger millet (12 q/ha) and Frenchbean (10 q/ha) is quite low due to low soil fertility status

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using prevailing market rates for various commodities. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Grain yield: Amongst the intercropping systems, statistically higher grain yield was noted in 3:1 row ratio (Table 1). The yield of Frenchbean was greatest in sole stand than intercrop. Within intercropping treatments, finger millet + Frenchbean (3:1) gave significantly highest finger millet grain equivalent yield (2161 and 2730 kg/ha during 2007 and 2008, respectively) than the sole crop of finger millet (1685 and 1777 kg/ha during 2007 and 2008, respectively). Nutrient management significantly influenced the grain yield of crop and the application of recommended dose of NPK gave significantly higher grain equivalent yields (2159 and 2246 kg/ha during 2007 and 2008, respectively) followed by vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each source) + seed inoculation (20.63 and 21.28 q/ha during 2007 and 2008, respectively) which was statistically on par when the crop received 100% of the recommended dose of nutrients (Table 1). Pooled mean of
Table 1.

2007 and 2008 indicated that finger millet + Frenchbean in 3:1 row ratio fertilized with 100% of the recommended dose of nutrients produced the highest grain yield and it was statistically at par with the yield received under finger millet + Frenchbean in 3:1 row ratio receiving vermicompost + wild apricot cake + seed inoculation. Land equivalent ratio and monetary returns: On overall mean basis of 2 years, intercropping of finger millet with Frenchbean increased the land equivalent ratio (LER) as compared to sole crops in the row ratio of 2:1and 3:1. The highest LER was recorded in intercropping of finger millet with Frenchbean at 3:1 row ratio. This indicated greater biological efficiency of intercropping treatments (Table 2). The economic feasibility of the systems was tested as net returns obtained. The net return/ha and B: C ratio were highest with finger millet + Frenchbean (3:1) intercropping. This could be attributed to the yield recovery, land equivalent ratio achieved with the treatment.

Grain yield as influenced by various intercropping combinations and nutrient management options under rainfed conditions
Grain Yield (kg/ha) 2007 Treatments Finger millet Frenchbean Finger millet equivalent yield 1685 2090 1744 1785 2161 1825 347 2159 2063 1525 129 Finger millet 1777 687 1106 1699 1317 281 1380 1300 1064 84 2008 Frenchbean Mean finger millet equivalent Finger millet (kg/ha) equivalent yield 1777 2191 1945 2421 2730 2028 556 2246 2128 1857 191 1732 2142 1845 2103 2446 1877 465 2201 2096 1691 170

Crops Finger millet Frenchbean Finger millet + frenchbean (1:1) Finger millet + frenchbean (2:1) Finger millet + frenchbean (3:1) Farmers practice CD (5%) Fertilizer Levels (kg/ha) Inorganic fertilizer Vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each) +seed inoculation FYM 7.5 t/ ha CD (5%)

1685 664 954 1484 1297 352 1337 1173 1020 51

731 379 291 237 185 133 439 372 284 36

767 440 460 361 249 238 553 421 311 60

Table 2.
Treatments

Land equivalent ratio (LER) and net returns as affected by various intercropping combinations (pooled over 2 years)
Land equivalent ratio 2007 2008 Mean 1.00 1.00 0.91 0.97 1.20 1.02 1.00 1.00 0.96 1.21 1.43 1.08 1.00 1.00 0.94 1.09 1.32 1.05 Net monetary returns ( Rs/ha) 2007 2008 Mean 6594 4975 3701 4559 8406 3928 825 8439 7194 4328 431.2 7988 6413 5856 9761 13142 8899 808 9798 9599 5698 433.9 7291 5694 4779 7160 10774 6414 815 9119 8397 5013 432.55 2007 1.48 1.36 1.27 1.33 1.61 1.29 0.29 1.61 1.52 1.31 0.26 B-C Ratio 2008 1.58 1.47 1.42 1.71 1.95 1.65 0.35 1.71 1.69 1.41 0.31 Mean 1.53 1.42 1.35 1.55 1.78 1.47 0.34 1.66 1.61 1.36 0.29

Crops Finger millet Frenchbean Finger millet + frenchbean (1:1) Finger millet + frenchbean (2:1) Finger millet + frenchbean (3:1) Farmers practice CD (5%) Fertilizer Levels (kg/ha) Inorganic fertilizer Vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each source) + seed inoculation FYM 7.5 t/ ha CD (5%)

1.39 1.20 1.00

1.50 1.28 0.99

1.45 1.24 0.99

Yadav: Production potential of finger millet and Frenchbean intercropping

123

Nutrient uptake: From the data it is revealed that the nutrient status of soil improved with the introduction of Frenchbean with finger millet as compared to sole crop (Table 3). Available nitrogen content was significantly higher with sole crop of Frenchbean; however, it was at par with finger millet + Frenchbean (3:1) than rest of the treatments. The available nutrients content were significantly higher with the application of recommended dose of NPK followed by vermicompost +
Table 3. N uptake and nutrient status of soil as affected by various intercropping combinations (2 years pooled data)
N Uptake (kg/ha) 213.2 221.7 214.9 218.1 219.9 215.0 3.5 215.6 212.2 204.6 4.6 Soil available nutrients (kg/ha) N P K 305.6 346.6 320.4 338.0 346.2 322.4 7.8 350.0 346.1 340.2 8.0 18.0 25.1 20.9 23.0 24.0 20.6 0.10 31.0 29.0 25.0 4.1 325 355 345 352 356 346 5.1 370 367 350 4.0

wild apricot cake (50% N from each source) + seed inoculation but they were statistically on par when the crop received 100% of the recommended dose of nutrients. Available phosphorus and potassium content of soil also showed similar trends. This corroborates the findings of Gautam (1989) and Shashidhara et al. (2000) who reported that the low yielding crop like small millets can be replaced by intercropping of millets with soybean to increase the crop profitability. It can be concluded that introduction of crop like Frenchbean as intercrop with Finger millet at 3:1 row ratio with vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each source) + seed inoculation can increase the production of finger millet and affect the nutrient status of soil. It will also improve the socio-economic condition of the farmers as Frenchbean is used as a cash crop under rainfed conditions of Uttarakhand. REFERENCES
Gautam HC. 1989. Potential area under soybean during kharif in Indiaan overview. Agricultural Situation in India 40 : 821-824. Shashidhara GB, Basavaraja R and Nadagouda VB . 2000. Studies on pegionpea intercropping system, in small millet under shallow red soil. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13 : 7-10. Willey RN .1979. Intercropping- its importance and research needs. Part I. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crops Abstracts 32 : 1 -1 0

Treatments

Crops Finger millet Frenchbean Finger millet + frenchbean (1:1) Finger millet + frenchbean (2:1) Finger millet + frenchbean (3:1) Farmers practice CD (5%) Fertilizer Levels (kg/ha) Inorganic fertilizer Vermicompost + wild apricot cake (50% N from each) +seed inoculation FYM 7.5 t/ ha CD (P=0.05)

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 124-127, 2010

Growth and yield of groundnut in relation to soil application of panchgavya and foliar spray of endogenous plant leaf extracts
R.N. KUMAWAT*, S.S. MAHAJAN1 and R.S. MERTIA *Regional Research Station, CAZRI, Jaisalmer-345001, Rajasthan, India; 1 Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342 003, Rajasthan, India; E-mail: rnkumawat@rediffmail.com (Received: April, 2010; Accepted: September, 2010)
ABSTRACT
In view of the cost effectiveness and eco-friendly characteristics of the panchgavya, a field experiment was conducted on the high pH soils of arid zone of India to examine the effect of soil applied panchgavya and foliar applied plant leaf extracts on the growth yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) during kharif 2006 and 2007 at Jaisalmer. The results of the experiment revealed that successive increase in panchgavya solution from 0 to 3.0 l/m2 recorded significant increase in growth and yield of groundnut. The pod, haulm and biological yield were 85, 93 and 90 % higher than control with soil application of panchgavya solution at 3.0 l/m2. The improvement in dry matter accumulation and physiological growth in terms of SLW, CGR, RGR and NAR were recorded significantly higher with soil application of panchgavya at 2.0 l/m2. Foliar application of neem (Azadirachta indica), datura (Datura metel) and tumba (Citrullus colocynthis) plant leaf extracts in combination with panchgavya in 1: 1 ratio at 35 and 55 days after application recorded higher growth and yield compared to water sprayed control. The CGR, RGR and NAR at 45-70 DAS and 70 DAS harvest and pod, haulm and biological yields were however recorded significantly maximum with foliar application of datura + panchgavya solution among sources of foliar application. Key words: Growth, Groundnut, Leaf extract, Panchgavya, Yield

(Datura metel) grow naturally on the waste lands of Indian Thar desert producing lot of biomass of no values. Thus, these vegetations could serve as resource for supplying plant nutrients in agriculture. However, information on use of panchgavya in combination with leaf extracts of endemic plants on groundnut is very meager. In view of the above considerations, present study was conducted to examine the effect of soil applied panchgavya and foliar applied plant leaf extracts in combination with panchgavya on the growth and yield of groundnut in the desertic areas under irrigated conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was conducted at Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan during kharif 2006 and 2007 under irrigated condition. The sandy soils of the experimental field was shallow in depth (30 cm) having 0.08% organic carbon, 72.80 kg/ha available N, 6.45 kg/ha available P, 215.78 kg/ha available K, 6.92 kg/ha available S and 7.55% free CaCO3 with pH 9.2. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot-design with four levels of soil applied panchgavya (0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 l/m2) in main plots and four levels of foliar applied sources (control, neem, datura and tumba) in sub plots with three replications. The control was run with tape water. Panchgavya was prepared by thorough mixing of fresh cow dung (7.0 kg), cow ghee (1.0 kg), fresh cow urine (10.0 l), cow milk (3.0 l) and cow milk curd (2.0 l) followed by fermentation for 20 days in an open plastic drum. The leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica), datura (Datura metal ) and tumba ( Citrullus colocynthis) were prepared by mixing fresh ground leaves with cow urine in 1:1 ratio followed by fermentation. After a pre-sowing irrigation, the groundnut cultivar MA-10 was sown in the second week of July in both the years. The seeds were treated with Trichoderma viridae (6 g/kg seed) as prophylactic measure against seed borne diseases. Sowing was done in rows spaced at 45 cm apart using a seed rate of 80 kg/ha. Thinning was done at 10 days after sowing (DAS) in order to maintain plant to plant distance of 25 cm. The fermented panchgavya solution was diluted 15 times with water and applied near the groundnut plants in soil just after second irrigation at 25 DAS as per the treatments. The filtrates of leaf extracts were mixed with the filtered panchgavya solution in 1:1 ratio and diluted 30 times with water for foliar application. The foliar application of the sources was done twice on the groundnut leaves at 35 and 55

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop in India. India is the second largest producer of groundnut accounting for 38% of the total area (7.7 million ha) and 31% production (6.7 m t) of the world (Chandrasekaran et al. 2007) in groundnut production. India has immense potential for exporting large seeded groundnut; however, lack of production technologies exclusive for organically produced groundnut has restricted the scope for exports. In the existing technologies of organic farming where farm yard manure and compost are being used as sources of nutrient supply, productivity of soils falls during the transitory period (until fertility, structure and microbial activity of the soil had been restored) leading to low yield levels in initial years of cultivation (Natarajan 2002). Thus, it is imperative to develop technologies that sustain yield levels of all crops during the transitory period from the very first year. Role of panchgavya in production of many plantation crops grown over wide agroclimatic conditions has been well documented in India There are reports indicated that efficacy of panchgavya solution enhanced manifold with the mixing of endemic plant leaves (Selvraj 2006). The endemic plants such as tumba (Citrullus colocynthis) and datura

Kumawat et al.: Effect of panchgavya and plant leaf extracts on groundnut Table 1.
Sources

125

Chemical properties of finally filtered and undiluted panchgavya and foliar sources
Organic carbon (%) 1.50 1.90 1.60 1.67 pH Electrical conductivity (dS/m) 19.36 33.70 34.90 34.20 Nitrogen (%) 0.58 1.05 0.83 0.86 Phosphorus (%) 0.90 0.78 0.39 0.76

Panchgavya Neem Tumba Datura

4.35 4.39 5.42 4.00

DAS as per treatments. Five plants in each treatment were uprooted manually for analysis of growth. The plants of the sample were separated into its component plant parts leaves, stems and pods- and leaf area was measured using the planimeter method (Milthorpe 1956). Dry weights of plant parts were obtained after oven drying at 70o C for 72 hours, to determine shoot dry matter and its distributions. The leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf weight (SLW), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were calculated using formula as given in the literature (Gardner et al. 1995). Biological yield and pod yield was computed from the plants harvested from net plots in each treatment. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of panchgavya: The mean results of the two kharif seasons on dry matter partitioning are presented in Table 2. Contribution of leaf and stem towards total plant dry matter production decreased with the progress in growth. At 45 DAS, leaf and stem contributed 43 and 57 % in the total plant dry matter which remained only 22 and 35 % at harvest. The increase in total plant dry matter production at 70 DAS coincided the pod formation stage in the groundnut. The contribution of pods in the total plant dry matter increased from 31 % at 70 DAS to 43 % at harvest. Dry matter
Table 2.
Treatments

accumulation in leaf, stem, pods as well as plant increased linearly with the successive increase in soil applied panchgavya from 0 to 3.0 l/m2 at all the phenophases, highest being with 3.0 l/m2. The physiological parameters viz., per plant leaflets and leaf area, LAI, SLW, CGR, RGR and NAR were influenced by panchgavya levels. The number of leaflets, leaf area and LAI per plant increased significantly with successive increase in panchgavya levels up to 3.0 l/m2 (Table 3) while SLW, CGR, RGR, and NAR at all the observed stages recorded significantly maximum with 2.0 l/m2 of panchgavya (Table 4). The biological, haulm and pod yields per hectare also responded positively to the increased levels of panchgavya. Soil application of panchgavya at 3.0 l/m 2 recorded 85, 93 and 90 per cent higher pod, haulm and biological yield compared to control (Figure 1). The increase in the dry matter accumulation in the study

Fig 1. Effect of soil applied panchgavya on yield of groundnut (kg/ ha), mean of kharif 2006 and 2007 (S0 = control (panchgavya), S1 = soil application of panchgavya @1.0 l/m 2, S2 = soil application of panchgavya @2.0 l/ m2 and S3 = soil application of panchgavya @3.0 l/m 2.)

Effect of soil applied panchgavya and foliar applied leaf extracts on the dry matter accumulation of groundnut at different growth stages (mean of kharif 2006 and 2007)
Plant dry matter at 45 DAS (g/plant) Stem Leaf Plant 1.99 2.43 2.92 3.39 0.05 0.16 2.45 2.99 2.68 2.62 0.05 0.14 2.82 3.32 3.76 4.25 0.08 0.24 3.04 3.86 3.68 3.58 0.06 0.18 4.81 5.75 6.68 7.65 0.09 0.29 5.49 6.84 6.36 6.20 0.09 0.24 Plant dry matter at 70 DAS (g/plant) Stem Leaf Pod Plant 4.40 5.90 7.09 8.26 0.11 0.35 5.83 7.01 6.52 6.28 0.10 0.29 5.99 7.37 9.34 10.01 0.16 0.49 6.68 9.11 8.61 8.32 0.15 0.43 4.44 5.22 8.02 8.27 0.11 0.33 5.11 7.25 6.92 6.67 0.10 0.29 14.82 18.50 24.45 26.54 0.46 1.41 17.63 23.37 22.05 21.26 0.44 1.24 Plant dry matter at harvest (g/plant) Stem Leaf Pod Plant 7.30 10.90 12.67 13.17 0.13 0.41 9.14 12.44 11.38 11.09 0.13 0.37 10.76 16.44 20.49 21.72 0.30 0.92 14.98 19.43 17.72 17.27 0.28 0.81 14.92 17.26 26.40 27.82 0.30 0.91 17.09 22.84 25.03 21.43 0.28 0.80 32.98 44.60 59.56 62.71 0.73 2.24 41.21 54.71 54.13 49.79 0.69 1.97

Soil application of panchgavya (l/m2) S0 S1.0 S2.0 S3.0 SEm CD (P=0.05) Foliar sources Control (Water spray) Neem leaf extract + panchgavya Datura leaf extract + panchgavya Tumba leaf extract + panchgavya SEm CD (P=0.05)

S0= control (panchgavya), S1= soil application of panchgavya @ 1.0 l/m 2, S2= soil application of panchgavya @ 2.0 l/m2 and S3= soil application of panchgavya @ 3.0 l/m2

126

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010

was attributed to improved availability of micronutrients, soil microbiology and reduction in soil pH and EC with the addition of panchgavya. The increased nutrient supply (added or native) in turn enhanced rapid initiation of leaves and their expansion thereby giving higher leaf area, higher chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthetic rate which ultimately reflected by higher dry matter accumulation in the plant. Further, panchgavya application increases the population of proven biofertilizers that play important role in the promotion of plant growth by secreting phytohormones, auxin, cytokinin and giberrelic acid (Mahalingam and Sheela 2003). The bioactive substances secreted by beneficial microorganisms might have kept the opening of stomata for longer period (both under favourable and unfavourable conditions) leading to increased LAI (Xu et al. 2000). The reduction in soil pH with application of panchgavya owing to low pH of the medium (4.35) increases the solubility of the Ca (Freney et al. 1962) and P in root rhizosphere, essentially required for the formation and development of the shell of the pods. Thus increased dry matter of pods per plant with increased levels of panchgavya was evident. The improvement in number of leaflets and plant dry matter with application of panchgavya might have resulted into increased LAI, SLW, CGR, RGR and NAR. The increased dry matter and yield attributes thus contributed for higher pod and biological yield with panchgavya levels compared to control. Selvaraj (2003) also observed 36 % increased yield of frenchbean with application of vermicompost + panchgavya due to restoration of soil fertility with these sources. Effect of foliar applied sources: All the sources of foliar application recorded significantly higher accumulation of plant dry matter and its distribution compared to water sprayed control at all the observed stages (Table 2). Foliar application of neem leaf extracts however had recorded significantly the highest dry matter accumulation in leaf and stem over other
Table 3.
Treatments Soil application of panchgavya (l/m2) S0 S1 S2 S3 SEm CD (P=0.05) Foliar sources Control (Water spray) Neem leaf extract + panchgavya Datura leaf extract + panchgavya Tumba leaf extract + panchgavya SEm CD (P=0.05)

foliar treatments. Though pod dry matter during pod formation stage (70 DAS) was recorded highest with neem leaf extracts, it was recorded statistically superior with datura leaf extracts at harvest. The number of leaflets, leaf area and LAI per plant at all the stages of crop growth was recorded significantly higher with foliar application of neem leaf extract than the other sources of application (Table 3). However, it remained at par with datura leaf extract in this regard during 45 and 70 DAS. The foliar applied neem, datura and tumba being at par with each other had statistically higher SLW than the control at all the stages of crop growth (Table 4). The CGR, RGR and NAR were recorded significantly higher with foliar application of datura leaf extract followed by neem and tumba both at 4570 DAS and 70 DAS harvest (Table 4). Foliar application of leaf extracts of neem and datura remained at par to each other in this regard except at 70 DAS-harvest where datura leaf extract recorded the highest RGR and NAR than other foliar sources. Though foliar application of neem leaf extract recorded
Pod yield (kg/ha) 5000
Yield (kg/ha)

Haulm yield (kg/ha)

Biological tield (kg/ha)

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Control (water spray) Neem leaf extract + panchgavya Datura leaf extract + panchgavya Tumba leaf extract + panchgavya

Foliar application of leaf extracts + panchgavya

Fig 2. Effect of foliar application of leaf-extracts plus panchgavya on yield of groundnut (kg/ha) (mean of kharif 2006 and 2007)

Effect of soil applied panchgavya and foliar applied leaf extracts on the number of leaflets, leaf area and leaf area index (LAI) of ground nut at different growth stages (mean of kharif 2006 and 2007)
Number of leaflets/plant 45 DAS 70 DAS Harvest 171 187 228 237 3 8 195 213 210 204 3 7 295 336 387 405 5 15 326 375 366 357 5 13 471 668 758 787 9 29 648 710 669 657 11 30 Leaf area/plant (cm2) 45 DAS 70 DAS Harvest 1056 1272 1446 1555 26 80 1181 1427 1387 1334 25 72 1291 1521 1880 1997 30 91 1465 1808 1737 1678 28 79 1825 2676 3254 3429 40 123 2588 3035 2817 2744 41 115 Leaf area index 45 DAS 70 DAS Harvest 0.88 1.06 1.20 1.30 0.02 0.07 0.98 1.19 1.16 1.11 0.02 0.06 1.08 1.27 1.57 1.66 0.02 0.07 1.22 1.51 1.45 1.40 0.02 0.06 1.52 2.23 2.71 2.86 0.03 0.10 2.16 2.53 2.35 2.29 0.03 0.10

S0= control (panchgavya), S1= soil application of panchgavya @ 1.0 l/m 2, S2= soil application of panchgavya @ 2.0 l/m2 and S3= soil application of panchgavya @ 3.0 l/m2

Kumawat et al.: Effect of panchgavya and plant leaf extracts on groundnut Table 4.

127

Effect of soil applied panchgavya and foliar applied leaf extracts on the specific leaf weight (SLW), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of groundnut at different growth stages (mean of kharif 2006 and 2007)
45 DAS SLW (mg/cm2) 70 Harvest DAS 4.64 4.84 4.96 5.02 0.05 0.15 4.55 5.03 4.93 4.95 0.05 0.14 5.89 6.14 6.29 6.38 0.06 0.18 5.78 6.38 6.24 6.29 0.06 0.17 CGR (g/m2/day) 45-70 70 DASDAS harvest 3.34 4.25 5.93 6.30 0.14 0.43 4.05 5.51 5.23 5.02 0.13 0.37 3.03 4.35 5.85 6.03 0.06 0.19 3.93 5.22 5.35 4.75 0.06 0.18 RGR (mg/g/day) 45-70 70 DASharvest DAS 83.12 88.57 106.25 98.80 2.19 6.75 87.31 96.29 97.49 95.65 1.75 4.96 24.47 28.20 28.65 27.59 0.38 1.16 26.54 26.63 29.18 26.56 0.38 1.08 NAR (mg/cm2/day) 45-70 70 DASharvest DAS 0.342 0.365 0.429 0.427 0.007 0.022 0.363 0.407 0.397 0.395 0.006 0.018 0.235 0.255 0.280 0.274 0.003 0.008 0.237 0.262 0.284 0.261 0.002 0.006

Treatments

Soil application of panchgavya (l/m2) S0 S1 S2 S3 SEm CD (P=0.05) Foliar sources Control (Water spray) Neem leaf extract + panchgavya Datura leaf extract + panchgavya Tumba leaf extract + panchgavya SEm CD (P=0.05)

2.67 2.61 2.60 2.78 0.04 0.13 2.58 2.70 2.69 2.69 0.04 0.12

S0= control (panchgavya), S1= soil application of panchgavya @ 1.0 l/m 2, S2= soil application of panchgavya @ 2.0 l/m2 and S3= soil application of panchgavya @ 3.0 l/m2

statistically higher haulm yield, pod yield per hectare was observed significantly higher with datura leaf extract (Figure 2). Foliar application of datura leaf extract recorded 22 and 21 per cent higher pod and biological yields compared to water sprayed control. The higher dry matter accumulation in plant and its parts with neem, datura and tumba leaf extract in the study was attributed to higher chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity, root nodule weight and plant nutrients which in turn increases the photosynthetic capacity of the plants. The higher chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity and root nodule weight with these leaf extract might be due to supply of more of plant nutrients to crop plants owing to higher N and P content of the medium used in the study compared to control (Table 1). Besides, sources of foliar application (neem, datura and tumba) have many beneficial microorganism that maintain the opening of stomata for longer period both in optimum and adverse conditions during the crop growth which led to increased leaf area index providing stronger source for sink (Xu et al. 2000). Increased pod intensity per plant with application of neem leaf extract has also been reported by Oparaeke et al. (2001) in cowpea. The significant improvement in dry matter and photosynthetic source thus might have increased the physiological growth indices of the groundnut in the study compared to control. However, the role of datura in increasing growth and pod yield is not known and is a point of further exploration. The study suggested that soil application of panchgavya at 3.0 l/m2 and foliar application of datura leaf extract at 35 and 55 DAS could be a best combination of treatments to get maximum plant dry matter, growth and pod

yield of groundnut on the high pH calcareous soils of the arid western India. REFERENCES
Chandrasekaran R, Somasundaram E, Mohamed MA, Thirukumaran K and Sathyamoorthi K. 2007. Influence of Varieties and Plant Spacing on the Growth and Yield of Confectionery Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.). Research Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 : 525-528. Freney JR, Barrow NJ and Spancer KA. 1962. A review of certain aspects of sulphur as a soil constituent and plant nutrient. Plant and Soil 17 : 940-944. Gardner FP, Pearce RB and Mitchell RL. 1995. Physiology of crop plants. Iowa State University Press. Mahalingam PU and Sheela S. 2003. Production of plant growth regulators by Pseudomonas aeruginosa . In: abstracts of the UGC sponsored state level seminar on Indigenisation of India farming: Problems and prospects held at Gandhigram Rural Institute, Deemed University, Gandhigram, Tamil Nadu on 7-8 March 2003. 61pp. Milthorpe FL. 1956. The growth of Leaves. Buttrworths Scientific Publication, London. Natarajan K. 2002. Panchakavya-Amanual. Other India Press, Mapusa, Goa, India. Oparaeke AM, Dike MC and Amatobi CI. 2001. Botanical pesticide mixtures for insect peat management on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 29 : 5-13. Selvaraj N. 2003. Report on the work done on organic farming at Horticultural research station (Tamilnadu Agricultural University), Ooty. pp. 2-5. Selvaraj N. 2006. Dasagavya: Organic growth promoter for plants. (In) The Hindu, pp. 18. Xu HL, Wang XJ and Wang JH. 2000. Effect of microbial inoculation on stomatal response of maize leaves. Journal of Crop Production 3 : 235-243

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 128-131, 2010

Integrated phosphorus management on yield and nutrient uptake of urdbean under rainfed conditions of southern Rajasthan
D.S. RATHORE, H.S. PUROHIT and B.L. YADAV* Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan, India; Email: bly_soil@yahoo.co.in
(Received: January, 2010; Accepted: August, 2010) ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted during 2003-04 and 2004-05 on Typic Haplustept at Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur to assess the effect of P application through different sources on yield and nutrient uptake by urdbean. Application of FYM @ 5 t/ha, 40 kg P2O5/ha and dual seed inoculation with PSB + VAM significantly increased the seed and stover yield and uptake of N, P and K by urdbean. Combined effect of 5 t FYM/ha + 40 kg P2O5/ha, 5 t FYM/ha + dual inoculation with PSB + VAM, and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 + dual inoculation with PSB + VAM produced significantly higher yield and uptake of N, P and K by urdbean. Maximum net returns (Rs. 31835) were obtained with 5 t FYM/ha + 40 kg P2O5/ha + dual inoculation with PSB + VAM followed by 5 t FYM/ha + 30 kg P2O5/ha + dual inoculation with PSB + VAM. Key words: FYM, Net returns, Nutrient uptake, Phosphorus, PSB, Urdbean, VAM

Urdbean (Phaseolus mungo L.) is important pulse crop of India. It is cultivated mostly on marginal lands in mono/ mixed cropping system without any fertilizers under rainfed conditions of southern Rajasthan. Its productivity is very low as compared to yield potential. This wide gap is minimized through the use of adequate and balanced fertilization. Phosphours is an important mineral element for grain legumes as it helps in root development, participates in synthesis of phosphate and phosphoproteins and takes part in energy fixing and releasing process in plants. Significant response of legumes to phosphate nutrition has been reported by several workers (Namdev and Gupta 1999, Singh and Yadav 2008). Most of the applied P gets fixed and only 10-18% is utilized by the current crop (Subehia and Sharma 2002). Addition of FYM to these soils not only supplies the additional nutrients to the growing plants but also affects the availability of native nutrients from soil and chemical fertilizers due to release of organic acids and other microbial products during the decomposition (Stevenson 1967). Production of organic acids during decomposition of FYM lowers the pH due to which stable complexes with cations like Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Al3+ of greater stability and releases water soluble phosphates. Due to this chelating effect, the organic acid solublizes more P than inorganic acids at the same pH (Pattanayak et al. 2009).

Besides, FYM also maintains a congenial hydro-thermal regime for optimum crop production. Biofertilizers enhance soil fertility and crop yield by solubilizing unavailable sources of elemental nitrogen and bound phosphate into available forms in order to facilitate the plant to absorb them. Inoculants of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and vasicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) which have established their capability in augmenting the productivity of pulses may fulfil the P needs considerably. Inoculation of phosphorus solubilizing micro-organism with legume crops has been found to substitute around 20 per cent P requirement by P solubilization (Singh et al. 1998). It is well known that vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi improve plant growth through increased availability of phosphorus by remobilization of fixed phosphate under low fertility conditions (Taraftar and Rao 2001). Their activity was better reflected under FYM application (Qureshi et al. 2005; Pattanayak et al. 2009). Thus, the present study was undertaken to study the effect of FYM, phosphorus and biofertilizers on yield and nutrient uptake (N, P and K) by urdbean under rainfed conditions of southern Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at the instructional research farm of Rajasthan college of Agriculture, Udaipur. The experimental soil was clay loam in texture with pH 7.8 and EC2 1.18 (dSm-1) containing 0.76 per cent organic carbon, 268.4 kg available N/ ha, 19.5 kg available P2O5/ha and 370.8 kg available K2O/ha. The phosphorus fixing capacity of these soils is very high (15.6 cmol/kg of soil). The experiment was laid out at the same site during both the years in split plot design keeping FYM levels (0 and 5 t/ha) and phosphorus levels (0, 20, 30 and 40 kg P2O5/ha) in main plot and biofertilizers (untreated control, PSB, VAM and PSB + VAM) in sub- plots. The treatments were replicated three times. The FYM was incorporated 20 days before sowing in the soil as per treatment. The recommended dose of N (20 kg/ha) and phosphorus as per treatments were applied as basal. Nitrogen and phosphorus were given through urea and diammonium phosphate. The seeds of urdbean were inoculated with PSB ( phosphorus megatherium var. phosphacticum ) before sowing and VAM ( Glomus

*Present address: Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner, Jaipur 303 329, Rajasthan, India

Rathore et al.: Integrated phosphorus management on yield and nutrient uptake of urdbean

129

fasciculatum) was drilled below seed just before sowing as per treatments. Sowing of urdbean was done on July 5, 2003 and July 6, 2004. The total rainfall received during the cropping season was 465.7 mm and 569.6 mm in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The available phosphorus of soil after harvest of crop under all treatments varied from 18.40 to 23.86 kg P2O5/ ha in the first year and 20.29 to 24.55 kg P2O5/ha in the second year of study. N, P and K contents in seed and stover were analysed as per standard methods and their uptakes was calculated by multiplying their contents and respective yield. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of FYM: Perusal of data (Table 1 and 2) revealed that
Table 1.
Treatments 0 Control PSB VAM PSB + VAM Mean Control PSB VAM PSB + VAM Mean CD (P=0.05) Seed yield Stover yield 7.10 7.32 7.42 7.86 7.43 13.23 13.64 13.83 14.68 13.85 FYM 0.138 0.264

the application FYM @ 5 t/ha increased the seed and stover yield and uptake of N, P and K by urdbean and could be attributed to the release of macro and micro nutrients during the course of microbial decomposition (Singh and Ram 1982). The increase in uptake of N, P and K due to application of organic matter could be attributed to higher availability of these nutrients and increased utilization of native P (Shrikanth et al. 2000). Effect of Phosphorus: Application of phosphorus upto 40 kg/ha increased the seed and stover yield and uptake of N, P and K by urdbean (Table 1 and 2). Application of phosphorus improved the nutrient availability in soil, resulting into greater uptake which might have increased the photosynthesis and

Effect of FYM, phosphorus levels and biofertilizers on yield of urdbean (pooled over two years)
No FYM Phosphorus levels (kg P2O5/ha) 20 30 40 7.68 7.93 8.03 8.50 8.04 14.54 14.99 15.20 16.13 15.22 P 0.195 0.374 8.08 8.34 8.45 9.10 8.46 15.39 15.86 16.09 17.07 16.11 BF 0.179 0.343 8.85 9.13 9.25 9.80 9.26 17.14 17.67 17.92 19.01 17.94 5 t FYM/ha Phosphorus levels (kg P2O5/ha) 20 30 40 9.29 9.96 10.23 10.78 10.07 10.25 10.99 11.29 11.88 11.11 10.58 11.35 11.66 12.26 11.47 20.14 21.63 22.20 23.42 21.85 P x BF 0.358 0.686

Mean 0 Seed yield (q/ha) 7.93 8.31 8.18 8.91 8.29 9.16 8.78 9.64 8.30 9.01 Stover yield ( q/ha) 15.01 15.46 15.47 16.60 15.69 17.04 16.65 17.98 15.71 16.77 FYM x P 0.276 0.529

Mean 9.61 10.31 10.59 11.15 10.41 18.18 19.52 20.04 21.14 19.72

17.61 19.51 18.91 20.95 19.41 21.50 20.48 22.68 19.10 21.16 FYM x BF 0.253 0.485

Table 2.
Treatment

Effect of FYM and phosphorus levels and biofertilizers on N, P and k uptake by urdbean (Pooled over two years)
No FYM Phosphorus level (kg/ha) 20 30 40 49.79 52.27 52.09 58.00 52.79 4.54 5.14 5.32 5.78 5.20 20.40 21.57 21.61 23.00 21.57 P 1.42 0.15 0.77 51.66 55.35 55.16 61.41 55.90 4.88 5.53 5.72 6.22 5.59 21.76 23.00 23.04 24.52 23.00 BF 1.41 0.15 0.64 58.95 61.16 62.94 70.08 63.79 5.72 6.48 6.71 7.29 6.55 24.00 25.37 25.41 27.04 25.37 5 t FYM/ha Phosphorus level (kg/ha) 20 30 40 60.82 66.81 69.52 74.94 67.86 5.93 6.99 7.22 7.95 7.02 25.45 27.75 28.46 30.56 28.05 69.93 76.81 79.93 86.16 78.02 6.66 7.85 8.11 8.93 7.88 28.33 30.89 31.69 34.03 31.23 FYM x BF 2.00 0.22 0.90 74.05 81.34 84.64 91.24 82.62 7.22 8.50 8.79 9.67 8.54 29.44 32.10 32.93 35.36 32.45

0 Control PSB VAM PSB + VAM Mean Control PSB VAM PSB + VAM Mean Control PSB VAM PSB + VAM Mean CD (P=0.05) N uptake P uptake K uptake 43.80 46.92 46.76 52.06 47.39 3.82 4.33 4.48 4.87 4.38 19.13 20.22 20.26 21.56 20.22 FYM 1.01 0.11 0.54

Mean 0 N uptake (Kg/ha) 50.80 53.49 54.43 58.75 54.24 61.14 60.39 65.91 54.97 59.68 P uptake (kg/ha) 4.74 4.88 5.37 5.75 5.56 5.94 6.04 6.54 5.43 5.77 K uptake (kg/ha) 21.32 21.25 22.54 23.17 22.58 23.76 24.03 25.52 22.54 23.42 FYM x P 2.01 0.21 0.21

Mean 64.58 70.93 73.81 79.57 72.05 6.17 7.27 7.51 8.27 7.30 26.11 28.48 29.20 31.36 28.78 P x BF 2.83 0.31 1.27

130 Table 3.
Treatments 0 No inoculation (control) PSB VAM PSB + VAM No inoculation (control) PSB VAM PSB + VAM 16668.6 16956.0 16924.9 18086.9 2.72 2.75 2.70 2.87

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Effect of FYM, phosphorus levels and biofertilizers on monetary returns and B : C ratio of urdbean (mean of two years)
No FYM Phosphorus levels (kg P2O5/ha) 20 30 18922.0 18534.8 18560.1 19176.5 2.93 2.86 2.81 2.90 18817.7 19565.0 19900.2 21554.6 2.84 2.95 2.94 3.18 5 t FYM/ha Phosphorus levels (kg P2O5/ha) 20 30 22228.4 24515.2 25376.4 23698.1 2.88 3.17 3.23 3.01 24222.9 26706.3 27250.7 30105.3 3.08 3.38 3.40 3.75

40 0 Net returns (Rs/ha) 19565.1 18784.8 21964.5 20198.3 22484.3 21303.7 25332.6 23272.1 B : C ratio 2.89 2.54 3.23 2.73 3.25 2.83 3.65 3.08

40 24896.7 27501.3 27940.1 31835.3 3.10 3.42 3.42 3.88

translocation of assimilates to different parts of plants. In later stages, more assimilates are diverted to storage compounds resulting into increased seed yield. Yadav and Jakhar (2001) and Singh and Pareek (2003) also found significant effect of phosphorus on yield and N, P and K contents in grain of mungbean. Effect of Biofertilizers: Seed inoculation with biofertilizers proved superior to untreated control with respect to yield and nutrients uptake (Table 1 and 2). Dual inoculation with PSB and VAM recorded highest values of all these parameters studied and proved its superiority to untreated control, PSB or VAM alone. PSB and VAM solublizes native phosphorus bringing more phosphorus to soil solution. Thus, dual inoculation of PSB and VAM improved N (282.60 to 293.42 kg/ ha), P (19.89 to 23.27 kg P2O5/ha) and K (344.40 to 352.61 kg K2O/ha) status of soil and ultimately increased N, P and K uptake which enhanced growth and yield of crop. Similar results were also reported by Singh and Pareek (2003). Interaction effect: Interaction effect of FYM and phosphorus on yield and nutrient uptake was found significant (Table 1 and 2). In general, combined effect of 5 t/ha FYM and 40 kg P2O5/ha gave higher seed and stover yield and values of N, P and K uptake by urdbean and this combination was found significantly superior over other combinations. It may be due to sufficient supply of nutrients by applied FYM and P fertilizers (Rao et al. 1987). The results clearly indicated that legume cropping helped to increase the available nitrogen. This might be attributed to nitrogen fixation by legume crop (Rao 2003). Incorporation of FYM along with inorganic P increased the availability of P and this was attributed to reduction in fixation of water soluble P, increased mineralization of organic P due to microbial action and enhanced availability of P (Varalakshmi et al. 2005). In general, combined effect of 5 t FYM/ha + dual inoculation of PSB + VAM and 40 kg P2O5/ha + dual inoculation of PSB + VAM gave higher seed and stover yield as well as uptake of N, P and K by urdbean and these combinations were found significantly superior over other combinations. It might be attributed to the response of urdbean to the effect of

nutrient management on account of balanced supply of inorganic P fertilizers, FYM and biofertilizers. These results are in line with the findings of Anil Kumar et al. (2003) and Singh and Yadav (2008). Economics: The maximum net returns (Rs. 31835.3/ha) was recorded with 5 t FYM/ha + 40 kg P2O5/ha + dual inoculation of PSB + VAM combination followed by 5 t FYM/ha + 30 kg P2O5/ha + dual inoculation of PSB + VAM (Rs. 30105.3/ha) with B:C ratio of 3.88 and 3.75, respectively (Table 3). This study indicated that application of FYM @ 5 t/ha + 40 kg P2O5/ha along with dual inoculation of PSB + VAM was not only improved the productivity of urdbean but also gave maximum monitory benefits. REFERENCES
Anil kumar BH, Sharanappa KT, Krishne Gowda and Sudhir K. 2003. Growth, yield and nutrient uptake as influenced by integrated nutrient management in dryland finger millet. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science 37 : 24-28. Namdev SL and Gupta SC. 1999. Efficacy of biofertilizers with different levels of chemical fertilizer on pigeonpea. Crop Research 18: 1923 . Pattanyak SK, Sureshkumar P and Tarafdar JC. 2009. New Vista in phosphorus research. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 57 : 536-545. Qureshi AA, Narayanasamy G, Chhonkar PK and Bala Sundram VR. 2005. Direct and residual effect of phosphate rocks in presence of P solubilizers and FYM on the available P, organic carbon and viable counts of P solubilizers in soils after soybean, mustard and wheat crops. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 53: 9710 0. Rao SS. 2003. Nutrient balance and economics of integrated nutrient management in groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) - mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Madras Agricultural Journal 90 : 465-471. Rao MR, Rego TJ and Wiley RW. 1987. Response of cereals to nitrogen in sole cropping and intercropping with different legumes. Plant and Soil 101 : 167-177. Shrikanth K, Shrinivasmurthy CA, Siddaramappa R and Ramakrishnaparam. 2000. Direct and residual effect of enriched composts, FYM, vermicompost and fertilizers on properties of an Alfisol. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 48 : 496-499.

Rathore et al.: Integrated phosphorus management on yield and nutrient uptake of urdbean
Singh B and Parrek RG. 2003. Effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth and yield of mungbean. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 16: 31-33. Singh RS and Ram H. 1982. Effect of organic matter on the transformation of inorganic phosphorus in soil science 30: 18518 9. Singh RS and Yadav MK. 2008. Effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of long duration pigeonpea under rainfed condition. Journal of Food Legumes 21 : 46-48. Singh AK, Ram H and Maurya BR. 1998. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus applciation on microbial population in inceptisols of Varanasi Indian. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry 31: 90-94. Stevenson FJ. 1967. Organic acids in soil. In: Soil Biochemistry Vol I (A.D. MacLaren and G.H. Perterson, Ed) Marcel Dekker New York. pp. 119.

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Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 132-134, 2010

Effect of date of sowing on nodulation, growth, thermal requirement and grain yield of kharif mungbean genotypes
GURIQBAL SINGH, H.S. SEKHON, HARI RAM, K.K. GILL* and POONAM SHARMA Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, *Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab, India; E-mail: singhguriqbal@rediffmail.com
(Received: October, 2009; Accepted: July, 2010) ABSTRACT
A field experiment was carried out during kharif 2005 and 2006 to study the effect of different dates of sowing on nodulation, growth and yield of four mungbean genotypes SML 668, ML 818, ML 1265 and ML 1405. There was a drastic reduction in yield in case of August 5 sowing in both the years compared to July sowing. Genotype ML 1265 produced higher yield than SML 668 in both the years. Interaction between dates of sowing and genotypes for grain yield was significant in 2005. Genotype ML 1265 produced significantly higher yield than the other genotypes under late sowing of August 5. Early sowing resulted in absorbing sufficient amount of heat units in less time as compared to late sowings which acquired more days to mature during 2006 as compared to 2005 and resulted in accumulation of more growing degree days (GDD) as compared to first season. Among genotypes SML 668 followed by ML 1265 consumed lesser days to attain 50% flowering and physiological maturity as compared to other genotypes during both the years. On the basis of two-year mean values, days to 50% flowering were 43.0, 42.0, 41.0 and 39.5 and days to maturity were 70.5, 69.0, 65.5 and 63.0 in July 5, 15, 25 and August 5 sowings, respectively. SML 668 was the earliest in maturity (60.5 days) whereas ML 818, ML 1265 and ML 1405 matured in 69.0, 67.5 and 69.6 days, respectively. Key words: Mungbean, Nodulation, Thermal indices

growth is directly related to temperature and the duration for particular species could be predicted using the sum of daily air temperature (Wang 1960). The data on the effect of dates of sowing were lacking on the new promising genotypes of mungbean. In addition, there was a dire need to find out genotypes for late sowing according to heat unit requirement. Therefore, an experiment was planned and conducted on different dates of sowing on kharif mungbean genotypes, so that these indices can be used as tools for characterizing thermal responses in different cultivars of mungbean. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was conducted at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (30 56' N, 75 52' E, altitude 244 m) in kharif 2005 and 2006. The soil of the experimental field was loamy sand, having pH 8.2, organic carbon 0.29%, available phosphorus 14.4 kg/ha and available potassium 318 kg/ha. The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The four dates of sowing (July 5, July 15, July 25 and August 5) were kept in the main-plots and four genotypes SML 668, ML 818, ML 1265 and ML 1405 were assigned in the sub-plots. The nutrient dose of 12.5 kg/ ha N and 40 kg/ha P2O5 was applied through urea (46% N) and single superphosphate (16% P2O5), respectively at the time of sowing. Sowing was done in rows 30 cm apart. Plant to plant spacing was maintained at about 10 cm by thinning about two weeks after sowing. Weeds were controlled by using pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha as pre-emergence application. All other agronomic practices were adopted according to the package of practices (PAU 2004). The total rainfall of 399.9 mm and 446.1 mm was received during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The data on nodulation, days to 50% flowering, dates to maturity, plant height, branches/plant, pods/plant, seeds/pod, 100-seed weight and grain yield were recorded. The accumulated heat units (GDD) for each day were calculated for different phenological event as per the equation suggested by Nuttonson (1955), using base temperature of 10oC. Heliothermal units (HTU) are the product of growing degree days (GDD) and corresponding actual sunshine hours for that day. Photothermal units (PTU) are the product of growing degree days and corresponding day length hours for that day. GDD, HTU and PTU were accumulated from the date of sowing to each date of observation i.e. 50% flowering and physiological maturity. Heat use efficiency (HUE) for grain yield was computed following the method as described by

Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important pulse crop of kharif season in India. The crop is highly sensitive to environment. Therefore, time of sowing shows remarkable influence on the growth and productivity of mungbean in kharif due to rainy season (Brar et al. 1988). The optimum time of sowing ensures the complete harmony between the vegetative and reproductive phases on one hand, and the climatic rhythm on the other and helps in realizing the potential yield (Singh and Dhingra 1993). Temperature is the prime weather variable which affects plant life. Heat unit concept is the agronomic application of temperature effect on plant, which has been employed to correlate phenological development in crops and to predict maturity dates (Nuttonson 1955, Major et al. 1975). Crop phenology is an essential component of the crop-weather models, which can be used to specify the most appropriate rate and time of specific plant growth and development process. The duration of each growth phase determines the accumulation and partitioning of dry matter in different plant organs as well as crop response to environmental factors. The duration of particular stages of

Singh et al.: Effect of date of sowing on nodulation, growth, thermal requirement and grain yield of mungbean genotypes

133

Rajput (1980) as below: HUE= Seed yield/Accumulated heat units RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of date of sowing: In both the years, the maximum plant height was recorded in July 5 sowing which was significantly higher than all other sowing dates (Table 1). There was linear decline in plant height with delay in sowing. Branches/plant were not significantly influenced by sowing dates in 2005, however, in 2006, July 5 and July 15 showed significantly higher branches/plant than July 25 and August 5 sowing dates. In 2005, maximum pod/plants were recorded in July 25 sowing which was statistically superior to all other sowing dates. In 2006, significantly higher number of pods/ plant were recorded in July 5 and 15 sowing dates and both were statistically at par. Pod bearing was the least in the case of August 5 sowing date. Differences in seeds/pod due to sowing dates were found to be non-significant in 2005 while in 2006, July 5 and July 15 dates of sowing had significantly higher seeds/pod than July 25 and August 5 sowing dates. The 100-seed weight was found to be non-significant in both the years. During both the years of the study, nodules and their dry weight were influenced significantly due to dates of sowing (Table 2). In both the years, number of nodules and their dry weight/plant were highest in the case of July 15 while minimum number of nodules and their dry weight were recorded in the case of August 5 sowing. In both the years, date of sowing showed significant effect on the grain yield of mungbean. In 2005, sowing on July 25 gave significantly higher grain yield (1282 kg/ha) than July 5 and August 5 sowings but was statistically at par with July 15 sowing. However, in 2006, significantly higher grain yield (1488 kg/ ha) was recorded in July 15 sowing which was statistically on par with July 5 sowing but significantly superior to July 25 and August 5 sowing dates. There was a drastic reduction in the grain yield in the case of August 5 sowing. Singh et al. (2003) revealed that July 12 to 24 was the best sowing time for kharif mungbean. In another study, Fraz et al. (2006) observed higher grain yield attributes of mungbean in the case of the
Table 1.
Treatment Dates of sowing July 5 July 15 July 25 August 5 CD (P=0.05) Genotypes SML 668 ML 818 ML 1265 ML 1405 CD (P=0.05) Plant height (cm) 2005 2006 Mean 75.5 69.0 60.9 61.1 3.7 56.1 68.2 70.0 72.3 3.5 71.3 60.8 54.6 39.6 3.0 43.4 62.2 58.1 62.6 2.7 73.4 64.9 57.8 50.4 4.9 49.8 65.2 64.1 67.5 4.2 Branches/plant 2005 2006 Mean 5.38 5.30 5.13 5.10 NS 4.68 5.43 5.36 5.43 0.40 4.95 5.00 4.63 3.95 0.31 4.07 4.72 4.90 4.85 0.32 5.17 5.15 4.88 4.53 0.51 4.38 5.08 5.13 5.14 0.23

crop sown in the third week of July than the sowings in third week of June and first week of July. In 2005, due to good rains at vegetative stage the crop attained more plant height, with the result lodging was observed in July 5 and 15 sowings, which caused reduction in grain yield. With delay in sowing, days to 50% flowering as well as days to maturity were reduced in all the genotypes (Table 3). Two-year mean values of days to 50% flowering were 43.0, 42.0, 41.0 and 39.5 and days to maturity were 70.5, 69.0, 65.5 and 63.0 under July 5, 15, 25 and August 5 sowings, respectively. During 2005, early sown crop availed more growing degree days (GDD), photothermal units (PTU) and heliothermal units (HTU) at physiological maturity and with each delay in sowing GDD, PTU and HTU decreased. Almost similar trend was observed for 50% flowering. However, July 25 sowing had the highest HUE and resulted in highest grain yield. During 2006, the different trend was observed due to occurrence of higher maximum and minimum temperature that probably accelerated the process of development and as a result duration of 50% flowering as well as physiological maturity was shortened by 2-3 days in case of first sowing during 2006 as compared to 2005. So early sowing resulted in absorbing sufficient amount of heat units in short time due to
Table 2.
Treatment

Effect of dates of sowing and genotypes on nodulation and grain yield in kharif mungbean
Number of nodules/ plant 2005 2006 18.7 27.7 26.1 17.5 1.1 20.7 22.5 25.1 21.9 1.6 Dry weight of nodules (mg)/plant 2005 2006 36.5 61.3 NR 39.8 5.2 40.8 46.4 50.9 49.3 4.3 40.7 56.8 54.0 36.9 3.3 43.0 45.6 53.9 45.8 2.2 Grain yield (kg/ha) 2005 2006 1111 1186 1282 983 108 1062 1078 1278 1145 106 1372 1488 1123 1063 119 1158 1272 1362 1255 63

Date of sowing July 5 13.7 July 15 22.3 July 25 NR August 5 15.3 CD (P=0.05) 2.7 Genotypes SML 668 14.3 ML 818 17.8 ML 1265 19.3 ML 1405 17.3 CD (P=0.05) 1.8 NR - Not recorded

Effect of dates of sowing and genotypes on growth and yield attributing characters of kharif mungbean
2005 14.7 16.5 18.6 13.6 1.1 14.2 15.7 18.3 15.2 1.2 Pods/plant 2006 Mean 23.3 24.4 18.6 12.5 1.5 14.3 21.8 22.7 20.5 1.9 19.0 20.5 18.6 13.1 1.6 14.3 18.8 20.5 17.9 2.1 2005 8.78 8.86 8.83 8.86 NS 9.08 8.86 8.83 8.86 0.18 Seeds/pod 2006 Mean 10.47 10.55 10.12 9.87 0.30 9.18 10.63 11.28 9.9 0.51 9.63 9.71 9.48 9.37 NS 9.13 9.75 10.06 9.38 0.43 100- seed weight (g) 2005 2006 Mean 4.08 4.08 4.10 3.99 NS 5.56 3.58 3.75 3.36 NS 3.94 3.98 3.52 3.93 NS 5.02 3.41 3.67 3.29 0.62 4.01 4.03 3.81 3.96 NS 5.29 3.50 3.71 3.33 0.49

134 Table 3.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD), Accumulated Heliothermal Units (AHTU) and Accumulated Photothermal Units (APTU) at 50% flowering and maturity and heat use efficiency at maturity under different dates of sowing and genotypes
2006 50% Flowering Maturity APTU Days AGDD AHTU APTU Days AGDD AHTU APTU 18713 17650 15920 14676 15811 17159 16939 17351 42 42 41 40 37 44 43 40 837 851 798 776 791 877 829 791 5244 11468 69 5961 11317 69 5502 10453 67 6050 9946 64 5116 9842 59 6143 11536 72 6004 11360 68 5492 10444 70 1368 10815 18040 1346 9683 17437 1279 9495 16299 1213 9859 15130 1155 8741 14976 1380 10591 17660 1317 10108 16915 1355 10412 17356 Heat use efficiency (kg/ha/oC/day) 2005 0.79 0.87 1.04 0.84 0.88 0.83 0.97 0.85 2006 1.00 1.11 0.88 0.88 1.00 0.92 1.03 0.92

2005 50% Flowering Maturity Days AGDD AHTU APTU Days AGDD AHTU Dates of sowing July 5 44 880 6240 11870 72 1422 11184 July 15 42 858 6647 11406 69 1362 10951 July 25 41 825 7081 10795 64 1244 10258 August 5 39 759 6871 9738 62 1174 10370 Genotypes SML 668 36 718 5708 9514 62 1224 10134 ML 818 43 865 7014 11400 68 1330 10849 ML 1265 43 863 7002 11367 68 1315 10817 ML 1405 44 876 7135 11533 70 1352 11079 Treatment

high temperature but late sowings (July 25 and August 5) acquired more days to mature during 2006 as compared to 2005 and resulted in accumulation of more GDD. During 2006, July 15 sown crop recorded higher grain yield, leading to comparatively better HUE for grain yield as compared to other dates of sowing. This could be due to resource induced competition for attaining physiological maturity in sufficient accumulated heat units. Performance of genotypes: Among the genotypes ML 1405 was the tallest (67.5 cm) whereas SML 668 was the shortest (49.8 cm) in height (Table 1). Number of branches/plant and pods/plant were least in SML 668. The highest number of pods/plant was recorded in ML 1265 during both the years. SML 668 had the highest seed weight (5.29 g/100 seeds) due to its large seed size while in ML 1265, ML 818 and ML 1405 the 100-seed weight was 3.71, 3.50 and 3.33 g, respectively. Higher numbers of nodules were observed in ML 1265 than in ML 818, ML 1405 and SML 668 (Table 2). The dry weight of nodules/plant was also higher in the case of ML 1265 than the other genotypes. Genotypes differed significantly in the grain yield during both the years. ML 1265 was the highest yielder whereas SML 668 was the lowest yielder. Genotype ML 1265 gave 20.3% and 17.6% higher grain yield than SML 668 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Genotypes ML 1405 and ML 818 were on par in yield. Interaction effects regarding dates of sowing and genotypes were significant in 2005. Data showed that ML 1265 was superior to other genotypes under late sowing (August 5). Though interaction was non-significant between dates of sowing and genotypes in 2006 yet the trend was almost the same as observed in 2005. SML 668 was the earliest in flowering (Table 3). On the basis of two-year mean values, 50% flowering was observed 36.5 days after sowing (DAS) while in ML 818, ML 1265 and ML 1405, 50% flowering occurred 43.5, 43.0 and 42.0 DAS under different dates of sowing. Similarly, two-year mean values of dates to maturity were 60.5, 70.0, 68.0 and 70.0 in SML 668, ML 818, ML 1265 and ML 1405, respectively. In different genotypes, high variation in days taken to reach

different phenological stages and agroclimatic indices i.e. GDD, HTU and PTU was observed during 2005 as well as 2006. SML 668 followed by ML 1265 consumed lesser days to attain 50% flowering and physiological maturity as compared to other genotypes during both the years. Similarly, ML 1265 attained lesser GDD, HTU and PTU units and recorded higher grain yield as compared to other genotypes under study except SML 668. This also resulted in comparatively better HUE for seed yield in ML 1265 over other genotypes. It may be concluded that July 5-25 seemed to be the best time of sowing for kharif mungbean under Punjab conditions. Genotype ML 1265 was superior to others both under timely and late sowings. REFERENCES
Brar ZS, Singh M and Singh G. 1988. Effect of planting dates and growth regulators on production of mungbean. Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University 25 : 515-520. Fraz RA, Iqbal J and Bakhsh MAAHA. 2006. Effect of sowing dates and planting patterns on growth and yield of mungbean [ Vigna radiata (L.)] Cv . M-6. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 8 : 363-365. Major DJ, Johnson DR, Tanner JW and Anderson IC. 1975. Effect of daylength and temperature on soybean development. Crop Science 15 : 174-179. Nuttonson MY. 1955. Wheat-climate relationships and the use of phenology in ascertaining the thermal and photothermal requirement of wheat. American Institute of Crop Ecology, Washington DC, pp. 388. PAU. 2004. Package of Practices for Kharif Crops of Punjab. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, pp. 206. Rajput RP. 1980. Response of soybean crop to climate and soil environments. Ph.D. Dissertation, IARI, New Delhi. Singh G, Sekhon HS, Sandhu JS, Singh SJ, Gumber RK and Randhwa AS. 2003. Effect of location and seed rate on three genotypes of mungbean. Tropical Science 43 : 116-120. Singh T and Dhingra KK. 1993. Response of mungbean [ Vigna radiata (L.)] cultivars to time of sowing under South-Western region of Punjab. Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University 30: 15715 9. Wang JY. 1960. A critiques of the heat unit approach to plant response studies. Ecology 41 : 785-790.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 135-142, 2010

Performance of pulses during pre and post-WTO period in Andhra Pradesh: district wise analysis
I.V.Y. RAMA RAO Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam-531 001 (A.P.); Email: ramarao_agrieco@yahoo.co.in
(Received: November, 2008; Accepted: September, 2010) ABSTRACT
The present study was attempted to cluster the districts based on different criterion, estimating the patterns of growth and magnitude of instability, and assessing the explanatory variables affects on pulses production in Andhra Pradesh. The time series data for the period 1986-87 to 2007-08 on area, production and productivity were collected from various publications of the Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Hierarchical and K-Means Clustering, Compound Growth Rate (CGR), Coppocks Instability Index (CII), and decomposition analysis (change in average production) were employed for achieving the objectives. Growth performance of pulses production was high, but it was accompanied by high degree of instability. Decomposition analysis revealed that area effect was marginally higher than the productivity effect on the production differential. Therefore, growth in production should mainly come from area attributing factors like assured supply of farm inputs and provision of remunerative prices. Key words: Clustering, Decomposition analysis, Growth, instability, Pulses

growth rates in area, production and productivity of pulses, to examine the extent of instability in production, to identify the productivity clusters, to identify the growth and instability clusters based on pulses production and to assess the change in average production caused by exploratory variables MATERIALS AND METHODS The study pertains to all the districts i.e., 22 districts, (Data for Hyderabad district is not available) three geographical regions of Andhra Pradesh viz., Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema, Telangana and State as a whole. Time series data on total pulses for 20 years from 1986-87 to 2005-06 was collected from published literature of Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Government of Andhra Pradesh. For calculating the CGR, CII and Decomposition rate, whole period was divided into two sub periods resulting in the formation of three periods viz., Period-1 (pre-WTO) (1988-89 to 1997-98), Period-II (post-WTO) (1998-99 to 2007-08) and Overall Period (1988-89 to 2007-08). Analysis was conducted separately for each period. Estimation of growth rates: Compound growth rates were estimated by fitting an exponential function of the following form. Y= A.bt; Log Y = Log A + t. log b Where, Y = Area/production/productivity ; A= Constant b= (1+r), r = Compound growth rate, t = Time variable in years (1,2,3n) The percent compound growth rate is calculated as below: CGR (%) = [(Antilog of b) - 1] x 100 Estimation of extent of instability: The extent of instability is calculated by using Coppocks Instability Index (CII), which is a close approximation of the average year-to-year percentage variation adjusted for trend. In algebraic form: CII = [Antilog log V 1] x 100
[Log (X t 1 / X t ) m]2 N 1

India is the largest producer, consumer and importer of pulses in the world. In India, during the year 2005-06, pulses were grown on 22.22 million hectares with a production of 13.18 million tones (593 kgs/ha of yield). Pulses accounts for 18.46 % of area and 6.54 % of production to the total food grain of the country. The major pulses grown in India are pigeonpea and chickpea. The projected demand for pulses by 2020 in India is 27.2 million tones. Andhra Pradesh ranks fourth in pulses production with 1.78 (7.95%) million hectares of cultivated area and 1.38 (10.31%) million tones of production during 2005-06. Major pulses grown in Andhra Pradesh are pigeonpea, chickpea, urdbean and mungbean. Production requirement of pulses in Andhra Pradesh as per ICMR recommendation (40gms/day) by 2020 is 1.629 million tones. While, rice and wheat output has grown considerably and there has been a considerable lag in output growth of pulses and coarse cereals in India (Shah and Shah 1997). Further, the findings of Hazell (1984) and Jayadevan (1991) revealed that the growth in crop production during the post-green revolution period has been accompanied with increased instability and yield fluctuation turned out to be the major source of production instability. In order to find out causes for these fluctuations, an attempt has been made to study

Log V =

Where, Xt = Area/ production/ productivity in the year t, N= Number of years, log V = Logarithmic variance,

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Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010

m=Arithmetic mean of difference between the logs of Xt+1 etc. Clustering: Cluster analysis is a multivariate procedure ideally suited to segmentation application. Clustering is the technique, which groups the objects of interest based on the proximities of the concerned character. Two-stage clustering technique was employed by using the Hierarchical and KMeans Clustering techniques (SPSS 15 trial version) Hierarchical Clustering gives the number of groups to be formed. Where as, K-Means Clustering will decide the membership in each cluster. Based on productivity: Hierarchical Cluster analysis given three clusters of districts. These clusters were named as low (< 400), medium (400-600) and high (> 600) based on yield (kg/ ha). Based on growth vis--vis instability: Hierarchical Cluster analysis classified the districts based on the production growth (CGR) into three clusters viz., Low (<2%), Medium (210%) and High (>10%), and in terms of production instability (CII) into three clusters viz., Low (<20%), Medium (20-40%) and High (>40%). Then these three clusters were cross tabulated and resulted in nine clusters viz., L-L (Low-Low),LM,L-H,M-L,M-M,M-H,H-L,H-M, and H-H (High-High) clusters, and presented in the form of 3 x 3 tables (tables 6,7 and 8). Further, analysis was carried for the all the periods.\ Decomposition analysis (change in average production): Change in average production between the periods arises from changes in mean area and mean yield (productivity), interaction between changes in mean yield and mean area and change in yield-area covariance (Hazell 1982). The change in average production E (P) between the periods can be obtained as follows:

Andhra, where as, in area was recorded in Telangana. Among the districts, growth rates in area varied between 5.0 per cent (Karimnagar) and 10.37 per cent (Kadapa), in production from 5.78 per cent (Karimnagar) to 18.33 per cent (Kadapa), whereas, in productivity it was between -3.86 per cent (East Godavari) and 7.21 per cent (Kadapa). Further, eight, six and five districts shown the negative trend in area, production and productivity respectively. During the period I, state as a whole, growth rate was low in productivity (0.38%), whereas, growth rates in area (1.11%) and production (1.49%) were moderate. So, growth in area contributed more towards growth in production than by growth in productivity. Among the regions, ranges of growth rates in area varied between -1.97 per cent (Telangana) and 4.09 per cent (Coastal Andhra), in production they were from 0.51 per cent (Coastal Andhra) to 14.17 per cent (Rayalaseema) and in productivity varied between 3.03 per cent (Coastal Andhra) and 12.61 per cent (Rayalaseema). So, production and productivity were the highest in Rayalaseema. So, growth in area contributed more towards growth in production in Coastal Andhra, where as, by growth in productivity in Rayalaseema. Among the districts, range of growth rates in area was between -7.03 per cent (Karimnagar) and 14.17 pr cent (East Godavari), in production the lowest was -7.91 per cent (Karimnagar) and the highest was 18.36 per cent (Kurnool) and in productivity growth rates varied from 5.47 per cent (West Godavari) to 14.49 per cent (Kadapa). So, Karimnagar recorded the lowest growth rate in area and production. Out of 22 districts, nine (eight in Telangana) in area, six (two in Telangana) in productivity and seven (three in Telangana) in production has showed negative growth rates. During the period, among the districts, highest growth rate in area (17.89%), production (22.17%) and productivity (12.01%) were recorded respectively in Kadapa, Prakasam and Medak. While, lowest growth rates in area (-3.17) was in Guntur, whereas, in production (-3.84%) and productivity (-3.42) were noticed in East Godavari. So, lowest growth rates in area, production and productivity were observed among the districts of Coastal Andhra region. Further, six, three, five districts registered with negative CGR in area, production and productivity respectively. Among the regions, growth rates in area varied between 1.13 per cent (Coastal Andhra) and 10.66 per cent (Rayalaseema) and in production varied from 3.43 (Coastal Andhra) to 14.76 (Rayalaseema), in productivity the lowest was 2.27 per cent (Coastal Andhra) and the highest was 6.3 per cent (Telangana). Further, growth in area contributed more towards growth in production in Rayalaseema, whereas, growth in productivity contributed more towards growth in production in Coastal Andhra and Telangana. For state as a whole, growth in productivity (3.80%) contributed more towards growth in production (6.85%) than by growth in area (2.94) Rangi et al. (2002) has stated that compound growth

E (P) A1 . Y Y1 . A A . Y Cov (A, Y)


Where A1 . Y = change in mean area; Y1 . A = change in mean yield; A . Y = changes in mean area and mean yield; Cov (A,Y) = changes in area and yield covariance RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Growth rates: During the over all period, state as a whole, pulses had shown high growth rate in area (1.60%), production (3.17%) and productivity (1.54%) (Table 1). Thus, growth in area had marginally higher effect on growth in production than by the growth in productivity. Among the regions, highest growth rates in area, production and productivity were registered in Rayalaseema. About range of growth rates, in area it varied from 0.39 per cent (Telangana) to 5.76 per cent (Rayalaseema), in production it ranged between 1.61 per cent (Coastal Andhra) and 11.53 per cent (Rayalaseema) and in productivity it was between 0.12 per cent (Coastal Andhra) and 5.46 per cent (Rayalaseema). So, the lowest growth rates in production and productivity were recorded in Coastal

Rao : Performance of pulses during pre and post-WTO period in Andhra Pradesh: district wise analysis Table 1. Compound growth rates of area, production and productivity of pulses in Andhra Pradesh during different periods
Overall period (1988-89 to 2007-08) A* PD P 2.27 2.53 0.25 2.00 2.90 0.88 -1.16 0.55 1.73 3.87 -0.14 -3.86 -2.51 -3.41 -0.92 -0.80 -1.07 -0.28 -0.40 -1.40 -1.00 8.37 13.62 4.85 7.18 10.98 3.54 1.70 1.61 -0.12 7.72 13.36 5.23 3.13 5.70 2.49 10.37 18.33 7.21 -0.86 0.57 1.44 5.76 11.53 5.46 1.86 4.69 2.78 1.58 4.62 2.99 5.49 10.34 4.59 1.99 4.37 2.34 1.57 5.15 3.53 -2.22 1.08 3.38 -2.57 -0.90 1.72 -5.00 -5.78 -0.82 0.03 7.03 6.99 0.39 3.18 2.78 1.60 3.17 1.54 Period-I (1988-89 to 1997-98) PD 10.30 7.65 2.90 10.76 -4.84 -4.92 -0.60 9.89 10.02 0.51 18.36 11.78 17.25 -0.01 14.17 2.52 6.21 9.44 -4.30 1.77 1.35 -0.48 -7.91 4.57 0.57 1.49

137

Districts and regions Srikakulam Vizianagaram Visakhapatnam East Godavari West Godavari Krishna Guntur Prakasam Nellore Coastal Andhra Kurnool Ananthapur Kadapa Chittoor Rayalaseema Ranga Reddy Nizamabad Medak Mahaboob Nagar Nalgonda Warangal Khammam Karim Nagar Adilabad Telangana Andhra Pradesh

A 10.08 7.44 1.71 14.17 0.67 -1.96 1.98 6.84 7.91 4.09 3.44 0.18 2.41 -2.02 1.39 1.74 -2.27 4.64 -4.01 -1.86 -5.13 -0.96 -7.03 -1.59 -1.97 1.11

P 0.20 0.19 1.17 -2.99 -5.47 -3.02 -2.53 2.85 1.96 -3.03 14.42 11.58 14.49 2.05 12.61 0.77 8.68 4.58 -0.30 3.70 6.83 0.49 -0.96 6.25 2.59 0.38

Period-II (1998-99 to 2007-08) A PD P 0.47 0.48 0.02 -2.54 -3.20 -0.67 -2.45 1.40 3.94 -0.43 -3.84 -3.42 5.61 11.13 5.23 2.09 2.79 0.68 -3.17 -3.25 -0.09 10.20 22.17 10.86 5.29 9.01 3.53 1.13 3.43 2.27 11.55 17.57 5.39 7.43 1.76 -5.28 17.89 21.17 2.79 3.51 3.16 -0.33 10.66 14.76 3.70 0.93 9.42 8.41 4.15 5.72 1.51 5.84 18.55 12.01 4.98 9.54 4.34 3.70 12.18 8.18 1.09 5.75 4.61 -0.54 1.33 1.88 -1.56 2.55 4.17 1.06 8.47 7.34 2.55 9.02 6.30 2.94 6.85 3.80

*A = area, PD = production, P = productivity

rates for pulse production of India (1.07%) and world (1.38%) was same for the period of 1970-71 to 1998-99. Whereas, in case of pulses acreage growth rate was found negative and non significant. In the present study compound growth rate for Pulses production during period I (1986-87 to 1995-96) in Andhra Pradesh was 1.49 per cent. Thus, it can be concluded that pulses production growth rate was same in Andhra Pradesh, India and the world with least exception of 3 years period. But, in present study, pulses production in post-WTO era (1996-97 to 2005-06) has showed tremendous growth (6.85%) that to more contribution from productivity than area. Reason may be due to effective implementation of Technology mission on pulses since 1990-91 in Andhra Pradesh and more importantly expansion of area of chickpea in rabi season. Extent of instability: Among the districts, during the period I, the lowest and the highest instability in area, production and productivity were respectively recorded in Visakhapatnam (4.86%) and Srikakulam (35.0 %), in Chittoor (12.02%) and East Godavari (86.94%) and in Khammam (7.20 %) and East Godavari (86.71 %) as shown in table 2. During the period II, the lowest and the highest instability in area (3.89 % and 57.31 %), production (15.25 % and 107.46 %)and in productivity (12.07 % and 52.81 %) were registered respectively in Adilabad and Kadapa, Chittoor and Prakasam and in Vizianagaram and Prakasam. During the overall period, the lowest instability in production (13.44 %) and productivity (15.48 %) were recorded

in Chittoor. Whereas, in area (5.02 %) was in Adilabad. But, the highest instability in area (83.53 %), production (168.34 %) and productivity (63.25 %) were recorded in Kadapa. Further, in 12 out of 22 districts, contribution of instability in productivity in relation to variability in area was more towards production fluctuations. Among the regions, during the period I, the lowest instability in production (12.44%) and productivity (13.73 %) were recorded in Coastal Andhra, whereas, in area (6.94 %) was observed in Telangana. The highest instability in area (13.38 %) and production (46.04%) and productivity (39.47 %) were recorded in Rayalaseema. Contribution towards production fluctuations was more by variability in productivity in all regions. During the period II, the lowest instability in area (7.70 %), production (21.00 %) and productivity (14.25 %) were recorded in Coastal Andhra. Where as, the highest in area (32.06%) and production (60.18%) were in Telangana and in productivity (31.95%) was in Coastal Andhra. Contribution towards production variability was more by area variability in Rayalaseema and by instability in productivity in Coastal Andhra and Telangana. During the overall period, the lowest instability in area (8.74%) was noticed in Telangana, whereas, in production (17.74 %) and productivity (13.03 %) were recorded in Coastal Andhra. The highest instability in area (42.56%), production (86.39%) and productivity (40.78%) were recorded in Rayalaseema.

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Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010

Contribution towards production fluctuations was more by instability in productivity in Coastal Andhra and Telangana and by variability in area in Rayalaseema. State as a whole, during the period I, productivity variability (5.06 %) had more influence on production fluctuations (6.37%) than by instability in area (3.23%). During the period II also instability in productivity (18.87%) has more influence on production variability (29.85%) than by instability in area (10.80%). During overall period, instability in production (25.00%) was more than productivity variability (14.67%) and area fluctuations (10.56%). Thus, variability in productivity has more influence on production variability than by area fluctuations. Inter period comparison revealed that instability in area, production and productivity during the period II was more than period I. Shukla (1998), in his interstate analysis of growth and instability in pulses, stated that production of gram was found constant. Whereas, results of present study revealed the production variability (25.00 % CII) during the overall period (1988/89 to 2007/08) was high. Major reason behind this is, majority of pulses are being cultivated under rain fed conditions. Further, it is clear from tables 1 and 2 that growth and instability are going together. That is to say, pulses had instabilized growth.
Table 2.

Above results compelled to identify the high and low productivity level districts from each region and this was done in Fig 1 & 2 by taking one district from each region with low and high PCOPP (Percentage Change Over Previous Period). From high PCOPP (Fig 1) it is clear that though high trend was there in Prakasam and Kadapa, it was accompanied by high fluctuations (This was clear in Table 5). Low or Negetive PCOPP (Fig 2) revealed that there was negative trend in East Godavari and Karim Nagar. Whereas, low stagnant trend was observed in Chittoor. Further, there was uniformity in some years except sharp dip in 2000-01 and rise in 2002-03. Above results helps as pointer for further research in developing region specific strategies. For example for Telangana region, exploring and establishing the factors for high trend in Karimnagar and low trend in Adilabad in different years. Clustering Based on productivity: During the total period (Table 3) three, ten and nine districts were in low, medium and high cluster groups respectively. The high, medium and low cluster districts contributed 38%, 36% and 26% respectively towards state average production (825974 tones). Looking districts r regionwise, two, five and two districts in Coastal Andhra, one, one

Coppocks Instability Indices (CII) of area, production and productivity in Andhra Pradesh during different periods (values given are in %)
Overall period (1988-89 to 2007-08) PD P 36.19 16.34 35.59 18.40 15.94 17.72 39.03 37.64 64.35 30.38 22.08 20.45 27.35 19.34 125.30 47.34 99.15 27.97 17.74 13.03 102.03 43.95 53.02 42.48 168.34 63.25 13.44 15.48 86.39 40.78 42.12 33.11 48.96 45.43 91.71 49.77 51.83 30.50 54.73 41.56 37.94 35.29 18.17 13.74 59.93 29.78 61.85 59.27 32.95 26.62 25.00 14.69 productivity Period-I (1986-87 to 1995-96) PD P 49.22 19.23 39.13 20.85 15.10 11.80 86.94 86.71 55.37 34.52 18.71 14.76 19.16 19.49 43.15 25.12 36.02 13.76 12.44 13.73 61.75 49.98 40.58 37.41 71.07 61.57 12.02 13.65 46.04 39.47 19.39 18.34 49.40 57.37 46.34 32.98 34.61 22.55 28.38 26.41 36.71 35.80 14.18 7.20 39.55 23.71 40.33 39.14 14.65 15.58 6.37 5.06 Period-II (1996-97 to 2005-06) PD P 18.09 12.93 20.14 12.07 16.78 19.19 30.81 30.62 46.07 25.78 25.38 26.12 29.79 17.62 107.46 52.81 80.45 23.29 21.00 14.25 72.05 32.22 46.71 46.00 88.88 31.96 15.25 12.13 60.18 28.32 44.33 40.48 36.49 29.58 84.73 57.49 45.87 28.74 65.69 50.16 40.73 31.97 17.05 12.96 36.81 32.47 42.77 40.00 42.25 31.95 29.85 18.87

Districts and regions A* Srikakulam 24.35 Vizianagaram 19.90 Visakhapatnam 11.71 East Godavari 29.53 West Godavari 38.64 Krishna 12.71 Guntur 17.51 Prakasam 59.63 Nellore 59.82 Coastal Andhra 11.65 Kurnool 56.13 Ananthapur 26.11 Cuddapah 83.53 Chittoor 16.46 Rayalaseema 42.56 Rangareddy 11.77 Nizamabad 15.89 Medak 36.13 Mahaboobnagar 25.95 Nalgonda 17.01 Warangal 18.51 Khammam 21.78 Karimnagar 35.23 Adilabad 5.02 Telangana 8.74 Andhra Pradesh 10.56 *A = area, PD = production, P =

A 35.00 22.77 4.86 41.50 22.16 11.74 9.24 22.76 28.27 12.35 19.86 13.68 17.97 7.14 13.38 6.48 10.65 16.39 21.79 10.88 17.61 8.88 21.96 5.68 6.94 3.23

A 7.77 11.67 8.86 5.16 29.09 11.79 22.89 38.29 50.10 7.70 35.75 20.92 57.31 20.37 32.06 5.51 13.24 21.04 21.26 17.35 10.20 12.14 13.57 3.89 9.82 10.90

Rao : Performance of pulses during pre and post-WTO period in Andhra Pradesh: district wise analysis

139

and two districts in Rayalaseema and none, four and five districts in Telangana were in high, medium and low cluster groups, respectively. From Tables 4 and 5, it is clear that in period-I, 38%, 30% and 32% of state average production was in high, medium and low cluster groups. Whereas, in period-II, a good amount (51%) was in high group clusters. That shows the definite increase in the productivity levels of some districts over the time. During pre-WTO period, two, six and one districts in Coastal Andhra, none, one and three districts in Rayalaseema and none, two and seven districts in Telangana were in high, medium and low cluster groups respectively. So, productivity levels in the districts of Coastal Andhra are higher than Rayalaseema and Telangana. Further, during post-WTO period, three, four and two districts in Coastal Andhra, two, none and two districts in Rayalaseema and none, five and four districts in Telangana were in high, medium and low cluster groups respectively. So, productivity levels in the districts of Coastal Andhra are higher than Rayalaseema and Telangana.
Table 3.
S.N

Table 4.
S.N

Productivity (kg/ha) clusters of different districts in period I (1986-87 to 1995-96)


Cluster-II (Medium) Name Yield W.Godavari 498 Prakasam 462 E.Godavari 443 Srikakulam 429 Visakhapatnam 407 Nellore 384 Kurnool 513 Karim Nagar 428 Khammam 398 Cluster-III (Low) Name Yield Vizianagaram 330 Kadapa 414 Ananthapur 302 Chittoor 243 Nizamabad 387 Ranga Reddy 356 Warangal 331 Medak 327 Nalgonda 283 Mahaboobnagar 243 Adilabad 191 449 314 101 70

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Average 718 % to state 161 productivitya % to state 38 30 32 productionb a State average productivity during total period was 447 kg/ha; b State average production during total period was 699573tones

Cluster-I (High) Name Yield Guntur 732 Krishna 704

Table 5. Productivity (kg/ha) clusters of different districts in total period (1988-89 to 2007-08)
Cluster-II (Medium) Name Yield Prakasam 597 Nellore 473 W.Godavari 469 Visakhapatnam 440 Srikakulam 432 Kadapa 576 Khammam 440 Nizamabad 423 Ranga Reddy 407 Medak 405 670 466 97 36
b

Productivity (kg/ha) clusters of different districts in period II (1996-97 to 2005-06)


Cluster-II (Medium) Name Yield Srikakulam 435 Visakhapatnam 473 W.Godavari 439 Nellore 563 Ranga Reddy 458 Nizamabad 459 Medak 482 Warangal 416 Khammam 482 708 474 137 91 Cluster-III (Low) Name Yield Vizianagaram 369 E.Godavari 319 Chittoor 286 Ananthapur 382 Mahaboobnagar 309 Karim Nagar 367 Adilabad 376 Nalgonda 384 344 66 23
b

S.N

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average % to state productivitya % to state productionb


a

Cluster-I (High) Name Yield Krishna 708 Guntur 699 Kurnool 603

Cluster-III (Low) Name Yield E.Godavari 381 Vizianagaram 350 Ananthapur 342 Chittoor 265 Karim Nagar 398 Warangal 373 Nalgonda 333 Adilabad 283 Mahaboobnagar 276 333 69 26

139 38

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Average % to state productivitya % to state 51 26 productionb a State average productivity during total period was 518 kg/ha; average production during total period was 952375 tones
800

Cluster-I (High) Name Yield Guntur 666 Krishna 713 Prakasam 733 Kadapa 692 Kurnool 737

State

State average productivity during total period was 483 kg/ha; State average production during total period was 825974 tones
1100 1000 900
Productivity (Kg/Ha)
Kadapa

Karim Nagar
700

East Godavari Chittoor

600
Prakasam Adilabad

Productivity (Kg/Ha)
Years

500

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

400

300

200

100

5 6 7 8 9 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -8 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

0
9 0 1 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 -8 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Years

Fig 1. Productivity trends of selected districts with high PCOPP

Fig 2. Productivity trends of selected districts with low PCOPP

140 Table 6.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Cross tabulated growth clusters with instability clusters in total period (1988-89 to 2007-08)
Growth clusters (production in tones) Cluster-II (Medium) A.P* Name A.P* 4543 12760 38938 7 0 111938 Srikakulam 33950 142108 Vizianagaram 20688 25814 43458 39 7 Mahabubnagar 26729 Nizamabad 14939 Ranga Reddy 25489 Nalgonda 30936 Ananthapur 21366 Adilabad 25753 0 17 46 24 Cluster-III (High) Name Karim Nagar W.Godavari Total % to state production**

Instability clusters Cluster-I (Low) Name Cluster-I (Low) Chittoor Visakhapatnam Khammam % to state production of each group Cluster-II (Medium) Krishna Guntur Warangal E.Godavari % to state production of each group Cluster-III (High) % to state production of each group Total % to state production

A.P* 27896 8704 4 -

11

Medak Prakasam Nellore Kurnool Kadapa -

0 44265 76691 11351 60868 21037 26 30

46

43 100

*A.P = Average production in total period for the respective districts, **State average production during total period was 825974 tones

This shows the movements of the some districts from low and medium range to high range from period-I to Period-II. That is to say that five districts viz., Ranga Reddy, Nizamabad, Medak, Nalgonda and Warangal moved from low group to medium group. Whereas, Prakasam and Kurnool districts moved from medium to high groups. But, point of concern is that productivity levels of 11 districts were stagnant. Whereas, three districts Srikakulam, East Godavari and Karim Nagar, were slipped from medium to low productivity cluster groups. Based on growth vis--vis instability: Production growth was 1.49% and 6.85% in P-I and P-II respectively for state as a
Table 7.

whole (Table 1). It looks high but basic fact is that being pulses production base itself is low in the state, if a small change in absolute values will be reflected highly in percentage terms. Looking in isolated manner (Table 6), first from growth rates angle there was 46% of production base was in low category, followed by 30% in high and 24% in medium categories. Where as, from instability angle 46% of production base was in medium category followed by 43% in high and 11% in low categories. Then looking from both viz., growth and instability, the most desirable combination is the district with high growth

Cross tabulated growth clusters with instability clusters in period-I (1986/87 to 1995/96)
Growth clusters (production in tones) Cluster-II (Medium) A.P* Name A.P* 117497 Visakhapatnam 12728 150051 Ranga Reddy 19715 4481 41529 45 4 37377 Vizianagaram 20688 20140 25595 23029 15 3 11130 Prakasam 31345 Nizamabad 12120 Medak 24233 Adilabad 17149 1.5 61.5 12 19 Cluster-III (High) Name Nellore Srikakulam E.Godavari Ananthapur Kurnool Kadapa Total % to state production**

Instability clusters Cluster-I (Low) Name Cluster-I (Low) Krishna Guntur Chittoor Khammam % to state production of each group Cluster-II (Medium) Karim Nagar Mahabubnagar Warangal Nalgonda % to state production of each group Cluster-III (High) W.Godavari % to state production of each group Total % to state production

A.P* 0 5303 1 32118 47271 15880 30383 6484 18.5 19.5

49

19

32 100

*A.P = Average production in period-I for the respective districts, **State average production during l period-I was 699573 tones

Rao : Performance of pulses during pre and post-WTO period in Andhra Pradesh: district wise analysis Table 8. Cross Tabulated Growth Clusters with Instability Clusters in Period-II (1996/97 to 2005/06)
Grow Clusters (production in tones) Cluster-II (Medium) Name A.P* Chittoor 4605 0 Krishna 106379 Karim Nagar 18416 Nizamabad 17758 15 Nellore 17399 Adilabad 34357 Warangal 26032 Ranga Reddy 31264 Mahabubnagar 33318 15 30

141

Instability Clusters Cluster-I (Low) Name Cluster-I (Low) Srikakulam Visakhapatnam Khammam % to state production of each group Cluster-II (Medium) Vizianagaram E.Godavari Guntur % to state production of each group Cluster-III (High) Ananthapur % to state production of each group Total % to state production A.P* 35783 12792 36348 9 23559 39643 134166 21 26852 2 32

Total % to state Cluster-III (High) production** Name A.P* 9 36 W.Godavari 6278 Prakasam 122038 Kurnool 91353 Kadapa 35589 Medak 64298 Nalgonda 38843 38 55 38 100

*A.P = Average production in period-II for the respective districts, **State average production during period-II was 952375 tones

Table 9.

Components of change in average production in Pulses between period I and II


Change in mean yield 12.57 36.87 3214.54 204.19 26.38 -12.95 84.84 19.92 20.29 4.10 16.85 38.14 16.96 631.29 28.03 48.93 40.82 27.84 41.79 52.21 1534.69 -168.21 27.52 96.72 76.31 43.91 Change in mean area 78.27 56.95 -2545.04 -146.35 79.67 109.22 20.77 43.98 48.95 85.12 57.98 51.57 43.75 -426.40 45.11 38.03 44.12 43.31 43.93 29.68 -1264.71 217.78 82.57 1.18 12.87 44.87 Sources of change (%) Changes in mean area and mean yield 1.12 6.82 -416.10 47.77 -9.36 1.34 -1.86 25.70 22.93 0.59 20.23 13.64 34.19 -74.59 22.70 10.88 8.18 20.41 12.02 10.62 -325.78 45.88 -11.63 1.15 3.53 7.12 Changes in area and yield covariance 8.04 -0.63 -153.40 -5.61 3.30 2.39 -3.76 10.40 7.84 10.19 4.94 -3.36 5.10 -30.31 4.15 2.17 6.87 8.44 2.26 7.49 155.80 4.55 1.54 0.95 7.29 4.10

Districts and Regions Srikakulam Vizianagaram Visakhapatnam East Godavari West Godavari Krishna Guntur Prakasam Nellore Coastal Andhra Kurnool Ananthapur Cuddapah Chittoor Rayalaseema Rangareddy Nizamabad Medak MahaboobNagar Nalgonda Warangal Khammam Karim Nagar Adilabad Telangana Andhra Pradesh

and low instability (top-right corner group), where as, opposite (bottom-left corner group) is most undesirable group. There was 39% of production base was in L-M (low growth and Medium Instability) category. Followed by 26% in H-H category. But, point of concern is that nearly 18% of production base is in M-H category. Tables 7 and 8 shows that in period-I (pre-WTO era), 62% of state production base was in low growth category, followed by 19% equally in medium and high categories. Whereas, in instability scenario, 49% of the state production

was in low category, followed by 33% in high and 18% in medium category. Looking from both (growth and Instability) 45% of production was in L-L category, followed by 19% in HH category. It reveals that growth and instability are going together. Looking through Tables 7 and 8, reveals that except three districts viz., Khammam (L-L), Kadapa and Kurnool (HH), all the districts moved from one category to another category from period-I to period-II. Majority of the districts moved from low growth category to medium and towards high

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Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010

groups, in instability also same trend was observed. The fact established here is that growth and instability are going together. Most undesirable movement is in the direction from Top-Right corner (H-L group) to Down-Left corner (L-H group) like Nellore districts movement from H-M group to M-H group. Other undesirable movements are from right to left Horizontally like Visakhapatnam (from M-L to L-L), Vizianagaram (from MM to L-M) etc., and movement from top to bottom vertically like Ranga Reddy (from (M-L to M-H) etc. Concern about movement from top-left corner to bottom-right corner and opposite direction depends upon production base. That is, if production base is high generally then low instability at the cost of growth is desirable, whereas, at low production base high growth is desirable at the cost of fluctuations. Decomposition analysis (change in average production): Among the districts, in thirteen districts change in mean area has more effect on average production differential than by other components of change (Table 9). The highest mean area effect was recorded in Khammam (217.78%). Where as, highest change in mean yield (3214.54%) was noticed in Visakhapatnam. Further, in majority of districts (13 out of 22) mean area effect was higher than other components. Among the regions, from period I to period II change in mean yield was higher than other components of change in

Telangana, where as, change in mean area was higher in Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema, of which, the highest was in Coastal Andhra (85.12%). State as a whole, effect of change in mean area (44.87%) was marginally higher than mean yield (43.91), mean area and yield (7.12%) and area and yield covariance (4.10%). Thus, change in mean area and mean yield has equal destabilizing effect on average production differential between the periods I and II. REFERENCES
Hazell PBR. 1982. Instability in Indian food grain production. Research Report 30, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA. Hazell PBR. 1984. Sources of increased instability in India and US cereal production. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 66 : 302-311. Jayadevan CM. 1991. Instability in wheat production in M.P. Agricultural Situation in India 46 (4): 219-223. Rangi PS, Jagdeep Kaur and Marsimran Kaur. 2002. Present status and future prospects of pulses in India. Economic Affairs 47 : 32-36. Shah D and Shah D. 1997. Food grain production in India: a drive towards self-sufficiency. Artha Vijnana 39 : 219-239. Shukla ND. 1998. Growth and instability in pulse production. An interstate analysis. Agricultural Situation in India 54 : 639-645.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 143-145, 2010

Short Communication

Combining ability for yield and its components in fieldpea


INDERJIT SINGH, J.S. SANDHU and JOHAR SINGH Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India; E-mail: inderjitpau@rediffmail.com
(Received: March, 2009; Accepted: August 2010) The knowledge of combining ability is useful in the selection of parents and hybrids which can provide superior progenies for the characters of interest. It also provides information about nature of gene action and the relative magnitude of fixable and non-fixable genetic variation to follow up the sound breeding programme. Studies based on combining ability analysis have been made earlier in fieldpea to study gene effects and genetic worth of parents (Bhardwaj and Kohli 1998, Kumar et al. 2006). The line x tester analysis was adopted in the present study on fieldpea to gather information on general and specific combining abilities and estimating various types of gene effects involved in various quantitative characters. Sixty F1 hybrids of fieldpea developed by line x tester mating design involving 20 diverse and homozygous lines of fieldpea and three testers (Table 2) were grown along with twenty-three parents in a randomized complete block design with two replications at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during rabi 2006-07. Observations were taken on five competitive and randomly taken plants on different traits (Table 2). The data was subjected to line x tester analysis as per procedure given by Kampthorne (1957). The average degree of dominance was also calculated as (s2 sca/2s2 gca)0.5. Variation due to lines and lines x testers were highly significant for all the characters, whereas variation due to testers was found to be significant for all the characters except days to maturity and primary branches per plant (Table 1). The estimates of sca variances were much higher than the
Table 1.

gca variances for all the characters indicating importance of non-additive gene effects than additive gene effects. The higher magnitude of sca variance as compared to gca variance has been reported earlier (Bhardwaj and Kohli 1998, Kumar et al. 2006). The average degree of dominance indicated over dominance for all the characters studied except plant height as their average degree of dominance values were greater than unity indicating predominance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of these characters. Predominance of nonadditive gene action has been reported earlier for yield and its components by Kumar et al. (2006); Singh and Singh (2003); Singh and Singh (1990) and Singh et al.(1987). For days to flowering DDR 23, LFP 41, EC 334160 and LFP 446 have significant negative gca effects. For days to maturity the genotype DDR 23, followed by LFP 202, KPMR 752, EC 502159, EC 385246 and NDDP 5-12 have high significant gca effects indicating their usefulness for getting short duration recombinants. For plant height, genotype EC 389374 followed by DDR 23, LFP 362, EC 385246, LFP 363, LFP 305, KPMR 752, IFPD 5-8, NDDP 5-12 and LFP 210A have high negative gca effects showing their importance for developing dwarf pure lines from their progenies. Genotypes P 2005, EC 389374, LFP 207A, LFP 210A and PG 3 have shown significant positive gca effect for primary branches per plant. The genotypes DDR 23, LFP 207A, LFP 202, EC 334160, P 289, LFP 446, PG 3 and HFP 8909 appeared to be good general combiners for number of pods per plant. For seeds per pod LFP 413, LFP 363,

Analysis of variance, estimates of combining ability variance and degree of dominance in fieldpea
DF Days to flowering (no) 47.75* 112.30** 125.52** 31.17** 25.45** 222.78** 43.22** 88.57** 19.41** 21.79** 1.00 1.40 10.40 1.93 Days to maturity (no) 50.98* 55.95** 64.57** 2.00 0.06 5.31 32.80** 84.43** 1.58 8.63** 1.27 1.49 3.68 1.11 Plant height (cm) 160.02* 1700.86** 1962.89** 10.17 103.70** 1062.22** 1807.90** 5024.11** 280.03** 280.21** 8.90 103.12 135.66 0.81 Primary branches/ plant (no) 4.72* 3.60** 3.81** 2.00** 2.74** 0.62 2.96** 7.32** 0.41 0.91** 0.17 0.13 0.37 1.19 Pods/ plant (no) 520.68* 323.26** 220.19** 151.17* 2625.67** 3412.92** 699.61** 917.50** 1377.32** 554.99** 29.71 25.76 262.64 2.26 Seeds/ pod (no) 0.02 0.29** 0.34** 0.01 0.01 0.34** 0.31** 0.60** 0.29** 0.16** 0.04 0.018 0.057 1.54 100-seed weight (g) 0.35 29.11** 32.96** 6.13** 1.85 45.28** 23.06** 58.71** 9.11** 5.97** 0.52 1.21 2.72 1.06 Seed yield/ plant (g) 79.67* 105.22** 114.84** 26.17** 80.55** 1120.24** 196.95** 284.99** 56.15** 160.33** 3.70 0.45 78.31 9.33

Source of variation

Replications Parents Lines Testers Lines vs testers Parents vs crosses Crosses Lines Testers Lines testers Error 2 gca 2 sca (2 sca/2 2 gca)0.5

1 22 19 2 1 1 51 19 2 28 82

144 Table 2.
Parents

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2), 2010 Estimates of general combining ability (gca) effects of parents in fieldpea
Days to 50% flowering (no) 1.99** (83.50) 0.99* (80.00) -1.68* (78.00) -0.34 (80.00) 1.99** (82.00) 2.99** (85.00) 8.16** (90.00) -0.34 (84.00) 4.99** (86.00) -0.68 (89.00) -5.84** (78.00) -9.68** (54.00) -3.68** (71.00) -1.34* (79.00) -1.68** (77.00) 1.82** (82.00) 1.66** (79.00) -3.01** (68.00) 1.82** (81.00) 1.82** (81.00) 0.40 0.58 0.33* (74.00) -0.80** (76.00) 0.47** (81.50) 0.13 0.22 Days to maturity (no) 5.71** (146.50) 3.54** (140.50) 0.21 (140.00) 0.04 (140.00) -3.29** (143.00) -1.46** (140.00) 3.21** (142.50) -1.63** (142.00) 2.54** (143.00) 0.71 (143.00) 1.21** (143.00) -11.96**(119.00) -0.63 (141.00) -2.46** (140.50) -1.79** (131.00) -1.13* (141.50) 4.71** (146.50) -0.46 (110.50) -0.476 (139.00) 3.38** (142.00) 0.45 0.65 0.23** (139.00) -0.12 (140.00) -0.12 (141.00) 0.15 0.25 Plant height (cm) -18.56** (55.50) -16.89** (61.00) -23.39** (23.00) -20.56* (53.00) 46.11** (132.50) -15.23** (65.00) -13.39** (58.50) -11.06** (70.00) 2.61* (75.50) 57.78** (119.00) 38.11** (123.00) -31.89** (40.00) 28.77** (115.00) 39.44** (119.50) -22.89** (64.50) -38.39** (47.50) 32.77** (112.50) -11.89** (75.00) -12.89** (95.50) -8.56** (57.50) 1.19 1.72 2.43** (77.00) 0.38 (81.50) -2.82** (19.00) 0.17 0.39 Primary branches/ plant (no) -1.07 (2.50) -6.07** (2.00) -0.40* (2.00) 0.10 (2.00) -0.73** (2.00) -0.07 (2.50) 0.10 (3.00) -0.40* (4.00) -0.57** (3.50) 0.43** (2.00) 0.10 (3.00) -1.07** (1.00) -0.57** (1.50) -0.73** (2.50) -0.73** (2.50) 0.93** (3.00) 4.10** (7.50) 0.43** (2.00) -0.23 (2.00) 0.43** (4.50) 0.17 0.24 -0.06 (4.50) 0.12* (3.50) -0.06 (2.50) 0.05 0.09 Pods/ plant (no) -9.41** (33.00) 5.09* (52.50) -17.91** (44.50) - 4.41* (44.50) 12.76** (44.50) -5.74** (37.00) -9.24** (12.00) -11.58** (33.00) -7.24** (52.50) 10.26** (60.50) 2.42 (41.00) 24.42** (22.50) 15.42** (42.50) -4.08 (48.00) -1.41 (36.50) 5.42* (33.00) -16.41** (49.00) 8.59** (49.00) 19.42** (67.50) -16.41** (33.50) 2.17 3.15 -6.70** (56.00) 4.22** (69.00) 2.47** (72.50) 0.70 1.22 Seeds/ pod (no) 0.53** (3.40) -0.02 (4.74) -0.20* (4.15) 0.38** (3.55) 0.17* (4.00) 0.80** (3.40) 0.38** (4.15) -0.04 (3.30) -0.30** (4.05) -0.27** (3.50) -0.15 (3.05) 0.20* (3.35) -0.40** (3.25) -0.22** (3.60) -0.32** (3.45) -0.18* (3.30) 0.03 (3.30) -0.12 (3.60) -0.08 (3.50) -0.19* (3.50) 0.08 0.12 -0.01 (3.60) 0.09** (3.58) -0.08** (3.60) 0.03 0.05 100seed weight (g) 0.93** (23.00) 0.92** (21.25) 0.52 (20.50) 0.25 (20.50) -1.62** (22.20) 3.58** (23.75) 1.52** (24.00) 0.02 (16.50) 1.85** (24.50) 1.02** (23.00) -0.82** (18.20) -2.82** (22.75) -0.48 (19.75) 1.18** (19.00) 1.02** (24.50) 1.52** (21.10) -10.23** (7.75) 1.10** (21.75) -4.32** (1.00) 4.85** (22.00) 0.29 0.42 0.45** (23.00) -0.50** (19.50) 0.052 (1.25) 0.09 0.16 Seed yield/ plant (g) -5.80** (21.00) -7.72** (20.50) -7.22** (37.00) -0.55 (28.75) 3.61** (30.00) 3.45** (28.00) -1.55* (24.00) -5.22** (16.00) 0.11 (25.50) 2.61** (36.50) 1.11 (20.50) 9.45** (17.50) 11.45** (26.00) -2.55** (31.00) 0.11 (24.00) 6.95** (17.00) -18.39** (11.00) 5.11** (27.00) 7.11** (17.00) 2.05** (25.00) 0.77 1.11 1.35** (31.00) 0.51* (31.50) 0.85** (25.00) 0.25 0.43

Females (Lines) LFP 413 LFP 305 LFP 362 LFP 363 LFP 202 KPMR 752 IFPD 5-8 NDDP 5-12 KPMR 760 LFP 207A LFP 41 DDR 23 EC 334160 EC 502159 EC 385246 EC 389374 P 2005 (local collection) LFP 446 P 289 (Germplasm line) LFP 210A SE (gi) female SE (gi-gi) Males LFP 48 PG 3 HFP 8909 SE (gi ) males SE (gi-gi)

Table 3.

Crosses showing significant desirable sca effects for eight metric traits in fieldpea
Crosses DDR 23 x LFP 48 LFP 305 x LFP 48 P 2005 x PG 3 KPMR 760 x LFP 48 P 2005 x LFP 48 LFP 305 x LFP 48 DDR 23 x LFP 48 NDDP 5-12 x HFP 8909 EC 334160 x LFP 48 LFP 207A x HFP 8909 LFP 202 x HFP 8909 LFP 202 x LFP 48 EC 385246 x HFP 8909 EC 389374 x LFP 48 LFP 207A x HFP 8909 P 2005 x LFP 48 LFP 202 x HFP 8909 LFP 207A x HFP 8909 LFP 413 x HFP 8909 P 289 x PG 3 LFP 413 x HFP 8909 P 2005 x LFP 48 LFP 305 x PG 3 LFP 446 x LFP 48 LFP 202 x HFP 8909 KPMR 752 x HFP 8909 NDDP 5-12 x HFP 8909 LFP 207A x PG 3 LFP 202 x HFP 8909 EC 334160 x LFP 48 LFP 207A x PG 3 LFP 413 x HFP 8909 sca effects -10.33** - 3.99** - 3.53** - 2.99** - 4.23** - 2.57** - 2.57** - 2.55** -29.05** -22.85** -14.18** -13.43** 1.06** 0.89** 0.89** 0.73** 46.69** 20.69** 19.36** 16.78** 0.65** 0.47** 0.43** 0.42** 2.85** 2.80** 2.61** 2.17** 29.99** 14.35** 12.33** 8.90** gca of parents HxL LxL LxH LxL LxM LxM HxM MxM LxL LxH LxH LxL LxM HxM HxM HxM HxH HxH LxH HxH HxL MxM MxH MxM LxM HxM MxM HxL HxH HxH HxM LxH

Character Days to 50% flowering (no)

Days to maturity (no)

Plant height (cm)

Branches/plant (no)

Pods/plant (no)

Seeds/pod (no)

100-seed weight (g)

Seed yield/plant (g)

Singh et al.: Combining ability for yield and its components in fieldpea

145

KPMR 752, IFPD 5-8, FP 289 and PG 3 were found to be good general combiners. The genotypes LFP 210A, KPMR 752, LFP 413, LFP 305, IFPD 5-8, EC 502159, EC 385246, EC 389394 and LFP 48 showed significant positive gca effects for 100-seed weight. The gca effects of the genotypes EC 334160, DDR 23, EC 389374, P 289, LFP 446, LFP 210A, PG 3 and HFP 8909 were positive and significant and might be useful for identifying high yielding recombinants. The crosses DDR 23 LFP 48, LFP 305 LFP 48, P 2005 PG 3 and KPMR 760 LFP 48 showed significant desirable negative sca effects for days to flowering (Table 3). The crosses P 2005 LFP 48, LFP 305 LFP 48, DDR 23 x LFP 48 and NDDP 5-12 HFP 8909 showed significant desirable sca effects alongwith desirable low mean values for days to maturity. The crosses EC 334160 LFP 48, LFP 207A HFP 8909, LFP 202 HFP 8909 and LFP 202 LFP 48 showed significant sca effects alongwith desirable low mean values for plant height. The crosses important for branches per plant were EC 385248 HFP 8909, EC 389374 LFP 48, LFP 207A HFP 8909 and P 2005 LFP 48 with significant positive sca effects. The crosses LFP 202 HFP 8909, LFP 207A HFP 8909, LFP 413 HFP 8909 and P 289 PG 3 recorded significant sca effects as well as high per se performance for pods per plant. For seeds per pod, the crosses LFP 413 HFP 8909, P 2005 LFP 48, LFP 305 PG 3 and LFP 446 LFP 48 had significant positive sca effects for seeds per pod. The crosses LFP 202 HFP 8909, KPMR 752 HFP 8909, NDDP 5-12 HFP 8909 and LFP 207A PG 3 showed significant and positive sca effects for 100-seed weight. For seed yield per plant the cross combinations viz. LFP 202 HFP 8909, EC 334160 LFP 48, LFP 207A PG 3 and LFP 413 HFP 8909 recorded the significant positive sca effects.

The parents namely DDR 23, LFP 305, LFP 48 and KPMR 760 for earliness, LFP 202, LFP 413 and LFP 207A for pods per plant, LFP 413 for seeds per pod, KPMR 752 and NDDP 5-12 for 100-seed weight and EC 334160, LFP 202, LFP 207A for seed yield per plant were found good general combiners. The cross combination LFP 202 HFP 8909 was best for pods per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and plant height. The desirable cross combinations included high high and high medium types of general combiners. The crosses like LFP 202 HFP 8909 and EC 334160 LFP 48 for seed yield and crosses LFP 202 HFP 8909 and LFP 207A HFP 8909 for pods per plant with high sca involving parents with good gca can be exploited effectively by conventional breeding methods like pedigree selection. However, those crosses which involved one good combiner and other medium combiner could be exploited through selection followed by intermating of segregants in early generation. REFERENCES
Bhardwaj RK and Kohli UK. 1998. Combining ability analysis for some important yield traits in garden pea ( Pisum sativum L.). Crop Research, Hissar 15 : 245-249. Kempthorne O. 1957. An Introduction to Genetic Statistics. The IOWA State University Press, IOWA. Kumar S, Srivastava RK and Singh R. 2006. Combining ability for yield and its component traits in field pea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 19 : 173-175. Singh BB, Singh UP, Singh RM and Rai B.1987. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in field pea. Journal of Agriculture Science, Cambridge 109 : 67-71. Singh JD and Singh IP. 2003. Combining ability analysis in field pea (Pisum sativum L.). Indian Journal of Pulses Research 16 : 98-100. Singh MN and Singh RB. 1990. Estimates of additive, dominance and epistatic interaction effects for certain yield characters in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 50 : 348-353.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 146-148, 2010

Short Communication

Genetical analysis and heterosis for green pod yield and its components in pea
K.P. SINGH*, H.C. SINGH, B. SINGH and J.D. SINGH Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding; C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur208 002; E-mail: koshendra63@gmail.com
(Received: June, 2009; Accepted: October, 2010) Information on gene action for yield and its components is pre-requisite for planning of an effective breeding strategy. Yield is the end product of the action and interaction of a number of quantitative components. Such characters are often controlled by large number of genes which individually have small effects. The environmental contribution to the variation of these characters is also appreciable. The study of the gene action of quantitative characters of economic value is essential to improve the yield potential. The heterosis on the other hand plays a significant role in improving any character of economic value. In self-pollinated crops like peas, its exploitation is most important as the crop is significant both as grain and vegetables for the country like India. Thus in the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the genetics and extent of heterosis of green pod yield and yield traits to isolate desirable recombinants involving field and table pea genotypes. The material comprising four field pea varieties/strains i.e. Rachna, KPMR-65, KPMR-184, mutant of P-43 and six table pea varieties/strains i.e. KS-136, KS-195, KS225, KS-226, Azad P-1 and Azad P-3, was raised in crossing block and all possible combinations were made to obtain 45 crosses. The final experiment comprising of 45 genotypes, F1s and F2s alongwith their parents were sown in a Randomized Block Design in three replications at Vegetable Research Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during rabi 2003-04.Each plot consisted of five meter row length with spacing of 45 x 15 cm between rows and plants. All recommended practices were followed to raise a good crop. Ten random plants in each of parents and F1s and 20 plants from each F2 per replications were scored for nine characters. The components analysis of diallel cross were carried out following Hayman (1954). The analysis of variance indicated appreciable genetic variability among the parents and hybrids for almost all the traits under study. Over dominance of consistent nature was observed by component analysis (H1/D)1/2 for all the characters in both the generations except for days to flowering in F1 and F2 and days to maturity and pod length in F1 only (Table 1). The presence of over dominance might be due to linkage in F2 which caused an upward estimation of dominance from F2 population (Moll et al. 1964), while (Mather 1955) pointed out that over dominance might be attributed due to epistatic interaction. Complete to over dominance was also reported for grain yield and its components by (Kumar et al. 2006, Singh et al. 2006). Conversion of partial dominance into over dominance might be attributed to gene combination, like positive allele, negative allele complementary gene action or simply correlated gene distribution (Hayman 1954). Partial dominance was also reported by Srivastava et al. (1986) for days to flowering, node number up to the first pod and seed yield, (Singh et al. 1986) for pods per plant, seeds per pod in F2 and for pod number, seed number per plant, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant (Singh et al. 2006). The estimates of F were positive and significant based on both the generations for days to flowering and days to maturity and for pod length in F2. The estimate of h2 was positive for all the traits except days to flowering in F1 and green pod yield in F2 generation. The significant and positive values of F and h2 indicated that dominant genes exhibited significant role in the control of these characters viz., days to flowering and maturity in F2, plant height, number of pods per plant, pod length and harvest index in both F1 and F2 and node number of first pod formed, number of productive branches and green pod yield in F1 and days to flowering and maturity in F2 only (for h2). The above findings for these traits are in accordance with earlier reports of Koranne and Singh (1974), Sharma et al. (1977) and Verma (1978). The proportion of positive and negative alleles in the parents (H2/4H1) was not equal to the theoretical values of 0.25 in all the characters in both F1 and F2 generations which indicated that positive and negative genes were distributed asymmetrically as also reported by Srivastava (1982). In the present study, the ratio of (4DH1)1/2 + F/(4DH1)1/2 F indicated that the dominant alleles were more frequent than recessive ones for all the characters except for plant height, number of pods per plant and harvest index in both F1 and F2 generations. Similar findings were also recorded for most of the characters studied in pea (Koranne and Singh 1974, Srivastava et al. 1986) The ratio of (h2/H2) was less than unity for all the

*Author for correspondence, Present address : A.S.P.O., Section of Seed and Farms, C.S.A. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002, India

Singh et al.: Genetical analysis and heterosis for green pod yield and its components in pea Table 1. Estimates of genetic components of variation in F1 and F2 progenies for nine characters in pea
Genetic parameters D H1 H2 h2 F E (H1/D)1/2 H2/4H1 (4DH1)1/2+F /(4DH1)1/2 F h2/H2 r t2 value Days to flowering F1 147.07** 2.25 26.90** 4.78 19.86** 4.06 -0.07 2.72 52.32** 5.18 0.55 0.68 0.43 0.18 2.42 0.00 -0.45 0.72 F2 147.22** 2.34 130.14** 19.88 107.66** 16.90 27.52** 2.83 96.97** 10.78 0.41 0.70 0.94 0.21 2.08 0.26 0.33 0.06 Days to maturity (edible pods) F1 F2 172.95** 172.78** 4.11 3.34 46.74** 201.62** 8.75 28.47 31.71** 152.79** 7.44 24.20 0.00 52.53 ** 4.98 4.05 70.22** 156.36** 9.48 15.43 0.36 0.52 1.24 1.01 0.52 1.08 0.17 0.19 2.28 2.44 0.00 -0.22 1.34 0.34 0.22 0.06 Plant height (cm) F1 3167.50** 304.18 5133.79** 647.48 4179.37** 550.29 5021.65** 368.34 -1962.85** 701.84 8.80 91.71 1.27 0.20 0.61 1.20 -0.91 3.81 F2 3165.93** 142.30 8775.41** 1211.56 6582.54** 1029.69 2108.28** 172.31 -1591.27* 656.64 10.37 42.90 1.66 0.19 0.74 0.32 -0.89 2.20

147

Productive branches/plant (no) F1 F2 0.19** 0.19** 0.06 0.04 0.82** 1.12** 0.13 0.31 0.58** 0.86** 0.11 0.26 1.00** 0.00 0.07 0.04 0.24 0.19 0.14 0.17 0.0.1 0.00 0.02 0.01 2.11 2.40 0.18 0.19 1.87 1.53 1.73 -0.63 3.58 0.00 -0.36 1.19

Table1. Contd..
Genetic parameters D H1 H2 h2 F E (H1/D)1/2 H2/4H1 (4DH1)1/2+F /(4DH1)1/2 F h2/H2 r t2 value Pods/plant (no) F1 F2 11.79 13.35** 23.25 4.19 245.66** 120.23** 49.49 35.71 200.94** 102.37** 42.06 30.35 745.50** 29.80** 28.15 5.08 -5.25 -11.46 53.64 19.35 2.14 0.58 7.01 1.26 4.56 3.00 0.20 0.21 0.91 0.75 3.71 -0.70 6.56* 0.29 -0.84 4.83* Pod length (cm) F1 F2 1.79** 1.79** 0.04 0.03 0.33** 1.47** 0.08 0.29 0.29** 2.24** 0.06 0.25 0.18** 0.38** 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.35* 0.08 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.43 1.17 0.22 0.23 1.00 1.18 0.60 -0.67 0.72 0.17 0.66 1.19 Developed ovules/pod (no) F1 F2 0.80** 0.80** 0.24 0.13 2.21** 5.63** 0.52 1.14 1.65** 4.35** 0.44 0.97 0.15 0.05 0.29 0.16 0.23 0.43 0.56 0.62 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.04 1.66 2.65 0.19 0.19 1.19 1.23 0.09 -0.13 2.79 0.01 -0.07 6.19* Harvest index (%) F1 F2 26.82** 26.80** 2.88 2.37 34.12** 146.52** 6.14 20.20 30.86** 102.22** 5.22 17.16 16.28** 11.63** 3.49 2.87 -5.65 -2.83 6.66 10.95 0.16 0.18 0.87 0.72 1.13 2.34 0.23 0.17 0.83 0.96 0.53 0.62 1.69 0.11 0.54 2.34 Green pod yield/plant (no) F1 F2 1002.60** 1008.63** 92.89 55.03 2376.43** 2185.69** 197.73 468.54 2281.17** 2030.71** 168.05 398.20 6919.85** -2.68 112.49 66.64 189.78 184.81 214.33 253.94 14.33 8.30 28.01 16.59 1.54 1.47 0.24 0.23 1.13 1.13 3.03 -0.80 0.03 0.00 0.32 0.24

*, ** Significant at P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively

character in both the generations except for plant height, number of productive branches, number of pods per plant and green pod yield per plant in F1 generation only, which indicated that the inheritance of the characters was governed by one major gene group. The remaining characters in their respective generations having higher value than unity indicated that more than one gene group was involved in the inheritance of these characters. Complementary gene interaction also seems to depress the ratio (Liang and Walter 1968). The genetic system controlling these important quantitative traits showed a role of dominance as well as

additive gene action (Kumar et al. 2006, Singh et al. 1988). Cross combinations KS 226/Azad P-1, KPMR-184/ KS-136, KS-225/Azad P-3, KS-195/KS-226, KS-195/Azad P-3 and KS-136/KS-225 showed more than 50% (50.48 69.82%) economic heterosis over Azad P-1 for green pod yield (Table 2). The crosses showing high heterosis also showed high inbreeding depression in F2 generations (25.78 to 48.39%. Gupta et al. (2003) and Singh et al. (2005) also reported similar results. However, few cross combinations namely, KS-226/Azad P-1, KS-195/KS-225 and KS-195/KS-226 showed high economic heterosis for pod yield per plant with comparatively

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contributory characters in pea. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 44 : 294-298. Kumar Manoj and Tewatia AS. 2005. Heterosis in pea ( Pisum sativum L.) Haryana Agriculture University Journal Research 34 : 27-33. Kumar Subhash, Srivastava RK and Singh Ranjeet. 2006. Combining ability for yield and its component traits in field pea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 19 : 173-175. Liang GHL and Walter TL. 1968. Heritability estimates and gene effects for agronomic traits in grain sorghum. Crop Science 8 : 77-80. Mather K. 1955. The genetical basis of heterosis. Proceedings Royal Society of Botany 144 : 143-150. Moll RH, Lindsey MF and Robinson HF. 1964. Estimates of genetic variances and level of dominance in maize. Genetics 49 : 411-423. Sharma RP, Nandpuri KS and Kumar JC. 1977. Mode of inheritance of yield, number of pods, days to first flowering and plant height in pea. Indian Journal of Horticulture 34 : 157-162. Singh AP, Singh GP and Singh AK. 1993. Variability studies in tall and dwarf peas. Crop Research 6 : 239-242. Singh HC, Srivastava RL and Singh Rajendra. 2006. Additive, dominance and epistatic components of variation for some metric traits in field pea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 19 : 170-172. Singh HG, Singh V and Srivastava RL. 1989. Additive, dominance and epistatic components of variation for economic traits in field pea. In: National Symposium of Recent Advances on Genetics and Plant Breeding Research in India. Nov. 15-16, 1989, BHU Varanasi, VI14, 0-26. Singh HG, Tyagi HN and Mishra LB. 2005. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield and some yield components in pea ( Pisum sativum L.). Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 8 : 1447-1452. Singh KN, Santoshi Singh U and Singh HG. 1986. Genetic analysis of yield components in pea. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 56 : 757-764. Singh UP, Singh BB, Singh RM and Singh RK. 1988. Additive, dominance and epistatic components of variation for economic traits in field pea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 1 : 1-5. Srivastava RL. 1982. Genetic parameters of breeding values in pea. Ph.D. Thesis, C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. Srivastava RL, Santoshi US and Singh HG. 1986. Diallel and partial diallel analysis of some yield components in pea. Genetika 18 : 3541 . Verma HS. 1978. Genetic analysis of yield and its components in table pea. Ph.D. Thesis, Kanpur University, Kanpur.

Table 2. Top ten crosses for economic heterosis in pea


Name of the cross KS-226 Azad P-1 KPMR-184 KS-136 KS-225 Azad P-3 KS-195 KS-226 KS-195 Azad P-3 KS-136 KS-225 KPMR-65 KS-225 KS-225 Azad P-1 Rachna Azad P-3 KS-195 KS-225 Economic heterosis (%) 69.82** 66.90** 64.52** 64.21** 55.40** 50.48** 49.31** 42.12** 39.93** 39.07** Inbreeding depression (%) 25.78** 48.39** 38.11** 29.96** 34.71** 27.49** 30.77** 20.54** 37.00** 12.33** Characters exhibiting desirable significant economic heterosis IV, V, VI, VII IV, V, VII I, IV, V IV, V IV, V, VII IV, V, VI, VII IV, V IV, V, VI, VII, IV, V IV, V

I: Days to flowering, II: Days to maturity, III: Plant height, IV: Number of productive branches/plant, V: Number of pods/plant, VI: Pod length, VII: Number of developed ovules/pod, VIII: Harvest index **Significant at P = 0.01

low inbreeding depression. The increase in pod yield in these crosses might be due to gene interaction of which substantial part could be due to fixable gene effect i.e. additive type. Thus, these crosses may likely produce some desirable transgressive segregants in advance generations as was also suggested by Brim and Cockerham (1961) and Singh et al. (1993). Further, these crosses also showed significant heterosis for other attributes with low inbreeding depression reflecting that more emphasis could be placed on these attributes during selection (Kumar and Tewatia 2005) were in view of above results. Cross combinations namely, KPMR-184/KS-136, KS225/Azad P-3, KS-195/KS-226 and KS-195/Azad P-3 showed high economic heterosis and comparatively high inbreeding depression which might be due to non-allelic gene interactions as also reported by Jatasra and Paroda (1979) in wheat crop. REFERENCES
Brim CA and Cockerham CC. 1961. Inheritance of quantitative characters in soybeans. Crop Science 1 : 189-190. Gupta D, Semwal BD and Srivastava JP. 2003. Heterosis in table pea. Progressive Agriculture 3 : 95-98. Hayman BI. 1954. The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Genetics 39 : 789-809. Jatasara DS and Paroda RS. 1979. Stability for synchrony traits in wheat. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 39 : 378-382. Koranne KD and Singh HB. 1974. Genetic analysis of yield and yield

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 149-151, 2010

Short Communication

Integrated nutrient management in lentil with organic manures, chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers
GURIQBAL SINGH, NAVNEET AGGARWAL and VEENA KHANNA Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab, India; Email: singhguriqbal@rediffmail.com
(Received: July, 2010; Accepted: September, 2010) Nutrient application is essential to improve growth and yield of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus). Due to intensive cropping systems, soils are becoming deficient in macro as well as micro nutrients. The organic matter content in the soil is declining which also affects the soil microflora. Hence the logical alternative is to increase the usage of organic manures and biofertilizers. Lentil is known to respond to applications of nutrients (Singh et al. 2000), farmyard manure (FYM) (Singh et al. 2003) and Rhizobium inoculation (Singh et al. 2000). Nutrient requirement of the crop can be met by supplying nutrients through chemical fertilizers, organic manures such as FYM or vermicompost or through the use of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB). However, the information on integrated use of organic manures, chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers on the growth, symbiotic parameters and yield of lentil are meagre. A field experiment was conducted during rabi (winter) season 2008-09 at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to study the effect of organic manures, chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers on symbiotic efficacy, growth and yield of lentil. The soil of the experimental field was loamy sand with pH 8.0 and testing low in organic carbon (0.30%) and available nitrogen (110 kg/ha) and medium in available phosphorus (15.2 kg/ha) and potash (295 kg/ha). Ten treatments, given in Tables 1 and 2 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. In the treatment of recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) 20 kg N/ ha and 40 kg P2O5/ha was applied through urea (46% N) and single superphosphate (16% P2O5), respectively. In Rhizobium + PSB treatments, seed was inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum and Bacillus sp. each @ 500 g/ha seed using minimum amount of water. Prior to sowing the inoculated seed was shade dried for about one hour. Chemical fertilizers and organic manures (FYM and vermicompost) were applied as per the treatments just before sowing. The cultivar LL 699 was sown on 22 November 2008 in rows 22.5 cm apart using a seed rate of 35 kg/ha. Weeds were managed manually by hand weeding at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and 60 DAS. No infestation of any insect pests or disease was observed and therefore no chemicals were sprayed. Data on number and dry weight of nodules/plant were recorded 60 and 90 DAS by digging five plants from each plot. Number of nodules/plant were counted and then dried to get nodule weight/plant. Five plants were sampled 90 DAS for measuring shoot dry weight. Dry weight of the nodules and shoots were recorded by drying samples in an oven at 60oC for 72 hours. Chlorophyll content in the leaves were measured at 90 DAS as per the method described by Witham et al. (1971). At maturity, data on plant height, pods/plant, seeds/pod, 100-seed weight, biological yield and grain yield were recorded. Harvest index was calculated by dividing economical yield by total biomass production. Net returns as well as B: C ratio were also worked out. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. The results showed that all the treatments significantly enhanced the number and dry weight of nodules as compared to the control where no organic manure, chemical fertilizer or biofertilizer was applied (Table 1). The treatments which had received Rhizobium inoculation recorded significantly higher number and dry weight of nodules than those where no Rhizobium inoculation was done. Rhizobium inoculation is known to improve nodulation in lentil (Chowdhury et al. 1998). Furthermore, in these treatments, apart from Rhizobium, PSB was also used. PSB is known to solubilize the native phosphorus (El-Sayed 1999) and enhance its availability to the plants. This increased availability of the phosphorus might have helped in better nodulation. Improved nodulation was also observed in those treatments where Rhizobium was not applied but chemical fertilizers, FYM or vermicompost were applied alone or in combination. The organic manures are known to decrease P adsorption/fixation and enhance P availability. Thus resulting in better root growth and consequently exploitation of greater soil volume for nodulation. Similar trend was also observed in terms of nodule dry weight. Increased nodule biomass was recorded when combinations of chemical and organic fertilizers was used. More pronounced effects of Rhizobium and PSB in the presence of added fertilizers have been reported (El-Sayed 1999). Rao and Patra (2009) have also stated that recommended dose of fertilizers has no effect on microbial proliferation and performance, as also observed in the present study. The number of nodules and their dry weight was higher at 90 DAS compared with 60 DAS, which could be due to improved plant growth (root as well as shoot) with age. The period of 60 DAS occurred on 22 January, 2009 when the crop was exposed to very low temperature under Punjab conditions

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and a month later (90 DAS) on 22 February as the temperature increased, the improvement in nodulation was also observed. So the better nodulation recorded at 90 DAS compared to 60 DAS could be due to improved plant growth with age as well as better environmental conditions in terms of warmer temperature. Shoot dry weight and chlorophyll content increased with application of various organic manures, chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers, though the differences were non-significant on a small unit basis (per plant for shoot dry weight and per gram leaf weight for chlorophyll content). However, on whole crop area basis improvements in these parameters seem to be quite meaningful. Pods/plant was significantly improved with the application of various nutrients through different sources either singly or in combination over the control (Table 2). Plant height, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight were not influenced significantly by different treatments. However, numerical increases over the control were observed in the case of plant height and 100-seed weight. Pods/plant and plant height of lentil are known to be improved with he use of Rhizobium inoculation + N + P2O5 (Chowdhury et al. 1998) and of Rhizobium inoculation + P2O5 (Singh et al. 2001).
Table 1.
Treatment

The application of RDF increased the grain yield of lentil significantly (19.7%) over control treatment (Table 2). The application of FYM @ 5 t/ha or vermicompost @ 2 t/ha tended to increase the grain yield over control, however, the increase was not significant. Inoculation of seed with Rhizobium + PSB did not increase the grain yield significantly over control, which could possibly be due to the presence of effective native rhizobia in the soil where lentil crop had been grown during previous years as well. It has been reported that Rhizobium inoculation may not always have significant effect on grain yield (Bhatt and Chandra 2009). However, Rhizobium + PSB with inorganic as well as organic nutrient sources enhanced the grain yield. FYM @ 5 t/ha is known to increase the grain yield of lentil (Singh et al. 2003). Integrated use of RDF, FYM or vermicompost and biofertilizers (Rhizobium + PSB) tended to increase the grain yield further over their sole applications, which could be due to the combined and synergistic effect. Furthermore, manures contain high amounts of organic matter which increases the moisture retention of the soil and improves dissolution of nutrients particularly phosphorus. High grain yields of lentil have been reported with the combined use of Rhizobium + phosphorus (Singh et al. 2001). Similar effects were observed in case of biological yield. Nutrient applications generally
Nodule dry weight (mg/plant) 60 DAS 32.2 36.6 33.9 36.8 36.9 37.9 39.8 40.3 39.5 41.6 2.5 90 DAS 35.5 38.6 37.3 37.8 39.0 40.3 45.5 46.8 45.9 47.6 3.7 Shoot dry weight (g/plant) 90 DAS 2.90 3.26 3.05 3.13 3.30 3.35 3.06 3.23 3.30 3.21 NS Chlorophyll content (mg/g fresh weight of leaves) 90 DAS 1.915 2.890 2.321 2.418 2.800 2.910 2.465 2.680 2.710 2.790 NS

Effect of INM on nodule parameters, shoot weight and chlorophyll content in lentil
Nodules/plant (no) 60 DAS 11.0 14.8 13.6 15.9 15.3 16.8 19.0 20.9 20.0 22.8 1.7 90 DAS 14.8 17.0 16.2 16.8 18.0 18.3 24.0 26.2 25.0 25.6 2.0

Control (no organic manure, chemical fertilizer or biofertilizer) RDF (20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha) FYM 5 t/ha Vermicompost 2 t/ha RDF + FYM 5 t/ha RDF + Vermicompost 2 t/ha Rhizobium + PSB RDF + Rhizobium + PSB FYM 5 t/ha + Rhizobium + PSB Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Rhizobium + PSB CD (P=0.05)

Table 2.
Treatment

Effect of INM on plant growth, yield attributes and yield of lentil


Plant height (cm) 32.9 38.9 33.1 35.4 37.3 39.1 36.2 37.6 35.3 38.9 NS Pods/ Seeds/ plant pod (no) (no) 44.0 1.5 54.6 51.7 52.1 60.2 51.9 47.0 60.8 55.1 52.3 4.9 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 NS 100-seed weight (g) 2.40 2.50 2.43 2.53 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.73 2.66 2.63 NS Grain yield (kg/ha) 947 1134 1035 1005 1181 1135 987 1270 1141 1129 172 Biological yield (kg/ha) 2963 3175 3128 2939 3410 3292 2869 3833 3668 3363 542 Harvest index (%) 32.0 35.7 33.1 34.2 34.6 34.5 34.4 33.1 31.1 33.6 NS Net returns (Rs/ha) 19310 24020 21550 20550 24930 23450 20410 28000 24630 24170 968 B:C ratio 3.12 3.40 3.27 3.14 3.37 3.21 3.22 3.77 3.57 3.49 0.18

Control (no organic manure, chemical fertilizer or biofertilizer) RDF (20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha) FYM 5 t/ha Vermicompost 2 t/ha RDF + FYM 5 t/ha RDF + Vermicompost 2 t/ha Rhizobium + PSB RDF + Rhizobium + PSB FYM 5 t/ha + Rhizobium + PSB Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Rhizobium + PSB CD (P=0.05)

Singh et al.: Integrated nutrient management in lentil with organic manures, chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers

151

tended to improve the harvest index. Net returns as well as B: C ratio improved with the application of nutrients through various sources. The results showed that the application of RDF, FYM 5t/ha or vermicompost 2t/ha produced similar seed yield of lentil. Therefore, depending upon the resources available with the farmers, sources of nutrient could be selected. REFERENCES
Bhatt P and Chandra R. 2009. Interaction effect of Mesorhizobium ciceri and rhizospheric bacteria on nodulation, growth and yield of chickpea. Journal of Food Legumes 22 : 137-139. Chowdhury AK, Newaz MA, Samanta SC, Huda S and Ali M. 1998. Response of lentil genotypes to cultural environments on nodulation, growth and yield. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 33 : 258-262. El-Sayed SAM. 1999. Influence of Rhizobium and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on nutrient uptake and yield of lentil in the New Valley

(Egypt). Egyptian Journal of Soil Sciences 39 : 175-186. Rao DLN and Patra AK. 2009. Soil microbial diversity and sustainable agriculture. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 57 : 51353 0. Singh G, Sekhon HS and Sharma P. 2001. Effect of Rhizobium, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus on the growth and yield of lentil ( Lens culinaris ) and fieldpea ( Pisum sativum ). Environment and Ecology 19 : 40-42. Singh ON, Sharma M and Dash R. 2003. Effect of seed rate, phosphorus and FYM application on growth and yield of bold seeded lentil. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 16 : 116-118. Singh YP, Chauhan CPS and Gupta RK. 2000. Effect of sulphur, phosphorus and inoculation on growth, yield and sulphur utilization by lentil ( Lens culinaris ). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 70 : 491-493. Witham PH, Baidyes DF and Delvin RM. 1971. Chlorophyll absorption of spectrum and quantitative determination. In: Experimental Plant Physiology, Van Nastrand Reinhoed Company, New York. pp. 5156 .

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 152-153, 2010

Short Communication

Effect of planting time and seed priming on growth and yield of lentil under riceutera system
MALAY K. BHOWMICK* Pulses and Oilseeds Research Station, Berhampore 742 101, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India; E-mail: bhowmick_malay@rediffmail.com
(Received: April, 2010; Accepted: September, 2010) Lentil is mostly planted after aman (kharif) rice as a relay (utera or paira) crop in major lentil growing areas (Das and Das 1998, Gupta and Bhowmick 2005). Availability of soil moisture is must at the time of sowing seeds for their proper germination, better emergence and early establishment (Saha and Maharana 2005). Timely planting is, therefore, the key factor to better utilize the residual soil moisture on rice-fallows. Seed priming is another technology to obtain better plant stand and high crop yield (Ali et al. 2005a). Pre-sowing soaking of seeds with KH2PO4, Na2HPO4, etc. or simple water was earlier reported to improve seed germination, seedling vigor and root growth early in the season, resulting in good establishment, better drought tolerance and more yield of crop plants (Solaimalai and Subburamu 2004). There is a limited scope for agronomic manipulation under rice-utera system though it has potential for increasing cropping intensity in considerable areas that remain idle after aman rice (Rautaray 2008). Information on the effect of planting time and seed priming in rainfed lentil under this system is scanty. Keeping this background in view, the present investigation was initiated to identify a suitable planting time and seed priming method for enhancing yields of lentil under utera cultivation. A two-year field study was conducted during rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at the Pulses and Oilseeds Research Sub-station, Beldanga, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India, located at 2355/ N latitude and 8815/ E longitude with an altitude of 19.0 m above MSL. The soil of the experimental site was clay loam having pH 7.6, organic carbon 0.30%, available P2O5 67 kg/ha and available K2O 117 kg/ha. Two different times of planting viz. 7 and 15 days before rice harvest (DBRH), and four levels of seed priming viz. no seed soaking, seed soaking in water for 6 hours, seed soaking in 2% KH2PO4 solution for 6 hours and sprouted seeds were tested in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Individual plot size was 4 m x 3 m. The crop variety Subrata (WBL 58) was used for study. A basal dose of N: P2O5: K2O: S @ 20:40:20:20 kg/ha was given at 3 days prior to lentil sowing in between the rows of rice crop plants, whereas the previous rice crop was fertilized with N: P2O5: K2O @ 60:30:30 kg/ha and harvested on November 28 and 19 in 2003 and 2004, respectively. As per the treatments, seed priming was done
*

before sowing of lentil seeds which were broadcast using a recommended seed rate of 50 kg/ha (Ali et al. 2005b) in the standing aman rice crop without any land preparation. Other recommended practices (Bhowmick et al. 2005) were followed meticulously to raise the crop. Treatment-wise harvesting was done on March 11-17 and 9-16 in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Data on plant height, yield attributes and seed yield were recorded at harvest. Time of planting had a significant influence on plant stand, pods/plant and seed yield in the first year (2003-04), whereas no significant difference in respect of all the parameters studied was recorded in the second year (200405). Regardless of seed priming, highest seed yields were, however, recorded in the crop sown at 15 DBRH during both the years of study (Table 1). This might be due to the fact that sowing at 15 DBRH could enable better and earlier establishment of lentil seedlings because of an adequate availability of soil moisture which otherwise would quickly be depleted once the rice crop was harvested. Saha and Maharana (2005) also advocated sowing of utera crops at about 2-3 weeks before harvesting of rice preferably at dough stage. Sowing at 7 DBRH did not show any remarkable improvement in growth and yield attributes along with seed yield (Table 1). Seed yield and most of the yield attributes differed significantly due to various seed priming methods during both the years of study (Table 1). Use of sprouted and KH2PO4 soaked seeds recorded significantly the highest number of pods/plant. Higher plant height, better plant stand and more number of seeds/pod as well as 100-seed weight were also registered under these treatments which ultimately exhibited yield advantages of 30.0 and 19.6%, respectively, compared with no soaking. Next in order was soaking of seeds in water, registering an average of 13.7% higher seed yield over no soaking. Better performance of crop plants under seed priming treatments could be attributed to their good establishment (Solaimalai and Subburamu 2004). Ali et al. (2005a) also reported that seed priming in water for a short period of 2 hours and non-priming were equally ineffective as small seeded lentil having a hard testa would require a longer time for water to reach the cotyledon and embryos.

Present Address: Rice Research Station, Chinsurah (R.S.) 712 102, Hooghly, West Bengal, India

Bhowmick: Effect of planting time and seed priming on growth and yield of lentil under rice-utera system Table 1.
Treatments Planting time 7 DBRH 15 DBRH S.E.m C.D. (P=0.05) Seed priming No soaking Water soaking KH2PO4 soaking Sprouted seeds S.E.m C.D. (P=0.05)

153

Effect of planting time and seed priming on growth, yield attributes and seed yield of lentil under rice-utera system during 2003-04 and 2004-05
Pods/plant Plant height (cm) Plant stand (000/ha) 2003-04 2004-05 2003-04 2004-05 2003-04 2004-05 36.0 37.9 0.7 NS 34.2 34.9 36.5 42.1 1.1 3.2 33.6 34.8 0.5 NS 32.9 33.6 33.9 36.5 0.6 1.3 841.7 940.0 28.0 84.9 773.3 855.0 928.3 1006.7 39.6 120.0 734.2 790.8 20.0 NS 657.5 739.8 804.2 848.5 22.4 46.7 64.3 77.0 1.5 4.5 62.0 69.6 73.7 77.2 2.1 6.4 51.1 53.4 2.0 NS 48.2 49.6 54.5 56.6 2.1 4.3 Seeds/pod 2003-04 2004-05 1.6 1.7 0.0 NS 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 0.1 0.2 1.9 1.9 0.0 NS 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 0.1 NS 100-seed weight (g) 2003-04 2004-05 1.8 2.0 0.1 NS 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.1 0.1 NS 1.8 1.9 0.0 NS 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 0.0 0.1 Seed yield (kg/ha) 2003-04 2004-05 1162.2 1232.3 13.5 40.8 1018.8 1174.8 1265.3 1329.8 19.0 57.7 1078.8 1130.0 33.6 NS 981.7 1099.2 1126.7 1210.0 34.6 72.1

DBRH: Days before rice harvest; NS: Not significant

Thus, from the above study, it can be concluded that sowing of properly primed (either sprouted or KH2PO4 soaked) seeds at 15 days before rice harvest would be a promising low-cost technology for growing lentil in rice-fallows under rainfed utera condition. REFERENCES
Ali MO, Sarker A, Rahman MM, Gahoonia TS and Uddin MK. 2005a. Improvement of lentil yield through seed priming in Bangladesh. Journal of Lentil Research 2 : 54-59. Ali MO, Sarker A, Rahman MM and Gahoonia TS. 2005b. Lentil as a relay crop in rice field: a key technology for lentil production in Bangladesh. Journal of Lentil Research 2 : 64-68. Bhowmick MK, Aich A, Aich SS, Shrivastava MP, Gupta S and Man GC.

2005. Crop diversification through paira ( utera ) cropping with rabi pulses. SATSA Mukhapatra Annual Technical Issue 9: 43-60. Das NR and Das AK. 1998. Production potentiality and economics of rainfed winter paira crops after transplanted kharif rice in West Bengal. Advances in Agricultural Research in India IX : 77-81. Gupta S and Bhowmick MK. 2005. Scope of growing lathyrus and lentil in relay cropping systems after rice in West Bengal, India. Lathyrus and Lathyrism Newsletter 4 : 28 33. Rautaray SK. 2008. Productivity and economics of rice based utera crops for lower Assam. Journal of Food Legumes 21: 51-52. Saha S and Maharana Monalisa. 2005. Utera cultivation - A viable technology option for rainfed shallow lowland of coastal Orissa. Indian Farming 54 : 8-9 & 10. Solaimalai A and Subburamu K. 2004. Seed hardening for field crops - A review. Agricultural Reviews 25 : 129-140.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 154-155, 2010

Short Communication

Effect of sowing time and fertilization on productivity and economics of urdbean genotypes
S.S. RATHORE, L.N. DASHORA and M.K. KAUSHIK Department of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan, India; E-mail: sanjay_1707@yahoo.co.in
(Received: March, 2009; Accepted: September, 2010) Urdbean (Phaseolus mungo L.) is an important pulse crop grown in different parts of the country. It is rich in protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Urdbean is being grown by the farmers of Southern Rajasthan in recent years in place of traditional pulses like greengram and cowpea because of its higher market value. Suitable urdbean variety, optimum sowing time and fertilizer sources are the key inputs for getting higher yield under this region. An effort was therefore, made in this study to optimize the agronomic management practices for enhancing urdbean productivity under sub-humid southern plain and Arawali hills agroclimatic zone of Rajasthan. A field experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur during kharif 2006. Experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design. There were 18 treatment combinations consisting of three urdbean varieties (Barkha, TAU-1 and T-9), two dates of sowing (7th July i.e. onset of monsoon and 27th July i.e. 20 days after first sowing) and three levels of fertilizer (0 N + 0 P2O5 + Rhizobium + PSB, 10 kg N + 20 kg P2O5/ha + Rhizobium + PSB and 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha) with three replications. The soil of experimental site was clay-loam in texture with pH 8.1. The soil was higher in available nitrogen (340.1kg/ha), medium in phosphorus (21.5 kg/ha) and high in potassium (292.8 kg/ha) contents. Seeds were inoculated as per treatments and sown in row spacing of 30 cm. Doses of N and P2O5 were applied as basal according to treatments in the form of DAP and urea, respectively. Data were collected viz. plant height (cm), number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000-seeds weight, seed yield, haulm yield and nutrient content and uptake (N, P). Among varieties, Barkha recorded significantly higher seed yield (1103 kg/ha) compared to T-9 and TAU-1. The increase in seed yield of Barkha over T-9 and TAU-1 was to an extent of 9.8 per cent and 23.1 per cent, respectively. This is due to longer maturity period of Barkha (85 days) over other varieties. Variety Barkha obtained significantly higher haulm yield (2254 kg/ha) over T-9 (1818 kg/ha) and TAU-1 (1694 kg/ ha). The higher seed yield of Barkha over other genotypes is attributed to better yield components (number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and 1000-seed weight) (Table 1). The nitrogen and phosphorus content in seed (3.25 and 0.6 per cent, respectively) were higher in Barkha over T-9 (3.25 and 0.58 per cent) and TAU-1 (3.17 and 0.53 per cent). The higher nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were also significantly obtained by Barkha (87.8 kg/ha and 13.18 kg/ha, respectively) over T-9 (74.40 kg/ha and 10.83 kg/ha) and TAU-1 (66.70 kg/ha and 8.96 kg/ha). Higher nutrient uptake in Barkha over T-9 and TAU-1 is attributed to long duration and higher seed yield. Singh and Singh (2000) and Yadahalli and Palled (2004) also reported similar results. Among the agronomic practices of field crops, sowing at optimum time is an important non-monetary input that results in considerable increase in the seed yield under rainfed conditions. This means a favourable soil and climatic condition are made available for the expression of genetic potential. Urdbean varieties sown at onset of monsoon (7th July) recorded maximum seed yield (1185 kg/ha) when compared to crop sown on 27th July (20 days after first sowing). The crop sown on 7th July registered 45 per cent higher yield over crop sown on 27th July. Similarly, urdbean sown on 7th July recorded significantly higher haulm yield (3415 kg/ha) over 27th July (2432 kg/ha). The onset of monsoon sown crop (7th July) got adequate soil moisture particularly during its flowering and pod filling stages in August and September months as a result of rainfall. The higher seed yield in onset of monsoon sown crop can also be attributed to higher values of yield components over the late sown crop. Higher harvest index (34.8 per cent) was also noticed in early sown crop over late sown crop. There was considerable increase in the values of yield attributing characters (number of pods/plant, number of seeds/ pod and 1000-seed weight) in onset of monsoon sown crop compared to crop sown late (27th July). Higher seed yield of urdbean from early sown crop was also reported by Singh and Singh (2000), Panwar and Sharma (2004), Yadahalli and Palled (2004) and Yadahalli et al. (2006). Significantly higher N and P content in seed (3.23 and 0.58 per cent, respectively) were obtained by the onset of monsoon sown crop over late sown crop. Similarly, significantly higher N uptake (89.75 kg/ ha) and P uptake (13.01 kg/ha) were obtained by the onset of monsoon sown crop over late sown crop. This is mainly attributed to better conditions for nutrient availability in early monsoon period and leading to higher biomass production (seed and haulm yield) by onset of monsoon sown crop over late sown crop. The results agree with the findings of Singh

Rathore et al.: Effect of sowing time and fertilization on productivity and economics of urdbean genotypes Table 1.
Treatments

155

Yield components, yield, nutrient content, uptake and economics of urdbean as influenced by genotypes, dates of sowing and fertilizer sources
Pods/ Seeds/ Plant Pod (no) (no) 1000seeds weight (g) Seed Yield (kg /ha) Haulm yield (kg/ha) Nutrient content (%) N P 3.25 3.17 3.22 0.02 0.05 0.60 0.53 0.58 0.01 0.02 Nutrient uptake (kg/ha) N P 87.81 66.70 74.40 1.59 4.50 COC Net return B/C ratio

Varieties Barkha 22.83 5.89 43.50 TAU-1 22.22 3.94 38.22 41.08 T-9 21.22 4.11 SEm+ 0.18 0.12 0.18 0.51 CD (P=0.05) 0.52 0.34 Sowing time 7th July 22.26 5.11 41.20 40.67 20 DAFS* 20.59 4.19 SEm+ 0.15 0.10 0.15 0.36 CD (P=0.05) 0.37 0.24 Fertilizer sources 0 N : 0 P2O5 + Rhizobium + PSB 19.39 3.44 40.27 10 kg N + 20 kg P2O5/ha + Rhizobium + PSB 21.33 4.50 41.14 41.39 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha 23.56 6.00 SEm+ 0.18 0.12 0.18 CD (P=0.05) 0.52 0.34 0.51 *DAFS: Days after first sowing, COC: Cost of cultivation, Selling price,

1103 896 1005 20 57 1185 817 16 40

2254 1694 1818 41 117 2230 1614 34 83

13.18 7889 8.96 7920 10.83 7874 0.23 0.66 13.01 7890 8.97 7909 0.186 0.458 7.71 7480 10.98 7900 14.28 8244 0.23 0.66 -

28244 21304 24724 641 1819 30691 18824 523 1286 21392 25675 27205 641 1819

3.58 2.69 3.14 0.09 0.25 3.89 2.38 0.07 0.18 2.86 3.25 3.30 0.09 0.25

3.23 0.57 89.75 3.20 0.56 62.85 0.02 0.004 1.29 NS NS 3.18

885 1710 3.09 0.48 64.74 1032 1938 3.19 0.56 77.20 1087 2119 3.35 0.66 86.96 20 41 0.02 0.01 1.59 57 117 0.05 0.02 4.50 Seed: Rs. 3000/q, Haulm: Rs. 135/q

and Singh (2000), Patel et al. (2004) and Yadahalli and Palled (2004). The seed and haulm yield, yield components, nutrient content and uptake (N and P) of urdbean were obtained significantly higher with 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha over 10 kg N + 20 kg P2O5/ha + Rhizobium + PSB and 0 N: 0 P2O5 + Rhizobium + PSB. Similar results were reported by Singh and Singh (2004) and Kumar and Elamathi (2007). Net return were maximum in Barkha sown on 7th July with 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 /ha (38672.55 Rs./ha) followed by Barkha sown on 7th July with 10 kg N + 20 kg P2O5 /ha + Rhizobium + PSB. This can be attributed to higher urdbean yield in these treatment combinations over others. However a lowest net return was realized by the urdbean variety TAU-1 sown on 27th July with 0 N: 0 P2O5 + Rhizobium + PSB (Table 1). This mainly attributed to lower gross returns and high cost of cultivation in this treatment combination as a result of considerable reduction in urdbean yield due to moisture stress and pest attack. Higher benefit cost ratio (4.68) was obtained in the urdbean variety Barkha sown on 7th July with 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha. This is mainly due to higher net returns as a result of higher seed yield over other treatment combinations. The minimum benefit cost ratio (1.32) was obtained in urdbean variety TAU-1 sown on 27th July with 0 N: 0 P2O5 + Rhizobium + PSB which can be attributed to minimum net returns as a result of drastic reduction in urdbean yield and relatively higher cost of cultivation in this treatment combination. Thus, it can be inferred that urdbean genotype Barkha

performed better than other genotypes. However, sowing with onset of monsoon (7th July) and 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 found superior than other practices in southern plains and Arawali hills of Rajasthan. REFERENCES
Kumar A and Elamathi S. 2007. Effect of nitrogen levels and Rhizobium application methods on yield attributes, yield and economics of urdbean ( Vigna mungo L.). International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3: 179-180. Patel JJ, Mevada KD and Chotaliya RL. 2004. Response of summer mungbean to dates of sowing and levels of fertilizers. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 17: 143-144. Panwar R and Sharma BB. 2004. Effect of planting date, seed rate and row spacing on yield and yield attributes of bold seeded mungbean during spring summer season. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 17: 45-46. Singh AK and Singh VK. 2004. Effect of row spacing and nitrogen management practices on rainy season urdbean under late sown condition. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 17: 89-90. Singh DK and Singh VK. 2000. Growth and nitrogen uptake pattern of promising urdbean genotypes under different sowing dates and planting densities during rainy season. Annals of Agricultural Research 21: 456-458. Yadahalli GS and Palled YB. 2004. Response of urdbean genotypes to dates of sowing and phosphorus levels in Northern Transitional Tract of Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 17: 215-219. Yadahalli GS, Palled YB and Hiremath SM. 2006. Effect of sowing dates and phosphorus levels on growth and yield of black gram genotypes. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 19 : 68268 4.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 156-158, 2010

Short Communication

Effect of different soil moisture regimes on biomass partitioning and yield of chickpea genotypes under intermediate zone of J&K
ANJANI KUMAR SINGH, S.B. SINGH, A.P. SINGH*, AWNINDRA K. SINGH, S.K. MISHRA and A.K. SHARMA Regional Agricultural Research Station, (SKUAST-J), Tandwal, Rajouri 185 131, India; *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, SKUAST-J, Rajouri 185 131, India; E-mail: anjaniiari@yahoo.co.in
(Received: January, 2010; Accepted: August, 2010) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is most important pulse crop in the Indian sub -continent. It is generally grown on stored soil moisture, making terminal drought stress a major constraint to productivity. A considerable area of about 43,435 ha remains unutilized during r abi season in most parts of the intermediate zone and foothills of the Shivalik ranges in subtropical rainfed area of Jammu region especially after the harvest of long duration rice and maize crops. Chickpea can be a good alternate crop under these conditions to encourage double cropping in otherwise mono-cropped area. As the temperature during sowing time varies in different growing areas of Jammu province due to variable agro-climatic conditions so there is a requirement of chickpea genotypes that can perform well across these regions. On the other hand water deficit is another constraint in the area during crop growth. However, the influence of water deficit on distribution of assimilate depends on stage of the growth and relative sensitivity of various plant organs to water deficit. Greater proportions of photosynthates are allocated to pods and seeds when the crop is stressed after flowering or when raised completely without irrigation (Deshmukh et al. 2004). The development of moisture stress leads to a wide range of changes in plant processes like diversion of biomass to undesirable plant parts. The chickpea genotypes with better biomass partitioning and mobilization efficiency will be suitable for cultivation in the rainfed. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted with the objectives to identify suitable chickpea genotypes that can perform well under water deficit conditions and can be used as substitute of wheat crop in rice-wheat or maize-wheat cropping system and to increase the production of rabi pulse in the region. The experimental material consisted of 10 cultivars obtained from IARI, New Delhi. These genotypes were planted in randomized block design with three replications at Regional Agricultural Research station, SKUAST-J, Rajouri during rabi season 2007-08 and 2008-09. Each plot consisted of 4 rows of 3 m length with row to row and plant to plant spacing of 40 x 10 cm. Each genotype was sown under two environments, namely irrigated and rainfed. The recommended agronomic packages of practices and plant protection measures were followed for raising the crop successfully. There was no rain during the growing season. Plants were taken randomly from each replication for recording growth parameters. Recording of biomass in leaves, stem and other reproductive plant parts (seeds/pod) was done at two growth stages i.e., at full bloom and physiological maturity for all the genotypes under different environments. Five plants were taken out randomly from each plot with roots by digging of soil and thereafter thorough washing of roots was done under gently running water. After washing plants were separated into different parts viz., leaves, stem, pods and root for recording observations on partitioning of biomass. The height of shoot and root length was measured from soil surface (crown position) to terminal point and the tip of root, respectively. The average of five plants in each replication was worked out for each treatment. The plant parts were dried at 700C temperature till constant weight. Yield attributes were recorded from five plant samples taken from each plot at harvest. Seed and biological yield were recorded from individual plants. The statistical analysis for different parameters and yield was done as per standard procedures. Chickpea plants attained the maximum plant height and rooting depth at full bloom stage (Table 1). Moisture stress reduced the plant height significantly but the reverse was true for root depth. Among genotypes, the plants of PUSA1103 were the tallest followed by BGD-72 at full bloom stage. However, the roots of PUSA-1053, PUSA-1103 and PUSA362 were statistically at par and penetrated significantly deeper in the soil profile than the roots of other genotypes at full bloom stage. At full bloom stage, the biomass allocation in roots, leaves and stem was 20.78, 33.15 and 37.24 per cent of total biomass, respectively. The dominating role of the stem, with respect to biomass accumulation, followed by leaves indicate that chickpea needs strong stem to bear more number of pods through increased branching and higher leaf area to produce more food to fill the pods. These findings are in concomitance with the earlier observations (Ahlawat 1990, Singh 1995). Among the genotypes, percentage of total dry matter accumulation in stem, leaves and roots was higher in PUSA1103, PUSA-1053, PUSA-1108 and PUSA-362. The contribution of stem and leaves increased to total biomass because of less pod development at the time of full booming stage.

Singh et al.: Effect of soil moisture regimes on chickpea productivily Table 1.


Treatment Environment Irrigated Rainfed CD (P=0.05) Genotypes PUSA-1103 BGD-72 PUSA-1053 PUSA-1105 PUSA-372 PUSA-1108 PUSA-362 PUSA-1003 PUSA-256 PUSA-391 CD (P=0.05)

157

Biomass partitioning of chickpea genotypes at full bloom and harvest stage under irrigated and rainfed conditions.
Plant height (cm) 59.5 52 7.8 42.2 41.2 41.2 37.8 35.9 33.2 33.2 29.2 27.7 24.8 4.6 Root depth (cm) 74.6 80.2 6.5 52.2 51.4 54.5 47.5 49.5 50.2 52.1 46.4 45.2 39.6 0.59 Full bloom Dry weight/plant (g) Stem Leaf Root Pod Plant height (cm) 57.9 51.3 6.5 41.2 40.8 32.2 31.9 30.8 30.2 29.2 24.2 25.5 21.7 1.07 Root depth (cm) 42.7 53.3 19.5 42.2 23.5 29.2 31.4 37.5 32.1 40.2 18.8 20.5 18.3 0.7 AT harvest Dry weight/plant (g) Stem Leaf Root 1.3(6.9) 1.0(66.7) 1.08 Pod 7.34(39.1) 6.61(41.9) 2.3

4.18(40.1)* 3.95(32.4) 2.99(23.2) 1.77(13.6) 3.53(34.3) 3.50(33.9) 1.91(18.3) 1.6(15.4) 0.32 4.511 3.5 2.4 3.55(29.0) 2.98(33.1) 3.33(31.3) 2.49(25.4) 2.28(24.4) 2.17(26.4) 2.68(27.0) 2.47(31.4) 3.05(33.5) 2.07(25.9) 0.1 4.03(33.0) 3.2(35.6) 3.17(29.8) 3.19(32.7) 3.09(33.2) 3.15(38.5) 3.21(35.5) 3.56(45.3) 3.30(36.3) 3.49(43.8) 0.21 1.62(13.2) 1.45(16.1) 1.97(18.5) 1.77(18.0) 1.70(18.2) 1.38(16.9) 1.67(16.9) 0.5(6.36) 0.8(8.78) 1.06(13.2) 0.31 3.16(25.8) 1.36(15.1) 2.15(20.2) 2.33(23.7) 1.21(12.9) 1.48(18.1) 2.31(23.3) 1.32(16.7) 1.86(20.4) 1.36(17.0) 0.28

7.5(39.9) 2.62(13.8) 5.94(37.6) 2.13(13.4) 7.2 4.1 5.91(27.9) 4.68(33.3) 4.27(29.2) 4.18(25.3) 3.49(25.3) 5.09(33.9) 5.86(26.8) 7.5(39.9) 5.94(37.5) 6.56(38.6) 0.37

2.77(12.9) 1.78(8.4) 10.67(50.6) 2.09(21.2) 0.6(14.1) 5.77(41.1) 2.74(18.5) 1.05(7.2) 6.55(44.9) 2.53(15.2) 1.02(6.2) 8.66(53.1) 2.54(18.3) 1.68(12.8) 6.04(43.9) 1.68(10.8) 1.77(11.5) 6.61(43.9) 2.68(12.1) 2.5(11.5) 10.76(49.4) 2.62(13.8) 1.3(6.9) 7.34(39.1) 2.13(13.4) 1.0(66.7) 6.61(41.9) 2.62(15.0) 0.95(5.4) 7(40.9) 0.255 4.8 0.32

*Values in parenthesis are per cent contribution to total biomass

At harvest, moisture stress reduced accumulation of dry matter in different plant parts significantly. The dry matter accumulation in vegetative parts (leaves and roots) decreased at harvest as compared to full bloom stage due to mobilization of biomass to the active sink (pods). The mild moisture stress did not affect the biomass partitioning in chickpea but severe moisture stress reduced the allocation of biomass to seeds, pods and root in spite of increase in root length over irrigated control. At harvest, the functional rooting depth decreased as compared to full bloom (Table 1). Yield attributes viz., number of effective pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100- seed weight along with seed and biological yield and harvest index decreased significantly with increased moisture stress (Table 2). Among the genotypes, the highest pod density and 100-seed weight were observed in PUSATable 2.
Treatment

1103 and seeds per pod were recorded in PUSA-1105 and PUSA-372. Lower harvest index was recorded among all the genotypes in severe moisture stress in environment indicating that the vegetative growth (source) was relatively less affected than the sink. Therefore, only few pods were formed in each plant resulted in more adversely reduced seed yield than the biomass accumulation. Similar reduction in yield attributes under rainfed condition has been reported by Rahman and Uddin (2000) and Kashiwagi et al. (2006a). The maximum biomass, seed yield and harvest index were recorded in PUSA1103. However, the seed yield of PUSA-1103 and BGD-72 were statically at par and significantly higher than all the other tested genotypes. Similar genotypic variation in yield and its attributes in chickpea under moisture stress have already been reported (Kashiwagi et al. 2006b). The associations of biomass partitioning in different plant parts with seed yield at both the stages were observed. At full bloom stage, chickpea showed significant positive association of seed yield with plant height (0.41) and total biomass (0.73). Omar and Singh (1997) reported that plant height had the highest direct effect on biomass yield and consequently to higher seed yield. However, at harvest, these associations further increased over full bloom. Seed yield at harvest had significant positive association with plant height (0.40). Among the yield attributes, with seed yield, the highest association was recorded with number of pods per plant (0.67) and biological yield (0.69). However, the biological yield had highest association (r=0.81) with seed yield. Significant positive association with biomass partitioning in plant parts indicated that higher biomass yield and its maximum partitioning in pods brought about positive improvement in seed yield of chickpea under moisture stress condition.

Yield attributes of chickpea genotypes under irrigated and rainfed conditions.


Effective Seeds/ 100-seed Seed Biological Harvest pods/ pod weight yield yield index plant (kg/ha) (kg/ha) (g) (%) 67.6 55.1 7.1 97.5 93.1 77.8 70.3 73.7 67.7 67.8 64.5 59.8 58.7 1.8 1.3 1.4 0.6 1.5 1.8 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.3 0.08 26.6 21.5 7.1 28.3 27.1 14.1 21.8 21.2 28.1 24.7 25.1 13.4 23.6 3.2 1900.0 1683.3 571.5 2966.6 1816.6 2225.7 2058.3 2016.6 2016.6 1600.0 2008.3 1316.6 2116.6 340.0 8158.3 7516.6 445.0 10283.3 7100.0 8000.0 9116.6 8333.3 7450.0 6541.6 8266.6 6950.0 9441.6 668.9 23.4 22.7 3.7 31.4 25.6 27.7 22.7 24.1 27.0 24.4 24.3 19.1 22.3 3.6

Environment Irrigated Rainfed CD (P=0.05) Genotypes PUSA-1103 PUSA-1105 PUSA-362 PUSA-1108 PUSA-391 BGD-72 PUSA-1003 PUSA-256 PUSA-372 PUSA-1053 CD (P=0.05)

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Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Crouch JH and Serraj R. 2006b. Variability of root length density and its contributions to seed yield in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought stress. Field Crops Research 95: 171-181. Omar M and Singh KB. 1997. Increasing seed yield in chickpea by increased biomass yield. International Chickpea and Pigeon pea News Letter 4 :14-15. Rahman LSM and Uddin ASM. 2000. Ecological adaption of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to water stress -2 grain yield, harvest index, flowering and maturity studies. Legume Research 23 : 1-8. Singh S. 1995. Response of kabuli chickpea to irrigation and phosphorus. M.Sc. Thesis, HAU, Hissar, India.

REFERENCES
Ahlawat S. 1990. Effect of long term water deficit on some aspects of chickpea physiology. M.Sc. Thesis, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, India. Deshmukh DV, Mhase LB and Jamadagni BM. 2004. Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for drought tolerance. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 17 :47-49. Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Upadhyaya HD, Krishna H, Chandra S, VincentV andSerraj R. 2006a. Genetic variability of droughtavoidance root traits in the mini-core germplasm collection of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica 146 : 213-222.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 159-161, 2010

Short Communication

Co-inoculation effect of liquid and carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium ciceri and PGPR on nodulation, nutrient uptake and yields of chickpea
PRATIBHA SAHAI and RAMESH CHANDRA Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, Uttarakhand, India; E-mail: rc.pantnagar@gmail.com
(Received: October, 2009; Accepted: October, 2010) Seed inoculation with bio-inoculants of rhizobia, PSB and PGPR in pulse crops is recommended to ensure adequate root nodulation, N-fixation, growth and yields. Carrier based inoculants are currently being produced in the country. These inoculants suffer with major drawback of short shelf life resulting in inconsistent performance under field conditions. The cost of production of carrier based inoculants is also high, being energy and labour intensive process (Somasegaran and Hoben 1994). Liquid inoculants have been claimed to provide solutions to some of these problems associated with the carrier based inoculants. It has been reported that liquid inoculants formulations promote cell survival during storage and after application to seed and also provide protection to microbial cells under extreme conditions such as high temperature and desiccation (Brahmprakash et al. 2007). Liquid inoculants being the new innovation in biofertilizer technology, we compared the performance of carrier and liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR, alone and in combination, in chickpea under field conditions. A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2007-08 to compare the performance of liquid and carrier based inoculants of Mesorhizobium ciceri and PGPR (Pseudomonas diminuta) in chickpea at Crop Research Centre of G. B. P. U. A. & T, Pantnagar. The experimental soil was sandy in texture, medium in organic C (0.61 %), low in available nitrogen (175 kg/ha), available P (18 kg/ha) and available K (285 kg/ha) with pH 6.85 and EC 0.38 dS/m. Mesorhizobium ciceri (LN 7007) was obtained from Department of Microbiology, CCSHAU, Hisar and Pseudomonas diminuta (LK-884) from Pulse Microbiology programme of AICRP at Pantnagar. Treatments comprising inoculation with carrier and liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR, alone or in combinations, uninoculated and fertilizer (20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 /ha) control. The experiment was laid out in plots of 2.4 m x 4.0 m following randomized block design in 3 replications. The liquid inoculants of these microorganisms were prepared using modified YEM and nutrient broths of compositions as described by Sahai and Chandra (2009). These medium in 50 ml portions were inoculated with a 1 ml fresh inoculum of the Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR (Pseudomonas sp.) separately. The Mesorhizobium sp. was grown for 72 h and PGPR for 48 h at 28 1C in incubator shaker so as to reach the culture to the stationary phase. Carrier based inoculants were prepared by growing Mesorhizobium sp. in YEM broth for 72 h and PGPR in nutrient broth for 48 h and then mixing the broths separately with sterilized charcoal (pH 7.0) in 1: 2 ratio. Seed was treated with carrier based Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR inoculants at the rate of 20 g/kg seed and liquid inoculants at the rate of 4.0 ml/kg seed. Dual inoculation, wherever required, was done by mixing the required quantity of both the inoculants at the time of seed treatment. The crop was raised following recommended agronomic practices. Five plants from each plot were randomly uprooted along with a soil core at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after sowing (DAS), roots were washed off to remove the adhering soil, nodules were removed from roots and counted. Dry weights of nodules and plants were determined after drying to constant weight at each interval. Grain and straw yields were recorded at final harvest. N and P content in finely grind grain and straw samples were determined following methods as described by Page (1982) and N and P uptake were computed. Results indicated that liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR were better than carrier based inoculants in root nodulation (Table 1). Carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR gave significant increase in nodule number of 20.3 to 68.7% and 36.6 to 66.2% and nodule dry weight of 22.1 to 98.8% and 30.1 to 169.1% over uninoculated control at different crop age. Liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR recorded more nodule number of 15.7 to 35.1% and 11.2 to 30.9% and nodule dry weight of 12.4 to 46.2% and 3.0 to 27.3%, respectively over carrier based inoculants at different intervals. Such beneficial response of liquid inoculants on nodulation in chickpea was also reported by Gupta (2005) and may be attributed to better survival of inoculated organisms in rhizophere applied as liquid inoculant, which gives competitive advantage to the inoculated Mesorhizobium sp. Dual inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. + PGPR with either carrier or liquid inoculants was slightly better over Mesorhizobium sp. or PGPR alone in nodulation due to synergistic interaction among them as reported earlier by Chandra and Pareek (2002). Different inoculants influenced the plant dry weight significantly at different intervals, except at 60 DAS. The carrier and liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. recorded 30.1 to 71.6% and 31.8 to 83.2%, more plant dry weight over

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Table 1. Effect of carrier and liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR on nodulation at different crop age
Treatment Uninoculated control 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha Carrier inoculant Mesorhizobium sp. PGPR Mesorhizobium sp.+ PGPR Liquid inoculant Mesorhizobium sp. PGPR Mesorhizobium sp.+ PGPR CD (P=0.05) 30 DAS 6.5 8.3 9.5 10.8 12.5 11.0 12.0 13.0 1.7 Nodule/plant (no) 60 DAS 90 DAS 12.3 9.0 13.3 10.5 14.8 16.8 19.3 20.0 22.0 22.3 4.3 13.5 14.0 14.5 16.0 14.5 17.8 4.8 120 DAS 8.3 8.3 14.0 11.8 15.3 14.0 12.8 16.0 5.4 30 DAS 20.4 23.3 24.9 26.7 28.9 27.9 28.9 35.2 5.6 Nodule dry weight (mg/plant) 60 DAS 90 DAS 120 DAS 43.7 40.2 33.0 68.0 60.1 54.1 81.6 91.7 96.4 102.8 94.2 107.3 25.9 74.9 77.0 80.7 98.4 98.0 108.1 26.1 65.6 77.9 88.8 95.9 75.5 104.4 22.5

Table 2. Effect of carrier and liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR on plant dry weight at different crop age and yield
Treatment Uninoculated control 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha Carrier inoculant Mesorhizobium sp. PGPR Mesorhizobium sp.+ PGPR Liquid inoculant Mesorhizobium sp. PGPR Mesorhizobium sp.+ PGPR CD (P=0.05) 30 DAS 0.289 0.349 0.361 0.368 0.376 0.364 0.369 0.381 0.060 Plant dry weight (g/plant) 60 DAS 90 DAS 1.571 3.984 1.732 4.204 1.823 1.891 1.958 1.855 1.881 1.970 NS 4.460 5.325 5.855 5.135 5.591 6.828 1.099 120 DAS 9.704 13.162 15.231 15.831 16.648 15.311 16.137 17.774 2.806 Yield (kg/ha) Grain Straw 1898 2824 2060 3167 2213 2269 2315 2222 2292 2338 298 3343 3380 3611 3403 3426 3699 NS

Table 3. Effect of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR inoculants on N and P uptake by chickpea
Treatment Uninoculated control 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha Carrier based inoculant Mesorhizobium sp. PGPR Mesorhizobium sp.+ PGPR Liquid inoculant Mesorhizobium sp. PGPR Mesorhizobium sp.+ PGPR CD (P=0.05) Grain 57.62 72.03 82.39 88.28 96.74 87.38 94.22 99.20 17.75 Nitrogen (kg/ha) Straw 35.00 41.40 51.50 52.92 59.14 54.28 63.21 73.21 15.91 Phosphorus (kg/ha) Grain Straw 5.70 2.86 6.34 3.45 6.86 7.30 7.34 7.12 7.82 7.99 1.29 4.12 4.54 5.25 4.19 4.53 5.88 1.47

uninoculated control, respectively (Table 2). These inoculants of PGPR also showed increase of 18.0 to 57.7 % and 19.7 to 66.2 % in plant dry weight over the uninoculated control at different intervals, respectively. Their combined inoculation further improved the plant dry weight over respective Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR alone inoculants, however the increase was non-significant. The increase in plant dry weight may be due to better crop nutrition as a result of N-fixation (Gupta 2005). Carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR gave significant increase in grain yield of 16.6 and 19.5 % and numerical increase in straw yield of 18.4 and 19.7 % over uninoculated control (Table 2). Similarly, liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR gave significant increases in grain yield of 17.1 and 20.8 % and numerical increase in straw

yield of 20.5 and 21.3 % over uninoculated control, respectively. This may due to higher nodulation with liquid inoculant of Mesorhizobium sp. resulting in more N-fixation (Brahmprakash et al. 2007). The liquid and carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. were comparable in grain and straw yields as observed earlier also by Chandra and Pareek (2007) in urdbean and mungbean and Gupta (2005) in chickpea. Dual inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp.+ PGPR with carrier or liquid inoculants was slightly better than their respective inoculants alone. Carrier based inoculant of Mesorhizobium sp. recorded significant increase of 43.0 and 47.1 % in N uptake and 20.4 and 44.1 % in P uptake by grain and straw, respectively (Table 3). Similar increase with carrier inoculant of PGPR were 53.2 and 51.2 % and 28.1 and 62.7 % . Liquid inoculant of Mesorhizobium sp. gave slightly more N uptake of 6.1 and 5.4

Sahai and Chandra: Effect of liquid and carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium ciceri and PGPR on chickpea

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% and P uptake of 3.8 and 2.0 % by grain and straw over its carrier based inoculants, respectively. Liquid inoculant of PGPR gave significantly more N uptake of 6.7 and 19.4 % by grain and straw, respectively, and P uptake of 7.1 percent by grain over its carrier inoculants. Dual inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. + PGPR as carrier or liquid inoculants further improved the N and P uptake. The results are in agreement with the findings of Gupta (2006), who also reported positive response of dual inoculation on N and P content and their uptake due to better nodulation and N-fixation. It can be concluded that liquid inoculants of Mesorhizobium sp. and PGPR though recorded better nodulation and nutrient uptake, nevertheless were at par with carrier based inoculants in grain and straw yields. Dual inoculation of Mesorhizobium sp. + PGPR as carrier or liquid inoculants gave advantage over their individual inoculation. REFERENCES
Brahmaprakash GP, Girisha HC, Navi Vithal, Laxmipathy R and Hedge SV. 2007. Liquid Rhizobium inoculant formulations to enhance

biological nitrogen fixation in food legumes. Journal of Food Legumes 20 : 75-79. Chandra R and Pareek N. 2007. Comparative performance of liquid and carrier based inoculants in urdbean and mungbean. Journal of Food Legumes 20 :80-82. Chandra R and Pareek RP. 2002. Effect of Rhizobactaria in urdbean and lentil. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 15 : 152-155. Gupta SC. 2005. Evaluation of liquid and carrier based Rhizobium inoculants in chickpea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 18 : 4042 . Gupta SC. 2006. Effect combined inoculation on nodulation nutrient uptake and yield of chickpea in Vertisol. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 54 : 251-254. Page AL. 1982. Methods of soil analysis. Part II. Chemical and microbiological properties (2 nd ed). ASA and CSSA. Madison, Wisconsin USA., pp 1158. Sahai Pratibha and Chandra R. 2009. Shelf life of liquid and carrier based Mesorhizobium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. inoculants under different storage conditions. Journal of Food Legumes 22 (4): 28028 2. Somasegaran P and Hoben HJ. 1994. Handbook for Rhizobium, methods in legume-Rhizobium technology. Spinger Verlag, New York. Inc.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 162-163, 2010

Short Communication

Bio-efficacy of insect growth regulator against tobacco caterpillar in blackgram


S. MALATHI Regional Agricultural Research Station, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Warangal - 506 007, Andhra Pradesh, India; E-mail: seetalam@yahoo.com
(Received: January, 2010; Accepted: September, 2010) Tobacco caterpillar ( Spodoptera litura Fab.) is polyphagous in nature and causes considerable damage to pulses, oilseeds, cotton and vegetables (Seema Rani et al. 2002). Blackgram is an important pulse crop which is mainly cultivated as a rabi crop under rice fallows in certain areas of Andhra Pradesh. S. litura is known to infest blackgram from preflowering to pod development stage and causes considerable yield losses especially during September to February. Several chemical pesticides to control S. litura were studied; however, problems like build up of resistance to insecticides, harmful effects to non-target organisms, etc are major limiting factors in their use. In this context, insect growth regulators (IGRs) inhibiting chitin synthesis in insects, which are selective in action, less hazardous to the environment (Vadodaria et al. 2000; Kuldeep and Rahman 2004), were considered to be appropriate. Therefore, present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an IGR, viz., lufenuron (Cigna 5 EC) against S. litura in blackgram at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Warangal during rabi, 2006. Field trial was laid out in a randomized block design with seven treatments viz., lufenuron 5EC @ 20, 25, 30 g a.i./ ha, thiodicarb 75 WP @ 750 g a.i./ha, quinalphos 25 EC @ 250 g a.i./ha, endosulfan 35 EC @ 525 g a.i./ha and an untreated control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was conducted with the test variety WBG-26,
Treatment Dose (g a.i./ha) 20 25 30 750 250 525 -

following all recommended agronomic practices in deep black soil under irrigated conditions. The plot size was 28 m2. Spacing adopted was 40 x 10 cm. The experiment was sown on 27-0906 and harvested on 20-12-06. Incidence of S. litura was noticed right from last week of October to last week of November, 2006. Four sprayings were taken up at 10 days interval starting from the initial notice of the pest. Observations were recorded on total number of defoliated leaves/plant on five randomly selected plants in each plot before spraying and 7 days after spraying. The data on defoliation (%) due to larval feeding was computed. Significant differences were found among the treatments subsequent to spraying. Seven days after I spraying, per cent defoliation was lowest in the plot treated with lufenuron @ 30 g a.i. /ha (12.61) followed by thiodicarb @ 750 g a.i./ha (14.56) which were at par with each other. Lufenuron @ 25 g a.i./ha with 16.16 per cent defoliation was equally effective as thiodicarb @ 750 g a.i./ha. Quinalphos @ 250 g a.i./ha, endosulfan @ 525 g a.i./ha and lufenuron @ 20 g a.i./ha, with defoliation in the range of 19.77 to 22.01%, were at par with each other. Lufenuron @ 30 g a.i./ha recorded 11.30 per cent defoliation and was significantly superior over all other treatments after the second spray, followed by thiodicarb @ 750 g a.i./ha, quinalphos @ 250 g a.i./ha (Table 1). Lufenuron @ 30 g a.i./ha maintained consistency in recording

Table 1. Efficacy of lufenuron on tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura in blackgram


Per cent defoliated leaves Pre 7 days after 7 days after 7 days after treatment Ist spray IInd spray IIIrd spray 13.73 19.80 29.70 31.33 (21.72) (26.42) (33.02) (34.02) 12.63 16.16 24.60 24.98 (20.75) (23.73) (29.73) (30.00) 13.65 12.61 11.30 13.07 (21.66) (20.79) (19.64) (21.22) 15.58 14.56 16.00 17.02 (23.12) (22.46) (23.58) (24.36) 14.96 19.77 19.60 22.26 (22.60) (26.42) (26.28) (28.18) 16.11 22.01 27.73 24.99 (23.65) (27.97) (31.76) (30.00) 15.98 28.01 34.03 32.35 (23.12) (31.95) (35.57) (34.70) NS * * * 0.71 0.5 0.95 2.19 1.54 2.94 parentheses arc-sine transformations 7 days after Cumulative IVth spray mean of sprays 30.67 27.86 (33.66) (31.88) 23.67 22.36 (29.13) (28.26) 13.57 12.64 (21.64) (20.79) 17.37 16.24 (24.66) (23.73) 22.57 21.04 (28.38) (27.28) 25.33 25.00 (30.20) (30.00) 34.37 32.19 (35.91) (34.57) * * 1.06 0.52 3.27 1.6 Yield Kg/ha 1443 1707 1757 1750 1582 1546 1171 * 63.04 1.94

Lufenuron 5 EC Lufenuron 5 EC Lufenuron 5 EC Thiodicarb 75 WP Quinalphos 25 EC Endosulfan 35 EC Untreated control

F-Test SEm + CD (P=0.05) *Significant at P=0.05, Figures in

Malathi: Bio-efficacy of insect growth regulator against tobacco caterpillar in blackgram

163

lowest defoliation subsequent to all sprays (11.30 to 13.57%) and was superior over all other treatments throughout crop period. Highest defoliation was observed in untreated plot throughout the crop period. Mean defoliation over all the sprays indicated that lufenuron @ 30 g a.i./ha with 12.64 per cent defoliation was significantly superior over other treatments. Thiodicarb @ 750 g a.i./ha with 16.24 per cent defoliation was the next best treatment. Quinalphos @ 250 g a.i./ha and lufenuron @ 25 g a.i./ha were equally effective. Data taken on plot yield revealed that highest yield was recorded in the plots treated with lufenuron @ 30 g a.i./ha (1757 kg/ha) and thiodicarb (1750 kg/ ha). Untreated control plot recorded lowest yield among all treatments. Kuldeep et al. (2004) reported that lufenuron (Match 5 EC) suppressed growth and development of S. litura under laboratory conditions. He reported that per cent pupation and adult emergence were severely reduced.

It is concluded that, lufenuron 5 EC @ 30 g a.i./ha and thiodicarb 75 WP @ 750 g a.i./ha reduced defoliation by S.litura and increased the yield and can be used as effective measures against S. litura in blackgram ecosystem. REFERENCES
Kuldeep and Rahman MA. 2004. Impact of insect growth regulators (IGRs) on natural enemies of soybean caterpillar. Insect Environment 10 : 92-94. Kuldeep, Rahman MA and Ram S. 2004. Effect of sublethal doses of lufenuron against Spodoptera litura Fab. and Spilarctia obliqua Walk. Indian Journal of Entomology 66 : 287-292. Seema Rani, Goel BB and Gupta GP. 2002. Growth and development of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants. Annals of Plant Protection Science 16 : 216-219. Vadodaria MP, Maisuria IM, Patel RB, Patel CJ and Patel UG. 2000. Insect growth regulator (IGR) a new tool in the management of Helicoverpa on cotton in Gujarat. Pestology 24 : 11-14.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 164-165, 2010

Short Communication

Population fluctuations of pod fly on some varieties of pigeonpea


RAM KEVAL, DHARMPAL KERKETTA, PARAS NATH and P.S. SINGH Department of Entomology & Agricultural Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India; E-mail: ramkewal1968@gmail.com
(Received: April, 2010; Accepted: September, 2010) Pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is grown throughout the tropics, but most widely in south and southeast Asia, where it is preferred source of vegetable protein. It is one of the major grain legumes in the semi-arid tropics (Nene and Sheila 1990). Pigeonpea yields have remained stagnant for the past 3 to 4 decades, largly due to insect pests damage. More than 200 species of insects feed on this crop, of which pod fly (Melanagromyza obtusa Malloch) is important pest, in addition to ubiquitous pest, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) (Lateef and Reed 1990, Shanower et al. 1999, Kumar and Nath 2003, Kumar et al. 2003, Nath et al. 2008). Losses due to pod fly damage have been estimated to be US$ 256 millions annually. Identification and cultivation of cultivars which are less preferred by pod fly have number of advantages, particularly for an eco-friendly management of pigeonpea. More than 10,000 germplasm accessions have been screened for pod fly resistance (Lateef and Pimbert 1990). However, Singh and Singh (1990) reported that no definite conclusions could be drawn about the relative susceptibility of pigeonpea genotypes to pod fly damage because of staggered flowering and variation in pod fly abundance over time. Since levels of resistance to these pests in the cultivated
Table 1.

pigeonpea are low to moderate, it is important to identify pigeonpea cultivar that permits slow growth or lesser population buildup of pod fly. The population buildup of pod fly on six long duration varieties of pigeonpea was studied during kharif seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. The experiment was conducted with 3 replications and 6 treatments following factorial randomized block design. The plot size was 4 m x 3.75 m (15 m2) and the row-to-row and plant-to-plant distance were 75 cm and 10 cm, respectively. The pigeonpea cultivars used for study were NDA 5-25, PDA 85-5E, MAL-27, KAWR 92-2, MAL-13 and MAL-20. The population of pod fly was recorded by observing 10 pods selected randomly out of 100 pods picked up from 5 selected plants from each replication. All the data recorded were subjected to statistical analysis as per the factorial randomized block design procedure. The first incidence of pod fly was observed in the 4th standard week on 24th January and remained active till 12th standard week in all the varieties. The peak population of pod fly irrespective of variety was in 9 th standard week and

Pooled data for population of pod fly, Melanagromyza obtusa on long duration pigeonpea during 2007-08 and 2008-09
Maggots/10 pods (no) Periods (standard week) 8th S.W. 9th S.W 10th S.W. st th 21 Feb 28 Feb 7th March 0.60 1.26 1.03 (1.03) (1.30) (1.21) 0.50 0.76 0.23 (0.99) (1.12) (0.84) 0.36 0.47 0.2 (0.91) (0.97) (0.82) 0.40 0.20 0.20 (0.93) (0.83) (0.82) 0.40 0.33 0.36 (0.94) (0.91) (0.91) 0.60 0.57 (0.80) (1.03) (1.03) (1.13) 0.48 0.60 0.47 (0.97) (1.03) (0.95)

Variety NDA-5-25 PDA85-5E MAL-27 KAWR92-2 MAL-13 MAL-20 Average

4 th S.W. 24th Jan 0.06 (.77) 0.26 (0.86) 0.17 (0.80) 0.13 (0.79) 0.10 (0.77) 0.20 (0.86) 0.11 (0.81)

5th S.W. 31st Jan 0.47 (0.96) 0.27 (0.86) 0.17 (0.80) 0.13 (0.78) 0.20 (0.83) 0.36 (0.93) 0.27 (0.86)

6th S.W. 7th Feb 0.23 (0.85) 0.26 (0.91)) 0.63 (1.05) 0.43 (0.95) 0.20 (0.83) 0.33 (0.9) 0.35 (0.92)

7th S.W. 14th Feb 0.56 (1.01) 0.17 (0.81) 0.16 (0.81) 0.17 (0.81) 0.43 (0.95) 0.66 (1.04) 0.40 (0.90)
=

11th S.W. 14th March 0.73 (1.11) 0.37 (0.92) 0.23 (0.85) 0.10 (0.77) 0.46 (0.96) 0.43 (0.95) 0.39 (0.92)

12th S.W. 21th March 0.46 (0.97) 0.33 (0.90) 0.20 (083) 0.27 (0.81) 0.43 (0.96) 0.30 (0.89) 0.32 (0.89)

Average 0.57 (1.01) 0.33 (0.90) 0.28 (0.87) 0.21 (0.83) 0.31 (0.88) 0.46 (0..97) 0.37 (0.92)

Figures in parentheses are transformed value

x 0.5

Difference between varieties (CD: P=0.05) = 0.11 Difference between periods (CD: P=0.05) = 0.09 Difference between varieties and periods (CD: P=0.05) = 0.27

Keval et al.: Population fluctuations of pod fly on some varieties of pigeonpea

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thereafter, it declined due to maturity of grains (Table 1). The population in various standard weeks was found in order 9th > 8th >10th >7th > 11th > 6th > 12th > 5th > 4th during both the years. The highest mean population of pod fly was recorded in NDA5-25 (0.57 maggots/ 10 pods), followed by MAL-20 (0.46 maggots/ 10 pods), PDA 85-5E (0.33 maggots/ 10 pods), MAL13 (0.31 maggots/ 10 plots), MAL- 27 (0.28 maggots/ 10 pods) and the lowest in KAWR 92-2 (0.21 maggots/ 10 pods) during both the years. The present findings are in agreements to the reports of Kumar et al. (2003) and Nath et al. (2008). The pod fly population variation in different cultivars may be due to pod character which either attracted or repelled the pod fly for egg laying. The meteorological factors such as temperature and humidity affect the physiological condition of the plant as a whole and particular high temperature dried the pod, making it unfit for egg laying resulting in reduction in population. REFERENCES
Kumar S, Singh B and Kumar N. 2003. Assessment of pod damage caused by pod borere complex in pre-rabi pigeonpea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 16 : 169-170.

Kumar AL and Nath P. 2003. Pest complex and their population dynamics on medium-late variety of pigeonpea Bahar. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 16 : 150-154. Lateef SS and Reed W. 1990. Insect pests on pigeonpea. In: S.R. Singh (ed.), Insect Pests of Tropical Food Legumes , John Wiley and Sons, New York. Pp. 193-242. Nath P, Singh RS, Singh PS and Keval R. 2008. Study of the succession of insect pest associated with pods of pigeonpea under sole and intercropping system. Indian Journal Environment and Ecoplan . 15 : 455-461. Nene YL and Sheila VK. 1990. Pigeonpea: Geography and importance. In The Pigeonpea, ed. Y. L. Nene, S. D. Hall and V. K. Sheila, pp. l14. CAB International, Wallingford. Shanower TG, Romeis J and Minja EM. 1999. Insect pests of pigeonpea and their management. Annual Review of Entomology 44 : 7796. Lateef SS and Pimbert MP. 1990. The search for host plant resistance to Helicoverpa armigera in chickpea and pigeonpea at ICRISAT Summary proceedings of the First Consultative Group Meeting on Host Selection Behaviour of Heliothis armigera . ICRISAT, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp. 2528. Singh HK and Singh HN. 1990. Screening of certain pigeonpea cultivars sown at kharif and rabi crops against tur pod bug, Clavigralla gibbosa and pod fly, Melanagromyza obtusa. Indian Journal of Entomology 52 : 320327.

Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 166, 2010

List of Referees
1. Dr. A.S. Ganeshmurthy Principal Scientist IIHR, Bangalore Dr. P.K. Ghosh Head Crop Production Division IIPR, Kanpur Dr. S.C. Gupta Associate Professor ARS, Durgapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan Dr. A. Bhattacharya, Retd. Principal Scientist, CPBM Division, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. M. S. Venkatesh Senior Scientist Crop Production Division, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. Narendra Kumar Senior Scientist, Crop Production Division IIPR, Kanpur 16. 7. Dr. Anup Das ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Barapani, Meghalaya Dr. Mahaveer P. Sharma Khandawa Road Indore Dr. Sarvjeet Singh Sr. Plant Breeder PAU, Ludhiana 17. 10. Dr. S.K. Chaturvedi Head Crop Improvement Division, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. G.P. Dixit Senior Scientist PC Unit, MULLaRP IIPR, Kanpur Dr. K.S. Reddy Senior Scientific Officer BARC, Trombay, Mumbai Dr. M. N. Singh Professor B.H.U., Varanasi Dr. S.K. Singh Principal Scientist, Crop Protection Division IIPR, Kanpur Dr. S.D. Mohapatra Senior Scientist Crop Protection Division, IIPR, Kanpur Dr. Harsh Nayyar, Professor, Panjab University Chandigarh Dr. Devraj I/C Agril. Statistics & Computer Application IIPR, Kanpur

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Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 167, 2010

PROCEEDINGS OF GENERAL BODY MEETING OF THE ISPRD HELD AT CSK HPKV, PALAMPUR (H.P.) ON MAY 18, 2010
General body meeting of the Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development was held at 10.0 hr on May 18, 2010. Dr N Nadrajan, Director (IIPR, Kanpur) & Co-Patron (ISPRD) presided over the meeting.
l

At the outset, four pulse scientists namely, Dr B B Sharma (GBPUA&T, Pantnagar), Dr (Mrs) Rekha Mathur (ARS, Durgapura, Jaipur), Dr Jai Dev Singh and Dr Vijay Shankar Singh (CSAUA&T, Kanpur) were felicitated by the Society for their contributions in the field of pulses research and development. Dr (Mrs) Livinder Kaur (Treasurer, ISPRD NWPZ Local Chapter, PAU, Ludhiana) presented details of audited financial reports (income-expenditure status) of the Society for the year 2009. Secretary (ISPRD) presented details of the status of manuscripts for the official Journal (Journal of Food Legumes) of the Society. The house expressed concern over the pending manuscripts of previous years. Secretary assured the House to process those manuscripts on priority basis. It was decided further that the manuscripts approved for publication would also bear their date of receipt and date of acceptance from the forthcoming issues of the Journal (2010). The House was informed about online display of Journal of Food Legumes, the latest issue of which could be viewed at www.indianjournal.com. Secretary (ISPRD) put before the House recommendations of the core committee of the Executive regarding fee hike for annual/life membership and library subscription. The General body approved hike of fee: (a) from Rs. 250 to Rs. 350 for annual membership, (b) from Rs. 2500 to Rs. 3500 for life membership, and (c) from Rs. 2500 to Rs. 3000 for library subscription. The House retained the criteria of 5 years and 3 publications for the award of Fellowship to the members of the Society. However, it was decided that: (a) out of the three, one paper must have published in the Journal of Food Legumes, and (b) all the three publications must have NAAS journal rating at or above par with Journal of Food Legumes. It was further decided that Fellowship would be awarded every year and members can apply directly for such award (recommendation from parental university/Institute would not be required). Secretary (ISPRD) informed the House about the preliminary discussion with private companies for creation of facility for online submission and processing of research articles for the Journal of Food Legumes. General body approved the proposal for creation of such facility (which would include creation of separate website and its subsequent annual maintenance) and associated one time cost of about Rs. 1.5 lakh. The House also approved the Annual maintenance cost (~Rs. 50000=00) of the website for the succeeding year. The election of the Office bearers (President, Secretary and Treasurer) of the Local Chapter (NWPZ Local Chapter, PAU, Ludhiana) would be conducted by the Local Chapter in consultation with the Central Unit after the expiry of the term (3 years). The result of the election would be endorsed by the Central Core Committee.

In his Presidential address, Dr N D Majumder assured the House that concerns of the members would be rapidly addressed. At last, Dr N Nadrajan (Co-Patron of ISPRD & Director, IIPR) addressed the General Body. He appealed the House to extend whole-hearted support to the Executive for meaningful solutions to their genuine problems. In the last, Secretary (ISPRD) proposed vote of thanks to the Chair and all the respected members of the Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development.

Sd/ (A K Choudhary) Secretary, ISPRD

Instructions to Authors
Journal of Food Legumes (formerly Indian Journal of Pulses Research ) publishes original papers, short communications and review articles by renowned scientists, covering all areas of food legumes research. The paper should not have been published or communicated elsewhere. Authors will be solely responsible for the factual accuracy of their contribution. Language of publication is English (British). Please send your manuscript to following address: Secretary ISPRD Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208 024, India Email: secretary.isprd@gmail.com Manuscript must be submitted through e-mail. You should also submit a hard copy of your manuscript for our official record. Besides author(s) is required to submit a certificate that the paper is exclusive for Journal of Food Legumes. Manuscripts must conform to the Journal style (see the latest issue). Correct language is the responsibility of the author. After having received your contribution (date of submission), there will be a review process before the editorial board takes decision regarding acceptance for publication. One copy of the revision together with the original manuscript must be returned to the subject editor or Secretary. The submitted paper must be one complete word document file comprising a title page, abstract, text, references, tables, figure legends and figures. When preparing your text file, please use only Times New Roman for text (12 point, double spacing) and Symbol font for Greek letters to avoid inadvertent character substitutions. Format Every original paper should be divided into the following five sections: ABSTRACT, Key words , INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, and REFERENCES. The manuscript should be typed on one side of the paper only, double spaced, and with 4-cm margins with page and line numbers. The main title must be capital bold. Subheading must be bold italic and Sub-sub heading normal italic. At the head of the manuscript, the following information should be given: the title of the paper, the name(s) of the author(s), the institute where the research was carried out, the present addresses of the authors (foot note) and of the corresponding author (if different from above Institute). Authors are required to provide running title of the paper. You must supply an E-mail address for the corresponding author. The abstract should contain at least one sentence on each of the following: objective of investigation (hypothesis, purpose, aim), experimental material, method of investigation, data collection, result and conclusions. Maximum length of abstract is 175 words. Up to 10 key words should be added at the end of the abstract and separated by comma. Key words must be arranged alphabatically (e.g., EMS, Gamma ray, Mungbean, Mutations, Path coefficient, ......). 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Botanical and zoological names, gene designations and gene symbols are italicised. Yield data should be reported in kg/ha. The name of varieties or genotypes must start and end with single inverted comma (e.g., Priya, IPA 204, ......). Tables and Figures Tables and figures should be limited to the necessary minimum. Please submit reproducible artwork. For printing of coloured photograph, authors will be charged Rs. 4000/- per photograph. It is essential that figures are submitted as highresolution scans. References The list of references should only include publications cited in the text. They should be cited in alphabetical order under the first authors name, listing all authors, the year of publication and the complete title, according to the following examples: Becker HC, Lin SC and Leon J. 1988. Stability analysis in plant breeding. Plant Breeding 101: 1-23. Sokal RR and Rholf FJ. 1981. Biometry, 2nd Ed. Freeman, San Francisco. Tandon HLS. 1993. Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, Water and Fertilizers (ed). Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, India. 143 pp. Singh DP. 1989. Mutation breeding in blackgram. In: SA Farook and IA Khan (Eds), Breeding Food Legumes. Premier Publishing House, Hyderabad, India. Pp 103-109. Takkar PN and Randhawa NS. 1980. Zinc deficiency in Indian soils and plants. In: Proceedings of Seminar on Zinc Wastes and their Utilization, 15-16 October 1980, Indian Lead-Zinc Information Centre, Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi, India. Pp 13-15. Satyanarayan Y. 1953. Photosociological studies on calcarious plants of Bombay. Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University, Mumbai, India. In the text, the bibliographical reference is made by giving the name of the author(s) with the year of publication. If there are two references, then it should be separated by placing comma (e.g., Becker et al. 1988, Tandon 1993). If references are of the same year, arrange them in alphabatic order, otherwise arrange them in ascending order of the years. While preparing manuscripts, authors are requested to go through the latest issue of the journal.

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