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EXERCISES 12.3, page 793 1.

f ( x ) = cos 3x; f ( x ) = 3 sin 3x.


d (5x ) = 5 cos 5x. dx d f ( x) = 2 cos x; f ( x) = (2sin x) ( x) = 2 sin x. dx d f ( x ) = sin 2 x; f ( x ) = (cos 2 x ) (2 x ) = 2 cos 2 x. dx d f ( x ) = sin( x 2 + 1); f ( x ) = cos( x 2 + 1) ( x 2 + 1) = 2 x cos( x 2 + 1). dx f ( x ) = sin 5x; f ( x ) = (cos 5x )
f ( x) = cos x 2 ; f ( x) = ( sin x 2 )2 x = 2 x sin x 2 . f ( x ) = tan 2 x 2 ; f ( x ) = (sec 2 2 x 2 ) d (2 x 2 ) = 4 x sec 2 2 x 2 . dx
csc 2 x d 1/ 2 1 x = x 1/ 2 csc 2 x = . dx 2 2 x

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

f ( x ) = cot x ; f ( x ) = ( csc 2 x )

f ( x) = x sin x ; f ( x) = sin x + x cos x.

10. f ( x ) = x 2 cos x; f ( x ) = 2 x cos x x 2 sin x. 11. f ( x ) = 2 sin 3x + 3 cos 2 x; f ( x ) = (2 cos 3x )(3) (3 sin 2 x )(2) = 6(cos 3x sin 2 x ). 12. 2 cot 2 x + sec 3x; f '( x ) = [ 2 csc 2 2 x ]2 + [sec 3x tan 3x ]3 = 4 csc 2 2 x + 3 sec 3x tan 3x. 13. f ( x ) = x 2 cos 2 x; f ( x ) = 2 x cos 2 x + x 2 ( sin 2 x )(2) = 2 x (cos 2 x x sin 2 x ). 14. f ( x) = x sin x;
12 Trigonometric Functions 874

f ( x ) =

1 1/ 2 1 x sin x + x (cos x ) = (sin x + 2x cos x ) 2 2 x

15. f ( x ) = sin x 2 1 = sin( x 2 1)1/ 2 d f ( x ) = cos x 2 1 ( x 2 1)1/ 2 = (cos x 2 1) dx


= x cos x 2 1 x2 1 .

b g( x
1 2

1) 1/ 2 (2 x )

16. f ( x ) = csc( x 2 + 1); f ( x ) = csc( x 2 + 1) cot( x 2 + 1) 2 x = 2 x csc( x 2 + 1) cot( x 2 + 1). 17. f ( x ) = e x sec x f ( x ) = e x sec x + e x (sec x tan x ) = e x sec x (1 + tan x ). 18. f ( x ) = e x csc x f ( x ) = e x csc x + e x ( csc x cot x ) = e x csc x (1 + cot x ). 1 19. f ( x ) = x cos ; x 1 d 1 1 1 1 f ( x) = cos + x( sin 1 = cos x 2 sin x) x dx x x x x 1 1 1 1 1 1 = sin + x cos or cos + sin . x x x x x x 20. f ( x ) = x 2 sin 1 . x 1 1 1 1 1 f ( x ) = 2 x sin + x 2 cos 2 = 2 x sin cos . x x x x x

FG IJ FG IJ H KH K

21. f ( x ) =

x sin x 1 + cos x

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12 Trigonometric Functions

f ( x ) = =

(1 + cos x )(1 cos x ) ( x sin x )( sin x ) (1 + cos x ) 2 x sin x 1 cos2 x + x sin x sin 2 x = . 2 (1 + cos x ) (1 + cos x ) 2

22. f ( x ) =

sin 2 x ; 1 + cos 3x (1 + cos x )(2 cos 2 x ) (sin 2 x )( 3 sin 3x ) f ( x ) = (1 + cos 3x ) 2 2 cos 2 x + 2 cos 2 x cos 3x + 3 sin 2 x sin 3x . = (1 + cos 3x ) 2 1 sec 2 x (tan x ) 1/ 2 sec 2 x = . 2 2 tan x

23. f ( x ) = tan x ; f ( x ) =

24. f ( x ) = cos x + sin x ; 1 cos x sin x f ( x ) = (cos x + sin x ) 1/ 2 ( sin x + cos x ) = . 2 2 cos x + sin x 25. f ( x ) = x cos x sin x sin x ; f ( x ) = . x x2

26. f ( x ) =

cos x ; x2 + 1 ( x 2 + 1)( sin x ) (cos x )(2 x ) x 2 sin x + sin x + 2 x cos x f ( x ) = = . ( x 2 + 1) 2 ( x 2 + 1) 2

27. f ( x ) = tan 2 x. f ( x ) = 2 tan x sec 2 x. 28. f ( x ) = cot x = cot x 1/ 2 .


f ( x ) = ( csc 2 x ) d 1/ 2 1 csc 2 x ( x ) = ( csc 2 x ) x 1/ 2 = . dx 2 2 x

29. f ( x ) = e cot x ; f ( x ) = e cot x ( csc 2 x ) = csc 2 x e cot x .


12 Trigonometric Functions 876

30. f ( x ) = e tan x + sec x f ( x ) = (sec 2 x + sec x tan x )e tan x + sec x . 31. f ( x ) = cot 2 x. f ( x ) = 2 csc 2 2 x. 2 Therefore, f = 2. 4 = sin 2 2

bg

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Then y 0 = 2( x 4 ), or y = 2 x + 2.

32. f ( x ) = e sec x ; f ( x ) = e sec x (sec x tan x ). Therefore, the slope of the tangent line is f

b g=

2e 2 .

An equation of the tangent line is y e

= 2e 2 ( x 4 ).

33. f ( x ) = e x cos x. f ( x ) = e x cos x + e x ( sin x ) = e x (cos x sin x ). Setting f ( x ) = 0 gives cos x sin x = 0, or tan x = 1; that is, when 5 x= 4 , or 4 . From the following sign diagram for f

5 5 we see that f is increasing on (0, 4 ) ( 4 ,2 ) and decreasing on ( 4 , 4 ).

34. f ( x ) = x + sin x; f ( x ) = 1 + cos x; f ( x ) = sin x. Setting f ( x ) = 0, we obtain x = , 0, and . From the sign diagram for f

we see that the inflection points are ( , ), ( 0,0), and ( , ).

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12 Trigonometric Functions

35.

36.

37.

38.

39. a. f ( x ) = sin x , f ( x ) = cos x , f ( x ) = sin x , f ( x ) = cos x , f ( 4 ) ( x ) = sin x , ... . f (0) = 0, f (0) = 1, f "(0) = 0, f (0) = 1, f ( 4 ) (0) = 0, ..., Therefore, f ( x ) = sin x = x b. lim
x 3 x5 x 7 + + 3! 5! 7 ! + ( 1) n +1 x 2 n +1 + (2n + 1)!

x2 x4 sin x = lim(1 + x0 x 0 x 3! 5!

) = 1.

x2 x4 x6 x6 + . 40. cos x = 1 + 2 24 720 40,320 cos x 1 x x3 x5 x7 = + + x 2 24 720 40,320


lim

x x3 x5 x2 cos x 1 = lim + + = 0. x0 x0 x 2 24 720 40,320


878

LM N

OP Q

12 Trigonometric Functions

41. P(t ) = 8000 + 1000 sin P (t ) = [1000 cos


t
24

d i.
t
24 24

1000 cos = 0; that is, the 24 2 wolf population is not changing during the twelfth month. t p(t ) = 40,000 + 12,000 cos 24

d i](

) and P (12) =

p(t ) = [12, 000sin

( )](
t
24

d i
)

24

(12) and p(12) = 500sin 24 = 500 ; that is, the caribou population is decreasing at the rate of 1571/month.

2 t t t t 42. P(t ) = 20 + 12 sin 30 6 sin 15 + 4 sin 10 3 sin 15 . The rate of change of the price of the stock at the close of the t-th day of trading is t t t t 25 cos 15 + 25 cos 10 25 cos 215 . In particular, the rate of given by P (t ) = 25 cos 30 change of the price of the stock at the close of the fifteenth day of trading was given by P (15) = 25 (0) 25 ( 1) + 25 (0) 25 (1) = 0, or $0 per share per day. The closing price of the stock on that day was P(15) = 20 + 12(1) 6(0) + 4( 1) 3(0) = 28 , or $28 per share.

43. f (t ) = 3sin

2 2 2 (t 79) + 12. f (t ) = 3cos (t 79) i 365 365 365 6 0.05164. The number of hours of daylight is Therefore, f (79) = 365 increasing at the rate of 0.05 hrs per day on March 21. 44. H (t ) = 4.8 cos 6 ( t 10) d 6 ( t 10) = 4.8 6 cos 6 ( t 10) dt = 0.8 cos ( t 10 ). 6 3 5 Setting H (t ) = 0 gives 6 ( t 10) = 2 2 2 , t 10 = 3, 9, 15, Since 0 t 24, we see that the critical points of interest are t = 1, 7, 13, and 19. From the sign diagram of H , we see that H is increasing on (0,1) (7,13) (19, 24) and decreasing on (1, 7) (13, 19). The relative minima of H occur at (7, 2.8) and (19, 2.8) and the relative maxima of H occur at (1,12) and (1, 12) and (13, 12).
879 12 Trigonometric Functions

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45. T = 62 18 cos

36 46 + 2t sin . 365 365 46 + 2t Setting T = 0, we obtain = 0, 46 = 2 t , or t = 23, 365 46 + 2t = , 46 + 2 t = 365 , 2 t = 411 , or t = 2055 .. and 365 From the sign diagram shown below,

2 (t 23) . 365

T =

FG H

IJ K

we see that a minimum occurs at t = 23 and a maximum occurs at t = 205.5. We conclude that the warmest day is July 25th and the coldest day is January 23rd.
t t t 6 3 46. V (t ) = 56 (1 cos 2 ). We first compute V ( t ) = 5 (sin 2 )( 2 ) = 5 sin 2 . Setting V (t ) = 0 gives t = 0, 2, 4, 6, ..., as the critical point of V. Next, we compute V (t ) < 0, when t = 2, 6, 10, ... . We see, by virtue of the Second Derivative Test, that the volume of the inhaled air is at a maximum when t = 2, 6, 10, 14, ... . The maximum volume is given by 12 12 V (2) = V (6) = = 56 ( 2) = 5 , or 5 liters.

47. R(t ) = 2(5 4 cos 6t ) .

R (t ) =
t

4 3

sin

b g.
t
6

Setting R = 0, we obtain 6 = 0, and conclude that t = 0, t = 6, and t = 12. From the sign diagram for R

we conclude that a maximum occurs at t = 6. 48. tan =

y . Differentiating both sides with respect to t gives 12,000


880

12 Trigonometric Functions

sec 2

1 d dy = and so dt 12,000 dt

d 1 dy cos2 dy = = . dt 12,000 sec 2 dt 12,000 dt


At the instant of time of interest, z = 13,000 and cos = 12,000 12 = , 13,000 13

dy = 480 and so dt

12 d = 13 480 = 0.034 or 0.034 rad/sec. and so dt 12,000

bg

49. From Problem 46, we have t V ' (t ) = 56 sin 2

gb g =

3 5

sin 2t .

3 t t 3 V (t ) = 5 cos Then 2 ( 2 ) = 10 cos 2 . Setting V (t ) = 0 gives t = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, ... , as critical points. Evaluating V (t ) at each of these points, we see that the rate of flow of air is at a maximum when t = 1, 5, 9, 13, ..., and it is at a minimum when t = 3, 7, 11, 15, ... .

50. Referring to the figure on page 233, we see that tan =

y . Differentiating both x

sides of the equation with respect to t, d d y (tan ) = dt dt x dy dx x y d (sec 2 ) = dt 2 dt dt x When x = 12, we have 144 + y 2 = 400, or y = 256 = 16. Therefore, dx dy with x = 12, y = 16, = 5, and = 3.75 (see the solution to Exercise 60, dt dt
20 page 233), we find sec = and so 12
2 2

20 d (12)(3.75) 16(5) = 144 12 dt


881 12 Trigonometric Functions

d 12 125 = = 0.3125. dt 20 144 So the angle is decreasing at the rate of 0.3125 rad/sec. y d 1 dy dy . Therefore, sec 2 = . We want to find when z = 30. 20 dt 20 dt dt 30 3 = . But when z = 30, y = 900 400 = 500 = 10 5, and sec = 20 2 Therefore, with d = rad/sec, we find dt 2 2 3 45 dy d 2 = 70.7 = 20 sec = 20 2 2 2 dt dt or 70.7 ft/sec. 51. tan =

FG IJ HK

52. tan =

h or h = 150 tan . Therefore, 150 dh = 150(sec 2 )d dh 150(sec 2 )d sec 2 = = d . h 150 tan tan

With =

3 or approximately 2.4 percent.

and d = 0.01

= b g, we find dh h

4 ( 0.01) 0.024, 3 3

53. The area of the cross-section is 1 )(5cos )(5sin ) + 5(5sin ) A = (2)( 2 = 25(cos sin + sin ). dA = 25( sin 2 + cos2 + cos ) d = 25(cos2 1 + cos2 + cos )
= 25(2 cos2 + cos 1) = 25(2 cos 1)(cos + 1). dA 1 Setting = 0 gives cos = 2 or cos = 1, or = d
12 Trigonometric Functions 882

or . The absolute

maximum of A occurs at =

as can be seen from the following table:

A 0
75 3 4

Therefore, the angle shoud be 60 .


3 2 54. S ( ) = 6ab + 2 b

F 3 cos I . GH sin JK 3 L sin (sin ) ( 3 cos )(cos ) O S ( ) = b M PQ sin 2 N 3 L sin 3 cos + cos O 3b (1 3 cos ) = b M PQ = sin . sin 2 N
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Setting S ( ) = 0, gives

3 cos = 1, or cos =

1 . 3

55. Let f ( ) = 0.5 sin 1. then f ( ) = 1 0.5 cos and so Newton's Method leads to the iteration. f ( i ) 0.5 sin i 1 i 0.5 i cos i i + 0.5 sin i + 1 i +1 = i = i i = f ( i ) 1 0.5 cos i 1 0.5 cos i 1 + 0.5(sin i i cos i ) = . 1 0.5 cos i With

i = 15 . , we find 1 =
1 + 0.5(sin 15 . 15 . cos15 . ) 14456946 . = 14987 . . 1 0.5 cos15 . 0.9646314 14987 1 + 0.5(sin 14987 . . cos14987 . ) 14447225 . 2 = = 14987 . . 1 0.5 cos14987 . 0.9639831

56. c.

dE b b = k 4 ( csc 2 ) + 4 ( csc cot ) . d R R


883 12 Trigonometric Functions

LM N

OP Q

dE = 0 gives d b b csc 2 = 4 csc cot 4 R r 4 1 cos r = cot = sin = cos 4 R csc sin r4 Therefore, = cos1 4 . R sin x sin 0 sin x . 57. True. Let f ( x) = sin x. Then f (0) = lim = lim x 0 x 0 x x sin x = 1. But f (0) = cos 0 = 1. So lim x 0 x

Setting

58. True. f ( x) = 1 cos x 0 on (, ) , and so f is nondecreasing on (, ) . 59. False. Take x = . Then f has a relative minimum if x = , but g does not have a relative maximum at x = . 60. True. We compute f ( x) = cos x sin x, and f ( x) = sin x cos x. Now, f ( x) < 0 on the interval 0, and so the graph of f is concave downward on 2 0, . 2 1 61. h( x ) = csc f ( x ) = . sin f ( x ) cos f ( x ) f ( x ) h( x ) = = csc f ( x ) cot f ( x ) f ( x ). sin 2 f ( x )

62. h( x ) = sec f ( x ) =

1 ; cos f ( x ) ( sin f ( x )) f ( x ) h( x ) = = tan f ( x ) sec f ( x ) f ( x ). cos2 f ( x ) cos f ( x ) . sin f ( x )


884

63. h( x ) = cot f ( x ) =

12 Trigonometric Functions

h( x ) = =

sin f ( x ) sin f ( x ) f ( x ) (cos f ( x )) cos f ( x ) f ( x ) sin 2 f ( x ) sin 2 f ( x ) cos2 f ( x ) f ( x ) sin f ( x )


2 2

1 f ( x ) sin 2 f ( x )

= csc f ( x ) f ( x ).

64.

lim

cos h 1 cos h 1 cos h + 1 i = lim h0 h0 h h cos h + 1 = lim cos 2 h 1 (1 sin 2 h 1) = lim h 0 h(cos h + 1) h 0 h (cos h + 1) sin 2 h 1 sin h = lim sin h h 0 h(cos h + 1) h0 h cos h + 1

= lim

1 = (1) (0) = 0. 2
USING TECHNOLOGY EXERCISES 12.3, page 797

1. 1.2038 6. -0.6864

2. -2.3097

3. 0.7762

4. 0.4715

5. -0.2368

7. 0.8415; -0.2172

8. 0.6321; -0.7536

9. 1.1271; 0.2013 11. a.

10. 1.119; 1.0472 b. $0.63 c. $27.79

885

12 Trigonometric Functions

12. a.

13. a.

14. a.

b. The longest day occurs when t 170, or approximately June 20. The shortest day occurs when t 353, or approximately December 21. 15. 0.006 ft.

12 Trigonometric Functions

886