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A PROJECT REPORT ON

A STUDY OF OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT GWALIOR FORT AS AGLOBAL TOURIST DESTINATION
Summitted to Mahamaya Technical University, Noida in The partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of the degree of Master of Business Administration(Tourism Management) Session-2012-13

Under the Guidance of


Assit .pro. DR.D.S.Yadav

SUBMITTED BY
Mohd.Rafiq Roll No:1100570034 MBA(T.M) 4th Sem

Raja Balwant Singh College khandari Farm Campus Agra-282002

PREFACE
Every study is incomplete without having a well planned and concrete exposure to its students and management studies are no exception. This report was made during the summer training in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration Tourism Management. The

management students are essentially required to undergo a practical training for 6-8 week in any business organization. The idea behind it is to test the acquired knowledge through practical experience and to apply the theoretical aspects of management in the management field. This report is based on the extensive survey conducted in tourism office, hotel, restaurant, of surveyed area of M.P. city.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This project work it self is an acknowledgement to the sincere efforts of all individuals who have contributed to it for its completion. I am highly indebted to Dr.D.S.Yadav, who kindly gave me the opportunity to work under his guidance. Then I would like to thank Dr.B.B.S.Parihar Head of Department, Raja Balwant Singh College, and M.P. for his kind hearted approach and timely suggestions which helped me immensely in the completion of this project. I avail Myself of this opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to Dr.Rajeev Sharma, Director, Faculty of Management & computer Application, Raja Balwant Singh College Agra, Above all I would like to Express deep gratitude to my Parents who have constantly provided me economic assistance and inspiration. Last but not the least I would like to thank GOD who enthused in me the am daunting courage and immense inspiration to complete my work in time. Mohd. Rafiq MBA(T.M) 4th Sem Roll No- 110057034 R.B.S.College Agra

STUDENT DECLARATION
I am Mohd.Rafiq a student of MBA, Tourism Management 4th Sem in Raja Balwant Singh Management &Computer Application

College, Khandari Campus, Agra, hereby declare that all the information ,facts and figures furnished in this report are based on my own findings and experience. This information has been used for purely academic purpose. I hereby declare the work was done by me and suitable information has been downloaded form Websites and other related resources of the company. The project report is the result of my own hard work and self belief.

Mohd. Rafiq MBA(T.M) 4th Sem Roll No- 1100570034 R.B.S.College Agra

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part: A

INTRODUCTION OF GWALIOR

1. ORIGIN OF NAME 2.HISTORY 2.1 SCINDIA STATE OF GWALIOR 3. DEMOGRAPHICS 4. GEOGRAPHY 5. CLIMATE 6. TRANSPORTATION IN FRASTRUCTURE 6.1 RAILWAYS 6.2 ROADS 6.3 AIR 6.4 LOCALTRANSPORT 7. GWALIOR FORT 7.1 TELI KA MANDIR 7.2 JAIN ROCK CUT SCULPTURES 7.3 GURUDWARA 7.4 SUN TEMPLE GWALIOR 7.5 REVOLT OF 1857 8. ART AND CULTURE 9. MUSIC

9.1 GWALIOR GHARANA 9.2 DHRUPAD 9.3 TANSEN SANGEET SAMAROH 10. MAIN FESTIVALS 11. MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION 12. EDUCATION 13. ECONOMY OF GWALIOR 14. AREASS OF THE CITY 14.1 THE OLD TOWN 14.2 LASHKAR 14.3 MORAR 14.4 THATIPUR 14.5 GOLA KA MANDIR 15. HEALTH CARE 16. SPORTS IN GWALIOR 17. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 18. PLACES OF INTEREST 18.1 GWALIOR FORT 18.2 MALLS IN GWALIOR 19. FAMOUS PERSOPNALITIES FROMGWALIOR 20. GALLERY

PART: B

1. INTRODUCTION OF ABOUT STUDY 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4. FINDING OF STUDY 5. DATA ANALYSIS
6. SUGGATION

7. CONCLUSION 8. QUESTIONNAIRE 9. REFERENCES

ORIGIN OF NAME
According to local tradition, Gwalior owes its name to a sage of former times. Suraj Sen, a prince of the Kachhwaha clan of the eighth century, is said to have lost his way in the jungle. On a secluded hill, he met an old man, the sage Gwalipa, whose influence almost took him by surprise. Upon asking the sage for some drinking water, he was led to a pond, where the waters not only quenched his thirst but cured him of leprosy. Out of gratitude, the prince wished to offer the sage something in return, and the sage asked him to build a wall on the hill in order to protect the other sages from wild animals which often disturbed their yajnas (or pujas). Suraj Sen later built a palace inside the fort, which was named "Gwalior" after the sage, and eventually the city that grew around the fort took the same name.

HISTORY

The Mughal Emperor Babur and the Mughal Army at the Urvah valley in Gwalior.Gwalior temple has the very first occurrence of zero as a written number in the world. Gwalior may have been held by the Guptas or some of their disciples, but the oldest historical evidence shows the fort was conquered by the Hunas in the early sixth century. The evidence for this is a stone inscription of the time of Mihirakula recording the construction of a temple to the sun god. It is now in India Museum, Calcutta. Subsequently, Gwalior was taken by Gurjar Pratihars of Kannauj. From inscription found such as Rakhetra stone inscription, scholars assert that Gwalior was under the possession of Gurjara Pratiharas until at least 942 AD. In the 10th century, after Gurjara Pratiharas, Gwalior was taken by the Kachwaha Rajputs. Qutb-ud-din Aybak captured the city in 1196. Shamsud-din Altamsh took control of the area in 1232. By the 15th century, the city had a noted singing school which was attended by Tansen. Gwalior was ruled by the Mughals and then the Marathas.

SCINDIA STATE OF GWALIOR

A King George VI stamp of 1949, inscribed 'GWALIOR'

Scindia is a Maratha clan in India. This clan included rulers of the Gwalior State in the 18th and 19th centuries, collaborators of the colonial British government during the 19th and the 20th centuries until India became independent, and politicians in independent India. The Scindia state of Gwalior became a major regional power in the second half of the 18th century and figured prominently in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. (Gwalior first fell to the British in 1780.) The Scindias held significant power over many of the Rajput states, and conquered the state of Ajmer. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the city was briefly held by rebel forces in 1858 until they were defeated by the British. The Scindia family ruled Gwalior until India's independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, when the Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia acceded to the Government of India. Gwalior was merged with a number of other princely states to become the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat. Jivajirao Scindia served as the state's rajpramukh, or appointed governor, from 28 May 1948 to 31 October 1956, when Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh. In 1962, Rajmata Vijayraje Scindia, the widow of Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia, was elected to the Lok Sabha, beginning the family's career in electoral politics. She was first a member of the Congress Party, and later became an influential member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Her son, Maharaja Madhavrao Scindia was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1971 representing the Congress Party, and served until his death in 2001. His son, Jyotiraditya Scindia, also in the Congress Party, was elected to the seat formerly held by his father in 2004.

Former Vidhan Sabha when Gwalior was capital of Madhya Bharat

DEMOGRAPHICS
As of 2011 India census, Gwalior has a population of 1,123,505. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Gwalior has an average literacy rate of 85.20%, higher than the national average of 74%: male literacy is 90.85%, and female literacy is 78.82%. In Gwalior, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Religion in Gwalior Religion Hindus Muslims Jains Others Distribution of religions Includes Sikhs (1%), Buddhists (<0.5%). Percent

85% 10% 3.5% 1.5%

GEOGRAPHY
Gwalior is located at 2613N 7811E26.22N 78.18E.[7] in northern Madhya Pradesh 300 km (186 miles) from Delhi. It has an average elevation of 197 metres (646 feet).

CLIMATE
Gwalior has a sub-tropical climate with hot summers from late March to early July, the humid monsoon season from late June to early October, and a cool dry winter from early November to late February. Under Kppen's climate classification the city has a humid subtropical climate. The highest recorded temperature was 48 C and the lowest was 1 C. Summers start in late March, and along with other cities like Nagpur and Delhi, are among the hottest in India and the world. Temperatures peak in May and June with daily averages being around 3335 C (9395 F), and end in late June with the onset of the monsoon. Gwalior receives 970 mm (39 in) of rain every year, most of which is concentrated in the monsoon months from late June to early October. August is the wettest month with about 310 mm (12 in) of rain. Winter in Gwalior starts in late October, and is generally very mild with daily temperatures averaging in the 1416 C (5862 F) range, and mostly dry and sunny conditions. January is the coldest month with average lows in the 57 C range (4045 F) and occasional cold snaps that plummet temperatures to close to freezing. Gwalior can be visited from late October to early March without much discomfort, but the months from April to June should be avoided due to the extreme heat. The monsoon months see sustained, torrential rainfall and risk of disease, and should also generally be avoided. Citrus fruits are grown here using irrigation methods.

TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
The city is well-connected by railway, road, and air methods of transportation.

RAILWAYS

Gwalior

has a major railway station in its Metropolitan Area, the Gwalior

Junction (Station code: GWL). It is the part of the Jhansi Division of the North Central Railways. Gwalior is one of the few places where both narrow gauge and broad gauge railways tracks are still operational. The Gwalior narrow gauge track is the narrowest in India. Gwalior Junction is a five Railway Track intersection Point. 1. Goes to Agra (AGC), 2. Goes to Jhansi (JHS), 3. Goes to Shivpuri (SVPI), 4. Goes to Bhind (BIX), 5. Goes to Sheopur Kalan (SOE) on Narrow Gauge Line.

Gwalior is one of the major commercial railway stations of the North Central Railway, whose zonal Head-Quarter is centered in Allahabad. The station has won awards from Indian Railways for Excellent clean infrastructure in 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1992. It is already in the Adrash Station Category of Indian Railways. Gwalior is on the Main train line between Delhi (Station Code: NDLS) & Mumbai (Bombay) (Station Code: CSTM) and between Delhi & Chennai (Station Code: MAS) and many trains like Bhopal Shatabdi, Bhopal Express, Malwa Express, Gondwana Express, Jabalpur - Jammutawi Express, Shreedham Express, Garib Rath, Tamil Nadu Express, Chennai Rajdhni, and Goa Express connect Gwalior with all major Indian cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Pune, Bhopal, Indore, Kochi, Agra, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Jaipur, Lucknow, Jhansi, and Thiruvananthapuram every day. Some trains staring here and traveling towards Eastern India via Gwalior Junction - Jhansi Junction, provide direct connections to points in Eastern India including Kolkata (Calcutta), Barauni, Varanasi, and Allahabad. There are some 50 odd trains to New Delhi and Agra every day, Also same number of trans to Bhopal and Nagpur. However, lesser numbers of trains are available for long routes like Mumbai and Chennai. The Gwalior City Limits cover three stations on broad gauge tracks, namely: 1. Gwalior Junction 2. Birlanagar
3. Sithouli

Also, the City Limits cover three stations on narrow gauge railway tracks, namely: 1. Gwalior NG 2. Ghosipura 3. MotiJheel

The luxury trains the Maharaja Express and the India on Wheels - also stop at Gwalior on their week-long round trip of tourist destinations in Central India.

ROADS
Gwalior is fairly well-connected to other parts of Madhya Pradesh and India by national and state highways. The proposed North-south-Corridor of the GoldenQuadrilateral Highway project passes through the city. The Agra-Bombay national highway (NH3) passes through Gwalior, connecting it to Shivpuri on one end and M.P. on the other. The city is connected to the Jhansi by the National Highway 75, towards the south of the city. The northern part of the city is connected to the holy city of Mathura via National Highway 3. There are bus services to and from all major and minor cities near Gwalior, including Bhopal, Agra, Delhi, Jabalpur, Jhansi, Bhind, Morena, Dholpur, Etawah, Datia, Jaipur, and Indore.

AIR

Mirage 2000 (Vajra) at Gwalior air force station

Gwalior Airport (IATA: GWL, ICAO: VIGR), also called Rajmata Vijya Raje Scindia Vimantal, is the airport of Gwalior. It has an Indian Air Force Base which stations Mirage bombers.

AIRLINES AND DESTINATIONS


Airlines Air India Air India Regional Ventura Airconnect Destination Mumbai, New Delhi New Delhi, Jabalpur Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur

LOCAL TRANSPORT
Gwalior's public transport system mainly consists of Tempos, auto rickshaw taxis, and micro-buses. Municipal Corporation's "Gwalior City Bus" covers some routes in the city. Radio taxis are also available in Gwalior. The Tempos and autorickshaws are often cited as a cause of pollution and road congestion, and the local government has plans to replace the Tempos with vans that will run on liquefied petroleum gas.

GWALIOR FORT
At the heart of Gwalior is Gwalior Fort of the Tomar dynasty. This formidable structure was reputed to be one of the most structurally sound forts of India, having been improved by Raja Man Singh Tomar where a previous structure existed. It occupies an isolated rock outcrop. The hill is steepened to make it virtually unscalable and is surrounded by high walls which enclose buildings from several periods. The old town of Gwalior lies at the eastern base of the fortress.

Lashkar, formerly a separate town that originated as a military camp, lies to the south, and Morar, also a formerly separate town, lies to the east. Gwalior, Lashkar and Morar are presently part of the Gwalior Municipality. The massive Gwalior Fort, popularly called "the Gibraltar of India", overlooks the city. The Emperor Babur reputedly described it as "the pearl in the necklace of the forts of Hind". This fort's architecture is unique. It displays a Chinese influence on Indian architecture, as Chinese dragons have been crafted at the hilt of the pillars. This influence was due to trade between China and India at the time of the fort's construction.After the death of Sher Shah Suri in 1545, who was ruling North India at that time, his son Islam Shah shifted his capital from Delhi to Gwalior and constructed 'Sher Shah Mandir' (or 'Sher Shah Fort') in his father's memory. Islam Shah operated from Gwalior until his death in 1553. Islam Shah had appointed the Hindu warrior 'Hemu' or Hem Chandra Vikramaditya as his Prime Minister in Sher Shah Fort for the first time, who later on became the Hem Chandra Vikramaditya king at Delhi and established 'Hindu Raj' in North India, by virtue of winning 22 battles continuously from Punjab to Bengal and defeating Akbar's army in Agra and Delhi on 6 October 1556. In the east of the city are two examples of early Mughal architecture: the mausoleum of the 16th century Sufi Saint Ghous Mohammed and the tomb of Mian Tansen, a great singer and one of the 'Nine Jewels' of the Mughal Emperor Akbar's court. Right next to them is the Gujari Mahal, built by Gujjar King Man Singh Tomar on demand of his consort Gujar princess "Mrignayani" (meaning "having eyes like deer").The Mughal Emperor Akbar is also known to have organized hunting parties near Gwalior. Close to the heart of the city is Jai Vilas Palace, patterned on the palace of Versailles. It combines Tuscan, Italian and Corinthian styles of architecture.

Rich in cultural heritage and architectural marvels, Gwalior has the added advantage of its proximity to Agra, the city of the Taj Mahal; Khajuraho, the city of great temples; and Delhi, the national capital. Historically and architecturally, Gwalior is interesting first as a very ancient seat of Jain worship; second for its example of palace architecture of the best Hindu period (14861516); and third as an historic fortress. Many historical places are found near the Dabra-Bhitarwar Road. Prior to the founding of Gwalior, the region was also known by its ancient name of Gopasetra. The great Apabhramsha poet Pandit Raighu lived in Gwalior. Gwalior had an institutional seat of the Bhattarakas of Kashtha Sangh and later Mula Sangh.

View from the summit of the Gwalior Fort showing the palace of the Maharajah of Scindia, circa 1882.

According to history, the original fort of Gwalior was founded by the Bargujar Kings during the 34th/35th century of Kali yuga as per puranas available with them. His palace is the most interesting example of early Hindu work of its class in India. Another palace of even greater extent was added to this in 1516. The Mughal emperors, Jahangir and Shah Jahan, added palaces to these two, the whole making a group of edifices unequaled for picturesqueness and interest by anything of their class in central India. Among the apartments in the palace was the celebrated chamber, named the Baradari, supported on 12 columns, and 45 ft (15 m) square, with a stone roof, forming one of the most beautiful palace-halls in

the world. It was, besides, singularly interesting from the expedients to which the Hindu architect was forced to resort to imitate the vaults of the Muslims. Of the buildings, however, which so excited the admiration of the first Mughal emperor Babur, probably little now remains. Jai Vilas Palace in Lashkar is a marvelous palace museum, part of which is open to the public and gives a glimpse into the life of the royal family. The fort area is also home of the Scindia School, a well-regarded institution founded by the late Maratha Maharaja Madhavraoji Shinde of Gwalior in 1897.

TELI KA MANDIR
The Telik Mandir, or 'oil-man's temple', owes its name to Teli, a term for an oil grinder or oil dealer. Many suggestions have been put forward to explain this name historically, but in fact the name is not old, the temple being used for processing oil before the British occupied the fort and used the building, albeit temporarily, as a coffee shop. The Telik Mandir is the loftiest temple among all the buildings in Gwalior Fort with a height of about 30m. The temple consists of a garba griha, that is, sanctum proper for the deity, and an antarala to enter into the temple. It can be approached by a flight of steps provided on the eastern side. The most striking feature of the temple is the wagon-vaulted roof, a form used over rectangular shrines which normally accommodated a row of Mother Goddesses. The goddesses from the interior vanished centuries ago and have not been traced, even in fragments. The exterior walls of the temple are richly decorated with sculptures, many of which are damaged; the niches, shaped like temples, are empty. The building carries a dedicatory inscription to the goddess in a niche on the southern side, but otherwise does not have any history. The architectural style, discussed by a number of architectural historians, points to a date in the late 8th

Century. The building was erected just as the Gurjara Pratihras were asserting their power over central India. The entrance gateway on the eastern side is a later addition of the British period, made by Major Keith in 1881. It was built as a way of saving various historic pillars and other pieces no longer in their original context.

TELI-KA-MANDIR
JAIN ROCK-CUT SCULPTURES
A striking part of the Jain remains at Gwalior is a series of caves or rock-cut sculptures, excavated in the rock on all sides, and numbering nearly a hundred, great and small. Most of them are mere niches to hold statues, though some are cells that may have been originally intended for residences. According to inscriptions, they were all excavated within a short period of about thirty-three years, between 1441 and 1474. One of the colossal figures is 57 ft (17 m) high, taller than any other in northern India.

GURUDWARA
Gwalior Fort also has the Gurudwara, built in the memory of the sixth Sikh, Guru Har Gobind. This Gurudwara is particularly large and grand, built entirely of marble with coloured glass decorating the main building. Recital of the Guru Granth Sahib creates a peaceful and sacred atmosphere. Mughal kings used to visit Gwalior regularly. During the Sikh genocide of 1984, many Sikhs were burned alive here. There is a Gurdwara that was converted to a mandir of "kalli devi" and process is on to take it back by Sikhs.

SUN TEMPLE GWALIOR


A temple built by Birla group is dedicated to the Sun god, the Sun Temple is located near residency at Morar, Gwalior. It is a facsimile of the famous Sun temple of Konark, Orissa and now this sun temple is one among the significant pilgrimage centers in Gwalior. It is the place which gives best examples of peace and neatness in gwalior. The temple is located in a serene ambience and a well-maintained garden within the temple premises is very attractive. This holy temple draws the locals and tourists alike who gather here to render their prayers. It makes one astounded that a shrine of comparatively modern origin holds such a highest regard, and became one among the most sought after pilgrimage centers in the city.

REVOLT OF 1857
Gwalior is also known for its participation in the 1857 revolt, mainly due to Rani Lakshmibai's involvement. After Kalpi (Jhansi) fell into the hands of the British on 24 May 1858, Lakshmibai sought shelter at Gwalior Fort. The Maharaja of

Gwalior was not willing to give up his fort without a fight as he was a nominal ally of the British, but after negotiations, his troops capitulated and the rebels took possession of the fort. The British wasted no time in attacking Gercest, the bloodiest battle ever fought on Indian soil.Empty citation (help) Indian forces numbered around 20,000, and British forces around 1600. Lakshmibai's example is remembered to this day by Indian nationalists. She died fighting, and Gwalior was captured. Tatya Tope and Rao Sahib escaped. Tatya Tope was later captured and hanged in April 1859.

ART AND CULTURE


Gwalior is a well acknowledged place of art, associated with historic as well as contemporary evidence. In August 2005 a mural created by Aasutosh Panigrahi and five other artists was acknowledged as the World's Largest Indoor Mural by Guinness World Records. Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, the conference on Marathi Literature were held once in Gwalior City. It was presided by President of the Conference writer Kusumavati Deshpande (and wife of Kavi Anil) in 1961. She was the first female president of the annual Sammelan since its inception in 1878. Culturally Gwalior is the confluence of two rich cultures Bundeli and Braj. Bundelkhand covers Gwalior, Bhind, Morena, Sagar, Shivpuri, Guna, Sheopur and adjoining areas.

MUSIC
Tansen, born in Behat, trained in music at Vrindavan, served Raja Ramchandra Waghela of Bandhawgarh, then went to M.P. under the patronage of Akbar. After the death of Tansen in Fatehpur Sikri and cremation in Agra, his ashes were

buried in Gwalior. Tansen Samaroh is held every year in Gwalior. Sarod maestro Ustad Amjad Ali Khan is also from the royal city of Gwalior. His grandfather, Ghulam Ali Khan Bangash, became a court musician in Gwalior.

TOMB OF TANSEN
Gwalior holds an unparalleled reputation in Sangeet. Baijnath Prasad (alias Baiju Bawra) was a classical singer (Dhrupadiya) who lived in Gwalior for his whole life under the patronage of Man Singh. Baiju was born in Chanderi and was cremated there. He received his musical training in Brindaban under Swami Guru Haridas Ji. He was the court musician of Gwalior along with Nayak Charju, Bakshu, and others.

Amjad Ali Khan, who was born at Gwalior

GWALIOR GHARANA
The Gwalior Gharana is one of the oldest Khayal Gharanas and one to which most classical Indian musicians can trace the origin of their style. The rise of the Gwalior Gharana started with the reign of the great Mughal emperor Akbar (15421605). The favorite singers of this patron of the arts, such as Miyan Tansen, first amongst the vocalists at the court, came from the town of Gwalior. Gwalior has an important role in the journey of music in India, so much that every year, the Tansen Festival is celebrated at the tomb of Tansen in Gwalior.

DHRUPAD
Dhrupad is a vocal genre in Hindustani classical music, said to be the oldest still in use in that musical tradition. Its name is derived from the words "dhruva" (fixed) and "pada" (words). The term may denote both the verse form of the poetry and the style in which it is sung. Raja Man Singh Tomar, the King of Gwalior between 1486-1516 AD, was a patron of Dhrupad.

TANSEN SANGEET SAMAROH


The famous Tansen Sangeet Samaroh, or the Tansen Music Festival, is celebrated every year on the Tansen Tomb in Gwalior. Tansen Samaroh is a platform where artists from all over India gather and participate to deliver vocal and instrumental performances. Gwalior's environment during the festival turns mystical with melodious music echoing. Music lovers from far and wide make it a point to be a part of this event at any cost, as it is a memorable experience for them. The Tansen Sangeet Samaroh is organized by the government of MP, in association with the Academy of the department of culture in MP. During the festival, music lovers and artists from all over the world gather to offer their bit of tribute to the all-time

music Maestro Tansen. To date, this festival has the honor of being the only musical show in Gwalior that takes place on multiple days and nights. The academy offers honors to senior celebrities and junior artists by including them in the Samaroh through their music of performance. Tansen was a legendary singer of Akbars mughal court. Tansen, a legendary exponent of the Hindustani classical music's dhrupad style, was counted among the Nine Jewels of the Royal Court. In remembrance of this exemplary artist there is a tomb constructed in Gwalior called the Tansen Tomb. This is where the Tansen Music Festival or the Tansen Samaroh is organized every year. This annual music festival started in the 1930s. The passage of time has only glorified the status of this annual historic event. At present, renowned artists from all over the country come to perform and exhibit their excellence while in turn mesmerizing the audience. The venue Gwalior has retained Indian traditions and the wealth of music intact over the years. The famous Gwalior Gharana of music is actually inspired by the Tansen style of music. In all, the four-day musical extravaganza called Tansen Samaroh is an audio as well as visual treat, seeing the exemplary and renowned music expertise in artists all over India dedicating their bit of honor to the greatest ever musical mentor, Tansen. The Tansen Music Festival, or Tansen Samaroh, is held every year in the month of December. The experience of melodious music with the chilling weather of autumn makes it an ecstatic festival.

MAIN FESTIVALS
All national festivals, Diwali, Bhai Dooj, Holi, Makara Sankranti, Eid-ul-Fitr, Christmas, Rakhi, Mahavir jayanti, and other local ones such as Nag-Panchmi, Shreenath Mahadji Maharaj Punyatithi, Ganesh Utsav, Gangaur, Teej, Gudi Padwa (Marathi New Year), Navratri, Dussehara, Durga Puja are celebrated with

equal enthusiasm. Last decade has seen a rise in the celebration of events such as Valentine's Day, Rose Day and New Year's Eve. Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated in a unique way in Gwalior City. People of Gwalior arrange a carnival of floats (known as "Jhanki" in the local Hindi language) in various places of the city. Gwalior also celebrates Rang Panchami quite differently. This festival is celebrated
five days after Dulendi or Holi. This is also celebrated like Dulendi, but colors are mixed with water and then either sprinkled or poured on others. Makar Sankranti is a 'Kite Festival' on 14 January each year, where people fly kites and compete to cut each other's kites in the sky.

MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION

Print media: Here are a number of newspapers, magazines, local TV


stations and four FM Radio stations.

SouLSteer Magazine a bi-monthly lifestyle and automotive magazine in Gwalior that is popular among every age group. Patrika is the leading Newspaper and Dainik Bhaskar is one of the oldest and most widely read newspapers. Swadesh and Naidunia are among well established newspapers. Other popular newspapers published in Gwalior are BPN Times, Raj Express, Dainik Madhya Raj, Nav Bharat,Youth Engine, Dainik Jagran, People's Samachar, Dainik Adityaz. Evening newspapers : Sandhya Samachaar,Gwalior Sandesh, Sudarshan.

Electronic media: The radio industry has expanded with a number of


private FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include Big FM (92.7 MHz), Radio Chaska FM

(95 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), and Raseela (91.9 MHz). State-owned company, Doordarshan, transmits two terrestrial television channels. The city has local TV stations from various companies. Major local channels include Hathway Win, Harsh Networks, KMJ Communications, and DEN networks.

Communication services : Gwalior is covered by a large network of


optical fibre cables. There are three fixed telephone line operators in the city: BSNL, Reliance and Airtel. There are eight mobile phone companies in which GSM players include BSNL, Reliance, Vodafone, Idea, Airtel, Tata DoCoMo, Aircel, Videocon; CDMA services offered by BSNL, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom and Reliance.

Entertainment : Gwalior has three shopping malls, DD City Mall with


Fun Cinemas multiplex, Maya-Gitanjali Mall with Gold Digital Multiplex and the Central Mall. Salasar Mall City Centre, similarly to DD City Mall, also contains a multiplex. There are several gaming zones, three Discothques (DnD, Barcode, and Spectrum), and a water park in Gwalior. "Sun City Amusement Park" is a family entertainment center in Gwalior. There is also a water park close to Oxford Public School on Jhansi Road. The SouLSteer Club is an exclusive car-owners club in Gwalior.

EDUCATION

IITTM Gwalior
Gwalior has seven universities: Amity University Madhya-Pradesh, Jiwaji University, Lakshmi Bai National University for Physical Education (LNUPE), Atal Bihari Vajpayee - Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior (IIITM), R.V.S. Agriculture University Gwalior (RVSKVV), R.M.T. Music and Arts University Gwalior. The Scindia School Gwalior and Scindia Kanya Vidyalaya (SKV) are famous schools of international repute. Some esteemed colleges and institutes include Madhav Institute of Technology & Science (MITS Gwalior), an autonomous body and Excellent Government Engineering College; Rustamji Institute of Technology (RJIT Tekanpur), the first Engineering College in India established by a para-military force; Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management (IITTM Gwalior); and The Indian Institute of Hotel Management (IHM Gwalior). Beautifully Architectured Private University namely ITM Gwalior is Central India's best in terms of overall personality development and placements. Apart from Universities Gwalior City contains numerous Engineering, Science and Arts Colleges, such as the Vikrant Institute of Technology & Management.

Gwalior is also home to many computer institutes which are spreading computer education across Gwalior district. Some of the software training institute include Someone-ITM, SSI, ROM computer, IITECH, and Prom, and some of the reputed hardware institutes include Jetking, GT, and Uma.

ECONOMY OF GWALIOR

GWALIOR FAIR
Gwalior enjoys being at a very strategic position as being a main junction on New Delhi - Chennai railroad and being on NH-3 and NH-75. Gwalior is surrounded by 3 Industrial areas - Sitholi, Banmore and Malanpur. All three of these sectors are on NH 75, NH-3 and NH 92 respectively, with Malanpur being the largest. The city used to have big manufacturing industries, such as Gwalior Grasim and J.C.MILLS of Birlanagar, but now this sector is left with only one industry J.B.Mangharam Ltd. But the other 3 sectors have many industries. The important are from dairy, chemical, manufacturing, textiles, and other industries. Handicraft and small industries are also found like Gwalior potteries. Gwalior is also an important historical and tourism sector of the country. Therefore, the tourism sector also puts an effect into the city's economy. Gwalior is part of NCR. The

Gwalior Trade Fair is an annual trade fair showcasing the economy of Gwalior. There are some manufacturing set-ups of some companies like Ranbaxy Laboratories, Cadbury, J. K. Tyres, Surya Bulbs, and SynRam.

AREAS OF THE CITY


THE OLD TOWN
The old town of Gwalior, commonly called Hazira, which is of considerable size but irregularly built, lies at the eastern base of the rock. It contains the tomb of the Sufi saint Khwaja Khanoon & Muhammad Ghaus, erected during the early part of Mughal emperor Akbars reign, and the tomb of Mian Tansen, a great singer and one of the 'Nine Jewels' of Akbar's court. A town called by his name Ghauspura situated near the tomb of Mohaommed Ghaus.

view of Gwalior Fort from the Old city

Close to the heart of the city is splendid Jai Vilas Palace, patterned on the French palace of Versailles. The town has a museum situated in the Gujari Mahal.

LASHKAR

JIWAJI CHOWK AT GWALIOR


The name of Lashkar is a Persian word meaning 'army' or 'camp', as this was originally the camp, and later the permanent capital, of the Scindia dynasty of Gwalior state. Lashkar was the capital of Madhya Bharat from 1950 to 1956. Jayaji Chowk is the central focus of Lashkar, with a large square, a former opera house, banks, tea, coffee and juice stands and a municipal market building. Thriving bazaars surround the chowk. Many jewelry shops are situated near Jayaji Chowk, also known as Maharaj bada. A source of water for the city is Tighra Dam, built on the Saank river 20 km to the north. The Gajra Raja Medical College, founded in 1946 by the Maharaja Jiwaji Rao Scindia and the Maharani Vijayaraje Scindia, is situated in Lashkar on Palace Road, near Katora Taal, together with a group of many hospitals.

MORAR
Morar, formerly a separate town, lies three miles (5 km) east of the old city. It was formerly a British military cantonment. Morar is generally considered a rural farming town. The area is known as the "green part" of Gwalior because much of the area is still rural. Morar was the scene of the most serious uprising in Central India. On June 1, 1858, Jayajirao led his forces to Morar to fight a rebel army led by Tatya Tope, Rani Lakshmibai and Rao Sahib. This army had 7,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and 12 guns while he had only 1,500 cavalry, his bodyguard of 600 men and 8 guns. He waited for their attack which came at 7 o'clock in the morning; in this attack the rebel cavalry took the guns and most of the Gwalior forces except the bodyguard went over to the rebels (some deserted). The Maharaja and the remainder fled without stopping until they reached the British garrison at Agra. By 1900 it had become a centre for local trade and had an important training industry, with a population of 19,179 in 1901. The second Temple of the Sun in India (after the Konark Sun Temple) is situated in Morar at Residency Road. This Sun Temple was built by the Aditya Birla Trust. The cantonment area makes up a large area of Morar which contains official residences for the Indian Army. It has many canteens for Army personnel. Saint Paul's School and Pragati Vidyapeeth School are nearby. There is an air force base in the Pinto Park region.

THATIPUR
Thatipur is said to have got its name from State Army Unit 34, which once resided there. Gandhi Road divides Thatipur into two areas. On going along the road, one enters Morar at one end and Balwant Nagar on the other. It primarily consists of

Darpan Colony, Madhav Rao Scindhiya Enclave, the government blocks, Vivek Nagar, and Suresh Nagar. Places of note are the Dwarikadhish Mandir, Bhagwan colony, the Tomar building, Chauhan Pyau, Galla Kothar, Ramkrishna Aashram, Saraswati Nagar, Govindpuri, Gayatri Vihar, Shakti Vihar, Shakuntalapuri, Shanti Vihar, and Mayur market along with Sai Baba Mandir in Shakti Vihar Colony.

GOLA KA MANDIR
Gola Ka Mandir is one of the important circles of Gwalior which connect the city to many of the important national highways. The highway starts from Gola Ka Mandir Circle in Gwalior, and ends in Bhaogaon in UP. In Gwalior, it is better known as Airport Road, as the Gwalior Airport is situated on this road. It is now been developed as a four-lane highway from Gola Ka Mandir in Gwalior to Malanpur Industrial Area in Bhind District because of the heavy traffic in the area. It is typically used as a link from Gwalior to Malanpur, Bhind and Etawah.

HEALTHCARE
The prominent hospitals of Gwalior include Gajara Raja Medical College and the associated J.A. Hospital, Kamla Raja Hospital, Sahara Hospital, Mascot Hospital, Birla Hospital, Cancer Hospital & Research Institute and many good private doctor clinics. The Cancer Hospital & Research Institute is a nationally acclaimed medical center in Oncology. There is also a charitable hospital named SATCH (Shri Anandpur Trust Charitable Hospital) which provides free treatment. There is a government Ayurvedic college and a private homeopathic college (Vasundhara Raje Homoeopathic Medical College) which is run by the Biochemic and Homoeopathic Association of Gwalior, also providing health care education and services.

SPORTS IN GWALIOR
Lakshmibai National University for Physical Education (operational since 1957 is one of the largest physical education institutions in the country. Gwalior also has the Railway Hockey Stadium with artificial turf. Roop Singh Stadium is a cricket ground with a capacity of 45,000. The stadium has hosted 10 One Day International (ODI) matches. Of the 10 matches played so far, the first one was played between India and West Indies on 22 January 1988. The ground has flood lights and has also hosted day-night encounters. One match of the 1996 Cricket World Cup was also played on this ground, between India and West Indies. This ground is famous for hosting the ODI between India and South Africa in which Sachin Tendulkar scored a double century.

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
The most important of all these is the SADA Counter Magnet City, which is under the Indian urban development NCR plan. It has also been introduced to increase the investments in the sectors such as Education, Industry, and real estate. Although the closing of prominent industries like Hotline, Cimmco, Grasim Gwalior resulted in a huge downfall in Gwalior's economical market, now the revival process has successfully begun.

PLACES OF INTEREST

Maharaj Bada is the biggest and most important market of Gwalior.


Seven ancient buildings of different styles of architecture (Italian, Russian, Mughal, Rajputi, Chinese, etc.) can be viewed.

THE TOWN HALL SITUATED IN BADA

Gopachal Parvat is situated on the mountainous terrain at the slopes of


Gwalior Fort. Gopachal Parvat contains unique statues of Jain Tirthankaras. The idol of Lord Parshvanath seated on a lotus (carved out of a single stone) is the largest in the world, towering at 47 feet in height and 30 feet in breadth. There is a series of 26 Jain statues in a single line. Built between 1398 and 1536 by Tomar kings, these Jain Tirthankar statues are one of a kind in architecture and a treasure trove of old Indian heritage and culture. Gopachal Parvat is located approximately 2 km from the railway station and bus stand.

Tomb of Rani Lakshmibai, a famous freedom fighter, at Phoolbag


area. It is here where the great warrior queen of Jhansi died in 1858 fighting against the British. It is also her burial place.

Municipality Museum, one of the importants museum of the city is


situated a little distance from Rani Lakshmibai's tomb.

Municipality Museum

Vivsvaan Mandir (Sun Temple), A newly built temple dedicated to


the Sun god, the Sun Temple is located near the residency at Morar, Gwalior. It is a facsimile of the famous Sun temple of Konark, Orissa and now this sun temple is one among the significant pilgrimage centers in Gwalior. The temple is located in a serene ambiance and a well-maintained garden within the temple premises is very attractive. This holy temple draws the locals and tourists alike who gather here to render their prayers. It makes one astounded that a shrine of comparatively modern origin is held in such high regard, and became one among the most sought after pilgrimage centers in the city.

Jai Vilas Mahal is the residential palace turned museum of Scindias in


the heart of the city. The palace has notable collections of antiques and also some of the old time gadgets and collections that can't be easily seen.The museum is one of the largest in Madhya Pradesh and has the world's largest chandelier and the complex is a mixture of British as well as Hindu architecture. The palace was made in 1874 as an attempt to bring the

palace of Versailles to Gwalior and the Jai Vilas Palace was a successful attempt.

Jai Vilas Palace

Gwalior trade fair was started in 1905 by Maharaja Madho Rao, king
of Gwalior. It has become the biggest fair of Madhya Pradesh and one of the most colorful fairs of India. It starts in the second week of January and continues until February.

Modern 5D is the MP's first multi-dimensional theater launched in the


2011 trade fair of Gwalior. It was built by Gwalior's leading enterprise Modern Techno Projects (P) Ltd. Modern 5D is recognized as India's first own multi-dimensional theater.

Shyam Vatika is a banquet hall which has the world's largest indoor
mural, as recognized by Guinness World Records.

Chatris of Scindias is situated close to the city near Achaleshwar


temple and is the burial place for the Scindias who ruled the city for many years. Designated persons like Maharaja Madhavrao Scindia, Vijayaraje Scindia and His Highness Jivajirao Scindia were cremated here.

HERITAGE ROAD IN FRONT OF CHATRIS OF SCINDIAS

Tansen's tomb: Gwalior is the birthplace of the famous musician


Tansen. He was one of the "Nine Gems of Akbar".

Gaus Mohammad tomb: The tombs of Great Gaus Mohammad and


Tansen are situated on the same territory.

GAUS MOHAMMAD TOMB

GWALIOR FORT

Gwalior Fort stands on an isolated rock, overlooking the Gwalior town, and contains a number of historic buildings. It is one of the biggest forts in India and a postage stamp has been issued by the Indian Postal Service to commemorate the importance of this fort. From historical records, it is established that it was built in the 8th century. The fortress and the city have been integral to the history of the kingdoms of North India. It is said that the Mughal Emperor Babur (14831531) described it as "the pearl in the necklace of the forts of Hind". The fort, also given the epithet "Gibraltar of India', provides a panoramic view of the old Gwalior town, which is to its east.

Gujari Mahal- Within the fort are some marvels of medieval


architecture. The 15th century Gujari Mahal is a monument to the love of Raja Mansingh Tomar for his intrepid Gujar Queen, Mrignayani. The outer structure of Gujari Mahal has survived in an almost total state of preservation; the interior has been converted into Archaeological Museum housing rare antiquities, some of them dating back to the 1st century A.D.

Even though many of these have been defaced by the iconoclastic Mughals, their perfection of form has survived the ravages of time. Particularly worth seeing is the statue of Shalbhanjika from Gyraspur, the tree goddess, the epitome of perfection in miniature. The statue is kept in the custody of the museum's curator, and can be seen on request.

Sas bahu temple- A 9th century shrine, Saas-Bahu temple in the fort
allures not only the devotees but also the tourists with its artistic value. Despite what its name may suggest, these temples are not dedicated to Sas (mother-in-law) and Bahu (daughter-in-law) but rather the short form of Shashtra Bahu, another name of Lord Vishnu. These temples situated adjacent to each other and the larger one is elaborately decorated with beautiful carvings and sculptures. The roof of the larger temple is adorned with a marvelous lotus carving which is very fascinating. These ancient temples display exceptional architectural brilliance and are a perfect destination for pious people.

Teli Ka Mandir (Telangana Mandir)- A lofty structure of about 100


feet, Teli Ka Mandir in Gwalior Fort distinguishes itself from the other compositions of its time because of its unique architecture. Though the roof of the temple holds a Dravidian look, the sculptures are typically north Indian.

The temple bears a close resemblance to the temple of Prathihara Vishnu, and is filled with images of coiled serpents, passionate couples, river goddesses, and a flying Garuda. The temple architecture follows the IndoAryan and Nagara styles that exhibit superior artistic caliber. A marvelous temple, believed to be among the oldest constructions in the fort, gives an enchanting experience to the visitor.

Gwalior Zoo (Gandhi zoological Park)- This is one of the most


lively and beautiful zoological parks of Madhya Pradesh. Its main attractions include Jamuna, a white tiger, serpents, golden pheasants, sambhar, hyena, bison, and others.

Sambhar at Gwalior zoo

Sarod Ghar- This Museum of Music has been set up in the old ancestral
house of the legendary Ustad Hafiz Ali Khan. It houses ancient instruments of the great Indian Masters of the past. It also houses an impressive collection of photographs and documents. Sarod Ghar is a unique institution devoted to promoting Indian classical music, heritage and culture. Through this 'window' to the past, music lovers can gain a better understanding of the evolution and history of our classical music and a deeper perspective and insight into the context of the art as it exists today.

Roop Singh Stadium is a cricket ground. The stadium has hosted 10


One Day International (ODI) matches. Of the 10 matches played so far, the first one was played between India and West Indies on 22 January 1988. The ground has flood lights and has hosted day-night encounters as well. One match of the 1996 Cricket World Cup was also played on this ground,

between India and West Indies. This ground is famous for hosting the ODI between India and South Africa in which Sachin Tendulkar scored a double century.

City Mall, one of the biggest malls of Madhya Pradesh. A multi-storied


grand structure, it houses shops and showrooms of many national and international brands and has a number of eateries, as well as a Fun Cinemas multiplex. There are also some international and world-famous fast food restaurants like Domino's Pizza and McDonald's in DD City Mall.

Deen Dayal City Mall

Tighra Dam: located on the outskirts of the city, Tighra is a nice place
for an outing. Tighra Dam is now being used to store water from the Sank river and supply water to the whole of the city.

MALLS IN GWALIOR

DD City Mall Salasar Mall Central Mall Madhav Plaza Mall

Parasmani Mall Rajiv Plaza BSNL Mall

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES FROM GWALIOR

TANSEN

Amjad Ali Khan; sarod player and musician Atal Bihari Vajpayee; former Prime Minister of India Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi; Famous Hindi writer; born in Gwalior Jyotiraditya Scindia; Minister of Power Madhavrao Scindia; Indian politician and minister Nida Fazli; famous Urdu writer and poet Roop Singh; Indian hockey player and Olympian Shahzad Rizvi; Indian-born American novelist, poet and scholar Shivendra Singh; Indian national hockey player; born and lives in Gwalior

GALLERY

Sun Temple

Tighra Dam

Statue Guarding Entrance to Gujari Mahal

One of the Seven Gates of the Gwalior Fort

Gujari Mahal, now a museum, inside Gwalior Fort

Sas-Bahu Ka Mandir at Gwalior Fort

Former central press at Gwalior

Beautiful Chinese hand craft work on the walls of Gwalior Fort

INTRODUCTION OF ABOUT STUDY


GWALIOR FORT
Gwalior Fort is in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It was built in around 8th century on an isolated hillock overlooking the Gwalior town. It is one of the biggest forts in India and had enormous influence on the history of India. The fort has two important parts namely, the main fort and the Palaces (Gurjari Mahal and the Man Mandir palace). The Palaces were built by Raja Man Singh Tomar. The Gurjari Mahal was built for his favourite queen, Mrignayani. The Gurjari Mahal is now converted into an Archaeological Museum.

HISTORY

Panoramic view of Gwalior Fort.

EARLY HISTORY
The fort was ruled by several Rajput kings. The earliest dating of the fort is quoted to a publication of the Government of India on Gwalior, which traces it to an inscription of 525 AD in a Sun temple, which is said to have been built by the Hun

(Huna) emperor Mihirakula (Sveta Huna ruler in 510 AD during the reign of Huns in India) The Chaturbhuj temple is a Vishnu) on the way to the fort, dated to 875 AD, which has close identity with the Teli-Ka-Mandir, which is also dated to the 8th century. This temple is notable for the earliest known recording of the number zero.

KACCHAWAHA PAL DYNASTY


Historical research has dated construction of the fort to 727 AD (legend puts it as 275 AD) by a local chieftain named Surya Sena Kacchawaha, who was from a village Sihonia about 12 miles from the fort. On a hunting expedition once Surajsen met a hermit Gwalip (also called 'Galava' in some accounts) who gave him water and told him of a cure for his diseases from the water of a reservoir nearby which is called Surajkund now. From Suraj Pal the founder of the dynasty to Budha Pal the last of his line there were 84 kings who reigned during a period of 989 years under the patronymic of Pal. The son of Budha Pal took the name of Tej Karan and the time had now arrived for the prophecy of the Saint Gwalpa, who had said that lineage of Suraj Pal would continue as long they used the patronym 'PAL'. Ran Mul the Chief of Amber (Jaipur) had a daughter who was married to Tej Karan of Gwalior and brought along with her horses, elephants and other valuables as dowry. Tej Karan was offered succession to the throne of Amber on condition that he consents to make Amber his home as the reigning sovereign. He accepted the offer as the State of Gwalior at that time was less in value and influence than that of Amber. During his absence from Gwalior the affairs were managed by Ram Deva Pratihar who after two years of successful administration

became the de facto ruler of Gwalior. Thus the rule was transferred from the Pal dynasty to the family of Pratihars.

PRATIHAR RULERS AT GWALIOR


The following is list of Pratihar rulers at Gwalior: 1. Pramal Dev # Salam Dev 2. Bikram Dev 3. Ratan Dev 4. Shobhang Dev 5. Narsinh Dev 6. Pramal Dev

TURKIC CONQUEST
In 1023 AD Mahmud of Ghazni attacked to capture the fort but was repulsed. In 1196 AD, after a long siege, Qutubuddin Aibak. the first Turkic Sultan of Delhi Sultanate took over the fort but he lost it in 1211 AD. It was reconquered in 1231 AD by Sultan Iltumish, the Turkic slave dynasty ruler of Delhi Sultanate. When Timurlane invaded Delhi and created anarchy in the region, Narasingh Rao, a Hindu chieftain captured the fort.

TOMAR RULERS
The Tomars ruled Gwalior from 1398 to 1505 when they were defeated by Ibrahim lodhi. The best known of them was Man Singh (1486-1516)who built the Man Mandir palace. Two Rajput brothers of the Tanwar clan of Rajputs named Parmal Deva(Veer Singh) and Adhar Deva from the village of Esamamola situated in the Perganna of

Dandrolee were in the service of the Sultan of Delhi. One night while it was pitch dark and the rain falling in torrents the Sultan happened to be standing at a balcony whence he beheld two soldiers standing on duty whilst the rest of their comrades were fast asleep. Both of them advanced towards the Emperor who on learning that they belonged to the detachment under the command of Sikandar Khan was much pleased with their conduct as evinced by their devotion to their duty. He permitted them to make any request which would be at once granted. They related their story which purported to be that they had always been true to their salt but were unable to serve the State diligently so long as their children were wandering in the jungle for want of a decent home. They concluded their recital in the true Rajput fashion with a request that Gwalior might be given to them as a place of residence for their families. The Sultan commanded them to be present at the Durbar the next day when their petition would be granted without any further solicitation on their part. The sturdy Rajputs well acquainted with the ways of Oriental Courts represented the difficulties they were sure to encounter in attempting to have access to the Sultan in a formal Durbar. The Emperor however assured them of his good will towards them and when at the appointed hour the two brothers stood at a respectful distance from the Audience Hall the Sultan proving as good as his word summoned them both to his presence and gave them Gwalior as an Inam (Reward). They brought the mandate of the sovereign to the Syads - hereditary charge of the Fortress but these pious gentlemen did not consider it worth their while to pay much attention to the firman that would have deprived them of their hereditary possession. The two Rajputs however continued their attendance on the Syads very submissively and at last hit on a stratagem to achieve the desired end as they had already ingratiated themselves by their submissive conduct into the favour of the

Syads, the latter were asked to a dinner party to be given in their honour at a village named Raneepura whither the unsuspecting descendants of the grandsons of the Arabian Prophet repaired with their whole families. The food mixed with intoxicating drugs was served in the true Oriental style and the guests after partaking heartily of the meal that was to be their last on earth retired to rest in the tents placed at their disposal by their hosts when at a given signal a band of Rajputs who were concealed in a secluded place rushed in with swords in their hands and the poor sleeping innocents were murdered in cold blood for disobeying the mandate of their rightful sovereign. 1. Vir Singh(Or Pramal Dev) or Bir Sing Deo AD 1375 (1432 V.S.). a Zamindar of Dandroli, captured fort from a Sayyid King of Gwalior. 2. Uddhharan Dev, Brother of VirSingh Dev, ruled for some time. 3. Lakshman dev Tomar 4. Viramdev AD 1400 (1457 V.S.) s/o Virsingh Dev. 5. Ganapati Dev Tomar AD 1419 6. Dugarendra (Dungar) Singh AD 1424, consolidated Gwalior as a major power of central India. Built the Ganesha Pole. 7. Kirti Singh Tomar AD 1454, Fought with Rana Kumbha of Mewar against Muhommadan Kings of Malwa (Mehmood Khilji). 8. Mangal Dev was yougner son of Kirti Singh and had and estate of 120 villages in Dhodri and Amba of Tomargarh, he tried to recapture Gwalior after the fall of Tomars in AD 1516. 9. Kalyanmalla Tomar AD 1479 10. Man Singh Tomar AD 1486, Musician and father of Dhrupat Gharana. greatest of the Tomar Kings of Gwalior. 11. Vikramaditya Tomar AD 1516, AD 1518- Ibrahim Lodhi captured Fort Gwalior.

After him, the local Tomar clan was reduced to the status of a local zamndar. 1. Ramshah Tomar AD 1526, Ousted from Gwalior, fought at Haldighati with Maharana Pratap. 2. Salivahan Tomar - AD 1576 fought at Haldighati for Maharan Pratap.

MEDIEVAL HISTORY OF FORT

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu emperor of North India. He launched several attacks on rebel Afghans and Mughals from this fort between 1553-1556. It was only in 1519 that Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi Dynasty won control of the fort. Subsequent to his death, Mughal emperor Babar manipulated the situation and took control of the fort. But with his son Humayun's defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri, the fort came under the reign of the Suri dynasty. After Sher Shah Suri's death in 1540, his son Islam Shah shifted his capital from Delhi to Gwalior as it was considered safe from the frequent attacks from west. In

the year 1553, when Islam Shah died his incumbent Adil Shah Suri appointed the Hindu warrior Hemu also known as Hem Chandra Vikramaditya as the Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army of his kingdom. Adil Shah himself moved to Chunar as it was considered still safer. Hemu mounted several attacks from this fort to quell the rebellion in various parts of North India against the weak Adil Shah regime. The fort remained very active during 1553-56 as Hemu had fought and won 22 battles continuously, without losing any from this fort. After defeating Akbar's forces at Agra and Delhi in 1556, Hemu established 'Hindu Raj' as a 'Vikramaditya' king, in North India and had his 'Rajyabhishake' or coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi as 'Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya on 7 Oct. 1556. The capital was shifted from Gwalior to Delhi once again and was operational from Purana Quila. Then Akbar captured the fort and made it a special prison for important prisoners. In this prison fort in the Mughal Dynasty period, there was a saga of several unfortunate royal prisoners who were put to death; notably among them were: Akbar confining his first cousin Kamran here and subsequently putting him to death; Aurangzeb imprisoning his brother Murad and later killing him; similarly Aurangzeb had his brother Dara Shikoh's sons, Suleman and Sepher Sheko, executed here.[7] 6th.Guru of Sikhs, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji,by Jahangir in memory of which Gurudwara (Sikh Temple) Data Bandi Chodd is situated in the Gwalior Fort.

RANA JAT RULERS

An old painting by Edwin Lord Weeks showing The Maratha, Maharaja of Gwalior leaving the fort from the Hathi Pol or Elephant door. The Jat people also briefly ruled at Gwalior Fort. Following the decline of Mughal Empire, the Gwalior Fort was usurped by Gohad dynasty by a Jat Rana King.[7] The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (17071756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (17571782) occupied the Gwalior Fort thrice:

1740 to 1756 by Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana, 1761 to 1767 by Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana, 1780 to 1783 by Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana.

MARATHA RULE
In 1736, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana, the Jat king won over Malwa and the Gwalior fort by defeating the Marathas and held the fort from 1740 to 1756. In 1779, it was won by the Scindia clan of the Maratha Empire, who stationed a

garrison here. But it was usurped by the East India Company. But in August 1780, the control went to Chhatar Singh, the Rana of Gohud who defeated the Marathas. In 1784, Mahadji Sinde, Commander of Maratha Empire, once again recovered the fort. There were frequent changes in the control of the fort between the Scindias and the British between 1808 and 1844. However, in January 1844, after the battle of Maharajpur, the fort finally came under the control of the Scindias, more as protectorate of the British government.

HISTORY DURING THE INDIAN REBELLION OF 1857


After being driven from Jhansi and Kalpi, on 1 June 1858 Rani Lakshmi Bai and a group of Maratha rebels captured the fortress city of Gwalior from the Scindia rulers, who were British allies. There was no looting, other than from Sindia's treasury to pay the rebel troops. The rebels now wasted time celebrating and proclaiming the renewed rebellion. The Central India Field Force under General Hugh Rose quickly advanced against the city and besiege the fort. In the battle that ensued on 16 and 17 June 1858, Rani Lakshmibai led the troops of Jhansi and the remaining Gwalior forces to defend the mountain passage to the fort and the city of Gwalior. The Rani died on 17 June, the second day of the Battle of Gwalior probably killed by a carbine shot from the 8th Hussars, according to the account of three independent Indian representatives. The Company forces recaptured Gwalior within the next three days.

STRUCTURES
The fort and its premises are well maintained and have many historic monuments, Hindu and Jain temples (of 11 shrines, seven are Hindu temples) and palaces, out of which the famous are the Man Mandir palace, the Gujari Mahal (now an Archeological Museum), the Jahangir Mahal, the Karan Palace and the Shahjahan Mahal."Temples of Gwalior". Kamats potpourri. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

The main entrance is known as the Hathi Pul (English: Elephant Gate), and leads into the Man Mandir palace, built in the 15th century. The fort, which has a striking appearance, has been built on the long, narrow, precipitous hill called Gopachal. The fort spreads over an area of 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi). The fort, 35 feet (11 m) in height, is built over massive sandstone rocks. The fort wall is built all along the edge of the hill, though of uniform height, presents an irregular appearance due to the topography of the land over which it has been built. It has two main access gates - one from the North East and the other on the South West. The fort rampart is laid all along the periphery of the hill connected by six towers or bastions. It is approached through the north east through a lengthy access ramp. The main entrance or gate to the fort, called the Hathi Pul (means "elephant gate" as elephants could pass through this gate), is accessed after passing through six other gates. Apart from the Hathi

Pul gate to the Palace, there is another large ornate gate, known as the Badalgarh Gate. The Man Mandir palace or the citadel is located at the northeast end of the fort. Its construction is dated to the 15th century but it was refurbished in 1648. The fort precincts also have many monuments such as palaces, temples and water tanks. The water tanks or reservoirs created in the precincts of the fort could provide water supply to a 15,000 strong garrison, which was the estimated requirement of manpower to secure the fort. On the approach from the southern side, intricately carved rock cut temples of 21 Jain thirthankaras are seen set deep into the steep rock faces. One such statue of 40 feet (12 m) height, identified as that of Parswanath, the 23rd Jain thrithankara (or saint), escaped demolition ordered by Babar since he lost control of the fort."Main entrance & Man Mandir, Gwalior Fort". British Library On line gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-24."Gateway in the Fort at Gwalior". British Library On line gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

Man Mandir The prison dungeon is also located below this palace where many
royal prisoners of the Mughal dynasty were incarcerated and killed. The palace grounds have witnessed atrocities committed by Mughal emperors. Aurangzeb, initially, imprisoned his brother Murad at this fort and later killed him on the reasons of treason. The name of the fort is also linked to the practice of sati (voluntary burning to death of women of the harem at a funeral pyre) at the

'Jauhar Kund Palace' where sati was performed by the womenfolk of the royal family when the king of Gwalior was defeated in the year 1232 AD.

HATHI PUL
Main Entrance gate to the fort called Hathi Pool (The Elephant gate)

The Gate to Gwalior Fort

Hathi Pol Gate to Man Mandir Palace,

The Hathi Pol Gate (or Hathiya Paur) is the main gate in the fort leading to the Man Mandir palace built by Man Singh. It is the last gate at the end of a series of seven gates. It is named after a life-sized statue of an elephant (hathi) that once adorned the entrance to the gate. The gate built in stone on the south-east corner of the palace has cylindrical towers. The towers are crowned with cupola domes. Carved parapets link the domes."The Gate, Gwalior For". British Library On line gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-24."Hathi Pol Gate, Man Mandir Palace, [Gwalior]". British Library On line gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

Gujari Mahal

Mythological statue guarding the palace

Gujari Mahal as viewed from the fort

GUJARI MAHAL MUSEUM


Gujari Mahal, a palace that was built by Raja Man Singh for love of his wife Mrignayani, a Gujar princess, because she demanded a separate palace for herself with regular water supply through an aqueduct structure built from a nearby river source called the Rai River. This mahal is well maintained now as it has been converted into an archeological museum. The rare artifacts on display at the museum are the Hindu and Jain sculptures dated to 1st century BC and 2nd century BC, miniature statue of Salabhanjika (shown only by special permission), Terracotta articles and replicas of frescoes seen in Bagh Caves.

Teli-ka-Mandir

The Teli-ka-Mandir, or Oilmans Temple or Oil Pressers temple is inferred to have been built in the 8th century, but 11th century has also been mentioned. Based on the sculptures and ornamentation in the two temples, Louis Frederic, an archeologist, has inferred that the two are 8th century shrines. It is considered the oldest monument in the fort, which presents a unique blend of various Indian architectural styles (fusion of south Indian and North Indian styles) and is called a Brahmanical sanctuary. Basically, it has an unusual configuration: shrine-like in that it has a sanctuary only; no pillared pavilions or mandapa; and a Buddhist barrel-vaulted roof on top of a Hindu mandir. Buddhist architectural influence has been identified on the basis of Chitya type of hall and elegant torana decorations at the entrance gate. It was refurbished in 1881-83 with garden sculpture. In plan, it is a rectangular structure. It has a tower built in masonry, in nagari architectural style with a barrel vaulted roof, 25 metres (82 ft) in height. In the past, the niches in the outer walls had sculptures installed in them but now have horse shoe arch or gavakshas (ventilator openings) with arched motifs, in north Indian architectural style. The gavaksha design, has been compared to trefoil, a honey comb design with a series of receding pointed arches within an arch that allows a "play of light and shadow". The entrance door has a torana or archway with exquisitely sculpted images of river goddesses, romantic couples, foliation decoration and a Garuda. Diamond and lotus designs are seen on the horizontal band at the top of the arch, which is deciphered as an influence from Buddhist period. It was originally dedicated to Vishnu, but later converted to the worship of Siva."Gate of Teki Mandir, Gwalior Fort". British Library On line gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-24. The details of the doorway design has been vividly described by an archeologist as: The combination of vertical and horizontal bands produces a composition of rectangular shapes-all within one large rectangle surmounted by an elaborate honeycomb design of gavaksa motifs. The vertical

bands on either side of the door are simple and restrained, and although the figures have been badly damaged, they still retain their graceful, rhythmical form and movement. The small group of dislike objects immediately above the doorway suggest the finial or crown (damalaka) of an Indo-Aryan Shikhara. The highest monument in the fort is that of the Garuda, dedicated to the Pratihara Vishnu. This structure considered a fusion of Muslim and Indian architecture is seen close to the Teli-ka-Mandir (see picture). >>This is not the Teli ka makdir, But it was the temple of Lord Shiva. The worshippers used to install a Bell Called in Hindi Taali on the fulfillment of their desire by praying there. Which again Taali was converted to word as Teli ka mander, due to the ignorance of the local people.

SAHASTRABAHU TEMPLE
Sahastrabahu in the fort

Sas-Bahu temple

Small Sas Bahu temple

In the 10th century, with the control of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of Gwalior declining, a regional dynasty called the Kachchhapaghatas started wielding power. During their rule they built several monuments, which included two temples original name was Sahastrabahu(Thousand Hands form of Lord Vishnu)

Temple, one small and one large (both are seen but in ruins, but the smaller one is more elegant and better preserved) located adjacent to each other. These temples were initially dedicated to Vishnu. An inscription on the larger of the two temples records its building date to 1093 AD. A unique architectural feature of these pyramidal shaped temples built in red sandstone is that they have been raised several stories high solely with the help of beams and pillars, and with no arches having been used for the purpose. The main temple looks dauntingly sturdy. The stylistic smaller Sahastrabahu temple is a replica of the larger temple.Thorton p. 67"Sas-Bahu temple, Gwalior Fort.". British Library On line gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-24."Small Sas Bahu temple, Gwalior Fort.". British Library On line gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To

explore

the

opportunities

for

the

development

of

Gwalior fort as a global tourist destination. 2. To international stander for global tourist destination and requirement international need. 3. To explore issues challenges in the development of as global destination. 4. To find out roles of various stack holders in the development of Gwalior fort among the top. 5. To determine budget requirement ,infrastructure need for the development of Gwalior fort.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The method adopted for carrying out any project is called as research for this project the study is conducted among the employees of tourism. Research methodology used in this project is based on following factors:

SOURCES OF DATE
(i)

Primary Data : This type of data, which is subjective is collected by

questionnaire filed by the tourist (ii)

Secondary Data : This type of data, which is collected from internet and

ASI Department

SAMPLING PLAN:Target Population - All the employee of tourism industry, tourist Sampling Unit - One employee of tourism, tourist
Sampling method - Random Sampling Sampling Size - 100

Area of population - Tourism industry, M.P.

1. Name of monuments visited a. Gwalior Fort b. Teli k Mandir c. Jain rock-cut sculptures d. Gurudwara e. Sun Temple Gwalior

2. Would you like to visit monuments other than World Heritage Sites--- Yes/ No

3. Source of information-------- TV/ Magazine/News Papers/Books/ Tour Operator/Friends/ abroad 4. Length of night stay-------5. Purpose of the visit--------6. Preferred Accommodation------Star Hotel/ Budget hotel/ Low budget hotels/ Government Accommodation Web Sites/ India Tourism Offices

7. Mode of Transportation Used----Car/ Bus /Rail/Air 8. Local Transportation Used----Taxi/ auto/Rickshaw/ Camel cart/Horse Cart 9. Preferred Dishes----------- Local/Ethnic/ South Indian/Continental 10. ATM use in the city------No/ once twice/ thrice 11. Purchasing of Souvenirs-------Yes/ No 12. Average Cost of the Souvenirs-----Less than $50 / More than$50 13. Medical facilities Used in the city------Yes/ No 14. Cultural Show attended in the city ----Yes/ No 15. Level of Satisfaction-----Highly Satisfied/ Satisfied/dissatisfied

Foreign Tourist Arrivals at Various Monuments Years Gwali or fort Teli ka mandid Sas bahu tempal Join rock cut sculptures 2007 23844 0 2008 25942 7 2009 35757 6 2010 38569 7 2011 31411 6 2012 42195 7 225762 39871 42113 6473 292 159072 35761 33677 5250 162 191242 40801 39871 5144 197 198589 42455 39739 4357 284 145959 38414 39016 2253 167 126576 47409 43926 1348 218 Grudwara Sun tempal

Domestic Tourist Arrivals at Various Monuments Gwali or fort Teli ka mandid Sas bahu tempal Join rock cut sculpture s 200 7 200 8 200 9 201 0 201 1 201 2 315213 332421 1143 68555 23708 29597 294316 300213 9937 63974 20902 27461 292483 327804 12188 64647 20552 32209 263038 304938 9435 62811 17792 34756 246056 243237 10230 59801 9936 16094 237545 278471 13426 57393 6353 11477 Grudwar a Sun tempal

Revenue generated by ticket sale at Various Monuments


Years Gwali or fort Teli ka mandid Sas bahu tempal Join rock cut sculptures 32493 770 200 8 200 9 201 0 201 1 201 2 37447 070 49670 870 49862 750 42861 160 46733 287 5724390 65721 3756834 715470 176309 5077165 61385 3687570 659510 153505 5673568 71240 4258825 613947 180745 5637212 50975 4153657 522212 202180 4954295 52556 4097993 274980 97170 6032155 70630 4573731 7925340 79185 Grudwara Sun tempal

FINDINGS OF STUDY
Conservation of the historic fabric Conservation of historic gardens and open spaces. Preservation of the archaeological deposits in the Fort complex and the environs Protection of the traditional uses with reference to rights and responsibilities of stakeholders and caretakers of the Fort complex in the management system. Ensure sustainable visitor management Improve visitor amenities Improve and augment public access and movement Prepare and adopt an agreed interpretation strategy for the Fort complex and its environs. Ensure the protection of the site from hazards. The setting of the Red Fort complex Urge local authorities to ensure that the significance of the Fort complex as a national icon is the key determinant in the planning and development of Gwalior Fort. Reduce the impact of air pollution on the Gwalior Fort complex Achieve a high quality environment for the Fort complex by promoting the highest standards of new development Detailing and Implementation of the Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan and Detail Conservation Plans, in phases.

DATA ANALYSIS
Part-A (Regarding Foreign Tourist Arrivals at Various Monuments)

0 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 0 6473 42113 39871 5250 33677 35761 5144 39871 40801 4357 39739 42455 2253 39016 38414 1384 43926 47409 225762 159072 191242 198589 145959 126576 576736 Sun tempal 314116 385697 357576 Grudwara Join rock Tali ka mandir Gwalior fort Sas bahu tempal 259427 238440

100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000

The analysis of tourist arrivals shows that foreign tourist arrivals at Gwalior Fortis very much high in Comparison to all other monuments. This shows that there is a large scope of entrepreneurship in marketing and development of these destinations. As tourist have responded in questionnaire that they did not know about the other monuments like Fatehpur Sikri and Sikandara, Itmad-ud-daula, Ram bagh etc. This shows that Marketing of these monuments is not carried out abroad. Tour Operator also did not inform them about these destinations. Only Gwalior Fortwas told to worth to visit. Only 18 % tourists new about the Fatehpur Sikri but were unable to visit because lack of time. Those visited to Itmad-ud-daula, Mariam Tomb and Ram Bagh was basically FIT and gathered the information about monuments through books.

About 39% of tourists those visited Fatehpur Sikri was GIT and 61% were FIT. Most of the tourists travelling in the group got the information either through friends or from travel agencys advertisement.

Foreign Tourist Arrivals at various Monuments in % in year 2012


1% 5% 6% Gwalior fort Teli ka mandir Sas bahu tempal 31% 57% Join rock Gurudwara Sun tempal

The above graph shows that the Gwalior Fortis receiving highest 46 tourists out of 100 tourists visiting to M.P. though this is fact that most of the tourists who are going to other monuments in M.P. have already visited Taj Mahal. M.P. Fort stands second in sharing 33%per cent while other two Fatehpur Sikri sharing18%and Itmad-ud-daula are receiving almost make shares of 3%.

Foreign Foot Falls in 2012


42113 39871 Gwalior fort Tela ka mandir Sas bahu tempal 225762 421957 join rock Gurudwara Sun tempal 6473

Part-B (Regarding Domestic Tourist Arrivals at Various Monuments)


3500000 3000000 2624085 2500000 2048120 20000001885286 1500000 1000000 500000 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 332421 327804 304938 300213 278471 243237 68555 64647 63974 62811 59801 57393 2635283 2585560 Gwalior Fort Teli ka mandir Sas bahu tempal Join Rock Gurudwara Ram Bagh 3242711

Domestic Tourist Arrivals at various Monuments in % in year 2012


1% 6% 6% Gwalior fort Teli ka mandir 29% 58% Sas bahu tempal Join rock Gurudwara

Gwalior Fort is remaining main attraction to the domestic tourists. Most of the people visiting to the Gwalior Fort are basically honeymooners and school students coming from different parts of the country. It shares 58% of the domestic tourists arrivals. Gwalior fort receives 29% which is less than the foreigners percentage arrivals at this monument. While there is little growth in share at Telli ka Mandir and Saas Bahu Temple as it is 6% and 6% respectively in comparison to foreign tourist arrivals at these places that was 4% and the basic ratio of Gurudwara only 1%, which reflect the present condition of visitors who visited the different monuments in M.P. Part-C (Regarding other information like food, culture transportation etc at local) Tourism is the hospitality industry and largely depends in the entrepreneurship in all segment of the tourism business. Most of the tourists travel for a change. This change may be in climate, culture and other his usual environment. Tourism Entrepreneurship helps in growth and development of the business. It is essential to attract new clients as well as repeaters. Food and accommodation and

entertainments are the areas where lot of things can be done to attract more and more number of tourists. As per the response of the foreigners it was revealed that about 67% tourists prefer local and ethnic foods if it is served in hygienically. Tourists also wanted to know about the local means or traditional means of entertainment as 72% tourists responded that they wanted to see it but could not got opportunity in the hotel. As far as local convenience is concerned about 37% tourists loved to travel by traditional vehicle like camel cart and horse carts.

SUGGESTIONS
Following suggestions can be drawn on the basis of analysis of feed back received by the tourists a- Marketing of other world heritage sites can be done separately to enhance the number of tourist arrivals at these monuments. For example Telli ka Mandir and Saas Bahu Temple at Sun Temple may be highlighted abroad to receive more number of tourists. b- Night bazaar and other recreational activities may be developed to make tourist stay at the destination. c- Various entertainments like Kowaali etc can be organised at Saas Bahu Temple or nearby places where apex court does not have any objection. d- Separate souvenir of Sun Temple should be highlighted so that tourist can purchase it separately along with the souvenirs of M.P. For example Marble handicrafts of M.P and deri (cotton carpet) of Telli ka mandir of M.P. and Namkeen of Gwalior. e- Gwalior Fort should be market abroad as well as locally. f- Some Sindhiya complex/ food court can be developed where a tourist can feel himself in the period of Sindhiya. Food served, utensils used ,furniture and inner decoration and whole environment including

costumes should be just like in the time of Sindhiya. g- Some traditional entertainments of the Sindhiya periods like girls khokho , fitha etc. may also be revived to add in values at the destination. h- Some national and international events in association with different national and international bodies may be organised to highlight the destination.

i- Involvement of Embassies in international events at telli ka Mandir and Gwalior will be helpful to market the destination abroad. j- Lesser known monuments of M.P. may be planned separately to market.

CONCLUSION
From the above discussion it is evident that the number of tourist arrivals at different monuments in the city has fluctuating in number. Gwalior Fortis receiving highest number of both domestic as well as foreigner tourists. Other grand monuments like Gwalior Fort, Telli ka Mandir and Saas Bahu Temple are receiving very little number of tourists in comparison of Gwalior Fort Most of the people visiting to the Gwalior Fort are basically honeymooners and school students coming from different parts of the country. It shares 56% of the domestic tourists arrivals. Gwalior fort receives 30% which is less than the foreigners percentage arrivals at this monument. While there is little growth in share at Telli ka Mandir and Saas Bahu Temple as it is 6% and 7% respectively in comparison to foreign tourist arrivals at these places that was 4%. Budget hotels at the city are not serving ethnic and local foods while tourists love to eat them. A traditional vehicle like horse carts and camel carts fascinates tourists but not in much of practice in the city. The domestic tourists visiting Gwalior Fort is honeymooners or students. Foreign tourist also want to enjoy local entertainment if he gets the facilities. Most of the tourists visiting lesser known monuments like Gurudwara and Sun Temple are FIT and got the information from books or travel guides.

REFERENCES
I. Sharma. R.B., World Tourism in 21st Century, Alfa Publications, New Delhi. First Edition. 2006. II. III. Archaeological Survey of India records of tourist arrivals Bezbaruah, M.P. Indian Tourism, Beyond the Millennium, Gyan Publication House, 2000.Delhi IV. Chandra.R., Recent Trends in World Tourism, Akanksha Publishing House,First edition. V. Chib, S.N. Essay on tourism, Ed. By Ratan Sahai, Cross Section Publications Private Limited, New Delhi, 1989. VI. Dharmarajan, S.D. & Rabindra Seth, Tourism in India, Trends and issues, Har-Anand Publications, 1994. VII. Dharmarajan.S and R. Seth, Tourism in India-Trends and Issues, Har Anand Publications, 1994. VIII. IX. Gour Kanjilal, India Tourism through the inner eyes, Orchid Books, 2005. Gupta. S., World Tourism in New Millennium, ABD Publishers, Jaipur, First Edition X. XI. India Tourism Office Jafari, J. (1974). Creation of the intergovernmental world tourism organization. Annals of Tourism Research, 2, (5), XII. Maken. D. Strategies and Planning in Tourism and Industry, Adhyayan Publication, Delhi XIII. XIV. Mishra L K, Basics of Tourism, Agrawal Publication , Agra, 2009 Promoting Tourism in Rural America. USDA, National Agricultural Library, Rural Information Center. 2004. Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, First edition.

XV.

Puri M and G.Chand, Tourism Management, Pragun Publications, New Delhi. First Edition. 2006.

XVI.

Seth, Rabindra & Om Gupta, Tourism in India, an overview, Balpaz Publication, 2005.

XVII.

Sharma. R.B., World Tourism in 21st Century, Alfa Publications, New Delhi, First edition.

XVIII.

Tourism Principles and Practice, C. Cooper, J. Fletcher, A. Fyall, D. Gilbert, S. Wanhill, Pearson Education, Third edition, Madrid 2005

XIX.

Tourism: OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development A valuable resource for statistics and information on international trends in tourism and tourism policies.

XX. XXI.

M. P Tourism office World Tourism Organization. (2003). WTO news, 2003 (3). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TOURISTS


Research is being carried out as part of the Strategy and concept of the development of tourism in Punat project of which this questionnaire is part. We therefore ask you to be so kind as to complete the questionnaire and take this opportunity to thank you for dedicating us your time. By filling in this questionnaire, you will have contributed to improving the quality and development of tourism in Punat, which is one of the most desirable holiday destinations.
1. Which country do you come from?

2. Age
16-25 years 26-35 years 36-45 years 46-55 years 56-65 years over 65 years

3. Sex
male female

4. Education
Primary Secondary High school Degree masters, doctorate

5. Number of nights stay in Punat


0 nights 1-3 nights 4-7 nights

more than 7 nights

6. Average daily cost per person in Punat


Less than 30 30-50 50-100 more than 100

7. Average monthly income of your family unit


Less than 500 500-999 1,000-1,999 2,000-2,999 3,000-4,999 over 5,000

8. By which means of transport did you come to Punat?


car coach train ship boat (yacht, charter) plane motorcycle / bicycle

9. Type of holiday
Self-organised Organised (through a travel agency)

10. How many times have you visited Punat before today?
This is my first time in Punat 2-5 times more than 5 times

11. Do you think you will visit Punat again?


yes no I dont know

12. What kind of accommodation did you choose?


hotel camp site private apartment marina

13. How did you hear about Punat?


Recommended by friends or relatives Tourism trade fair Internet Travel agency other

14. Reasons why you chose to come to Punat


Holiday and relaxation entertainment recommendation by friends or relatives beauty of the nature and landscape cultural offer sporting offer health and beauty offer work hobby

visiting friends or relations gastronomic offer other

How would you rate your level of satisfaction with regard to what Punat has to offer? 1-very unsatisfied, 5-very satisfied

1. Climate
1 2 3 4 5

2. Kindness of the local people


1 2 3 4 5

3. Kindness of the tour operators


1 2 3 4 5

4. Availability of tour operators


1 2 3 4 5

5. Tour operators knowledge of foreign languages


1 2 3 4 5

6. Road links
1 2 3 4 5

7. Local traffic
1 2 3 4 5

8. Car parks
1 2 3 4 5

9. Information received before your arrival in your chosen destination 10. Information about your destination
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

11. Tourist information in your chosen destination


1 2 3 4 5

12. Events
1 2 3 4 5

13. Souvenirs
1 2 3 4 5

14. General organisation of your chosen destination


1 2 3 4 5

15. Quality of urban design


1 2 3 4 5

16. Pedestrian areas


1 2 3 4 5

17. Parks and green areas


1 2 3 4 5

18. Historical-cultural heritage


1 2 3 4 5

19. Beach cleanliness and order


1 2 3 4 5

20. Crowding on the beaches


1 2 3 4 5

21. Landscape beauty


1 2 3 4 5

22. Environmental safeguarding


1 2 3 4 5

23. Quality of the water and bathing areas


1 2 3 4 5

24. Proposals for children


1 2 3 4 5

25. Safety
1 2 3 4 5

26. Opening hours of banks and shops


1 2 3 4 5

27. Opening hours of catering services


1 2 3 4 5

28. Shops
1 2 3 4 5

29. Accommodation
1 2 3 4 5

30. Catering services


1 2 3 4 5

31. Cultural offer


1 2 3 4 5

32. Amusement activities


1 2 3 4 5

33. Sporting activities


1 2 3 4 5

34. Health and beauty tourism offer


1 2 3 4 5

35. Sailing offer


1 2 3 4 5

36. Excursion offers


1 2 3 4 5

37. Local gastronomy


1 2 3 4 5

38. Quality-price ratio


1 2 3 4 5

39. Overall rating of what Punat has to offer as a tourist destination


1 2 3 4 5

PART - A

PART - B

INTRODUCTION OF GWALIOR

INTRODUCTION OF GWALIOR FORT