Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

Copyright 2010 American Scientic Publishers All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America

Journal of Nano Education Vol. 2, 1326, 2010

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses
Marwan Al-Haik1 , Claudia Luhrs2 , Zayd Leseman3 , and Mahmoud Reda Taha4
2 1 Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943, USA 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA 4 Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA

Four junior faculty members from Delivered the Mechanical and Civil to: Engineering Departments at the Uniby Ingenta versity of New Mexico (UNM)Polytechnic have developed new experiments and pedagogical methods that Virginia Institute & State University introduce undergraduate students toIP the: eld of nanotechnology. Toward this effort, we introduced 128.173.163.164 Nanotechnology Discovery Courses that comprise interlocking undergraduate engineering Tue, 14 Jun 2011 two 23:11:51 materials science core courses enriched with three nanotechnology modules and four hands-on nanotechnology experiments. Using this framework ensured continuous ow of nanotechnology concepts to a senior level technical elective course that equips students with hands-on experience in constructing nano/micro systems and devices. Between the two leading departments of the project 153 undergraduate students were exposed to the nanotechnology discovery courses by their junior year during the academic years 20082009. The developed nanomodules, while familiarizing UNM students with nanotechnology, did not strain the outline of classical material science courses nor did it nancially burden the students (for example, there were no extra lab fees). Afrmative survey indicated that more than 67% of the students strongly favored the newly implemented nanomodules. Furthermore, 65% of the surveyed students preferred including nanotechnology in the core courses rather than a standalone course. Students favored the hands on experiments that required minimal calibration (Scanning electron microscopy) compared to experiments that required intensive calibration and post analysis of data (for example, nanoindentation). Based on the success of this pilot research, several undergraduate students participated in nanotechnology research at UNM. The major nding of this investigation is that nanotechnology education can be introduced to the engineering curricula by incorporating nanotechnology modules in core courses, mentoring undergraduate students in nanotechnology research, and introducing a standalone senior-level nanosytems course.

Keywords: Undergraduate Education, Microstructure, Nanomaterials, Carbon Nanotubes,


Ceramics Nanoparticles, Microelectromechanical Nanomodules, Nanodevices. Systems, Nanoindentation,

1. INTRODUCTION
The idea of introducing nanotechnology to the engineering curriculum is as old as the nanotechnology eld itself. One of the rst standalone nanotechnology undergraduate degrees in the world was established at Flinders University (Australia) in 2000. The pioneers at Flinders raised a valuable concern: The eld (nanotechnology) is currently in its infancy and is incredibly broad, spanning chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics, and engineering. This is in

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

fact probably an incomplete list but it makes the point. How do you possibly teach all these areas to students in a four year honors degree?. Alternatively, other investigators have proposed utilizing lower division courses as a departure course to familiarize undergraduate students with the concepts of nanotechnology. There has been several nanotechnology courses developed at other universities as well. Loyola Marymount University developed a new course (Introduction to Nanotechnology) toward biological applications. Faculty in Northwestern Universitys Materials Science & Engineering Department introduced a new nanotechnology course
doi:10.1166/jne.2010.1008

J. Nano Educ. 2010, Vol. 2, No. 1/2

1936-7449/2010/2/013/014

13

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

Al-Haik et al.

at the University of New Mexico (UNM). This was accomto senior undergraduate and junior graduate students and reported the experience as a successful practice. Instructors plished by adding new lecture components to two materials at the University of Nevada introduced ve blocks to teach science core courses to introduce the students to particular the core principals of nanotechnology to audiences with aspects of nanotechnology. Reinforcement on these topvarying levels of understanding. All these successful pioics was planned by hands-on experiments that utilize the neering experiences developed new undergraduate courses, UNMs existing nanotechnology infrastructure. These disbut most offered these new courses only as optional or covery courses are prerequisites for an additional newly technical electives. Additionally, most of these courses developed course on the theory, fabrication, and characwere developed by a single department, although offered terization of nanosystems/devices. This course also has a to several other departments. laboratory component where students fabricate nanosysThe authors of this article believe that in order for a tems/devices in the clean room. The rest of this article nanotechnology program to ourish it must take root in a outlines the newly developed nanomodules and provides curriculums core courses and be taught by a multidiscisome preliminary results together with proposed future plinary group of instructors. A current successful examwork to improve the ongoing nanotechnology education at ple of a multidisciplinary effort is at Union College in the UNM. Schenectady, New York. A National Science Foundation (NSF) grant was awarded to this predominately liberal arts campus of 2,000 students (15 percent of whom are engi2. GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND INTENDED neering students). With prerequisites of calculus, physics, by Ingenta EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES Delivered to: and chemistry, the investigators have developed Frontier Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University As future scientists and engineers, students should be of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials that was IP offered to : 128.173.163.164 prepared to enter a workforce that requires knowledge of sophomore science and engineering majors. Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 nanotechnology. Four junior faculty members from two All efforts to teach nanotechnology to undergraduengineering programs at the University of New Mexico,a ates can be broken into two main types of approaches: Albuquerque, NM, have employed their collective knowlstrictly virtual (i.e., simulated) and hands-on. Proponents edge in nanotechnology to develop new experiments and of the strictly virtual (hands-off) approach, argued that pedagogical methods to help introduce undergraduate stu nanotechnology experiments are delicate, limited in dents to this eld of cutting-edge research by no later availability, and expensive to set up and maintain. The use than their junior year. Our goal was to cultivate a culof a web-based approach circumvents these drawbacks and tural change in engineering undergraduate education at enables the experiment to be run securely, safely, and on the UNM by tying the material science curriculum across a 24/7 basis. Meanwhile, other investigators highlighted the school of engineering (SOE) through a group of the importance of bringing hands-on experience to inteintegrated learning modules focused on nanoscience and grate nanotechnology into the undergraduate curriculum. nanotechnology. For example, a group at the University of Nevada-Reno We envisioned creating a series of interlocking courses has carried out an experiment to move nanotechnolfor undergraduate nanoscience education. This developogy/microtechnology to the undergraduate and graduate ment leveraged two programs at the UNM: Mechaniclassroom in related elds of scanning-probe microcal Engineering and Civil Engineering. This investigation scope (SPM) technology. Another example is Polla et al., developed and tuned Nanotechnology Discovery Courses who brought hands-on microelectromechanical systems that comprised two interlocking undergraduate Engi(MEMS) fabrication into the undergraduate curriculum. neering Materials Science core courses (ME370/CE305) Our own experiences, a published students opinion, enriched with three nanotechnology modules (Introduction and other engineering and science educators experiences to Nanotechnology, Nanostructures and Nanosynthesis and are all in favor of introducing hands-on experimental Nanocharacterization) and two materials science laboramodules. tories (ME352/CE305) that employ four hands-on nanoDespite the difference in the methods and tools, most of technology experiments (e.g., use of electron microscopy, the cited literature and the current group of authors share X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nanoindentation). the NSF view that Adding nanoscale perspectives in This approach carries the following novel aspects: teaching leads to better fundamental understanding, shar While familiarizing student with nanotechnology, it does ing similar concepts and courses in various disciplines and not strain the general outline of classical materials science areas of relevance (combining the depth of nanoscience course for being introduced as a set of separate modules. with the breath of all affected areas), and broader accessibility to science and technology. Keeping this view in focus, the subsequent sections detail a plan that was a All four authors were at UNM at the time of the implementation of carried out to integrate nanotechnology into existing core the nanotechnology modules (20082009), two of the authors moved to courses in the Mechanical and Civil Engineering curricula other institutions in 20102011. 14
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

Al-Haik et al.

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

Utilizing core course for the introduction of nanotechnology into the curriculum will not nancially burden the students; for example, no extra lab fees will be necessary. The proposed integration of nanotechnology into materials science core courses and interdepartmental technical electives will readily provide students with different backgrounds from crosscutting programs (mechanical and civil engineering) with nanotechnology experience that is naturally interdisciplinary. As an alternative to web-based computer interactive modules, we use state-of-the-art facilities at the disposal of engineering students at UNM to introduce experimental modules that are robust, easy to grasp, and depict practical applications.

maintained at a dedicated web page developed by the authors. The Department of Civil Engineering at the UNM currently offers an undergraduate civil engineering materials class and laboratory (CE305). This 4-hour credit course includes two 90-minute lectures and one 3-hour weekly experiment. This core course is required for all civil engineering students and is a prerequisite for all 400-level civil engineering courses. CE305 provides the basis for material science to civil engineering students as well as the fundamental background on civil engineering materials, such as the fundamentals of bonding of materials, phase diagrams, and the behavior of materials under stress including fracture and fatigue. The course also covers basic construction materials such as steel, Portland cement, aggregate, concrete, masonry, wood, and asphalt. Lectures also introduce the microstructure of major civil engineering materials such as concrete and cover how this microstructure 3. ENGINEERING MATERIAL SCIENCE affects the Delivered by Ingenta to:macroscale behavior. Lecture notes and soluUNDERGRADUATE CORE COURSES tions to sample problems are available to students via the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University course website as the course integrates a number of textStarting in the spring semester 2008, two existIP : 128.173.163.164 books that cross the area between material science, civil ing UNM materials science courses were revised by 2011 23:11:51 Tue, 14 Jun engineering materials behavior, and testing. CE305 is the including mutual nanotechnology components/modules rst place where CE students realize the multi-scale link both theoretically and experimentally. The Mechanical between a materials atomic structure, microstructure, and Engineering Department at the UNM typically offers its its macroscale behavior. On its classical formprior to upper-division undergraduate materials science (ME370 the nanomodulus implementationmost laboratory experEngineering Materials Science, 3 credit hours) and its lab iments focus on macroscale phenomena. The CE305 labcourse (ME352 Experiments in Materials Science, 1 credit oratory introduces to students the stressstrain curves for hour) in the format of one-semester themed modules. The materials, determining the properties of concrete using former outline of the course covers the structure of matdestructive and non-destructive testing methods and the ter and its relation to mechanical properties: the mechanibehavior of wood and aluminum. cal behavior of structural materialsmetals, ceramics, and These two courses/laboratories are required for all polymers. Its prerequisite is general chemistry. This course senior students majoring in Mechanical and Civil engineeris typically taken by students during their junior year ing and are offered twice a year. On average, 2530 stuand is required of all senior-level mechanical engineering dents take the ME370/352L course every semester. CE305 students. It is also a prerequisite for the upper-division is offered once annually and typically has a class size of design course ME460. The course and the laboratory are 3540 students. offered twice a year (during both the spring and fall semesters). The course is taught using two 90-minute lectures every week. Lectures are typically delivered using 4. NEW EDUCATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY Microsoft PowerPoint presentations; sample problems are MODULES solved on a weekly basis. The textbook in use for this class is the book by Callister. The Materials Laboratory We have integrated three nanotechnology modules into (ME352L) course covers the effects of microstructure, the two materials science courses. The lecture portions processing, composition, and thermal treatment on the of this class, ME370/CE305, were redesigned to include physical and mechanical properties of engineering matethree nanotechnology modules. While a sole instructor rials. The laboratory is taught on a weekly basis, contaught the classical parts of the courses, the newly develsisting of three-hour sessions. The students are divided oped modules were co-taught concurrently by all the four into teams of 34 students. The lab manual was written authors. The developed modules are: by the authors and posted to the students via the laboratory web page. The laboratory consisted of classical 4.1. Module 1: Introduction to Nanotechnology modules dealing with topics such as grains-microstructure (polishing and light microscopy), Brinell and Vickers hardThis module denes a framework in terms of the mateness tests, the Charpy impact test, and the tension test. rials/dimensions considered for study and describes difThe class lectures, problem solutions, and handouts were ferent types of nanomaterials that have been synthesized
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

15

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

Al-Haik et al.

for applications in nanotechnology (nanoparticles, nanotubes, and thin lms). It further explains the superior properties of nanomaterials as a result of the reduction of dimensions (an almost defect-free structure). The module also explains the size-dependent properties (mechanical, optical, and electricalferroelectric and ferromagnetic). The module concludes by describing the current and future novel prospects of nanomaterials: mechanical and structuralcarbon nanotubes electronics (semiconductors) and energy (photovoltaic, ceramic nanoparticles), among others. 4.2. Module 2: Nanostructure and Nanosynthesis In this module the structure of the materials is explained using a bottom-up approach. While this is usually the case for the classical treatment of the microstructure of metals (atom-crystal-grain), cement composites (crystals-transition zones-composite), ceramics (moleculeDelivered by Ingenta to: crystal), and polymer (atom-mer-molecule-chain), the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University module explicitly introduces nanomaterials with useful IP : 128.173.163.164 structure/properties at the nanoscale, such as increased Fig.23:11:51 1. Some carbon allotropes that pure carbon can take: (a) diamond, Tue, Jun 2011 tensile strength, enhanced fracture toughness, and 14 fatigue (b) graphite, (c) lonsdaleite, (d) C60 , (e) C540 , (f) C70 , (g) amorphous life. The concept of nanoscale is bound to the currently carbon, and (h) carbon nanotube. taught concepts of bond energy and principles of fracture and the long-sought defect-free materials. The top-down background for some electron microscopy techniques approach is also introduced although not explored in detail. This module is divided into two parts: Part I: Carbon (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission Nanostructures and Part II: Ceramics and Nanoparticles. electron microscopy (TEM)) is demonstrated and their Part I discusses the nature of the carbon bond and interuses explained from the aspects of studies on size, moratomic potentials. This part also introduces briey some phology, internal structure, and chemical composition. The carbon allotropes (different molecular conguration; atoms most commonly used method for mechanical characteriare bonded together in a different manner) that pure carzation of materials at the nanoscalenanoindentationis bon can take, including diamond, graphite, lonsdaleite, also described in one full lecture. Finally, a lecture on C60 , C540 , C70 , amorphous carbon, and carbon nanotubes the electrical properties of nanomaterials is given in the (CNTs) as shown in Figure 1. The module elaborates on prospect of materials of microelectromechanical systems CNTs (chirality, single wall, and multiwall CNTs). The (MEMS) and devices, emphasizing the length scale effect module also discuss different CNT fabrication methods on electrical properties, with special attention given to and current applications: mechanical reinforcement, eld CNTs. emission, fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Module 3 is also divided into three parts: Part I is Part II focuses on ceramics and nanoparticles where focused on electron microscopy, Part II is dedicated to the students get introduced to the generation process of material characterization, and Part III examines electronic novel ceramic nanoparticles and some of their applicaproperties. The students in a typical materials science class tions as catalysts, coatings, sensors, and fuel cells. Systems are fascinated and intrigued when they see (in the textsuch as SiO2 , TiO2 , Ce/Zr oxides, Al2 O3 , metal-ceramic book or course notes) images produced by TEM and SEM, composites, and complex oxides are reviewed. The newly such as famous images showing fault stacking or vacanintroduced nanosilica and nanoalumina particles and their cies, interstitial voids, and calcium hydroxide (CH) crysinuence on the strength and microstructure of cementitals stacked at the transition zone. However, the students tious composites are also discussed. usually are not taught how a TEM and SEM can produce such images at a very small scale. The purpose of Part I in 4.3. Module 3: Nanomaterials Properties and this module is to provide the student enough background Characterization about the principles of how TEM and SEM function. In this module we provide a description of electrical lenses, This module introduces undergraduate students to electron beam generation, vacuum chamber, and so on. commonly used equipment and techniques for characThe TEM and SEM are both located in user facilities at the terization of materials at the nanoscale. The theoretical 16
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

Al-Haik et al.

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

UNMs main campus, steps away from both the Mechanwere submitted individually and covered topics such as ical and Civil Engineering Departments. ethics in nanotechnology, nanomaterials for energy, and Furthermore, in Part II the students are directed to biomedical applications of nanomaterials. Each student examine methods of mechanical characterization using had to read at least ve refereed scholarly articles in topics nanotechnology. Since its inception in 1992, nanoindenrelated to his or her term paper to be aware of the state of tation has quickly become the workhorse for determinthe art. ing nanomechanical properties. This method is commonly used to nd a materials elastic modulus and hardness values. The theory of nanoindentation for metals, poly5. INTEGRATING NANOTECHNOLOGY mers, and ceramic is introduced with an emphasis on its MODULES TO THE MATERIALS SCIENCE advantage over its macroscopic counterpart. For example, LABORATORIES nanoindentation can be utilized to test materials that are The laboratory component ME352 and the lab for CE305 not necessarily precast or machined in a specic shape (for were modied to include four experimental nanotechnolexample, mechanical testing of a human tooth (Al-Haik ogy modules that were co-taught by the four authors. et al., 2008)) such as the famous dog bone-shaped tensile While all four experimental nanotechnology modules were test sample. Also nanoindentation can be used to test very adopted in mechanical engineering ME352L, only three thin materials or materials that are too brittle (for example, experimental nanomodules were adopted in the lab of civil testing the micro beams on a MEMS chip (Trinke et al., engineering CE305. The choice of the modules adopted 2009)). The methods of obtaining the Youngs modulusby Ingenta Delivered to: in the CE305 lab was governed by the parts adopted on and hardness values, and reproducibility of data also are Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University the nanotechnology lecture modules in CE305 and the discussed. The challenges in linking these observations to IP : 128.173.163.164 specic needs for the CE305 laboratory to cover other macroscale properties are explained. Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 specic experiments related to civil engineering materials. In Part III, students examine electronic properties. One The plan for the experiments adopted in both laboratories lecture is planned to introduce fundamental concepts about is shown in Table I. All laboratory work in both ME352L the electrical properties of materials. Using these basic and CE305 was arranged using laboratory teams with ethconcepts, the electrical properties of CNTs and their use nic and gender diversity taken into account. We present in eld effect transistors are discussed. here two sample nanoexperiment modules for clarifying A schematic representation of how the three modules the nature of the revised lab modules. and their parts are integrated in both ME370 and CE305 is shown in Figure 2. The rationale in selecting the modules to be incorporated in each course is to accommodate specic discipline needs while emphasizing the multidisciplinary nature of the integrated materials. Students of both classes will be sharing these modules in both lectures and the laboratory experience. Beside the in-class and hands-on nanomaterials modules, students also were asked to prepare a term paper discussing a specic application of nanotechnology and/or nanomaterials and their role in society. The term papers 5.1. Lab Module 1: Nanoindentation Experiment Examining material properties using hardness tests has been used as non-destructive tests for metals for the last 100 years. Indentation depends on pushing a hard indenter into the surface of the material and recording the load and indentation depth. In traditional experiments students in ME370/CE305 learned about determining material hardness, which is a measure of a materials resistance to surface penetration by two hardness tests: macro hardness (using Rockwell and/or Brinell) and micro hardness (using Vickers microindentation with a diamond pyramid). In the newly developed experiments, the interest lies in determining nanoscale hardness. Researchers showed that material nanoscale hardness could be related to material stiffness (elastic modulus) and energy absorption (toughness and resilience) (Oliver & Pharr, 1992). The recent advances in hardware control and load/displacement measurements at the nanoscale transformed nanoindentation into a technology that is both robust and reliable for materials mechanical characterization. Nanoindentation experiments comprise loading the specimen to a specic load (usually in the range of micro to milli Newton (mN)), keeping the load constant for a few seconds to realize materials creep (strain growth with time) 17

Fig. 2. Nanoscience educational modules being used to integrate materials science classes across the School of Engineering at UNM.

J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses
Table I. Integrated nanotechnologymaterials science laboratories (ME352L and CE305). Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ME352 (the lab for ME370) Labs tour and safety procedures Technical writing, measurements Metallography: Molding, grinding, polishing, and light microscopy Module 1: SEM dislocation in brass Hardness: Brinell, and Vickers Module 2: Nanoindentation of brass Charpy impact testing Tensile testing: Elasticplastic deformation Heat treatment: Annealing and quenching Module 3: Nanoindentation: Effect of heat treatment on steel modulus and hardness Module 4 Module 4: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of alumina nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes Delivered by Ingenta to: Ductile to brittle transition in metals NEU modules CE305 lab

Al-Haik et al.

Module 1: Electron scan microscopy (SEM)

Module 2: Nanoindentation

Measurements and technical reports Compression and bending tests of wood Tension test of mild steel. Torsion test of aluminum Module 1: SEM of cement morphology Charpy v-notch impact test, Brinell and Vickers hardness tests Module 2: Nanoindentation of cement Aggregate gradation, unit weight and voids in aggregate Cement mortar, setting time, blain neness Concrete batching and fresh concrete testing Asphalt experiments: gyratory compaction, rice specic gravity, resilience modulus Concrete testing, Youngs modulus &

12

and unloading the specimen leaving an indentation impression. A picture and schematic representation of the nanoindenter (NanoTest ) that was used for nanoindentation tests are shown in Figure 3. The NanoTest system is capable of measuring hardness, modulus, toughness, adhesion, and many other properties of thin lms and other surfaces. The NanoTest is a fully modular system that allows users to congure the system to meet their individual needs. Alternative nanoindentation machines are available with different working mechanisms, but all nanoindenters provide a time-dependent, load-indentation depth response of the material and can also provide a three-dimensional image of the indentation impression using an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a high resolution digital camera typically available with the indenter. In this experiment, students indented four samples using the nanoindentation: 4340 steel that was heat treated and left to cool at different cooling rates by changing the medium (furnace, air, oil and water). Sample nanoindentation curves of the heat-treated steel samples are shown in Figure 4. Students indent 5 samples at a 50-mN load and will nd the nanoscale properties of the different samples using the load versus nanoindentation depth curves. While the theory of nanoindentation was covered previously in the lecture modules added to the materials science courses, students learned how the Youngs modulus and hardness values can be obtained using the OliverPharr method through a built-in Java template with the NanoTest system. Finally, students also learned how tone can use an instrumented AFM attached to the NanoTest system to locate the trace of indentation they performed on the samples surface. Civil engineering students (CE305) 18

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Poissons ratio of PCC IP : 128.173.163.164 Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51

used nanoindentation to test concrete as an inhomogeneous material with different phases. 5.2. Lab Module 2: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) In this module, students in each discipline are directed to use the SEM to investigate one material of interest. While the mechanical engineering students were mentored to use the SEM to identify carbon nanostructures, students in civil engineering utilized the SEM to identify the nano- and microstructure of cementitious composites. The SEM sessions for mechanical engineering students are devoted to the study of carbon-based nanomaterials: nanotubes, nanobers, and metal-carbon composites. Nanosized carbon tubes, bers, and particulates are analyzed at various degrees: their shape, size, and composition are the focus of the practices. Alignment operations of the microscope and sample preparation techniques were demonstrated. Students have the opportunity to introduce samples into a microscope chamber and perform basic functions to acquire images under supervision. On the other hand, civil engineering students study cement and its hydration under the SEM. Students examine the factors affecting the reactivity of cements. For example, high tricalcium silicate (Ca3 SiO5 ; also known as alite or C3 S) content yields a high early strength gain, while high gypsum content yields even higher early strengths; The microstructure of aggregates also plays a role in dictating the mechanical properties of concrete. For example, ner aggregates lead to more exposed surfaces to water contact, which in return facilitates a higher rate reaction of cement leading to higher early strengths. This
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

Al-Haik et al.

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

every week, each lab had 4 groups of students (34 students) performing the same experiment. For civil engineering students there were 2 lab sections every week and the students were divided into 4 groups for every experiment. Because we wanted the new nanoexperiments to be hands-on we carried out specic arrangements to ensure the students interactions with several instruments while maintaining the instruments in operational mode. In the SEM module, usually the instructor or a graduate student places the samples inside the microscope chamber and gets the machine to the running mode prior to the experiment. The students usually were divided into groups of 4 each, and each group got the instrument for a halfhour to capture an image. Given that the students had not used the instruments before and the instruments are dual usage, the students supervision was strict. For example students were not allowed to change the hardware setup or vent the chamber. We just focused on getting the students to be able to control the spot size; focus on a single feature; Delivered by Ingenta to: and control the contrast brightness ne-focus and stigmata; Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University then capture an image. The TEM experiments were solely IP : 128.173.163.164 run by the instructors considering the level of sophistiTue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 cation needed to run the instruments. However, students who participated in the investigators research group were able to learn the full operation of the TEM and some of them were successful in obtaining highquality images for publications, presentations and posters. For the nanoindentation experiments, the instructor/graduate students usually install the sample and calibrate the instrument (this might take 2 hours, so usually the machine was kept running 6 hours prior to the experiment). As the machine is fully computer-controlled, students did not need to open the NanoTest enclosing cabinet. And since the cabinet is made of plexiglass it was easy for the students to observe the experiment: stage movement, engaging and disengaging of the indenter tip and the sample. For the nanoindentation students were allowed to use the sample stage controller/motor to bring the sam Fig. 3. Layout and schematic of the NanoTest system used for the ple within 25 micron from the indenter tip. A pre-written nanoindentation lab module. indentation test template was carried outusually for less than 5 minutesand the students used the NanoTest analymodule introduces different cements pastes to civil engisis software to get the nal results of interest: elastic modneering students with the intention of studying the phase ulus and hardness. Simplied instructions to perform these present in the samples by SEM. Figure 5(a) shows an tasks were handed to students prior to the lab. After the SEM micrograph of the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), students performed one nanoindentation cycle and anawhich is a colloidal gel that is a very complex, poorly cryslyzed it they were handed data from 25 nanoindentation talline material. Figure 5(b) shows an SEM micrograph tests that were carried out by the instructor/teaching assisof (monosulphoaluminate) Ettringite, which forms in the tant so they could perform statistical analysis. early stages and later converts to a plate-like microstructure when gypsum is used and water is available. Finally, Figure 5(c) shows calcium hydroxide (CH) crystals, which take the form of a plate-like material and are responsible for the low strength and non-durable performance of concrete and mortar. Regardless of whether the experiment was classical or a new nanoexperiment, for ME352 there were 3 lab sections
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

6. NEW COURSE DEVELOPMENT


We introduced a new course, ME461-E, on the theory, fabrication, and characterization of nano/microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS). This course was offered twice in the fall semesters of 2008 and 2009. 19

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses
(a) (b)

Al-Haik et al.

(c)

(d)

Delivered by Ingenta to: Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University IP : 128.173.163.164 Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51

Fig. 4. Nanoindentation curves (loading-unloading) for different samples of 4030 steel that were heat treated at different cooling rates: (a) slow cooling in furnace, (b) cooling in air, (c) quenching in oil, and (d) quenching in water.

This course is a laboratory course on the physical theory, design, analysis, fabrication, and characterization of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The main objective of this course is the fabrication of important types of nano/microstructures used in NEMS/MEMS devices and systems by multi-disciplinary and multi-ethnicity teams. Therefore, the emphasis was on techniques used in the synthesis and fabrication of NEMS/MEMS. Basic techniques were discussed separately and then sequenced in order to build up these commonly used processes. Examples of the fabrication techniques discussed are photolithography, nanolithography, deposition and growth of thin lms and CNTs, dry and wet chemical etching, and alignment and bonding techniques. With the funding from another NSF grant, we were able to add classroom modules on using focused ion beam (FIB) technology for nanolithography and nanopatterning of substrates as well as new modules on CNTs. A chemical vapor deposition furnace for growth of CNTs was designed, built, and operated by undergraduate students using support from the current grant. Figure 6 shows some of the CNTs that were grown. We envision that this experiment module will be a permanent part of future 20

laboratories, barring any unforeseen circumstances such as happened in the rst semester we attempted this module. In addition to the CNT modules, students also performed experiments where they make nano-thickness membranes used as pressure sensors and MEMS actuators. A picture of an MEMS actuator that was made in ME461-E is shown in Figure 7(a), and a photograph of students working on the fabrication experiment in the UNM clean room is shown in Figure 7(b). For ME461-E there was one lab session every week with roughly 4 groups of students.

7. RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION OVER TWO YEARS


The developed nanomodules were delivered at the UNM in 2008 and 2009. The new modules contributed heavily toward tailoring the mechanical and civil engineering curricula toward nanomaterials through a series of seven class lectures and four hands-on experimental modules together with training through undergraduate research. To accommodate the new modulus in the ME370/CE305 we modied the class curriculum by removing topics such as diffusion, which is covered later in the senior year along with courses such as heat transfer and thermodynamics.
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

Al-Haik et al.
(a)

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

(b)

Delivered by Ingenta to: Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University IP : 128.173.163.164 Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51
Fig. 6. SEM and TEM images of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). (a) and (b) are SEM images of SWCNTs aligned to their (100) Si substrate. (c) and (d) are TEM images of SWCNTs.

(c)

Fig. 5. SEM micrographs of cement components: (a) CSH compound, (b) ettringite, and (c) CH crystals.

Also we removed the manufacturing aspects of materials as there was a dedicated course that covers the manufacturing processes offered by the department of Mechanical Engineering. Finally we eliminated the materials selection lectures, as the ME department introduced a dedicated course for materials selection in design. For the laboratory, we switched one of the macro/microscale hardness tests with the nanoindentation. Also instead of utilizing the Charpy test to measure the brittleness of steel as a result of different cooling rates we
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

utilized nanoindentation to measure the hardness, modulus and qualitative measure of toughness. Also we got rid of a lab session that was a dedicated statistical analysis of experimental data because the students are exposed to this in the measurement course and as a standalone course in statistics. However we kept the writeup for the statistical analysis posted on the lab web page. By the end of each semester, upon nishing the delivery of all the nanotechnology lectures and experiments, a survey was conducted to probe students opinion and suggestions regarding the nanomaterials modules. The survey consistent of 17 questions asking the student to rank different aspects of the nanomodules (substance, relevance, content, instructor, background preparation, etc.). Roughly, 110 students from Mechanical Engineering and 53 students from Civil Engineering participated in the survey. The survey was conducted anonymously, and students were provided extra space to provide additional comments as they saw t. The survey questions together with the accumulated results are shown in Table II. Based on feedback from the survey, the students responses were very positive and encouraging in terms of continuing to improve the modules. Sample statistics on the response to three questions from the survey are shown in Figure 8. Overall the majority of the students (67%) ranked the nanotechnology experience gained by the enriched materials courses as very good to excellent. About 8% of the students did not have a positive opinion for the nanomodules. Unfortunately, students who gave a 21

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses
(a) (b)

Al-Haik et al.

Fig. 7. (a) A MEMS actuator fabricated by students involved in the NUE program. (b) Students fabricating MEMS inside a University of New Mexico clean room during the NEMS/MEMS class.

poor evaluation of the program did not provide any constructive written feedback or suggestions to improve the program in the future. The fact that students with construction management background represent about 3040% Delivered of the civil by

engineering materials class might have an impact on the results of that survey. Construction management students enroll in the civil engineering materials class to gain material science knowledge necessary for their degree requirements. Ingenta to: However, most of construction management

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University


Table II. Results of the survey conducted after the implementation of Nanomodules in ME370/ME352L and CE305. IP : 128.173.163.164 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9

10 11 12

13

14 15 16 17

14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 What is your opinion of the ME340/CE305 course Tue, material in general (lectures, handouts, and lab experiments)? Excellent (39%) V-Good (32%) Good (21%) Fair (8%) Poor (0%) No opinion (0%) What is your opinion of the nanomaterials lectures? Excellent (27%) V-Good (41%) Good (24%) Fair (7%) Poor (1%) No opinion (0%) What is your opinion of including the nanoexperiment; nanoindentation, SEM, TEM, and XRD? Excellent (13%) V-Good (61%) Good (22%) Fair (0%) Poor (5%) No opinion (0%) On a scale of 51, were the learning objectives of the new nanomaterials modules clear to you? (5) Perfectly clear (22%) 4 (31%) 3 (39%) 2 (5%) (1) Very unclear (0%) No opinion (3%) On a scale of 52, did you have enough knowledge from earlier courses that you found to be useful for this course? (5) Very much so (44%) 4 (26%) 3 (21%) 2 (9%) (1) Not at all (0%) No opinion (0%) Did the nanomaterials modules provide enough knowledge of what nanomaterials are, their applications, and the impact of nanotechnology on society? Yes I think so (34%) Just enough knowledge (27%) Fair level of knowledge (31%) Very little knowledge (8%) Not at all (0%) Do you believe the introduction of the nanomaterials to ME370/CE305 helped you get a better understanding of the nanomaterials area? Strongly agree (23%) Agree (45%) Disagree (21%) Strongly disagree (5%) No opinion (6%) Should the nanomodules be taught in a separate standalone course? Or should they be kept in the current modules form in ME370/CE305? Keep it as modules in ME370/CE305 (65%) Offer it as a standalone course (31%) No opinion (4%) Which of the following laboratories did you like the most or the least? Nano Indentation SEM/TEM XRD Most (26%) Least (44%) Most (48%) Least (22%) Most (26%) Least (34%) Which specic topic would you would to have covered in more detail in this course? Nanostructures and Nanosynthesis (56%) Carbon Nanotubes (26%) Ceramics Nanoparticles (9%) Nanocharacterization (9%) Generally, are you interested in taking other courses in nanotechnology, if provided as technical electives? Very interested (67%) Interested (13%) Little interested (11%) Not interested at all (9%) Given your experience in ME370/CE305, would you be interested in taking ME461-E (Theory, Fabrication and Characterization of Nano/micro Electromechanical Systems (NEMS/MEMS))? Yes (61%) Possibly (26%) No (10%) No opinion (3%) Note: Students were provided with the syllabus in advance Given your experience in ME370/CE305, would you be interested in taking ME462 (Nanomaterials Preparation and Characterization)? Yes (44%) Possibly (34%) No (13%) No opinion (9%) Note: Students were provided with the syllabus in advance Do you see the term paper as a useful experience that assisted you in exploring and identifying useful and societal applications of nanomaterials? Strongly agree (61%) Agree (30%) Disagree (9%) Strongly disagree (0%) Would you recommend ME370/CE305 with nanomodules to your colleagues at the UNM College of Engineering? Yes (63%) Possibly (18%) No (15%) No opinion (4%) Please explain briey why you took this course (ME70/CE305). Please provide any remarks, suggestions to improve the nanomodules.
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

22

Al-Haik et al.

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

who took the materials science course felt strongly that the nanomodules should be employed in the two materials science courses (ME370/CE305); only 31% of the survey population suggested offering these modules as a standalone course. As far as probing the students interests in specic modules, mostly the students preferred to focus more on nanosynthesis, nanostructures, and CNTs, as compared to nanocharacterization or ceramic nanoparticles. In general 67% of the students expressed that they are very interested in another course in nanotechnology, some of them indicated that they are somewhat interested (13%) given that this will count as a technical elective replacing one of the classical technical electives courses. Specically, 61% of the students expressed serious interest in taking the ME461-E course. In actuality 34 students have enrolled for ME461-E (NEMS/MEMS). The desire to take another course in nanomaterials preparation and nanocharacterization was not as assertive, only 44% of the students expressed a strong interest in that course. Delivered by Ingenta to: The survey University also indicated that the students also preVirginia Polytechnic Institute & State ferred to learn more about nano applications, nanomaIP : 128.173.163.164 terials, and nanotechnology societal implications through Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 the term paper mechanism. The term papers reected the student awareness of the importance of nanotechnology, nanomaterials, and systems in the society. Roughly 91% of the students favored this mechanism as a means to learn more about how nanotechnology affects an application of their choice, such as energy, biomedical, imaging, and sensors. The survey also asked the students to provide suggestions/critiques to improve the nanomodules. Students who evaluated the nanomodules as good to excellent asked for more hands-on exposure in smaller groups (typically nanoexperiment groups consisted of 46 students per group) and earlier exposure to nanotechnology (both courses are senior level). In response to this comment in later semesters we involved the students more in operatFig. 8. Sample students evaluation of the nanotechnology modules ing the instruments. The demand of earlier exposure to introduced to ME370 and CE305. nanotechnology will be implemented in the renewed NSFREU proposal 20112012, where a freshman course will be developed toward this purpose. students lack the major engineering background. The Some students suggested that an instrumentation and signicance of background difference on students performeasurement course be placed as a prerequisite prior to mance in civil engineering materials class have been distaking the courses with nanomodules. This suggestion was cussed elsewhere. posed based on the fact the nanoindentation experiment The majority of the students (70%) have indicated that was demanding many calibration steps and data acquisition they had some helpful background from earlier courses using LabView software. The survey reected this opin(mainly chemistry) that they found to be useful in the ion as 44% of the students indicated that they were less newly introduced nanomodules. As an outcome of the interested in the nanoindentation, while 22% indicated that implementation, 61% of the students have indicated that SEM was the least interesting module. This suggestion the nanolectures and experiments have equipped them with was communicated to the undergraduate curricula commita high to satisfactory level of knowledge on what qualify tee in the civil and mechanical engineering departments as nanomaterials and their impact on society. Despite the for consideration. Other students suggested reducing the rushed approach in the rst semester, by the end of the number of modules, considering that classical experiments two years implementation a signicant percentage (65%) needed to be covered as well. The investigators considered of the civil and mechanical engineering undergraduates
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

23

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

Al-Haik et al.

alternating the nanoexperiments each semester by introducing the TEM microscopy experiment in the spring and the XRD experiment in the fall semester. As an update (both hardware and software) of the NanoTest is currently underway, we hope to make it more user-friendly and less demanding for the calibration so it could be received more favorably in the future. Based on the success of the nanomaterials modules 34 students have enrolled in ME461-E (MEMS). This course aided them in the theoretical and experimental knowledge of nanosystems. This course was appealing to minority students, in particular 13 students were from underrepresented groups (Hispanic, Native American and Asian) and 9 were females. The investigators have mentored several students who nished two of the nanotechnology courses offered through the NUE program (ME370/ME352L and ME461-E). Eighteen undergraduate students have participated in nanomaterials and nanosystems research. The by Ingenta to: Delivered student participation resulted in 4 honors theses and 11 Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University refereed journals publications. IP : 128.173.163.164 The recruiting of undergraduate students Tue, to participate 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 in the research aspects prepared them to play teaching assistant roles in the following semesters especially for the SEM and nanoindentation modules. Some students became involved in the investigators research groups to work on other research projects with a nanotechnology theme. Eighteen undergraduate students have participated in nanomaterials and nanosystems research. The student participation resulted in 4 honors theses and 11 refereed journals publications. Some of these research projects: synthesis of WS2 ( Tehrani et al., 2011), nanoindentation of dental materials (Al-Haik et al., 2008), nanocreep behavior of cements (Reinhardt et al., 2009) and growing CNTs on carbon bers (Al-Haik et al., 2009; Luhrs et al., 2009). Figure 9 provides images produced by undergraduate students during some of these projects. The education through research involvement offered the students more guided, formal and comprehensive training on SEM, TEM, nanoindentation and XRD. Therefore some of the undergraduate students involved in this research experience became capable of running these instruments on their own without supervision. We utilized some of this newly gained Fig. 9. Sample projects that involved participation of undergraduate students: (a) SEM image of hybrid carbon ber with surface grown CNTs technical expertise in the form of teaching assistance in (Jeremy Chavez), (b) (SEM) micrograph of WS2 (Juanita Trevino), and the nanoexperiments that required SEM/TEM/XRD and (c) Optical micrograph of a thermal actuator (Ian Young and Dylan nanoindentation. Wood). Several students expressed an interest in graduate studies in nanomaterials-based research. Nine students (6 ME granting only MS and PhD diplomas. In the investigators and 3 CE) who participated in the undergraduate research research groups the number of U.S. students in general projects with the investigators enrolled in graduate proand those who are from minority groups in particular had grams at UNM. The nanotechnology education of underimproved. graduates through our program at UNM has leveraged an The activities implemented during this nanotechnology existing graduate program in nanotechnologythe Nano program at the UNM had an impact on under-represented Sciences and MicroSystems (NSMS) program. This NSF groups in science and engineering. The ethnic and gender IGERT program at UNM is strictly a graduate program distribution of these courses are shown in Figure 10. 24
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

Al-Haik et al.

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

internships at Sandia National Labs, Los Alamos National Labs, Intel Corporation, and Kirtland Air force Base. To their credit, all these entities have aggressive on- and off campus recruiting programs. We believe that the internships made possible to the students through the NSFNEU grants to the investigators together with the hands-on encounter with nanotechnology through the materials laboratories, assisted signicantly in attracting minority students to conduct research in nanotechnology.

8. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK


A new group of nanotechnology modules for undergraduate engineering education was developed and introduced to engineering students at the UNM. The new modules were established in materials science courses serving mechanical and civil engineering students. A preliminary survey showed that the majority of students are in favor of the nanotechnology modules. Delivered by Ingenta to: The curricula of the Mechanical and Civil EngiVirginia Polytechnic Institute & core State University neering Departments were not altered. Nanotechnology IP : 128.173.163.164 modules were strategically inserted in the core classes and Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 an elective course on nano and micro systems was taught in the senior year. Based on the survey results, the authors will continue the format of stand-alone modules and nano experiments. Improvements based on the student surveys conducted so far will include more hands-on experiments (for example, synthesis of nanomaterials). We also plan to introFig. 10. Accumulative statistics of the ethnic and gender distributions duce term projects where students will still go through all of the three courses employed in the investigation (ME370, CE305, and the nanomodules and nanoexperiments, but will be trained ME461-E). exclusively on an instrument of their choice (SEM, TEM, XRD nanoindenter, etc.) to fulll their project. UNM is the only Carnegie, Very High Research Finally, the authors will continue to mesh the nanoUniversity in the country designated as a Minority and education and research via incorporating undergraduates in Hispanic-Serving Institution (MHSI). Most of the undertheir current research activities in nanotechnology. As evigraduate students at the School of Engineering at UNM denced by the investigators own experience, this approach come from New Mexico, and the demographics reect the appealed to the large community of minority students at multicultural character of the state. UNM School of EngiUNM. neering graduation rates for Hispanic and Native American With nanotechnology becoming part of so many core students are among the highest in the U.S. Currently courses and also having dedicated stand-alone courses 40% of engineering undergraduates come from underin nanotechnology, we envision that a critical mass represented groups (American Indian and Hispanic) and will have been reached to create a concentration in 20% of our students are female, on par with the national micro/nanotechnology at UNM. average. One major challenge throughout the nanotechnolAcknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the supogy program has been improving the recruiting of port of the National Science Foundation support through undergraduate students from minority groups to do the Nanotechnology Undergraduate Education (NUE) research in nanotechnology or even research in general. grants #0936412 and 0741525. The authors would like UNM is surrounded by several federal and industrial to thank Prof. Adrian Brearley for granting access to the entities that, rightfully, are trying to diversify their workelectron microscopy facilities at the University of New force by appealing to the large Hispanic students comMexico and Prof. John Wood for granting access to the munity at UNM through summer internships. From the clean room facility at the Manufacturing Training and investigators personal attempts to attract the undergradTechnology Center (MTTC), University of New Mexico (UNM). Finally, we would like to thank Prof. Jonathan uates from minority groups, students usually preferred
J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010

25

Introducing Nanotechnology to Mechanical and Civil Engineering Students Through Materials Science Courses

Al-Haik et al.

Luhrs, C., Garcia, D., Tehrani, M., Al-Haik, M., Reda Taha, M., & Phillips, J. (2009). Generation of carbon nanolaments on carbon bers at 550 C. Carbon, 47(13), 30713078. Maji, A. & Taha, M. M. R. (2008). Learning styles and integration of management and engineering students. ASEE Southwest Conference, Albuquerque New Mexico. Maleki, S., Hagerman, M., & Kosky, P. G., Frontiers of Nanotechnology References and Notes and Nanomaterials. NSF-NUE Grant #0304105. Mendelson, M., Kuleck, G., Sanny, J., Bulman, J., Roe, J., Ula, N., Adams, J. D. & Rogers, B. (2004). A unied approach to nanotechnology Noorani, R., & Stupar, J. (2004). Teaching and evaluating a new education. Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineernanotechnology undergraduate course. American Society for Engiing Education Annual Conference & Exposition (pp. 35663576), Salt neering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, Lake City, Utah. Utah. Adams, J. D., Rogers, B. S., & Leifer, L. J. (2004). Microtechnology, Neville, A. M. (1996). Properties of concrete (4th ed.), John Wiley & nanotechnology, and the scanning-probe microscope: An innovative Sons, London, UK. course. IEEE Transactions on Education, 47(1), 5156. OConnel, M. J. (2006). Carbon nanotubes: Properties and applications, Al-Haik, M. S., Trinkle, S., Garcia, D., Yang, F., Martinez, U., Sumali, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, USA. H., & Miltenberger, S. (2007). Investigation of the nano-mechanical Oliver, W. C. & Pharr, G. M. (1992). An improved technique for deterand tribological properties of tooth/ llings materials. ASME Internamining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement tional Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, ASME, Seatsensing indentation experiments. Journal of Materials Research, 7(6), tle, Washington, USA. 15641583. Al-Haik, M., Hanson, C., Luhrs, C., Tehrani, M, Phillips, J., & Polla, D. L., Robbins, W. P., Glumac, D. E., Francis, L. F., & Erdman, Miltenberger, S. (2008). Synthesis and characterization of nano aluA. G. (1994). by Ingenta to: An undergraduate instructional course on microelecmina dental ller. Int. J. Nano and Biomaterials, 1(4), Delivered 411428. tromechanical fabrication. Proceedings of the IEEE Frontiers Al-Haik, M., Jiguang D., Garcia, D., Chavez, J., Reda-Taha, M., Luhrs, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State systems University in Education Twenty-fourth Annual Conference (pp. 297301). San C., & Phillips, J. (2009) Novel growth of multiscale carbon IP :nanol128.173.163.164 Jose, CA, USA. aments on carbon and glass bers. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Tue, 14 Jun 2011 23:11:51 Reda, M. M. & Shrive, N. G. (2000). Enhancing bond strength using y Letters, 1(2), 15. ash. Masonry International, 14, 917. Callister, W. D. (2007). Materials science and engineering: An introducReinhardt, A., Garner, A., Sheyka, M., Al-Haik, M., & Reda Taha, tion, (7th ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. M. M. (2009). Experimental and numerical nano-characterization of Chang, T., Jaroonsiriphan, P., & Sun, X. (2002). Integrating nanotechtwo phases in concrete. International Journal of Material and Strucnology into undergraduate experience: A web-based approach. Intertural Integrity, 3(2) 134146. national Journal of Engineering Education, 18(5), 557565. Roco, M. C. (2002). A frontier for engineering education. International Chang, T. N. & Chang, D. (2000). Graduate engineering student perforJournal of Engineering Education, 18(5), 488497. mance assessment: How learning pattern affects test scores. ProceedSchmalzel, J. L. (2004). A students perspective: Nanotechnology (2004). ings of the ASEE 2000, St. Louis, Mo, June. IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, 7(3) 8485. Dresselhaus, M. S., Dresselhaus, G., & Avouris, P. (2001). Carbon Shackelford, J. F. (2005). Materials science for engineers (Sixth ed.), nanotubes: Synthesis, structure, properties, and applications. Topics in Prentice Hall, NJ, USA. applied physics (vol. 80). SpringerVerlag Berlin, Germany. Shapter, J. G., Ford, M. J., Maddox, L. M., & Waclawik, E. R. (2002). Flachsbart, B. R., Prakash, S., Yeom, J., Wu, Y., Moszgai, G. Z., Teaching undergraduates nanotechnology. International Journal of Leseman, Z. C., Wong, K., Connell, C., Correa, E. J., Hansen, M. R., Engineering Education, 18(5), 512518. & Shannon, M. A. (2006). Theory, fabrication, and characterization of Sinha, S. K. (2006). Introductory nanotechnology courses: ExperiMEMS devices: An interdisciplinary course for mechanical engineers. ences of an educator. IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies IMECE2006-13741, Proceedings of ASME, International Mechanical Nanoelectronics (pp. 226231). Singapore, January. Engineering Congress and Exposition, Chicago, Illinois, November. Timp, G. L. (1999). Nanotechnology. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. Han, D., Naimipour, K., & Chen, A. (1993). Engineering and scientic Tehrani, M., Trevino, J., Zea, H., Al-Haik, M., & Luhrs, C. (2011). curriculum issues of including nanotechnology, robotics, life extension, Novel synthesis of WS2 nanostructures from the reaction of WO3 with & virtual reality in basic requirements. Proceedings of the IEEE FronCS2 and mechanical characterization of WS2 nanotube composites. In tiers in Education. Twenty-Third Annual Conference (pp. 822822), review, Nanotechnology. Washington, DC, USA. Trinkle, S., Al-Haik, M., & Sumali, H. (2009). Tribological reliability of Hersam, M. C., Luna, M., & Light, G. (2004). Implementation of interMEMS multilayered thin lms. International Journal of Materials and disciplinary group learning and peer assessment in a nanotechnology Structural Integrity, 3(3), 201216. engineering course. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(1), 4957. Uddin, M. & Chowdhury, A. R. (2001). Integration of nanotechnolHertz, H. (1881). On the contact of elastic solids. J. Reine Angew. Math., ogy into the undergraduate engineering curriculum. International Con92, 15671. ference on Engineering Education (ICEE) (pp. 8B2-68B2-9). Oslo, Klabunde, K. J. (2001). Nanoscale materials in chemistry, (2nd ed.), John Norway. Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, NY. Young, F. J., Mindess, S., Gray, R. J., & Bentur, A. (1998). The SciKosky, P. G., Hagerman, M. E., & Maleki, S. (2004). Frontiers of nanence and Technology of Civil Engineering Materials, Prentice Hall, otechnology and nanomaterials. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, Utah. USA.

Phillips (Los Alamos National Laboratory, retired) and Prof. Hamid Garmestani (Georgia Institute of Technology) for acting as external evaluators of the current NUE program at UNM.

Received: 17 November 2010. Accepted: 4 March 2011.

26

J. Nano Educ. 2, 1326, 2010