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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Article 38: 1) Court shall decide disputes in accordance with international law 2) Provision shall not prejudice the power of the Court to decide a case ex aequo et bono, if parties agree thereto Flaws:  Directions to the court rather than sources - Concentrates primarily on activities of states. Non-state actors, individuals etc. contribute to development of customary practice. - There is no indication of priority of hierarchy of sources Formal Sources Process by which a legal rule comes into existence: law creating - “Customs” Material Sources Concerned with substance and content of legal obligations, enabling the subject of international law Evidentiary sources Most important sources, telling a state or legal person what they can or cannot do International Treaties Most important source of international law; will have been entered into voluntarily and only after due and serious consideration i) No state can be bound by a treaty without having given its consent (ratification), exceptions when it is valid ergo omnes (effective against whole world) ii) Treaties are a source of binding law exclusively for the parties in their relations inter se iii) When a treaty codifies existing customary law, substance of obligations specified in the treaty may be binding on all states iv) Parties to the treaty are bound in the normal way by all obligations in the treaty, but non-parties are bound only by those obligations which have attained the status of customary law Law or obligation  Contract treaties = bilateral treaties  Law making treaties = multilateral treaties Treaties are the result of direct negotiations between legal equals and each party is bound by the terms Only law involved in a treaty is the customary law Treaties are a material source of law - They are the only method by which states consciously can create binding law - Legal effect of treaties is identical whether we regard them as law creating or obligation creating Custom Treaty has replaced custom as the primary source of international law

International rules are only possible to the extent that they can rely on national rules Monistic theory: (1899) Unity of various legal systems and primacy of international law Modern changes . levels and degrees of proof for diff.National law prevailed over international law .Could be presumed from consistent practice. or because they feel obliged to do so .Different in categories of 1) their subject 2) their sources 3) contents of the rules . the more consistent any contrary state practice must be to change that rule. denied existence of international law Dualistic Doctrine: (1899) Existence of two distinct sets of legal orders . . it must be accompanied by belief that the practice is obligatory (Opinio juris) .One of the most important factors in the formation is that state practice must be constant and uniform .Existence of a single set of legal system. and thus their practice is more important Local customary law can supplement or derogate from general custom There is no precise guideline on the time required for state practice to mature into customary law Opinio juris: More than general uniform and consistent state practice. .Continued and sustained criticism of contrary conduct is evidence of non replacement .Frequency or habitual character is not enough.1) If once accepted contrary conduct. Number of states Not all states need to participate to become law Some states will be directly affected.= International law might require diff. substantive rules of customary law How does customary law change? .Elements: Customary law has evolved from the practice of states (activities of states in international arena may give rise to binding law) . therefore contrary state practice should be presumed to be action in breach of the rule Generality of practice: Must be common to a sign.2) Rules of jus cogens (main principles of international law) cannot even be contradicted by a treaty International and National law Monistic view: (1701-1785) Supremacy of municipal law.There must be sufficient state practice contrary to the existing rule supported by opinio juris .The more fundamental the customary rule. can’t complain of the breach .

or issuing commands. Ad hoc incorporation . individuals must comply with it . Authorities pass specific implementing legislation .Applicable only if relevant parl.if constitution rigid: Legislature is precluded from passing a law contrary to an international rule. and automatic if it is self-executing Rank States tend to accord international rules a status and rank higher than that of national legislation . require states adopt the necessary implementing legislation Apart from those. a jus super partes.  International law no longer constitutes a sphere tightly separate and distinct from that of legal systems It is directly legitimizing. international law does not contain regulation of implementation (leaves each country complete freedom of fulfilment of obligations) Modalities of Implementation: 1) Automatic standing incorporation .International rules rank higher Techniques of Implementation Customary International Law Modality of implementation: Automatic standing incorporation . unless lax is enacted through special procedure .International law cannot be set aside by simple parl.System adjust itself continuously.To put international rules on same footing as national leg.Automatic incorporation . regulating international dealings from above Implementing international law in domestic legal systems Current regulation of the international community shows two important developments 1) Nr of treaties. imposing states the duty to enact legislation for implementing the various provisions 2) General rules that have acquired the rank and status of jus cogens.After being published. 2) Internationalist approach . Majority 2 different requirements to regulate national incorporation of international law. and heading towards civitas maxima (human commonwealth). 1) Nationalist approach . and modifies national system when international law is changed 2) Legislative ad hoc incorporation . Ad hoc whenever they turn out to be non self-executing.Internal norm provides for automatic incorporation without need for passing of an ad hoc national statute .Act of parliament may set out in detail obligations OR may keep itself to automatic applicability (as above but on a case-by-case basis) Preference should always be given to leg.Leg.

Foreign representatives owe all officials of 3rd state a special duty of protection (has turned into international customary law) .Operates exclusively so that the Order may attain its institutional goals of health and hospital assistance . if national law is later in time it will prevail. sometimes become binding simply upon their publication.Persons acting for rebellious parties can claim international protection only from states that have granted them recognition Sui Generis Entities (Unique) 1) Have acquired legal status through historical circumstances 2) Do not posses any distinct territory 3) Limited international personality (i. . laying down rules producing outside effects.Rank: In some states international customary law overrides inconsistent ordinary national leg.Some intergovernmental organizations are empowered to adopt binding decisions. National leg.. It.Immunity from foreign jurisdiction Sovereign order of Malta: . In that they have the aim of adjusting national legal order to an international treaty! .: Automatic ad hoc incorporation  Non-self-executing treaties: Treaties have to be supplemented by add.Promotes the drafting of multilateral humanitarian treaties - .Can enter into international agreements called “concordats” . automatic ad hoc incorporation US: Treaties will be supreme law after ratification UK: Treaties do not bind national auth. Implementing leg. Monaco. OR const. provision provides for incorporation of treaties. statutory ad hoc incorporation.Immunity from state jurisdiction as well as to fiscal exemption Red Cross: .Other states do not lay down a rank higher than ordinary leg. Decisions need to be implemented at the national level.e. unless translated into national leg. Proves necessary International law differs from ordinary leg. Other International Legal Subjects Insurgence Preferred to treat insurgency as a domestic occurrence and the rebels as common criminals Attitude of States towards insurgents has: 1) To become an international subject i) rebels should prove they have power over part of a territory ii) civil disturbance should reach a certain degree of intensity (may recognize belligerency) . and are ratified Treaty Law Modality of Implementation: Standing automatic. Andorra etc) Holy See: Organization of Catholic Church who constituted the “Vatican State” .As soon as they come into being in the community international customary rules become biding within national legal systems (even though there are examples of non-self-executing rules) .

to which parties entrust the task of realizing common goals . capable of occupying a position in certain respects in absence of its members.They are given international status on account of their political goals Rights and duties: 1) Right to self-determination.Intergovernmental organizations developed as states refrained from looking after areas of mutual interest individually .The ideological factor that helped the strengthening of those organizations was protection against a third world war . right to claim respect etc.Has the right to offer its humanitarian services to fulfil the role normally performed by protecting powers Reason of Emergence of International Subjects .Mainly arose with regard to piracy In Modern law states have lost their exclusive monopoly over individuals .Obligations: May be criminally liable for breaches - .Characteristic of these movements has been the acquisition of control (control of territory is not distinguishing trait in contrast to insurgence) .Create new subject of law endowed with certain autonomy.Organizations have obligations deriving from international rules Individuals Traditional international law did not include general rules conferring rights on individuals. It shall also have such legal capacity as may be necessary for fulfilment of its’ purposes 2) Enjoy autonomy from MS (collective unity detached from the MS) Rights belonging to international bodies: 1) Right to enter into international agreement with non-MS on matters within the organization’s province = Treaties concluded by organization have effects of international treaties 2) Right to immunity from jurisdiction of State courts for acts/activities by organization (Otherwise States could interfere in their interest) 3) Right to protection for all the organization’s agents acing in the territory of a third state 4) Right to bring an international claim (damage caused by MS to organization) National Liberation Movements Organized groups fighting on behalf of a whole “people” . .Human rights doctrine: Drafting nr of international treaties protecting human rights .They have limited competence and field of action Test for determining whether organization is of international subject? 1) It must be proved that founders intended to put into being an autonomous body. .Doctrine of self-determination: Behind emergence of colonial people International Organizations .

USESCO: Co-operative ventures with national governments.NATO (1949): Created to counter possible threats from the USSR. Scientific and Cultural Organisation . deriving from international rules.World trade organisation: Main aims are to administer and implement multilateral trade agreements together making up the WTO..Right in question is only granted by treaties and exists for labour relations and human rights .Rights: Right not to become a victim of war crime.Procedures ind. . EURATOM and EEC for elimination of external tariffs and free of movement .GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) . Educational. attended by means of power that belongs to individuals (can only institute criminal proceedings before national courts possessing jurisdiction in some way) . Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) together with OSCE states forming the Partnership for Peace programme - . for purpose of ascertaining whether state complained of has violated the treaty to detriment of the ind.Most developed in Europe with EU. responsible for promotion of human rights and democracy . is not. Are different from those in domestic law: They are not judicial in character. originally consisting of ECC. wide-ranging co-operative aims .Council of Europe (1949): 47 MS. proceedings are quite rudimentary.a. to settle trade disputes  Regional Institutions Onset of the Cold War and failure of Security Council’s enforcement procedures stimulated to NATO and Warsaw Pact .WHO .World Bank group . Given right to initiate international proceedings before international body.Treaty provisions conferring rights: ILO decided to confer on association of workers the right to demand compliance with ILO conventions by MS Right to petition international bodies is granted to individuals directly by international rules Limitations .Ind. rather a recommendation Individuals have a few obligations (from customary law) and procedural rights ensure to the benefit of the ind. in contrast to the state they have limited legal capacity International Institutions  League of Nations (1919) and UN (1945) Organisations established by inter-governmental agreement and having wide international responsibilities: . 26 MS.Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE): Originally a conflict prevention organisation. outcome is not a judgement proper. Consisting of supreme organ and a NATO parliamentary conference Changes due to ending of Cold war s.

Peace and security. new members and UN budget need 2/3 majority. centre for harmonizing All MS have a voice and a vote in the process Six main organs: UN - 1) General Assembly . an attack on one being deemed an attack on all) The organisation has adopted a Human Rights Convention and is the most developed of the regional organisations outside Europe  Arab League: Dealing with economic. independence of MS.Primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security . Thailand and Vietnam Established in 1945 30 affiliated organisations Including 191 countries Four purposes: international peace and security. promotion of sustainable development. defending the sovereignty. Indonesia. genocide and crimes against humanity Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN): Economic.e. but recommendations are very important 2) Security Council . peaceful resolutions of conflicts Union may intervene to a decision of the Assembly in respect of i. ..Commonwealth of Independent States Based on respect for the territorial integrity of MS (established by Russia. political and cultural aims and groups together Brunei. war crimes. Cambodia. Singapore. Philippines. BUT decisions are to be achieved by common consent with the Council of Heads of Government  Organisation of American States: Emerged after the Second world war and consists of two basic treaties: 1) Rio Treaty (collective self-defence system) 2) Pact of Bogota (collective security system. Laos. friendly relations. solving international problems and respect human rights. otherwise simple majority . Belarus and Ukraine) Supreme organ is Council of Heads of State.All MS represented in a “parliament of nations”. Malaysia. cultural and social issues with headquarter in Tunisia   Organisation of African Unity: Replaced by African Union in 2001 Greater unity between African countries.Cannot force actions. Myanmar.

production and stockpiling of chemical weapons. coordinates economic and social work 54 members for three-years term Trusteeship Council International supervision for 11 trust Territories. of General Assembly.52) Asia: UNAMA integrates all UN activities in Afghanistan. UK and US).) What does UN for peace?  Disarmament: . and ended Guatemalan civil war after 35 years through negotiations Middle East: Estalished UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) (p. civil law and order and elections Peacekeeping: (Assembly and Council have competence to establish) Most operations involve military duties. (p. Autonomous bodies created by intergovernmental agreement (UNICEF. to prepare them for self-government International Court of Justice 15 judges elected by General Assembly and Security Council Secretariat UN system: World Bank + 13 “specialized agencies”. Russia. Somalia etc.System for standardized reporting of military expenditures help promote greater transparency in military matters    Peacemaking: Brings hostile parties to agreement through diplomatic means Peace-building: Activities that address the underlying causes of conflict Development assistance is a key element of peace-building UN works to support good governance. s.53) .3) 4) 5) 6) 15 Council members. WHO etc. UN supervised voter registration which led to 78% if East Timorese voting for independence Europe: Towards resolving conflict in former Yugoslavia Americas: Observed Nicaragua’s elections (first in independent country). 10 selected for two-years term Requires 9 votes. . has produced agreement such as Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. observing a ceasefire or establishing a buffer zone UN actions for peace: Africa: Campaign against apartheid and peace building activities in Central African Republic.a.Prohibit the development. 5 permanent (China. France. except on procedural questions (yes vote from all permanent members) Economic and Social Council Under overall auth.

ensuring environmental sustainability Assistance for development: Specialized agencies cover all economic and social areas. Assisted by UNHCR (people who fled war. to work and to take part in government Rights legally binding by two international conventions: 1) Economic. . medicines Has raised billions of dollars from international donors Coordinates response to crisis through committees: UNICEF. Human Rights and International law  Human rights: Right to life. treaties and standards Law Commission prepares drafts on topics which can be incorporated into conventions and opened for ratification by States Kyoto = Climate change (ratified by 140 countries) International efforts to create legal framework against terrorism Tribunals: Have found several defendants guilty Key United Nations goal: Establishing an International Criminal court Other actions for justice and equal rights: . shelter. UNDP (development programme).UN human rights bodies contribute to early warning and conflict prevention . largest humanitarian organization What the UN does for Development   Setting the agenda: Goals of advancement of women. In cooperation with UN. liberty and nationality. environmental protection Combating HIV. human right abuse) WFP. they help formulate policies.80 conventions and declarations on right of the child. UNHCR (Commissioner for Refugees) Humanitarian response. human rights. .Helped end system of apartheid What the UN does for Humanitarian Assistance   Emergency assistance: In case of disaster supplied food. malaria. WFP. set standards and guidelines etc.Granting independence to Colonial Countries and People . social and cultural rights 2) Civil and political rights = International Bill of Human Rights . against torture etc.What UN does for Justice.Key to enjoyment of the right to development is the eradication of poverty  International law: Framework of promoting international peace and security and economic and social development resulting from 500 conventions.

discuss common problems etc.Committees: 30 member countries meet in committees to advance ideas and review progress in policy areas There are around 200 committees. and largest publisher in fields of economics and public policy . Tuberculosis and Malaria Joint initiatives to expand immunization and develop new vaccines OECD Bring together the governments of countries to: 1) Support sustainable growth 2) Boost employment 3) Raise living standards Is considered world’s largest and most reliable sources of comparable statistics.Secretariat 2500 staff members who support activities of committees Members/Partners: 30 Members whereof 20 became members in 1960 OECD has nowadays extensive contacts with non-members (CCNM) 10 Global Forums have been established to address trans-boundary issues OECD has been engaged with civil society notably through Business and Industry Advisory Committee Has close links with Council of Europe and Econ.Has helped to liberalize trade. even though WTO may also support maintaining trade barriers . Committee of NATO Close relations to International organisations WTO It is an organisation for liberalizing trade and: 1) … Negotiation Forum . Who drives the OECD’s work? . to request. decisions taken by consensus Made up of one representative per member country plus representative of EU Commission .Council: Decision making power. review and contribute to work undertaken by the OECD Secretariat .WTO was born out of negotiations. and the bulk of WTO’s current work comes from 86-94 negotiations called Uruguay Round and earlier negotiations under GATT . - World Bank provided 20.1 billion in development loans in fiscal year 2004 Close coordination between UN and agencies is ensured through UN System Chief Executives Board (CEB) Pooling resources Global fund to fight AIDS.Governments compare policy experiences.

Applies only once a product has entered the market 2) Freer Trade .One achievement of Uruguay Round was to increase amount of trade under binding commitments.Every time a country lowers a barrier.The last GATT round was Uruguay Round.Different rounds (latest is the Doha Development Agenda) focusing on lowering tariffs 3) Predictability . fair and undistorted competition 5) Encouraging development . which amount to ceilings on customs tariff rates .Need for interpretation of Agreements and negotiations due to interest conflicts OECD born in 1995 but GATT has provided the rules for the system since 1948 . which raises degree of mkt security . which led to the WTO’s creation. Negotiations signed by world’s trading nations and provide the legal ground rules for international commerce = to keep trade policies within agreed limits . it has to do so for the same goods from all trading partners .One way to improve predictability is to discourage use of quotas and limits 4) Promoting fair competition . creations more than only goods Principles of the trading system 1) Trade without discrimination Most-favoured-nation (MFN): .Agreements.Imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally .System allows tariffs and other forms of protection as long as rules dedicate to open.Exceptions: Free trade agreements applying only to certain goods. they have to be transparent and predictable 3) … Settle disputes .Cannot discriminate between trading partners . now covering trade in services.To give businesses a clearer view of their future opportunities . companies and governments know what the trade rules are. inventions.Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvious means of encouraging trade .2) … Set of Rules . GATS (General agreement on trade in services) and TRIPS (TradeRelated Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) cover all three main areas of trade handles by WTO .When countries agree to open their mkt.GATT.To ensure that individuals.Developing countries need flexibility in time to adjust . in case of unfair trade National treatment: . they bind their commitments. special access to developing countries.

proposing the terms of settlement . Does not have to be best at anything to gain) WIPO World Intellectual Property Organisation . the stronger party is more likely to apply pressure to its counterpart 2) Inquiry: International body is set up.There is a definite link between freer trade and economic growth . inducing compliance with international law 1) Negotiations: Most elementary.Works with a wide spectrum of stakeholders .Established by WIPO Convention in 1967 (headquarters in Geneva) . Institutions 3) Development of International IP Law How it works: .184 MS .Case of absolute advantage (Each country better at one thing). Advantages: Both parties should derive some benefit from the diplomatic exchange Flaws: It seldom leads to an in-depth determination.Largely self-financing (unusual within UN) Preventing and Settling Disputes After second WW States revitalized and strengthened the traditional means for settling disputes and in addition established mechanisms for preventing disputes. and Protection = Leads to inefficient producers supplying consumers with unattractive products . for purpose of explaining the facts by investigation (used by ILO. negotiating between parties.- At the end of Uruguay Round.Liberal trade policies = sharpen competition and motivate innovation. Both would still gain from trade. Tariffs on industrial products have fallen steeply and now average less than 5% in industrial countries.Functions of WIPO are set out in the WIPO Convention .Goals 1) Realizing Development potential of IP System 2) Strengthening Infrastructure. UN SC) 3) Good offices: Third State or international body induce the parties to negotiate a settlement 4) Mediation: Third party takes more active role. developing countries were prepared to take on most of the obligations Current Doha Development Agenda includes developing countries concerns about implementing Uruguay Round agreements Open Trade Since Second WW.Dedicated to developing a balanced and accessible international intellectual property system . and promotes ways of settling the dispute 5) Conciliation: Even more active role. . comparative advantage (One country is bad at making everything.

inter alia = developing countries had to exchange modes of settling disputes with developed states.States are at liberty to choose any means of peaceful settlement they prefer Conciliation.There is no adequate.Others do not wish to tie their hands by accepting the obligation to one or another of the methods of settlement Substantive law (system for compulsory adjudication).a.Rules can only make sense if some compulsory means of settling disputes is established . assured the harmonious and logical development of international law and became more severe.1899 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) was set up for peaceful settlement of international disputes .In Arbitration courts jurisdiction is usually limited to a relatively small nr of states New Law: Ban on the threat or use of force. had the merit that parties no longer had the choice of judges. due to the complexity of the new law The use of force (force: military violence) Most troublesome law is the regulation by international law of armed force . wrong received or right illegally denied Late 1700: Just War doctrine was refined. accounts for the exceptional acceptance of a method. the conclusions and proposals are not binding even though there are disputes that: . leading to two important developments 1) States have increasingly resorted to traditional means of settling disputes 2) UN has handled situations likely to jeopardize peace Obligation to settle disputes peacefully: .Mechanisms: An additional goal of Arbitration is that of patching up the differences on the basis of international legal standards . effective and compulsory machinery for the peaceful resolution of disputes of punishment of those destroying international peace Unilateral use of force: Rules controlling the use of armed force by indicidual states or groups . state could be said to be acting legally if it believed it had a just cause . .Designed to achieve goals personal to the acting state(s) Collective use of force: Rules indicating when force may be used by a competent international organization .Result of the decision of a competent international organization Unilateral Prior to 1945 Early days: Use of force by states governed by the Just War doctrine. s. Law was illegal unless undertaken for a “just cause”.Heyday of arbitration was the period between the two World Wars Permanent court of justice (PCIJ) replaced by the ICJ in 1946.

See permissive rules as favouring powerful states Article 2(4) Interpretation Force ”against the territorial integrity or pol. in so far its not self-defence or against ex-enemy states . Independence comprise all that a state is .1800 century: Sovereign right to resort to war. British military forces) .Takes general view that reference may be had to pre-1945 rules . protection of nationals) League of Nations introduced a limit restriction on the sovereign right to resort to war It was not effective in prohibiting resort to violence to any great degree.Permissive scholars argue that as long as force is designed to rescue nationals not directed against territorial integrity it shall be lawful (Entebbe airport only case that relied on permissive view) . Independence . Iraq 90’) . and exception to any prohibition Law after the UN Charter Primary purpose is for all members to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of a state .If crisis can be avoided by diplomatic representation. but had two consequences: 1) Self-defence began to emerge 2) Force short of war began to appear more clearly as legal rights 1928: General Treaty.Restrictive scholars (Kelsen) prohibit totally a state’s right to use force.Ban on the unilateral use of force.Peace and security is the primary aim of international law .Art 2(4) Shall not be interpreted by the permissive view Self-defence Customary right of self-defence 1837: The Caroline (US Secretary vs.Self-defence emerged as an independent legal right. only used for self-defence .Use of force was classified by reference to the purpose (self-defence. self-defence is not justified Use of force permissible if (pre-1945 customary law) a) In response to an ongoing armed attack against state territory (Kuwait vs. International law regulated the actual conduct of war but did not interfere with a state’s right to pursue it Until the birth of the League of Nations in 1919 .Sees ban as deprivation of ability for states to protect themselves Restrictive interpretation: . Permissive interpretation: . supplemented Covenant .Scope of the ban in discussed and is not matched with right of selfdefence etc.Ban on war was politically and legally possible but only applied to war (not force) .Territorial Integrity and Pol. Kellogg-Briand Pact. for any reason.

Collective self-defence is not the joint exercise of individual rights.Invitations to intervene have being issued by entities without the right.Regards violence as the proper legal procedure for the suspicion of rights illegally denied = Art 2(4) has outlawed armed reprisals Protection of nationals abroad and terrorism .Must be auth. as in Iraq and Afghanistan Contrasts between International law prohibiting the use of force and Willingness of powerful states to achieve their goals There is no law permitting a state to take unilateral action in these situations Humanitarian Intervention .Right to use force to protect nationals abroad is lawful under UK law . By a competent international organisation . s. Reprisals .a.No other state may respond to a request for military assistance from a third state . and does not indicate that it has to be made by a state Collective Self-defence: All members of the alliance will use force if any one of them is subject to an unlawful use of force = NATO .Right to intervene with force for humanitarian purposes without the consent of the territorial sovereign .Armed attack or threat to states security. but is collective action in response to an actual armed attack against one state . response to attack against interests and necessity for forceful action are no longer lawful (only a)) View supporting that Art 51 was never intended to narrow right of self-defence 1) Customary right of self-defence has never been abolished 2) Art 51 was included in the Charter 3) Art 51 does not say that self-defence is available only if an armed attack occurs. as in case of invasion of the US in Iraq Self-determination .Victim should formally request assistance through its representatives Invitation and civil wars .If lawful ground for force: 1) Host state must be unwilling to protect nationals 2) National must be in serious danger 3) Only use weapon of last resort 4) Force as is reasonably necessary Not considered as a use of force against the territorial integrity or pol. Independence Force used due to terrorism may be seen as opportunity as an excuse for engineering a change of government in target state and the occupation of its territory.Has been violated. minor rebel groups requesting assistance in order to overthrow established auth.

are simply the umbrella under which collective selfdefence is organized in joint response to unlawful act UN Security Council has primary responsibility for maintenance of international peace and security .Art. which auth. 41 involves non-military sanctions. involvement in Somalia.International org. s. arms embargo Council has developed practice whereby it permits. Collective Self-defence .Power of the five permanent members has been enhanced by developments.Purpose of collective security is concerned with maintenance of international peace and security Self-defence undertaken until Council has taken necessary measures = restoration of the status quo ante . and Liberia etc action in East Timor etc. s. since it works when powerful members of the UN put forth their collective will (US.Invasion of Kuwait in 1990 is the most effective enforcement action so far. UN members to take all necessary means to restore Kuwait’s sovereignty . but complicated issue p.a.Purpose of self-defence is an emergency response. military action or threats encompassed by Art. use force on behalf of the community . Freedom and independence is represented by customary law 2) National liberation movements overthrow colonial power to achieve selfdetermination? Is not considered illegal. even though threats to peace is not limited to military situations .Punitive.) Collective security vs. States have under unilateral rules .Use of force to achieve self-determination is legitimate 1) Colonial power may not use force to suppress self-determination movement..Was given powers in Chapter VII.UN and other international org.It is not the Council’s powers put the members’ willingness to use power in the manner and for purposes of the UN Charter General Assembly . trade boycott.a.122 3) State may use force to assist a national liberation movement in fight for self-determination? No prohibited. request or auth. States to use force to restore international peace and security.Crossing frontier in order to pursue and capture persons who have committed offences in your state .International law does not accept the principle of land-based hot pursuit Collective Force of law . rather than defensive = similar to reprisals . . May assist politically and economically in fight but not military otherwise Hot pursuit .Collective security can be a one sided affair. where defender is entitled to use force .. it does not require them to do so .This is in addition to any right which ind. 39. as long as no internal war. UK.

Council may utilise regional organisation (NATO etc. administer justice.If Council could not discharge primary responsibility because of use of veto by permanent member. which Roosevelt saw as important goals of future US foreign policy 1) Freedom of speech 2) Freedom to worship God in his own way 3) Healthy.And after WW I safeguarding religious. one of the significant postulates of their foreign policy .Theory of human rights diverged radically from the political philosophy of State sovereignty Traditional international law: Individuals were under the exclusive jurisdiction of the State which they were nationals and where they lived . Assembly shall consider the matter immediately .140 Protection of Human Rights After the Second World War the human rights doctrine has become.USA argued that organisations should be permitted without consent.More power Assembly used resolution as the basis for the formation of peacekeeping force (UNEF) Council has today taken on the mantle of providing peacekeeping forces where these are requested Regional Organisations Art. protected.) for enforcement action.After WW II individuals began to be protected qua single human not according to state Things changed drastically due to the share conviction on the Nazi regime (disregarding of the dignity of the human being) The victors adopted a two-pronged strategy: 1) Development of international criminal law.Exceptions were Treaties prohibiting slave trade . run prison etc.Forces States to give account of how they treat their nationals. Punishing German and Japanese war criminals 2) General principles on human rights designed to serve guidelines to UN  The UN charter Four freedoms. peaceful life secured 4) Freedom of fear - . or sacrificed according to what State interests dictated .They were used. 53. . as long as it does not amount to “enforcement action” Must be in conformity with jus cogens and purposes and principles of the UN p. for some countries.1995 Coucil auth. only with authorisation of Security Coucil . ethnic and linguistic minorities . MS acting in concert with NATO to take all necessary measures to oversee General Framework Agreement for Pease in Bosnia Herzegovina .

Latin American) . Rights spec. rather a recommendation . religious philosophies with Western on one hand. 2. and lead to adoption of 50’s European Convention on Human Rights . different stages changing UN action: . where States can address general recommendations to them in keeping liberal construction of Art.1944 it was suggested that GA and Un should be responsible for basic human rights . 2.Second stage included UN lead of developing countries.Developing countries may determine to what extend they would guarantee econ. both at universal and regional level . diff. nor did Declaration say anything about economic inequalities = However Declaration was of great importance in stimulating the international promotion of human rights b) International Treaties Before Declaration it was agreed upon to translate general principles into legally binding instruments . with diff. Structures.Second treaties were to be worked out in spec.Four powers (US. Africa on the other . Areas (greater sign and more in need of urgent international legislation) Covenant cover the whole range of fundamental rights . in the Covenant to non-nationals: . and i. economic and pol.7 and where UN could turn the GA into the role of watchdog UN took the second path.) 2) Right of self-determination of people as a guiding principle 3) Powers of GA were further limited To make use of the loose formulas of the charter two courses of action were opened: 1) Using GA as a regular diplomatic conference.Third stage new doctrine of human rights and prevalence of developing countries. USSR.Was not legally binding.7 2) Placing a strict interpretation on Art.First stage was characterised by Western dominance.e.Four Powers considered it advisable to strengthen their proposals After opposing proposals from three different groups. the compromise took shape in the following provisions: 1) Let alone protection of human rights (not specify into right to work etc. disappearance of three markedly differentiated groups  Standard setting a) Universal Declaration (1948) First step was attempt by UN GA to draw up an international document on human rights for States dissimilar.First it was necessary to spell out general standards of the Declaration. and need for Western countries to come to terms with other 2 groups (USSR.The view of human rights expressed in it is Western BUT: colonized people were completely denied their right to freedom. UK and China) produced the provision on human rights .

organisation may address a petition to the Court .Only binding at international level. organisations etc.Intervention in the affairs of ind. Within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant” .Expansion of Territorial scope “Each State… undertakes to respect and to ensure to all ind. Treaties was hammered out (Genocide. Circumstances Spec.Human rights should be respected not only on their own territory but also abroad. Are nationals or foreigners Monitoring of Compliance (with the human rights)  Universal level There are monitoring mechanisms established by: 1) International treaties: Among them racial discrimination (monitored by committee on elimination of racial discrimination) etc. where ECHR (European court of Human Rights) is the most advanced. .)  Tendency to overrule objection of dom.149 (In America Commission and Court are playing an important role) - .Since 1999 the Court has been a full-time judicial body . non-gov.International bodies interpreted those obligations as also having an extraterritorial scope = BUT such a view is contrary to consistent interpretation . discrimination against women etc. whether individuals subject to this auth. Issues concerning human rights c) Putting pressure upon states with view to improve their human rights record  Regional level Regional supervisory mechanisms are normally judicial bodies. Nationals and foreigners justified by econ.May discriminate betw. at large to some spec. 2) UN resolution Supervisory procedure: a) Examination of periodic reports b) Inter state complaints c) Request of individuals Mechanisms may be considered to be reasonable effective in: a) Focusing on countries or problems that deserve to be carefully scrutinized b) Drawing attention of States.The Court is gradually effecting a harmonization of the various legal systems p. thus if the Court finds that a State is in breach it has to make reparation within own legal system . Jurisdiction: UN tended to reject the objection of State sovereignty put forward by a # of states (questions concerning violations of human rights) . States was fully justified so long as serious violations had been committed .Any person.