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In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Simultaneous Development of SL and TL Skills in a Translation Class (English-Arabic) (Published

in UAE and UK, 2008 & 2012) ABSTRACT Arab students of translation expose weaknesses not only in the Source Language (SL) but also in the Target Language (TL), their mother tongue, and to the same extent. The translation class can be a valuable source for improving, developing and refining the students' knowledge and skills of both languages at one and the same time. It is a common misconception among many people in the field that Arab students of English Language and translation are in need of developing their English language and translational skills only to the negligence of their mother tongue's skills, for they are already equipped with these skills as native speakers of Arabic. On the other hand, translation has mostly been rightly regarded in many applied and contrastive linguistic studies as a means of teaching English as a foreign Language. Needless to say these studies are valid and useful indeed. At the same time, developing native language skills in a translation class is equally useful but to my knowledge has not been attended to satisfactorily. The development and refinement of the students' mother tongue should go hand in hand with the development of the SL skills. That is, the students are in desperate need to develop their native language skills which are underdeveloped for many of them in the Arab Universities all over the Arab Countries for a number of reasons (including poor school teaching standards, syllabi and evaluation, automatic passes, overcrowded classrooms in most Arab Countries, below standard teachers, carelessness of many students and their parents, etc.) for which there is no space here. Students join the University with a little knowledge of formal Arabic, and with a great deal of confusion of language tones, especially formal and colloquial. When they embark on their English and translation studies, their full concentration is turned to learning English Language skills for their ultimate concern is to grasp and acquire these skills to the negligence of their native Arabic for they as well as teachers- wrongly presuppose that naturally they already have these skills and knowledge. Yet, when they put this knowledge to formal use in practice, in a translation class, they realize then that they have a number of deficiencies blocking their fluent progress in the course. One of the major concerns of this paper is to draw attention to these deficiencies on behalf of the students of translation in the formal use of Arabic, the type of language used in translation, and how to compensate for them through the development and refinement of the students' skills in Arabic simultaneously with English skills. This paper is an attempt to explore the different aspects of developing the Arab students' formal, linguistic, semantic, stylistic, phonological and, eventually, translational skills of both the SL and the TL, hand in hand and on equal terms. These aspects include the major language levels: 1. Layout(esp. paragraphing and punctuation); 2. Grammar(esp. clause and sentence structure, sentence types, verb types, transitivity vs. intransitivity, singular/dual/plural forms and word classes); 3. Vocabulary (esp. synonymy, polysemy, collocation, idioms and proverbs, cultural terms and Arabization of scientific and other technical terms); 4. Style (esp. formal vs. colloquial, foregrounding vs. backgrounding, lexical repetition vs. variation, overstatement vs. understatement and irony).

5. Phonology (esp. rhyme, rhythm, and all other prosodic features). The ultimate objective of the paper is to show the invaluable usefulness of the translation class in the development and refinement of the Arab students' SL and TL skills, abilities and knowledge simultaneously, which in turn enhances their translation abilities and skills to a satisfactory level towards the end of their studies. Simultaneous Development of SL and TL Skills in a Translation Class (English-Arabic) Arab students of translation expose weaknesses not only in the Source Language (SL) but also in the Target Language (TL), their mother tongue, and to the same extent. The translation class can be a valuable source for improving, developing and refining the students' knowledge and skills of both languages at one and the same time. This paper is an attempt to explore the different aspects of learning and developing the Arab students' formal, linguistic, semantic, stylistic, phonological and, eventually, translational skills of both the SL and the TL hand in hand and on equal terms. These aspects include the major language levels: 1. 2. Layout (esp. paragraphing and punctuation); Grammar (esp. clause and sentence structure, sentence types, verb types, transitivity vs. intransitivity, singular/dual/plural forms and word classes); 3. Vocabulary (esp. synonymy, polysemy, collocation, idioms and proverbs, cultural terms and Arabization of scientific and other technical terms); 4. Style (esp. formal vs. colloquial, foregrounding vs. backgrounding, lexical repetition vs. variation, overstatement vs. understatement and irony). 5. Phonology (esp. rhyme, rhythm, and all other prosodic features). Here are the details, starting with the Layout: 1. LAYOUT: Texts take different shapes or formats, outer formats and inner formats. Our concern here will be with the inner layout of paragraphing and punctuation for their variation, relevance and importance to students of translation: 1. Paragraphing: Paragraphs are useful units of meaning. In general, they are used in written English in a clear and organized way. Many have an introduction, an amplification and an ending of some kind each. In Arabic, however, until recently paragraphing is in a shambles in many texts. There is no tradition of organized paragraphing in written Arabic. There are no clearcut borderlines to paragraphs. This has negative repercussions on the students who ignore paragraphing in writing in general and, hence, in translation. Therefore, drawing their attention to the importance of paragraphing in English and to the organization of the units of the meaning (or major translation units), would result in the students' realization of that in Arabic as well. The situation is improving these days in written Arabic for many writers have recognized the formal, semantic and stylistic functions of paragraphing. (For more details, see, Rachel Giora's functional perspective of paragraph(1982b), Nash(1980), Ghazala (1987& 1994 /1999) and others). Punctuation: More notable perhaps than haphazard paragraphing in Arabic is the random use, misuse or absence of punctuation. In English, the use of punctuation marks is highly recurrent and appreciated in all texts(traditional legal documents excluded)by all writers for a simple reason: punctuation marks are functional and meaningful. They are not mere decorations of organization. A full stop for example, marks the end of a sentence and, hence, an idea, whereas a comma is intersentential and achieves several stylo-semantic functions. A colon, on the other hand, is used to mark the beginning of a saying, a quotation or an explanation, whereas a semi-colon is used between two closely related


sentences and very close to the full stop, and so on and so forth. (See Newmark, 1988&1993, Ghazala, 1999&2006, and others for more discussion). In Arabic, however, the situation of the use of punctuation is in disarray. Punctuation marks are neglected, completely absent, or mostly disused in traditional books through modern works, with few exceptions, though. All punctuation marks are not used properly, including the full stop, the comma, the question and exclamation marks; whereas the semi-colon is completely absent for no specific reason. The three exceptions maybe are the dash(for interruption/suspension), the colon(to mark a saying/quotation) and the question mark(usually to mark a question), which are used properly. With the translation teacher's concern with the formal, semantic and stylistic functions of punctuation marks in English, and the need for reflecting them in Arabic for reasons of precision of translation, the students can see the points of their usefulness and significance. Indeed, we have learned from English a great deal about the importance of punctuation in written language. 2. GRAMMAR In a translation class, the different grammatical features of both languages, the SL and the TL, are compared, contrasted, paralleled to each other and carefully considered in English and Arabic. All this is to the benefit of the students' development of their skills and knowledge in both languages on equal footing in this respect. The most influential of these features are: 1. Sentence and clause structure: Students have a general knowledge of English and Arabic sentence structure. In Arabic, for example, they know that there are parts of speech, long sentences, short sentences, prepositions and prepositional phrases, and adverbs. As to the clause() , it is vaguely defined in Arabic, but made clear in English. The main concentration is usually on vowelization / parsing() , rhetoric, prosody and explanation of difficult words and phrases, the so-called practice/application() , with the exception of one or two modernized Arabic studies and approaches(Like Tammam Hassan's(1977)) which are anyway limited in application in Arab Universities, colleges and departments of Arabic Language. However, in English the students are in a better situation in this respect for there are highly advanced linguistic developments in this field, as we all know. In a good translation class with a good specialist teacher, the students are enlightened about sentence and clause structure in both languages in a comparative, paralleled way, with the larger amount of information coming in from English of course into Arabic, including terminology like complex/simplex (or complicated/simple) sentences, embedding, ellipsis, embedded/elliptical sentences, subordination, modification, qualification, pre-/post-modification, coordination, finite / non-finite / relative / causative clauses, right-branching / left-branching / mid-branching / interruptive / suspensive clauses, subordinate / main clauses, etc. The list is so long indeed. All these and other linguistic terms have now established equivalents in Arabic (see Baalbaki (1990); Ghazala (1996/2000) and others). These details enrich the students' grammar skills and lexicon in both languages at one and the same time. Sentence Types: The major sentence type of English is the verbal sentence the verbal type, normally with the subject first, followed by the (main) verb, followed by the object / complement (whichever applicable). On the other hand, the major Arabic sentence types are two(1&2), with two minor types(3&4): Verbal sentences (V+S+O/C) Nominal Sentences (Topic + Comment) () Functional Sentences (( ) seven types). Non-Functional sentences (( ) nine types).


a. b. c. d.

There are variations on Nominal (a-d) and verbal (e-h)) sentence types: e.g.

) (set of semi-verbal particles)sentence(a particle of the set + topic (accusative) + ( comment (nominative)). b. Prepositional sentence type: A prepositional phrase pertaining to an embedded comment, followed by a belated topic. c. Adverbial sentence type: An adverb of time/place related to an embedded comment, followed by a belated topic. d. Fronted comment and belated topic sentence type. e. Passive voice sentence type f. Fronted Object+V+O sentence type: An embedded verb+O+V+O. g. (( ) set of incomplete verbs) sentence(a verb of this set+topic (nominative) +comment (accusative)). h. Conditional sentences: A conditional particle+topic+V, or /V+S+O/C. etc. (See Alghalayeeni(1999)). a. These variations and complications of the sentence types in Arabic offer a great opportunity to students of translation to explore a good deal about these types, matched or compared with the major English sentence types. It may be a daunting task for the teacher to be highly educated in Arabic grammar to be able to explain these types in comparison to English equivalents. 3. Verb Types: There are two major types of verb in English: a. Auxiliary / modal verbs. b. Main verbs. The main verb has several types: a. b. c. d. e. etc. Imperative verbs Static verbs Dynamic verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs

In Arabic, however, there are over 12 verb types: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. Main / ordinary verbs Imperfective verbs () Exclamation verbs () Praise and dispraise verbs () Request verbs () Inception verbs () Innermost verbs: Verbs of certainty ( :) Innermost verbs: Verbs of likelihood ( :) "Give" set of verbs (( Transmutation verbs () Imperative verbs Passive verbs Inflectional verbs () Non-inflectional verbs ()

How many of these types do our students know? In a translation class on verb types, such enlightening information can be made happily available to students in parallel with pertaining details about English verb types. 4. Transitive vs. intransitive verbs: Transitive and intransitive verbs are sometimes difficult to discern in both languages. Still more problematic is the distinction between different types of transitive verbs: Mono-transitive: one object in both languages (the majority of verbs) Di-transitive: two objects in both languages (e.g. in Arabic: verbs of g,h,i above).

a. b.


Tri-transitive: Three objects in Arabic only (some of the verbs of group g.).

Having access to a good number of these verbs in the SL as well as the TL, the students add more and more to their repertoire of both languages. Hence the development of their language and translation skills. 5. a. b. c. d. Plural and singular forms: In English, there are two forms of plural: Regular plural: by adding 's' to singular. Irregular plural: Unpredictable form. Zero plural for verbs. Zero plural for adjectives.

The Arabic plural forms, however, are more variant and more complicated: a. Animate masculine regular plural b. Animate feminine regular plural c. Inanimate masculine & feminine plural d. Irregular plural(fem. & masc.) (unpredictable forms) e. The plural of few number (4 forms) f. The plural of large number (16 forms) g. The plural of ultimate plurals (19 forms) h. The noun/singular plural i. Gender noun plural j. The plural of the plural k. Zero-singular plural l. Different-singular plural m. Identical plural and singular form n. Plural of compounds o. Plural of proper nouns (See Al-Ghalayeeni, op.cit). On the other hand, the dual form is basic in Arabic, but absent in English. The problem for the students of translation is not only how to know all these forms of Arabic plural, but also and mainly how to form the dual and plural of all forms, especially the concord of the rest of the sentence, with the feminine forms being the most awkward (e.g. "All feminine students did their homework and passed their final exams except for two poor ones": ) ( . Usually they replace it by either the masculine plural (i.e. ) . They also substitute the masculine plural for the inanimate plural (e.g. "Pet animals do no harm to their owners nor hurt each other": ( instead of ). With the recurrence of examples containing plural and dual forms of different types of nouns, verbs and adjectives, the students of translation can improve their practical use of awkward forms in particular. 6. Change of the grammatical class of words: This is a useful exercise for developing and refining the students' skills and abilities to practice almost freely the change of the grammatical class of words, so that they learn much about the flexibility of translation, Arabic Language and the overlap among the different classes of the same word(i.e. nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs in particular). Changing the class of words is a common practice in translation, especially when an equivalent class of an English word in Arabic is not available(e.g. 'willy nilly' ) , or a certain class is meant for one reason or another(e.g. understanding is the precondition for translating properly ( nominalization)/( verbalization),etc.). One of the interesting exercise is to give students a drill on how to translate the same examples twice: one into verbal sentences; another into nominal sentences. The results will be interesting, surprising and sometimes unexpected(see Ghazala(2006).



The greater part of benefit and development of, and contribution to the students' skills and knowledge of language is made in the field of vocabulary. The lexical features of language are many, the most important and recurrent of which in translation classes and problems are discussed succinctly in the following account: Synonymy, polysemy, collocability, idiomaticity, and cultural / political / scientific and other terms: 1. Synonymy: Both Arabic and English are full of synonyms, with more to Arabic than English, to the extent that Arabic is described as the language of synonymy. Discussing the translation problems of synonymy would further the students' inventory of synonyms in both languages. For example, how many synonyms can the students guess for 'anger, fear, death, pork and lion' in Arabic? One? Two? Five? Ten? Or maybe less, maybe more?((over a hundred for each of the first three, over 500 for the fourth(i.e. lion), but only one for the last(pork)(See Appendices 1-4 for illustrative examples in both languages). A number of these synonyms can be sufficient for the students to follow up the new ones and, hence, resolve the problems of synonymy in both languages. Here is an example: 'Lion' is the only word in English for . However, in Arabic, and as just pointed out, it has a huge number of synonyms. How many of them are students expected to know? Perhaps the whole class would guess three or four other than (e.g.( . How many of them know that ( ) are among the names of 'lion'? Possibly not so many. Certainly it is not expected from students to learn or memorize a great number of synonyms. Rather, an attempt is done in the translation class to add to the students' personal dictionary of synonymy. That's all. Polysemy: Another major feature of languages is polysemy, including of course English and Arabic, with more recurrence and prominence in English perhaps than in Arabic. This area of translation problems can cause some confusion of common meaning, which is well-known to students, with other meanings that are completely unknown to them. By discussing polysemy, they will explore new meanings to words that they take wrongly to be monosemous. Simple examples include words like "sound, can, will, book, stand, house, society, run, fly, ball, etc.", which are known by their common/popular meanings only(underlined in the examples): / / / / (. ) . / ( )


sound(n.) sound(v.) sound(adj.) b. can(v.) can(n.) c. will(v.) will(n.) d. book(n.) book(v.) e. stand(v.) stand(n.) f. house(n.) g. society(n.) h. run(v.) runs(n.) i. ball(n.) etc. (Idiomatic meanings are not included)


These and thousands of other examples show how useful and enlightening to students polysemy can be. Here developing their Arabic Lexicon is more in focus than English Lexicon.

Collocability: Collocation(i.e. which(word)goes with which (word) in language, or in Firth's words, 'the company that words keep' or 'actual words in habitual company'(printed in Emery(1988)) is one of the most interesting and prominent areas of concurrent usefulness and development of both languages at one and the same time. That is, the students have the privilege of having access to new combinations(or collocations) of all types: a. verb+noun: (e.g. to ply a vocation ) b. adj.+noun: (e.g. hard facts ) c. noun+noun: (e.g. brain drain ) d. noun+of+noun: (e.g. sigh of relief ) e. noun+and+noun: (e.g. vice and virtue ) etc.(see Appendix 5 for more exemplified types of collocation in both languages) The students enjoy collocation both ways. Collocations by the way can be described as new explorations in both languages to them. Beside that, they are examples of effective, rhetorical, expressive and beautiful language. Above all, they represent precision of expression of exact meaning in both English and Arabic. The students have weaknesses in this respect in particular and, therefore, need urgent, constant help to compensate for them and realize their ambition of getting closer to perfect English and Arabic, that is, the right word with the right word in the right position and context (See Carter (1987), Newmark (1988), Emery (1988-91), Ghazala (20062007) and others for further discussion of collocations). 4. Idiomaticity (idioms and proverbs): Idioms and proverbs are as problematic and popular in English as in Arabic. They are a constant source of learning and entertainment to students of translation. They have humorous/ironical, cultural, rhetorical, religious, political and other implications and insinuations: Here are illustrative examples: Scratch my back and I scratch yours ( /) /that's your funeral!( ) / mickle head, little wit ( ) / Jack of all trades, a master of none (( ) humorous/ironical). Love me, love my dog (( / / ( ) cultural). ()rhetorical) To bite the dust ( / / A fox is not taken twice in the same snare(( ) religious / cultural). To put Thames on fire() )(/to hold al (winning) cards ) (( )( political).


a. b. c. d. e.

In addition to their usefulness in English, these idioms and proverbs cultivate students kaleidoscopically in Arabic. The first, to start with, is humorous and ironical at the same time and, therefore, entertaining to students, especially the first one, which can be eligibly translated into informal Arabic versions. The second idiom is a British/Western culture that cannot be translated or understood literally, or else a serious misunderstanding in Arabic would occur, for the dog apart from its traditional favorable connotation of faithfulness- has a pejorative culturalreligious connotation of dirtiness/impurity. However, drawing the students' attention to the positive connotation of the original would result in another piece of interesting information. That is, the SL proverb urges people to take the advice that if they really love someone they have to love what he/she loves, no matter who or what he/she/it is. Now how we say this implication in Arabic is the point of focus for the students as well as the teacher.. In Arabic culture, we prefer to have our kids, our most beloved, involved to say literally and by analogy to the form of the original: "Love me love my kids". By this way of matching and mismatching culture, meaning and implications, the students learn a good deal about both cultures, the SL's and theirs. So is the richness of the discussion of cultural specific idioms and all kinds of terms to the students of translation.

Example three is a rhetorical idiom of an image of a man who dies/gets killed by falling down to the ground on his face with a dust over his lips, looking like biting it. Certainly the students soon realize that a blind word-for-word translation such as ( ) is nonsensical and completely excluded. So they are urged by the teacher to suggest as rhetorical versions of translation as the original for the meaning of "to get killed", starting with the most concise but the least rhetorical " " to the most precise and rhetorical ( ) , then to variations on it like: / /) (( )/ , but not nor as two possible lookalike collocations, for neither is right. Whetting the students' appetite to suggest synonymous versions is by the way a productive translation activity in the classroom for most topics. The fourth example reflects the religious nature and bias of the translation. It is perhaps one of the best and most favorable translations. The students entertain the opportunity of having a comparison drawn between a non-religious English proverb and a religious Arabic equivalent (which is a part of a Tradition by the Prophet, peace be to him), which is quite feasible, for it carries the exact implication and connotation of the original. In addition, it is a one-to-one equivalent proverb to it. The fifth pair of examples has political insinuations, but it is not confined to it, though. The first example cannot be translated directly, whereas the second can be translated in a straightforward way. Their political implications are, thus, transferable into Arabic, with their idiomatic senses taking precedence over literal senses. Together with explaining the origins of the English idioms, that makes the difference for the students of translation's knowledge in both languages. 5. Culture: In translation: culture is the source of both joy and fear at the same time for students. That is, culture is usually described as one of the most problematic topic -if not the most problematic- in translation. Not only this, some view culture as impossible to translate. Others claim that language is all in all cultural, and since culture is untranslatable, translation is impossible (see Alvarez et al (1996), Baker (1998), Douglas(1997), Snell-Hornby (1988), Hatim and Mason(1997) and others). This is the frightening part of the argument, which is mostly rejected as inappropriate and inapplicable for translation continues to exist and develop rapidly, with cultural terms translated in one way or another(for practical confirmation and translation procedures of cultural terms of different types, see Newmark (1988), Franco Aixel (in Alvarez, 1996), Ghazala (2004/2006), and others).

The happy moment for the students at translating English cultural terms is when they are shown how these terms can be carried into Arabic safely and satisfactorily. The greater gain of the whole process for them might be the invaluable knowledge of the cross- and different aspects of the SL and TL cultures, how they can bridge many cultural gaps between the SL culture and theirs, and how they refine and develop their translation skills at dealing with cultural terms in translation. 6. Technical Translation: Arabization: The students in this connection constantly come across new terminology that is unknown to them in both languages to the same extent, or maybe surprisingly to a greater extent in Arabic than English. Many English terms, that is, are understood in English by the students, but they find many of them strange in their native Language if and when available. Not many students perhaps know in either language, for example: "metabolism(), speculation() , varicella () , alibi() , hydrogenation() , oxidation() , etc". Or perhaps they know the English term, but have no idea about the Arabized one: "fax(/( ) instead of the well-known ) , video (( ) instead of ) , ideology(( ) instead of /) , AIDS (( ) instead of ), bird's/fowl flu () , etc". Or

they know the term this time in Arabic only: "Interstitial hepatitis () , hemoglobin () , erythrocytes () , leucocytes () , schizophrenia () , high tea () , etc. Another enlightening point in this connection is the duplicity / multiplicity of technical terms such as that between popular and technical terms: brain / encephalon, chickenpox / varicella, red blood cell / erythrocytes, white blood cells / leucocytes, thighbone / femur, etc. In all cases, the students attain a great benefit and add a great deal of new data to their information in both languages, of course with the aid of a good teacher. Summary: The previous points of vocabulary show the volume of knowledge, development and refinement of the students' lexicon in both languages, the SL and the TL. A further domain of interesting skills development and enrichment is that of style. 4. STYLE:

Style is the domain of language that is usually ignored, or at best attended to cursorily and in general terms in translation. This is reflected in many professional and academic translations which do not account for style at all, except for a point or two about style as a tone of language(i.e. formality/informality scales(see Joos (1962)). Therefore, when covered properly, style can be the greater part of contribution to the knowledge and development of the students' skills of language and translation. This section discusses the most important stylistic aspects of language in a translation class in the light of the modern concept of style as a matter of choice made by the writer of a text from the language inventory, especially grammar and lexis(which will be the point of focus here): 1. Style as tone: Formality scale: The information about formal/informal English and Arabic would be precious both ways for the students who are not cognizant of that in English in a clearcut way, and misled in Arabic by the misconception that they are well aware of that in their native language. No sooner they have examples in the classroom course of discussion than realize that. For example, "I am angry with you" would be translated on the spot by the majority of students into ( ) for they wrongly think that "" , the more appropriate choice, is informal / colloquial. However, it is quite formal. The same applies to "see" as "( " instead of " ;)sit down" as "( " instead of " ;) in critical situation" as " (" instead of " ;) money" as "(" rather than ;) etc. By the same token, the students might trust some words and phrases to be formal to discover and to their surprise that they are common mistakes in Arabic. Examples include: "by coincidence"(() instead of /" ;)on the contrary"(( ) instead of " ;) vic versa" (( ) instead of " ;) however" / / ) ( ) instead of " ;) in the full sense of the word"() (instead of ;) etc. The list is very long indeed. Informal / colloquial Arabic has invaded, and is still invading formal Arabic everyday viciously through the mass media, especially the newspaper. By the way, there is no clearcut borderline in Arabic between formal and informal, on the one hand, and informal and colloquial on the other. Maybe a clear borderline is drawn between formal, colloquial and slang Arabic. Perhaps the students have an interesting information about English. A case in point is the phrasal verbs which are wrongly taken by them to be formal, especially when translating them into Arabic, for unlike English- they are formal(e.g. "give up" " ; give in" / (" ; ) give off/out" " ; give out" " ; give over" ; etc.) In Arabic, there are phrasal verbs which are very formal. Some of them are used in the Holy Quran (e.g. " " turn away from, etc.).

By analogy, idioms are informal in English, formal in Arabic unless informal idioms are used intentionally for a good reason. In addition to the examples discussed earlier (see 4.3 above), here are more illustrative examples:

a. b. c.

A big shot () . To smell a rat ( )/) A dog in the manger / ) (( ) d. A donkey work(( )/ / ) ) e. Alive and kicking(( ) The general rule is to translate into standard/formal Arabic, whether translating idioms, or anything else. However, exceptions can occur for reasons of precision, irony, lack of an appropriate formal equivalent, or for two or all of these reasons together. e.g.

"She is wearing the trousers" ( / /) . Such translations are: a. ironical; b. informal/colloquial; c. precise; and d. multi-dialectal (Saudi, Syrian and Libyan respectively). By the way a formal translation like ( ) is available, fine and popular, but less ironical than the original, though). These details about formal/informal English and Arabic will enrich the translation class and add a great deal of new information to the students' knowledge of the styles (as tones) of both languages. 2. Foregrounding vs. backgrounding: These are two recurrent and important stylistic devices used in language to draw attention to an emphasized word, phrase, doer of action, concept, etc. This is achieved by either starting the sentence with it(foregrounding/fronting), or ending it with it (backgrounding / end focus). Some wish to call that deviation. e.g. a. (Foregrounding): "Allah we worship"(( ) instead of "we worship Allah" ) () b. (backgrounding): "We worship none but Allah(( ) instead of "we worship Allah"()) . In both examples, the emphasis is on "Allah" the Almighty. Another obvious example for foregrounding is the ordering of a list of items, points, ideas, etc. in a descending order, starting with the most important, then the less important, down to the least important. On the other hand, ordering things in an ascending order is another example for backgrounding, starting with the least important, then the less important, up to the most important at the end of the list. It is a remarkable common practice in translation to disregard the functions of these and other stylistic devices. Therefore, they are ignored and disrupted by many professional translators owing to ignorance of their significance, or preference to ordinary, unmarked grammatical structures and word order for reasons of frequency, expectedness, and easiness. This is unacceptable, and the students have to have access to the functions of these two stylistic features and how to reflect them into their native language. One way of doing this is simply by keeping to the word, phrase and clause order of the original. Nothing is necessarily to be changed of its position unless arbitrary, dictated by the TL grammatical rules (e.g. adjective-noun in English; noun-adjective in Arabic, etc.). 3. Passive vs. active style: These are two different styles of language. Both are highly recurrent in English as well as Arabic. Each one is used to achieve certain functions that are relevant either directly or indirectly to the message/meaning of a text.

Active style, to start with, is used to express the following functions: a. b. c. d. e. f. Action and activity in general. Active doer of action. Subjectivity. Selfishness Positivity of people involved. Bearing responsibility.


g. h. i. j. k. l. m. etc.

Responsible person/people/action. Normality of setting. Courageous action or people. Bluntness of action or people. Straightforwardness/candor: "dotting the i's and crossing the t's". Emphasizing the doer of the action. Exposing a critical, sharp attitude.

Passive style on the other hand, has different functions. Here are some of them: Inaction/inactivity. Inactive doer of action. Inactive person/people involved. Negative action/reaction/response. Passive action/reaction/response. Refusal to take action Lethargy/laziness. Indirectness. Hesitancy/indecisiveness. Unwillingness to act/react. Avoiding insulting others. Intentional hiding of the doer of action for vicious or virtuous reasons. Showing/implying politeness. Objectivity. Hiding facts about something / somebody for fear, respect, etc. Foregrounding (and hence emphasizing) the actant for some reason. Well-known doer of action. Unnecessary to mention the doer of action for the focus is on something else. Assuming an attitude of neutrality. Alleviation of a critical, tense situation. No alternative form of verb (e.g. (to go mad); ( to live long); (dying / in the throes of death); etc. v. Stressing the action more than usual (See 'x' for an example). w. Implying more than one doer of action (see also 'x' below). x. Implying permanency of action (e.g. ( The Jews said The Hand Of Allah is tied up. Verily be their hands tied up and verily be they cursed for what they said)(The Holy Quran: AlMaidah(The Table Spread): 64).'Tied up' and 'cursed' are meant in this form to be permanent. y. Pinpointing the end focus of a closed end of an action(e.g. / (unbeatable / unparallel / peerless/ unmatchable). Nothing is expected after the passive action here. ) . z. Functioning as a part of a fixed phrase (e.g. aa. Assuming hidden authority (e.g. ) etc. These functions of the two types of style, active and passive, are mostly contrastive with each other. Therefore, they are sufficient reasons for us to be keen on retaining them in the TL translation as much as possible. On the other hand, the claim that English is mostly passive whereas Arabic is mostly active has no evidence and cannot be confirmed. It is not a matter of tendency of the whole language to go this way or that way. Rather, it is a matter of characteristics of certain types of text(i.e. passive is recurrent in scientific and legal texts; active is dominant in conversational, advertising, personal correspondence and many newspaper texts, etc.)(see Crystal and Davy (1969), Carter and Nash (1991), Freeborn et al(1985) and Ghazala (1994/1999)), or some writers' idiosyncratic styles of using passive more than active, or active more than passive for specific reasons in a specific text. Here are examples: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u.


a. a1. b. b1. c. c1.

The President was received by the queen. The queen received the president. Iraqi civilians were killed by American soldiers. American soldiers killed Iraqi civilians. No one claims responsibility for the decision. Responsibility for the decision was not claimed by anyone.

In the first pair of sentences, a-a1, the passive is used in the first to emphasize the "president", whereas the active is used in the second to front the "queen". Therefore, neither can be relegated to a second or back position, or else meaning would be affected directly. That is, nor the president will accept to be de-emphasized, nor the queen dethroned from her front position. After all, active and passive are two distinctive styles in both English and Arabic, therefore they have to be respected and retained in translation, and should not be confused, or else there is no need for the two of them in language. That is to say, their existence in language justifies as much as entails their retention in translation. Hence the translation /) )( ( / , for the first, and /) ( for the second. For those who object to the use of / /) ( / for it does not exist in Arabic, I would refer them to the Holy Quran and the Prophet's Tradition (Sunnah) (peace be to him), where there are examples confirming the use of this style. Here are example from the Holy Quran (the passives underlined): " .1 (136:"). (The same form recurs in the Chapter of "The Family of Imran: 84, ) ... ... .2 (64 :) (66 : )... .3 (67 : ).4 (68 : ).5 (78 : ) .6 (1 :"). .".7 Thus, Arabic grammatical structure does not reject this construction, but uses it freely when the need arises. As to the second pair of sentences, b-b1, the difference between passive and active is a difference of focus. That is, in the passive form the focus is on the victim, the innocent murdered Iraqi civilians as an insinuation to the volume of the vicious murder of the murderer, the American soldiers. The active form, on the other hand, draws attention to the killer who is stated bluntly as a sign of his condemnation. Hence the following two translations: " /;" and ". " respectively . Thus, the two styles are not the same, are they? The sentences of c-c1 again have two different points of focus, the first(i.e. the passive) concentrates on who claims or not responsibility, whereas the second, the active, focuses on responsibility, whether claimed or not by somebody. Thus, we " . have two different translations for them into Arabic respectively: / "... Such argument about the stylistic functions of active and passive adds much to the students' knowledge of the numerous, and sometimes sharply different functions of passive and active in language to be taken into account not only in language studies but also in translation. 4. a. Emphatic, expressive and exaggerative styles: These types of style can be achieved through one or more of the following elements: The use of intensifiers (e.g. very, much, so, so much , a great deal, a lot of, etc.)


b. c. d. e. f.

g. h. etc.

The use of intensifying adjectives(big, huge, fantastic, great, astonishing, exciting, etc. The use of intensifying adverbs of manner (e.g. greatly, deeply, fully, excessively, astoundingly, etc.). The use of adverbs of certainty(e.g. absolutely, definitely, categorically, certainly, bluntly, etc. The use of exclamatory sentences(e.g. What a goal!(! ;) What a beautiful child!(! /) The use of amplifications(e.g. The use of 'thousands' instead of 'hundreds'; 'it takes ages' instead of 'it takes a long time'; the use of phrases like 'everybody/ all of them/men and women)( / ) in the following example: 'Many people of the town went out to receive the president' ) (( instead of ( //) . The use of the expressive, effective language of rhetoric (e.g. idioms/proverbs, collocations, figures of rhetoric/figures of speech like metaphor, pun, metonymy, word play, imagery etc. See the previous section on vocabulary for examples). The use of rhetorical figures of exaggeration (e.g. tautology, pleonasm, redundancy, litotes, hyperbole, synecdoche, etc.).

('g' is mostly used in an expressive style, whereas 'h' is especially for the style of exaggeration). Throwing light on these means of achieving expressive, effective, exaggerative and emphatic styles, together with illustrative example in the course of the translation class will be a treasure to the students, sharpening their sensitivity to language and style both structurally and functionally. Again, here is one more great opportunity for the students to develop and refine their skills of all types in both languages. 5. Variation vs. Repetition: These two types of style are inter-changeable in translation. Some translators attempt to avoid repeating the same word/phrase several times, especially in a short text, by using variations on it, to dispose of the allegedly monotonous, redundant repetition, in an attempt to improve the style of the original and make it more readable to the TL readership. Here is an example:

"The well-known proverb 'money is the root of all evils' has some truth in it. Money can spoil people who have a predisposition to do vicious and illegal things. Money can also be dissipated on wrongdoings and trivialities. Furthermore, money can make some people into criminals, killing for money. Worse than that, money can be the reason for a brother murdering a brother. Indeed, money can be the root of all evils." To dispose of the monotonous (!) repetition of the key word, 'money' () , six times, a version of translation may suggest variations on it such as: ) ( /( Here the students can be involved in this productive process quite actively). This is one successful way of reducing the number of times a key word is repeated. But in the first place, is it really urgent to dispose of repetition in translation? I don't believe so. On the contrary, it seems to me that this is one of the common mistakes in translation practice among many translators. Repetition is one of the styles (rhetorical or otherwise) available for writers in language to achieve certain functions that are directly relevant to the message/meaning of text. Among these functions are: emphasis of a key word, term, topic or concept; helping readers to understand; reflection of a monotonous, boring subject matter, making a word or a topic exceptionally prominent, etc. After all, repetition is a rhetorical style used to realize a certain function that has to be taken into consideration in translation. I refer those who are still in doubt to the style of repetition in the Holy Quran, which is used so many a time to achieve several functions -some of which are those suggested here- and to the Prophet's Tradition where repetition is recurrent for good reasons, one of which is emphasis, another is


aid understanding, for the Prophet (peace be to him) used to repeat three times to make easier for people to understand. Thus, the general rule in the translation of repetition is to retain it, not to replace it by variation but only exceptionally when repetition is unusually unnecessary. And Exceptions are exceptions. Having said that, this exercise of suggesting variations on a repetition has constructive effects on the development of the students' knowledge, whetting their appetite and curiosity for practicing such informative activity of guessing the widest range possible of variation on a repeated item(for more details and examples, see Nash (1980), and Ghazala (2004/06)). 6. The style of ambiguity vs clarity: Ambiguity recurs in certain texts to imply specific functions that can be critically important to the message/meaning of these texts. Usually the style of ambiguity is used intentionally by the ST writer. Therefore, it has to be retained in the TL translation to match the same implications and functions of the original. Perhaps there are translators and translation theorists who might claim that it is the job of the translator to clear up ambiguity. How come? The SL writer could have clarified everything, but he has opted for ambiguity. Apart from literary ambiguity, so to speak, in literary texts and advertisements such as rhetorical figures of imagery, symbolism, allegory, pun, metonymy, idiomaticity, and metaphors of all types, ambiguity in political statements, communiqus and speeches is remarkable. Here are some reasons for using the style of ambiguity in politics: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. etc. to hide meaning or a part of meaning; to avoid mentioning a critically important information, name, etc.; to avoid embarrassment (being embarrassed, or embarrassing others); to avoid insulting others; to avoid disclosing a secret; to insinuate something; to open the door for more than one possibility; to imply unstated ignorance on behalf of the speaker; to obscure a picture, an idea, or a situation that can otherwise be clear. to cover up something on purpose.

Consequently, it is not wise to disambiguate ambiguous style, or else a significant function that can be crucial to the whole statement or speech in question. Thus, ambiguity is intentional and functional, and recommended for a good reason. 7. The style of irony: The simple definition of irony is "to say something and mean the opposite". Another way of defining irony is to understand it as "adding insult to injury"( /) , the 'irony of fate'(() for more details, see Websters English Dictionary, Collins English Dictionary, Wales (1989), (Leech (1969), Nash (1985&1989), Ghazala (2004/06). Irony is perhaps the most difficult type of style to recognize and translate. The reason is the difficulty for translators and, hence, the students to realize irony in Arabic. Here are some criteria: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Check the type of text: Humorous? A joke? Serious? Light? An advertisement? A comment? An insinuation? etc. Check context, micro- and macroSpot the sense of irony in the sentence/text first: Does it really mean what it says? Spot the punch line of the irony, as it were. Does it imply a paradox, or a sharp contrast of some kind? Does it 'add insult to injury', making things worse? Look for a word or a phrase that makes you suspicious of sarcasm. Check whether a word or a phrase makes no sense when understood literally. Is there an exclamation, or a question mark used?



Check whether three or more dots are used to indicate a deletion of a word, or a part of a sentence which can be insinuative. k. Look for a pun or a play on words, which is sometime a major source of irony. Having been certain that you have spotted irony in the text, you may proceed to see how to translate it into the TL. The translation process can be as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Rest assured that you know by now how you be ironical in Arabic, which is the same as in English: a paradox, an opposition of some kind between two contrastive things, or a mishap over another mishap. Check whether the irony is cultural or not Check a straightforward, correspondent equivalent in Arabic. Look for the nearest possible equivalent. Match idiomatic irony with an idiomatic irony, non-idiomatic with nonidiomatic. Concentrate on the punch line of the irony to be the cornerstone of your Arabic translation. Be keen to understand the proper sense of irony of the original. Do your best to translate the English irony into irony in Arabic, as sharp as the original. When you fail to find an equivalent irony of some kind in Arabic, translate the English irony into a literal, precise version of meaning. You can also explain the irony in Arabic as succinctly as possible. Your last resort is to translate irony into some kind of neutral version of translation. This is poor translation. The poorest translation is the word-for-word translation. Use it when you have no clue whatsoever to the SL irony. Indeed it is a hit-or-miss version of translation: (!) , or is it?

Here is an illustrative example: "A Doctor of tea in the making! Joseph is a disgustingly hard-working pupil. He is the unbeatable secondary school failure candidate for ten years in a row now. Therefore, he deserves the nickname of the master of the failing candidates, for he has a head above the rest in the number of failures as well as a distinguished tea-maker!. For all that, he is the likely winner of the despicable prize of utter failure and perhaps a Ph.D. candidate in tea making!" !" . . . "! This text cannot be mistaken for anything else but ironical for the following reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The title which is nonsensical if taken seriously ) ( The use of the ironical phrases and in the title. The exclamation mark in the title and at the end of text. The paradoxical adverb, 'disgustingly' ( ) which stands in contrast with hard-working. The unknown exaggerative combination, "unbeatable failure candidate." () The unusual nickname "master of failing candidates." ) ( The exaggerative expression, "a head abovefailures" ) ( ....


8. The sarcastic phrase, "a distinguished tea maker"() . 9. The winner of an unusual " despicable prize.() 10. The weird kinds of prize, "the despicable prize / prize utter failure." ( / ) 11. Perhaps, the strangest Ph.D. in the world, "Ph.D. in Tea Making"() . The Arabic version is matching the ironical version in everything, so that the style of irony with all its functions have been completely transmitted into Arabic. The relevant point to the development of the students' skills and knowledge here is how to be ironical in Arabic, and how to reflect the English style of irony into an Arabic identical or equivalent style. By having several exercises, the students will have a good opportunity to sharpen their wits to achieve the style of irony and retain it in Arabic. 5. PHONOLOGY: SOUND EFFECTS: Sound features and effects are yet to receive due attention in translation. Therefore the students are the least informed about them in translation. The only exception is the translation of poetry where prosodic features have been somehow discussed. However the discussion can hardly be described as exhaustive or even satisfactory. In this section, a general account of sound features and effects in both English and Arabic, their importance in translation, to what extent they can contribute to the development of the students' skills and knowledge and how this contribution can be attained in a translation class. The major recurrent sound (or metrical/prosodic) features in language and, hence in translation, are: 1. 2. Rhyme (): (a kind of phonetic echo or matching found in verse in particular at the end of the words and lines in both English and Arabic). Rhythm () : (regular stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry. In general terms, it is a kind of melody in language that might include mainly meter and foot, and generally all the phonological features which contribute to the musical arrangement of language. Alliteration ( ): (a kind of initial rhyme that involves the repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of two or more usually consecutive words in English. In Arabic, however, it is at the end of words:(e.g. your footsteps feel from grass to granite: ( ) Assonance () : (a half alliteration that occurs when the same vowel sound is repeated in the middle of two or more usually consecutive words. In Arabic it is not as clear as in English: ( e.g. rose and sole/soul)): Consonance () : (a half-rhyme realized by using the same consonant sound at the end of two or more usually successive words, preceded by different vowels. It is similar to alliteration in Arabic (e.g. round and find)). Chiming () : (two or more words similar in spelling and close in sound/pronunciation, with a kind of alliteration common between them, taken to be identical in meaning, but in reality they are not (e.g. men and mice): Onomatopoeia () : (conformity of sound to meaning in both languages (e.g. bang, quack, cuckoo, etc.; ) Prosody ( ): (the study of the art of versification regarding sound features in poetry in general). Meter () : (rhythmic arrangement of syllables in poetry according to the number and kind of feet in the line of verse): Foot () : (unit of a line of verse that contains stressed and unstressed syllables). Beat () : (the basic rhythmic unit, or the stressed syllable in a foot): Off-beat () : (an unstressed syllable in a foot). Scansion/scanning ()


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.


) ( )describe voice and its layers). 14. Tone/stress/pitch ( ( (Adopted from Ghazala (2006: 294-295)). Poetic meters are the most renowned prosodic features of poetry in both English and Arabic. The most popular English meters are (from the most to the least popular): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Iamb ( a foot of two syllables, unstressed and stressed); Trochee (a two-syllable foot, stressed and unstressed); Anapest (a three-syllable foot, two unstressed and one stressed); Dactyl (a three-syllable foot, one stressed and two unstressed); Spondee (a two-syllable foot, both stressed); and Pyrrhic (a two-syllable foot, both unstressed).

Arabic, on the other hand, is rich with sound/prosodic features of all types. They are much more versatile, colourful and complicated than their English counterparts. For example, there are sixteen poetic classical meters (Free verse meters which are derived from them are not included)(See Appendix 6 for full account of these meters, and lines of verse to aid memorizing them) and six types of sound rhetorical features: 1. Equivoque / paronomasia (( ) twenty types: two major types and eighteen subtypes). 2. Alliteration / assonance / consonance (( )four major types). 3. Epanadiplosis / epanalepsis ( ( ) three major types in language in general, and twenty in poetry(four major types, with four subtypes each). 4. Leonine rhyme() 5. Lexical parallelism/balance() 6. Alternative rhyme and meter(//) (See Abdul-Aziz Ateeq, 1985&1987). Obviously, these features are so complicated jargon for the students as well as teachers of translation to memorize. Anyway, it is not required to use or memorize everything. Rather, only the major, general and more recurrent types of sound features in both languages are needed to be known to them: Rhyme, rhythm, alliteration, meter, foot, parallelism and one or two common poetic meters in both languages. Although sound features can recur in different text types, they are affluent in literature, poetry in particular. In the translation of poetry, rhyme, rhythm and meter can be decisive to the SL text as well as to the translation in terms of relevance to meaning / message as much as to the readability and the readers' interest in the translation in the first place. That is, sound features and their effects can be decisive to such an extent that they can be sometimes more important than meaning, for without rhyme, rhythm and/or meter, for instance, the translation may not draw the readers' attention, and hence, may not be read at all. Therefore, a part of meaning might be sacrificed when the need arises- for the sake of achieving these features. Their importance, then, emanates from their impressive effects on the meaning / message and style of the poem. Indeed, they are its secret power. A specimen of the whole process of translating poetry is sampled and exemplified in Appendix 7, which includes a poem by the American poet, D.H. Auden, translated twice into Arabic. The first version is a normal, literal translation of the meanings of the poem as precisely, closely and completely as possible what I call Direct Translation- at the expense of sound features which receive casual attention here. The second translation, on the other hand has prime concern with sound features, especially rhyme, meter and rhythm, sometimes at the expense of fractions of meaning which are sacrificed here and there only when the need arises to achieve one or more of these features. The realization of sound features involves a number of processes at the different levels of language, especially grammar / syntax (e.g. disruption of word order; use of deviant grammatical structures and ungrammatical constructions; change of word class; alteration of clause/sentence sequence and structure; etc.) and vocabulary / lexis (a case in point is investing synonyms in particular to the utmost possible extent in order to achieve the required


rhyme and meter in specific). More details and systematic progress of the whole process of translating Auden's poem are provided in the appendix forthcoming). The outcome of the discussion of a good account of sound features in both the SL and the TL, and their importance to the message/meaning, would be, I believe invaluable to the students of translation. They will guide them to the realization of, and attendance to features of language that are usually relegated to the periphery in translation. This, together with how they are achieved in translation, will contribute a great deal to the development of the students' skills of different kinds, sensitizing them to both languages, English and Arabic, in such a way that they feel more confident and more able to attack more difficult problems of translation and suggest suitable solutions to them, I hope. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, a good translation class is expected to develop and refine the students' knowledge and skills of language and translation in both directions at the same time. It cannot be one-sided, then, concentrating on the SL, to the negligence of the TL which is inappropriately thought to be fully understood by the students. This paper has suggested possibilities of developing the students of translation's skills of language and translation of the two languages involved simultaneously and on equal terms. It has covered all language levels and components: Layout, Grammar, Vocabulary, Style and Phonology. Illustrative examples have been provided for the major, most important points of these components in both English and Arabic, and how skills development is achieved. It is claimed and hoped that by the end of the paper, students of translation will have attained a panoramic view of the necessity and possibility of having their skills of different types developed, and their sensitization of language sharpened, which in turn would help them translate better. It remains to say that the paper presupposed a good, well-qualified, specialist teacher of translation who is equally well-informed in both languages, English and Arabic, and who already has these skills to be able to develop the students'. Or else, no such development suggested here would take place. Admittedly, it is a daunting task for teachers, but certainly it is not impossible to achieve. Another confession to make: Such teachers are not so many! Are they?


APPENDIX 1 ) : : (2002 ARABIC SYNONYMS OF LION ))(From Ghaleb, H.(2003 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : . : . : : . : : : APPENDIX 2 ENGLISH SYNONYMS OF PIG/PORK ) / ( )(From Roget's International Thesaurus(1977)(4th edn)&Collins Thesaurus(2002)(2nd edn


"porc[Fr], pig; sucking/suckling pig, piggy, piglet, swine, sow, hog(informal), slob(slang), guzzler, glutton, gannet, sloven, greedy guts, grunter, porker, shoat, cochon de lait[Fr]; ham, ;butt, jambon[Fr]; small ham, jambonneau[Fr]; ham steak; picnic ham; prosciutto[Fr]; bacon Canadian bacon; rasher of bacon, barde[Fr], tranche de lard[Fr]; side of bacon, flitch, fleche ;de lard[Fr]; gammon; salt pork, fat back, sowbelly[informal]; pork pie; spareribs; hog jowl pig's knuckles, pigs' feet, trotters, pieds de cochon[Fr]; cracklings; headcheese; lard; pork chop, ctelette de porc frais[Fr]. (Cuts of pork meat) brisket, chuck, chuck roast, rolled roast, flank, flanken, , knuckle, round, rump, saddle, shank, ribs, short ribs, shoulder; loin, crown roast, sirloin, tenderloin, filet mignon[Fr], Chateaubriand; clod, shoulder, clod; plate, plate piece; roast, pot roast, rib roast, rump roast, blade roast; rack, breast; cold cuts. ((Pork and other) steak) club steak, fillet steak, flank steak, pinbone steak, planked steak, porterhouse steak, rib steak, round steak, rump steak, sirloin steak, shell steak, London broil, T-bone steak, tenderloin steak; cubed steak; chopped steak, ground round, ground chuck, etc. hamburg steak, Salisbury steak. ;(Variety of (pork and other)meats) kidneys; heart; brains; liver; gizzard; tongue ;)sweetbread(pancreas); tripe(stomach); marrow; cockscomb; chitterlings or chitlins(intestines prairie or mountain oyster(testis); haslet; , giblets, abates[Fr]. ((Pork and other) sausage; frankfurter, frank, hot dog[informal], wiener, wienie or weenie[both informal]; Vienna sausage; bologna; salami; liverwurst, liver sausage; blood pudding; headcheese. (Breeds of pig): Berkshire, Cheshire, Chester White, Duroc, Gloucester Old Spot, Hampshire, Landrace, Large Black, Large White, Middle White, Pietrain, Saddleback, Small "White,Tamworth, Welsh, Vietnamese pot-belied. APPENDIX 3 ) ) (1970 ARABIC SYNONYMS OF ANGER )(From Elyaziji(1970

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...


... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . ... . ... APPENDIX 4 ENGLISH SYNONYMS OF ANGER () (From Roget's International Thesaurus (1977) (4th edn) & Collins Thesaurus(2002) (2nd edn) 1. NOUNS: anger, wrath, ire, mad [informal]; angriness, irateness, wrathfulness, soreness [informal], "a transient madness" [Horace]; infuriation, enragement; vials of wrath, grapes of wrath; heat, more heat than light [informal]; resentment, resentfulness; displeasure, disapproval, disapprobation, dissatisfaction, discontent; vexation; irritability, irritation, annoyance, aggravation [informal] exasperation; spleen; offense, umbrage, pique; glower, scowl, angry look, dirty look [slang], glare, frown; bitterness, bitter resentment, bitterness of spirit, heartburning; rancor, virulence, acrimony, acerbity, asperity; causticity 939.8; choler, gall, bile, spleen, acid, acidity, acidulousness; hard feelings, animosity 929.4; soreness, rankling, slow burn [informal]; gnashing of teeth; indignation ,indignant displeasure, righteous indignation; temper, dander or Irish [both informal]monkey [Brit slang]; bad temper; dudgeon, high dudgeon; huff, pique, pet, tiff, or stew [both informal], fret, fume, ferment; fit, fit of anger, fit of temper, rage, wax [Brit slang], tantrum, temper tantrum; duck fit or cat fit or conniption or conniption fit [all informal], paroxysm, convulsion; outburst, outburst of anger, burst, explosion, eruption, blowup or flare-up [both informal], access, blaze of temper; storm, scene, high words; rage, passion; fury, furor; towering rage or passion, blind or burning rage, raging or tearing passion, furious rage; outrage; vehemence, violence; the Furies, the Eumenides, the Erinyes; the Erinyes; Nemesis; Alecto, Tisiphone, Megaera; provocation, affront, offense, "head and front of one's offending" [Shakespeare];casus belli [L], red rag, red rag to a bull, sore point, sore spot, tender spot, raw nerve, slap in the face. 2. VERBS: resent, be resentful, feel or harbor or nurse resentment, feel hurt, smart, feel sore or have one's nose out of joint [both informal]; take amiss, take ill, take in bad part, take to heart, not take it as a joke, mind; take offense, take umbrage, get miffed or huffy [informal]; (show resentment) redden, color, flues, mantle; growl, snarl, snap, show one's teeth, spit; gnash or grind one's teeth; glower, lower, scowl, glare, frown, give a dirty look [slang], look daggers; (be angry): burn, seethe, simmer, sizzle, smoke, smolder; be pissed or pissed off or browned off [all slang], be livid, be beside oneself, fume, stew [informal], boil, fret, chafe; foam at the mouth; breathe fire and fury; rage, storm, rave, rant, bluster; take on or go on or carry on [all informal], rant and rave, kick up a row or dust or shindy [slang]; raise Cain or raise hell or raise the devil or raise the roof [all slang], tear up the earth; throw a fit, have a conniption or conniption fit or duck fit or cat fit [informal], go into a tantrum; stamp one's foot; vent one's anger, vent one's rancor or choler or spleen, pour out the vials of one's wrath; snap at, bite or snap one's nose off, bite or take one's head off, jump down one's throat; expend


one's anger on, take it out on [informal]; (become angry): anger, lose one's temper, forget oneself, let one's angry passions rise; get mad or get sore [both informal]; get one's gorge up, get one's blood up, get one's dander or Irish up [informal], get one's monkey up [Brit slang]; bridle, bridle up, bristle, bristle up, raise one's hackles, get one's back up; see red [informal]; get hot under the collar[slang], flip out, work oneself into a lather or sweat or stew [informal], do a slow burn [informal], reach boiling point, boil over; flare up, blaze up, fire up, flame up, spunk up, ignite, kindle, take fire; fly into a rage or passion or temper, fly out, fly off at a tangent; fly off the handle or hit the ceiling or go into a tailspin or have a hemorrhage [all slang]; explode, blow up [informal]; blow one's top or stack [slang], blow a fuse or gasket [slang], flip one's lid or wig [slang]; offend, give offense, give umbrage, affront, outrage; grieve, aggrieve; wound, hurt, sting, hurt the feelings; step or tread on one's toes; anger, make angry, make mad or sore [informal], tick off [slang], raise one's gorge or choler, raise, one's dander [informal],put or get one's dander or Irish up [informal], put or get one's monkey up [Brit slang], get one's mad up [informal]; make hot under the collar or burn one up [both slang]; piss one off [slang]; provoke, incense, arouse, inflame, embitter; vex, irritate, annoy, aggravate [informal], exasperate, nettle, fret, chafe; pique, peeve or miff [informal], huff; ruffle, roil, rile [informal], ruffle one's feathers, rankle; bristle, bristle up, get one's back up, set up, put one's hair or fur or bristles up; stick in one's craw [informal]; stir up, workup, tri one's bile, stir the blood; enrage, infuriate, madden, drive one mad, frenzy, lash into fury, work up into a passion, make one's blood oil. 3. ADJECTIVES: angry, angered, incensed, indignant, irate, ireful; resentful, resenting; bitter, embittered, rancorous, virulent, acrimonious, acerb, acerbic, acerbate; caustic 939.21; choleric, splenetic, acid, acidic, acidulous, acidulent; sore [informal], rankled, burning or stewing [both informal]; provoked, vexed, piqued; peeved or miffed annoyed, aggravated [informal], exasperated, put-out; pissed or pissed-off or PO'd or teed off or TO'd or ticked off or browned-off [all slang], livid, livid with rage, beside oneself, wroth, wrathful, wrathy, mad or sore [both informal], cross, waxy [Brit slang]; wrought-up, worked up, riled up [informal]; hot [slang], het up [dial], hot under the collar [slang]; burning, seething,. seething, simmering smoldering, sizzling, boiling; flushed with anger; in a temper, in a huff, in a pet in a stew [informal], in a wax [Brit. slang], in high dudgeon; infuriated, infuriate, in a rage or passion or fury; furious, fierce, wild, savage; raving mad [informal], rabid, foaming or frothing at the mouth; fuming, in a fume; enraged, raging, raving, ranting, storming; mad as a hornet, mad as a wet hen; fighting mad or roaring mad or good and mad or hopping mad [all informal], fit to be tied [slang]. 4. ADVERBS angrily, indignantly, irately, wrathfully, infuriatedly, infuriately, furiously heatedly; in anger, in hot blood, in the heat of passion. APPENDIX 5 TYPES OF COLLOCATIONS: Collocations can be classified in different ways. However, the classification adopted here is grammatico-lexical for convenience of simplification, understanding and easiness. Among these types are( in order of frequency and recurrence, not in order of importance and preference): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Verb+noun (object) collocations (e.g. to launch a war) Adjective+noun collocations (e.g. a ferocious war) Noun (subject)+verb collocations (e.g. a war breaks out) Verb+adverb collocations (e.g. to fight(a war) ferociously) Adjective+adjective collocations (e.g. alive and kicking) Adverb+adverb collocations (e.g. secretly and publicly) Verb+preposition collocations (e.g. to yell to/at) Adjective+preposition collocations (e.g. angry at/with) Noun+preposition collocations (e.g. war on) Preposition+noun collocations (e.g. at war; on the contrary) Count noun collocations (e.g. a flock of birds)


12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

)Non-count noun collocations (e.g. a bit of information )Noun+noun collocations (e.g. poet laureate )Noun+of+noun collocations (e.g. a word of honour )Noun+and+noun collocations (e.g. vice and virtue )Names of sounds collocations (e.g. snakes hiss, trees rustle Idiomatic collocations: a. b. c. d. e. )'asas' similes (e.g. as pretty as a picture )Idioms (e.g. to bite the dust )phrasal verbs ( to come up with )metaphors (including puns, word play and metonyms proverbs and proverbial sayings (e.g. a stitch in time saves nine / bread and )butter

The first two types (i.e. verb+noun&adjective+noun) take the lions share in the statistics of collocations. . : ) ( .1+/ ) / ( .2)(+ ) ( .3 + ) ( .4+ ) ( .5+ ) ( .6+)+ /)+( ) ( .7+ +)+ ( ) ( .8+) ( ) / ( .9+ ) ( .10+ ) ( .11 + ( .12+ ) ) ( .13 ) ( .14 ) ( .15 ) ( .16 .17 ) ( ) / / / (. : / / / / -


)(From Ghazala, 2007: Intr. APPENDIX 6

. . -1: -2: -3: -4: -5: -6. -7: -8: -9: -10: -11: -12: : -13 -14: -15: ) (: -16 APPENDIX 7 SONG V O where are you going ? Said reader to rider That valley is fatal when furnaces burn, Yonders the midden whose odors will madden, That gap is the grave where the tall return. O do you imagine, said fearer to farer, That dusk will delay on your path to the pass, That diligent looking discover the lacking ?Your footsteps feel from granite to grass O what was that bird, said horror to hearer, ) ( . " "


Did you see that shape in the twisted trees? Behind you swiftly the figure comes softly, The spot on your skin is a shocking disease. Out of this house-said rider to reader, Yours never will-said farer to fearer, Theyre looking for you-said hearer to horror, As he left them there, as he left them there.

" " " " " -" . ... (W.H. Auden. From Carter, 1982)

The Arabic version is based on the following : 1. 2. 3. 4. Achieving rhyme as perfectly as possible. Creating as much rhythm as possible and by any possible means inside the context of the poem. Playing as much as struggling with synonyms, near or close, to realize 1 and 2 to a maximum degree. Feeling free at changing the grammatical/stylistic structure, in regard to word order (i.e. foregrounding, backgrounding and deviation from language norms) and word classes (i.e. using nouns instead of adjectives, verbs instead of nouns, plural for singular, etc.) in particular. This is done primarily to achieve rhyme and rhythm, and better collocability among words (i.e. which word goes with which word), mainly for aesthetic reasons, alongside precision of meaning whenever possible. Employing lexical and grammatical gaps (i.e. grammatical structures and words left out of the poem but implied within).


Priority is given to rhyme and rhythm, as always the case with the translation of poetry into Arabic, for they are the cornerstone of verse. Consequently, a poem void of rhyme and rhythm in particular would be considered in effect void and poor, because what sets poetry aside from ordinary language is chiefly its aesthetic, phonological features, on top of which are these two major features. This is the case especially in Arabic, for the norms of writing, reading, perceiving and, hence, translating poetry are rhyme and rhythm. Otherwise it is not worthy of any interest in the eyes of the public. And we have this view confirmed by the criticism of blank verse () in Arabic in the forties-sixties of the Twentieth century, which is a kind of modern poetry that ignores rhyme and rhythm completely, and is closer to prose, rather. Hence its notorious nickname, prosaic poetry () , to insinuate its semi-poetic identity. It should not be confused with the well-established and fully recognized free verse () , which is based on rhyme, rhythm, foot and meter, the bases of classical poetry (or Qasidah), with some differences concerning the layout and number of rhymes in the same poem between the two types, though. The English original does not have a perfect rhyme. This puts it on equal footing with the Arabic version, which is not perfectly rhymed too. Take for example, the first line of each stanza; it does not rhyme with the rest of the lines of the stanza (see ). However, they are made to achieve a semi-rhyme with one another by virtue of the long ( )//, which is a common motif (or main feature) among them, and their strong end-stop (). Also, ( )half-rhymes with ( ). The last stanza (or quatrain) has no end-rhyme at all. Yet meter and foot compensate a little for that. Rhythm, on the other hand, is perfectly realized in Arabic in terms of meter(/ )and foot ( )in accordance with Arabic prosody. A careful, prosodic reading of the whole poem will confirm that. As to synonymy, it plays a critical function in the realization of rhyme and rhythm. That is, many words are chosen among large lexical sets from which


translators can feel free to some extent to select the closest word(s) -especially key words- to achieve both features, and then precision of meaning, sometimes closely, sometimes loosely. In any case, the selected synonym has to be within the range of the semantic dimension of the original word of the SL poem. This is how it is done in practice: A Sample Example: We take, for instance, the title word, song. We start looking for the commonest equivalent Arabic word for it. It is of course, (). Then we check some of its synonymous words like ( ). Maybe we need a reference of some kind to help us in our search, say, a dictionary of synonyms in both languages. Luckily they are available in English, but unfortunately not many in Arabic. However, good bilingual dictionaries are available, and can be quite useful. Having collected some good synonyms, we can now compare them to one another to choose the most appropriate in this context, bearing in mind sense, rhyme and rhythm. The best choice is the one that meets the conditions of the three together, then rhyme and rhythm, then meaning only. In other types of texts, however, priority is given to meaning. On the other hand, the title allows more space for freedom of choice even outside the scope of its direct meaning. Yet, the closer to the original, the better. Hence the election of ( )which could be more poetic and emotive than (). Moreover, the latter usually connotes love poetry unless modified (as in /( ) religious/national song). (), on the other hand, is confined to certain contexts of nationalism, religion and may be social topics. Hence the National Anthem () . So it may not be the best choice here. The remaining three terms are of narrowly specific reference to certain types of traditional Arabic popular songs and ballads. Therefore, they are left out. More difficult and confusing is the decision to select the proper word among a host of choices available in language for some key words in the poem. At the same time, a wide choice like this might facilitate the process. A good example could be the key word, horror: the list of synonyms is long, including the following: ) ( . The choice of ( )is based on two criteria: (1) the degree of the feeling of fear in horror, which is the highest (see 2.2. earlier); and (2) rhyme and rhythm, as ( )rhymes partially with (), and at the same time meets the requirements of meter and foot (i.e. rhythm) in Arabic. Nevertheless, not all the words of the poem are equally important, or have a wide range of synonyms: (e.g. reader, going, looking, discover, madden, trees, hearer and the greater part of words). However, this limits the freedom of choice, which in turn might affect rhyme and rhythm in particular. The change of word order is invested to a maximum degree in Arabic for its flexibility much more than English in this respect. Further, the stylistic technique of deviation from the normal word order is always licensed and justified in Arabic poetry in particular. Hence the well-known statements: (( ) Lit.: What is permitted for the poet is not permitted for others); and ( /) (poetic license). e.g. (a) ( ) instead of () ) rather than (... ) (b) ( (c) ( ) in the place of () (d) ( ) instead of () (e) () , replacing ()

The disruption of the word order of these phrases is merely for realizing rhyme and rhythm, neither more nor less. But this is vitally important for the poem and its reception and approval by readers.


As regards the alteration of the grammatical classes of words, it is another tool used in the translation of poetry to accomplish rhyme and rhythm again. e.g. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (going(v.)) (( )n.) (( )adv./prepositional phrase) (madden(v.)) (pass)(n.)) (( )prep. phrase) (shocking disease(adj.+n.)) (( ) prep. phrase) (( ) prep. phrase) (looking for(v.)) (discover(v.)) (( ) prep. phrase) (hearer(n.)) (( ) relative clause: relat. pron.+v.) ( (lacking(singular)) ) (plural)

(f) is quite interesting, for it involves changing not only the word class, but also changing it into a relative clause, which is quite rare in language varieties other than poetry. But the most interesting example is the last one which is an exploitation of poetic license. That is, in Arabic, the plural of ( ) is ( )not ( ) which is used here as a poetic license for reasons of rhyme and rhythm. The final procedure employed in the translation of this poem is the so-called lexical and grammatical gaps ( ( )see Newmark, 1988: ch.12; and its translation, Ghazala, 2004: ch.12). They refer to grammatical features and words which are missing from the written text, but implied in it and understood from context. Here are illustrative examples from the poem: (a) (b) (c) (d) ( )implies (/( )i.e. /) ( ) with (( ) ) missing, but implied. ( ) implies the omitted ( //) ( ) used once in every stanza, to stand for an implied vocative in the SL poem.

These gaps are frequent in language, especially the Holy Koran, poetry and conversation. They are missing words or grammatical structures and categories for reasons of rhetoric, rhyme and rhythm, clarity of meaning and/or conciseness. All these reasons are exploited in poetry whenever the relevant need arises. Here, they are generally used for convenience of rhyme and rhythm in the main. The last example is in the opposite direction, namely, it is used to fill in a lexical gap of vocative ( )in Arabic, but not in English, for there is no vocative case in English grammar as we understand it in Arabic. As to grammatical gaps, they are not exemplified in Arabic for many of them -like the subject, object, and topic and comment in particular- are so common and used sometimes unconsciously in almost any piece of Arabic language, written or spoken. They are hidden ( )or implicit (/ ). Therefore, examples would be redundant and unnecessary. Now, another Arabic version for the last three stanzas of Audens poem is suggested below. It is completely free and made to conform perfectly with the classical Arabic poetry (i.e. Qasidah (i.e. / ) in terms of layout, rhyme and rhythm (see also Lefevere, 1992: ch.6). Only the spirit of the message of the original is retained:


The poems meter is the popular (( ) Lit.: The perfect/complete meter), which is two/three long feet for each hemistich(i.e. )of the line of verse, as follows: 0//0/// 0//0/// (0//0/0/) 0//0/// ) ) (( In terms of English poetry, it can read as follows: (a= stressed syllable; b=x unstressed syllable) a a a b a a b (a b a b a a b)/ a a a b a a b/ a a a b a a b / / / X / / X (/ X / X / / X) / / / X / / X / / / X / / X The more important point to focus on is the drastic changes made on the English original in the Arabic version. Although the general sense is retained, many things have been sacrificed for the sake of producing a classical Arabic poem with perfect rhyme and rhythm. Indeed, it sounds like any perfectly written Arabic poem with all its aesthetic features and poetic atmosphere. It is translated in accordance with what we called in the introduction for this book, bound free translation method, which is partly faithful to the original, and partly departs from it. At first sight, the poem looks completely new, but a careful consideration will confirm that it is derived directly from the English poem, as it is clear from key words like ) (... and the ongoing dialogue among the characters of the original in particular. It must be admitted that the process is quite hard to go through safely and properly. It is extremely difficult to convert an English poem into an Arabic poem the way exemplified for here, for translators are not thought of as poets. Therefore, students of translation are not required to worry about producing such translation of poetry. The first version is closer to what is normally expected and done in translating English poetry into Arabic. After all, to translate poetry, we are not required to be poets. Rather, we can have a bash at translating poetry with sense, first, and rhyme and rhythm, second, in case we cannot achieve both. Certainly such a translation would be much poorer than the original, but it manages to get the message through at least, which is the minimum requirement here. The fact remains that producing a perfectly rhymed, metered and footed Arabic poem like the one suggested in the second version of the last two poems, is not impossible. Good knowledge of both English and Arabic, familiarity with Arabic prosody and rules of rhyme and rhythm, and accumulated experience can guarantee good translation and possible solutions to the problems of translating poetry in general.


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