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## Formulae for Engi 4436, Mechanical Vibration

Fundamentals
2
nd
law, = or

parallel-axis theorem

+
2
where is the distance between and .
Mass moment of inertia for a rod about its center of mass

=
1
12

2
1
3

2
, for a disk

=
1
2

2

Moment of inertia for a cross-sectional area
Rectangular cross section

=
1
12

3

Circular cross section

=
1
2

4

a b
A
c d
(
=
(

,
T
a c
A
b d
(
=
(

, det( ) A ad bc = ,
1
1
det( )
d b
A
c a A

(
=
(

,
2
2
1,2
4
0,
2
b b ac
ax bx x x
a

+ + = =
Chapter One Free Response of 1-DOF Systems
1-DOF undamped systems
Equation of motion

Natural frequency,
n
k m e = , period 2
n
T t e =
Free response
2 2 2
0 0 1 0
0
sin( ), , tan
n n
n
n
x v x
x A t A
v
e e
e | |
e

+
= + = =

1-DOF damped systems
Equation of motion
+ + = 0, =
0
, 0 =
0

Damping ratio (2 )
cr
c c c km , = =
If 1, the system is overdamped , >
If 1, the system is critically damped , =
If 1, the system is underdamped , <
,
the damped natural
frequency
2
1
d n
e e , = , Period 2
d
T t e =

Free response
2 2
0 0 0
1
0 0 0
sin( ), ( ) ( )
tan ( ( ))
n
t
d n d d
d n
x Ae t A v x x
x v x
,e
e | ,e e e
| e ,e

= + = + +
= +

Stiffness, in general, or k F l k M u = A = A

Stiffness of two springs in parallel
1 2
k k k = + ,

Logarithmic decrement
1 1
1 1
( ) ( ) 1
ln ln
( ) ( )
x t x t
x t T n x t nT
o = =
+ +
, damping ratio
2 2
4
o
,
t o
=
+

stiffness of two springs in series
1 2 1 2
( ) k k k k k = +

0 0
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0, (0) , (0)
mx t kx t
mx t kx t x x x v
=
+ = = =

2
Chapter Two Forced Response of 1-DOF Systems to Harmonic Excitation
+ + = =
0
cos
=
0
, 0 =
0

Response of undamped systems, = 0 when

0 0 0
0 0 0 2 2 2 2
sin ( )cos cos ,
n n
n n n
v f f
x t x t t f F m e e e
e e e e e
= + + =

when =

## , resonance occurs and amplitude becomes

infinitely large.
Frequency of beat
beat n
e e e = , frequency of oscillation ( ) 2
oscil n
e e e = +
Response of underdamped systems
h p
x x x = + ,
0
2 2 2 2
/
cos( ),
( ) (2 )
p
n n
F m
x X t X e u
e e ,e e
= =
+
,
1
2 2
2
tan
n
n
,e e
u
e e

Transient response
1 0 0
0 0
( cos ) cos
sin( ), tan ,
( cos ) sin sin
n
t d
h d
n
x X x X
x Ae t A
v x X X
,e
e u u
e | |
u ,e e u |

= + = =
+

Normalized magnitude

Phase
1
2
2
tan
1 r
,
u

=

Base excitation sin
b
y Y t e = ,
Displacement transmissibility
1/ 2
2
2 2 2
1 (2 )
. .
(1 ) (2 )
X r
RT
Y r r
,
,
( +
= =
(
+

,
b
n
r
e
e
=
Force transmissibility
1/ 2
2
2
2 2 2
1 (2 )
(1 ) (2 )
T
F r
r
kY r r
,
,
( +
=
(
+

Rotating Unbalance.
2
0
2 2 2
(1 ) (2 )
m e r
X
m
r r ,
=
+
,
n
r
e
e
=

Chapter 3. General Forced Response
Response to an impulse at 0 t = ,

( ) ( ) F t F t o = ,

( ) sin
n
t
d
d
F
x t e t
m
,e
e
e

=
Response to an impulse at t t = ,

( ) ( ), F t F t t o t t = > ,
( )

( ) sin ( ),
n
t
d
d
F
x t e t t
m
,e t
e t t
e

= >
Response to a step input at 0 t = ,
0
( ) F t F = ,
-1 0 0
2 2
( ) cos( ), =tan
1 1
n
t
d
F F
x t e t
k
k
,e
,
e u u
, ,

=

Response to a step input at t t = ,
0
( ) F t F = ,
( ) 0 0
2
( ) cos[ ( ) ],
1
n
t
d
F F
x t e t t
k
k
,e t
e t u t
,

= >

2 2 2
0
1
,
(1 ) (2 )
n
Xk
r
F
r r
e
e
,
= =
+
3
Chapter 4. Multiple-Degree-Freedom Systems
equation of motion of 2-DOF undamped system

Matrix form

Natural frequencies can be found by solving the equation
2
det 0 M K e ( + =

Mode shapes can be found by solving the equation
2
i i
M K e ( + =

u 0
Free response using the modal analysis method
1. Calculate
1/ 2
M

2. Calculate
1/ 2 1/ 2
K M KM

=

3. Solve for the eigenvalues
2
det 0 K I e ( =

and eigenvectors
2
i i
K I e ( =

v 0

4. Normalize
T
i i i i
= v v v v and form the matrix | |
1 2
P= v v
5. Calculate the matrix
1/ 2
S M P

= and
1 1/ 2 T
S P M

=
6. Calculate the initial conditions in the modal coordinates
1 1
0 0 0 0
, S S

= = r x r x
7. Find the response in the modal coordinates
2
2 2 1 0 0
0 0 0 2
0
0, , , sin( tan )
i i i
i i i i i i i i
i i
r r
r r r r r r t
r
e
e e
e

+ = = + +

8. Find the response in the physical coordinates ( ) ( ) t S t = x r
equation of motion of 2-DOF damped system

Matrix form

If C M K o | = + , damping is proportional. In such case, | | 2
T
i i
S CS diag , e = . In the case of a 2-DOF system,
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
2 , 2 , e o |e , e o |e = + = +
Free response of a damped system. Solve the response in the modal coordinate
2
0 0
2 0, ,
i i i i i i i i
r r r r r , e e + + = .
2 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
( ) sin( ), ( ) ( ) , tan ( ( ))
i
i
t
i i di i i i i i i di di i i d i i i
r t d e t d r r r r r r
,e
e | ,e e e | e ,e

= + = + + = +

Then transform it back to the physical coordinate ( ) ( ) t S t = x r .
.
Forced response of a damped system

Find the force in the modal coordinate
1
2
( ) ( )
T
f
t S t
f
(
= =
(

f F . Solve for
1
2
p
p
p
r
r
(
=
(

r
and
1
2
h
h
h
r
r
(
=
(

r from the equation:
2
0 0
2 , ,
i i i i i i i i i
r r r f r r , e e + + = . Then transform
it back to the physical coordinate: steady-state response
ss p p
S = = x x r and the
transient response
h h
S = x r , the total response
p h
= + x x x .

( )
( )
1 1 1 1 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
mx t k x t k x t x t
m x t k x t x t
= +
=

1 1 1
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( )
, ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0

0
x t x t x t
M K t , t , t
x t x t x t
m k k k
M , K
m k k
( ( (
+ = = = =
( ( (

+ ( (
= =
( (

x x 0 x x x

1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
mx c x c x x k x k x x
m x c x x k x x
= + +
=

1 2 2
2 2
,
c c c
M C K C
c c
+ (
+ + = =
(

x x x 0
10
20
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) cos( )
F
M t C t K t t t
F
e
(
+ + = =
(

x x x F
4
Chapter Five. Design for Vibration Suppression.
Understand the Nomograph used for specifying acceptable limits of sinusoidal vibration (also refer to Section 1.2)
Isolating a device from a vibrating source (base excitation
problems)

Displacement transmissibility
1/ 2
2
2 2 2
1 (2 )
. . ,
(1 ) (2 )
n
X r
T R r
Y r r
,
e e
,
( +
= = =
(
+

To achieve . . 1 T R < , 2 or 2
n n
r e e e e = > < .
Force transmitted to the ground
1/ 2
2
2
2 2 2
1 (2 )
(1 ) (2 )
T
r
F kYr
r r
,
,
( +
=
(
+

Isolating a vibrating source from its surroundings (Rotating
unbalance problems)

Force Transmissibility
1/ 2
2
2 2 2
0
1 (2 )
. . 1
(1 ) (2 )
T
F r
T R
F r r
,
,
( +
= = <
(
+

Both the cases

Vibration absorber for an undamped system.
the normalized magnitude of the primary mass

2 2
2 2 2 2
0
1
[1 ( ) ][1 ( ) ]
a
p a
Xk
F
e e
| e e e e |

=
+
where
a a a
k m e = ,
p
k m e = ,
a
m m = ,
a p
| e e =
If 1 or
a a
e e e e = = , then 0 X = , the primary mass becomes
stationary and the absorber masss amplitude becomes
0 a
X F k = .
Natural frequencies of the entire system can be found by solving
2 2 2 2
[1 ( ) ][1 ( ) ] 0
n p n p
| e e e e | + =
i.e.,

2
2 4 2 2
2 2
1 (1 ) 1
( ) (1 ) 2 (1 ) 1
2 2
n
a
e |
| |
e | |
+ +
= + +

Operation range can be found by solving

2 2
2 2 2 2
0
1
1
[1 ( ) ][1 ( ) ]
a
p a
Xk
F
e e
| e e e e |

= =
+