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Research Article ISSN 22780092 International Journal of Advances in Earth Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2012, 49-57 Copyright 2012,

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Hydrogeomorphic Significance of Sinuosity Index in relation to River Instability: A Case Study of Damodar River, West Bengal, India
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Sandipan Ghosh 1 and Biswaranjan Mistri 2 Research Scholar (JRF) and Assistant Professor, Post-Graduate Department of Geography, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal, India (Email: sandipanghosh19@gmail.com) Received 22 August 2012; received in revised form 12 September 2012; accepted 15 September 2012
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Abstract Analysis of changing channel pattern of flood prone Damodar River of West Bengal is very much essential for the investigation of surface expression of hidden hydrogeomorphic changes. It provides a sound basis for predicting future changes of river dynamics, especially those taking place after dam constructions by Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC). Using toposheets, satellite images and Geographic Information System (GIS), we have measured temporal pattern (1943 2006) of river plan-form with the help of Muellers Sinuosity Indexes to unfold the magnitude of river instability, contributing factors of sinuosity and the chances of flood with a probability of changing course. Keywords: Geomorphic instability, Channel pattern, Sinuosity Index, HSI, TSI and GIS 1 Introduction Damodar River is one of important monsoon dominated and severe flood prone Indian Rivers which carries out almost all the geomorphic work of erosion, transportation and deposition during summer monsoon season, mainly June to September (Kale, 2003). Generally after a spell of heavy rains (due to depression) which may last for a period of several hours to several days, that large volume of runoff is generated in the upper catchment and river experiences floods (Kale, 2003). As a result of short-span peak discharge or bankfull flood discharge the plan-form or pattern of river is subjected to change frequently, i.e. geomorphological instability phenomenon and it is connected to geomorphological risk which refers to the probability that the economic and social consequences of a particular phenomenon reflects geomorphological instability will exceed a certain threshold (Panniza, 1996). Geomorphological instability phenomenon or unstable landform means a dynamic fluvial system which is not in equilibrium (tended to graded stream) with the natural environment and which tends to reach a balance by modifying itself (Panniza, 1996). The river instability can be detected from channel pattern which is the term used to describe the plan-view of a reach or river channel or the entire river as seen from an air-plane (Ezizshi, 1999). There is a plan-form between straight and meandering which may be called sinuous (Morisawa, 1985). One of the earliest references to the term sinuosity is that of Friedkin (1945) who defined the degree of sinuosity of meandering rivers as the ratio of thalweg length to the air-line distance (Ezizshi, 1999). Generally stream sinuosity indexes are usually derived by dividing the length of a reach as measured along a channel by the length of a reach as measured along a valley (Muller, 1968). Incorporating Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite images the sinuosity index is introduced here as a tool of river morphology which is branch of geomorphology and it would deal with form of the streams and adjoining areas as brought about by erosion, transportation and deposition of sediment by running water (Garde, 2006). 2 Study Area The Damodar River (total length - 541 km) originates from the Khamarpat Hill in Chotanagpur Plateau (near Chandwa in Palamau district) of Jharkhand (Sen, 1991; Bhattacharyya, 2011). The study area (figure 1) includes the lower reach of Damodar River in between Rhondia (Galsi II Block) and Paikpara (Jamalpur Block), which are both situated in Barddhaman District of West Bengal. In between Rhondia and Paikpara the total stretch of Damodar is approximately 82 km, having numerous spill channels and palaeochannels, viz. Banka, Gangur, Behula, Sapjala, Deb Khal and Kana Damodar etc. At Anderson Weir (near Rhondia) the estimated upper catchment area of River is 19,920 km2 and it is the only station of lower catchment where daily discharge is measured. Principally to mitigate flood and to tamp the River the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) was came into existence through an Act of the Constituent Assembly on 7th July, 1948 8. In the first phase of Indias first multipurpose river-valley project, only four dams viz. Tilaiya (1953), Konar (1955), Maithon (1957) and Panchet (1959) had been constructed by DVC. Then one more reservoir, Tenughat (1978) on Damodar under

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control of Jharkhand and Durgapur Barrage (1955) under control of West Bengal is constructed (Chandra, 2003; Bhattacharyya, 2011). To realize the Damodar River as flood prone (known as Sorrow of Bengal) it is important to note that the floods of peak flow of 8,496 cumec or more had been occurred 37 times between the years 1823 and 2007 (Bhattacharyya, 2011). Flash Flood Magnitude Index (FFMI) reveals that Damodar River of India is generating superior value in FFMI (0.325) than World average (0.278) and other Indian Rivers, viz. Narmada, Ganga, Godavari, Brahmaputra, Teesta and Tapi etc. (Kale, 2003).

Figure 1: Location Map of Damodar River Basin including Study Area 3 Methods and Materials The hydrogeomorphic dynamics of river and other external factors directly distort its course from pervious path and it is well measured by sinuosity index. We have analyzed few indexes of sinuosity which are formulated by Leopold and Wolman (1957), Brice (1964), Schumm (1963), Mueller (1968), Knighton (1998), Friend and Sinha (1993) (Brice, 1964; Muller, 1968; Prasad, 1982; Friend and Sinha, 1993). It is an inherent flaw in existing indexes which suggests that all streams with a value of unity are straight. Except Muellers index, all indexes have some difficulty in measurement, applicability and universal acceptance. The major attractiveness of Muellers component of sinuosity index is that it accounts for what percentage of a stream channels departure from a straight line course is due to either hydraulic factor within the valley or to topographic interference (Ezizshi, 1999). Mueller (1968) has redefined the index to incorporate hydraulic sinuosity (i.e. that freely developed by the channel uninfluenced by valley-wall alignment) and topographic

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sinuosity (i.e. that imparted by the geometry of the valley) (Haggett and Chorley, 1969). Mueller Muellers sinuosity indexes (figure 2) are briefly described as follows (Mueller, 1968; Haggett and Chorley, 1969; Prasad, 1982).

Figure 2. Parameters Taken for Mullers Sinuosity Index CL= the length of the channel (thalweg) in the stream under study VL= the valley length along a stream, the length of a line which is everywhere midway between the base of the valley walls (in this case one half of total length of right and left banks of a reach) Air= the shortest air distance between the source and mouth of the stream (in this case shortest air length of a reach) CI (Channel Index) = CL / Air VI (Valley Index) = VL / Air HSI (Hydraulic Sinuosity Index) = % equivalent of (CI VI) / (CI 1) TSI (Topographic Sinuosity Index) = % equivalent of (VI 1) / (CI 1) SSI (Standard Sinuosity Index) = CI / VI

Table 1: Classification of Channel Pattern in terms of Sinuosity Index

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Figure 3: Satellite Image Showing Locations of Four Bends of Damodar River Observing the direction of valley, sudden change in plan-form and bed topography we have subdivided Damodar River into four reaches for detail analysis of sinuosity indexes. The four reaches are (figure 3) - (1) Rhondia to Kashpur (Bend I), (2) Kashpur to Idilpur (Bend II), (3) Idilpur to Chanchai (Bend III) and (4) Chanchai to Paikpara (Bend IV). The whole analysis has especially incorporated the spatio-temporal variations (pre-dam up to 1956 and post-dam period 1957 to 2007) from 1943 to 2006 and for this reason we have used ArcGis 9.2 and Erdas 9.1 softwares taking toposheet of NF 45-3 series U502 (1943), toposheets 73 M/7, M/11, M/12, M/15, M/16, N/13 and 79 A/4 of Survey of India (1969-1974), satellite images of LANDSAT TM (1990), IRS P6 LISS III (2001) and LANDSAT TM (2006). We have considered the Morisawas classification of river patterns to draw the actual hydrogeomorphic significances of sinuosity index (Morisawa, 1985; Goudie, 2004). Taking all raster layers we have geo-referenced those in UTM WGS-84 projection system in Erdas 9.1 software to minimize error in images mosaic and superimposition of layers. To get parametric values of Muellers sinuosity indexes we have created vector layers on five geo-referenced images in MapInfo 9.0 software on by one, digitizing the river and both banks. Then channel length, valley length and air length of five raster images are measured in GIS and further calculation is done in Microsoft Excel 2003 (table 2 and 3). 4 Results and Discussion Table 2: Sinuosity Figures of Selected Four Reaches of Damodar River (1943-2006) Toposheet NF 45-3 series Length in km U502 (1943) Reach of HSI Damodar River CL VL Air CI VI SSI (%) Bend I (Rhondia to Kashpur) 17.5 16.66 15.76 1.11 1.05 1.05 48 Bend II (Kashpur to Idilpur) 32.42 30 26.15 1.24 1.15 1.08 39 Bend III (Idilpur to Chachai) 19.96 19.62 18.97 1.05 1.03 1.02 34 Bend IV (Chachai to Paikpara) 21.35 20.85 17.41 1.22 1.19 1.02 13

TSI (%) 51 61 66 87

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SOI Toposheets- (1969-1974) Reaches of Damodar River CL Bend I (Rhondia to Kashpur) 18.75 Bend II (Kashpur to Idilpur) 31.5 Bend III (Idilpur to Chachai) 21 Bend IV (Chachai to Paikpara) 19.75 LANDSAT TM (1990) Reaches of Damodar River CL Bend I (Rhondia to Kashpur) 18.38 Bend II (Kashpur to Idilpur) 30.43 Bend III (Idilpur to Chachai) 19.76 Bend IV (Chachai to Paikpara) 20.85 IRS P6LISS III (2001) Reaches of Damodar River CL Bend I (Rhondia to Kashpur) 18.67 Bend II (Kashpur to Idilpur) 33.57 Bend III (Idilpur to Chachai) 21.79 Bend IV (Chachai to Paikpara) 20.5 LANDSAT TM (2006) Reaches of Damodar River CL Bend I (Rhondia to Kashpur) 20.17 Bend II (Kashpur to Idilpur) 33.67 Bend III (Idilpur to Chachai) 21.75 Bend IV (Chachai to Paikpara) 20.61 VL 16 28.75 20.75 19 Air 15.76 26.15 18.97 17.41 CI 1.19 1.2 1.11 1.13 VI 1.01 1.09 1.09 1.09 SSI 1.17 1.1 1.02 1.04 HSI (%) 92 51 12 32 HSI (%) 59 60 72 13 HSI (%) 65 60 74 4 HSI (%) 71 62 93 85 TSI (%) 8 49 88 68 TSI (%) 41 40 28 87 TSI (%) 35 40 26 96 TSI (%) 29 38 7 15

VL 16.84 27.85 19.19 20.41

Air 15.76 26.15 18.97 17.41

CI 1.17 1.16 1.04 1.19

VI 1.06 1.06 1.01 1.17

SSI 1.1 1.09 1.02 1.02

VL 16.77 29.11 19.71 20.38

Air 15.76 26.15 18.97 17.41

CI 1.18 1.28 1.15 1.18

VI 1.6 1.11 1.04 1.17

SSI 1.11 1.15 1.1 1.01

VL 17.03 29.04 19.17 17.88

Air 15.76 26.15 18.97 17.41

CI 1.28 1.29 1.14 1.18

VI 1.08 1.11 1.01 1.02

SSI 1.18 1.16 1.13 1.15

Table 3: Total Sinuosity Figures of Lower Damodar River (Rhondia to Paikpara) Rhondia to Paikpara Year 1943 1969-1972 1990 2001 2006 Length in km CL 91.23 91.00 89.42 94.53 96.20 VL 87.13 84.50 84.29 85.97 83.12 Air 64.16 64.16 64.16 64.16 64.16 CI 1.42 1.41 1.39 1.47 1.49 VI 1.35 1.31 1.31 1.34 1.30 SSI 1.04 1.07 1.06 1.10 1.16 HSI (%) 15 24 20 28 40 TSI (%) 85 76 80 72 60

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Table 2 and 3 provide the idea that in pre-dam phase (1943) the four reaches of Damodar River have been marked with increasing Channel Index (CI) from 1.11 to 1.22. Similarly, Valley Index (VI) is gradually increased from 1.05 to 1.19 in the pre-dam period of DVC. But the Standard Sinuosity Indexes (SSI) of four reaches are constantly decreased downstream from 1.05 to 1.02 (sinuous to straight course), guided by narrow valley alignment. As we look closely, the River is partly sinuous from Rhondia to Idilpur but after crossing Barddhaman town it has moved more or less straight and narrow pattern towards Paikapara (Figure 3) (except sudden 90 southerly turn at Palla village). The most important thing is that in pre-dam period, Hydraulic Sinuosity Index (HSI) of four reaches is constantly decreased from 48 percent to 13 percent whereas Topographic Sinuosity Index (TSI) is increased from 51 percent to 87 percent. It signifies that in pre-dam phase (prevailing almost natural condition) sinuosity of Damodar River is controlled by the topographic factors of floodplain, viz. tight valley alignment, cohesive bank materials, less number of bars, coarse bed configuration or neo-tectonic activity, not by solely monsoonal flood discharge and other hydraulic factors. After almost twenty seven years of time span (1969-72), i.e. post-dam period, there are few changes in channel pattern. Surprisingly, the River is getting sinuous pattern due to changing CI and unchanging VI. From Rhondia to Idilpur there is an increasing value of SSI (>1.05) than SSI of 1943. That is contributed much by the hydraulic factors (HSI- 92 to 51 percent) and less influenced by the topographic factors (TSI- 8 to 49 percent). But after crossing Idilpur, SSI is less than 1.05, i.e. more towards straightness. In 1990 HSI is increased in first three reaches (Rhondia to Chanchai) in compare to TSI. But TSI is much more (87 percent) in the last reach where the River turns southerly. The overall tendency of Damodar is partly straight (less deviation from previous existing straight course) in twenty years. Again SSI of total reach is slight less (1.06) than pervious, having TSI of 80 percent and HSI of only 20 percent. In 2001, after eleven years gap, there is slight positive deviation from the previous course. The SSI varies from 1.0 to 1.15 in between Rhondia and Chanchai. It means the River widens its valley and developing bars within its sinuous channel with high influence of hydraulic factors (60 to 74 percent). But again after crossing Chanchai the SSI (1.01) signifies the tightness of valley alignment with increasing influences of topographic factors (TSI- 96 percent). There are two probable causes- (1) encroachment of floodplain by human to render its widening tendency, and (2) cohesive bed configuration and subsurface neo-tectonic activity (figure 4) (presence of asymmetric terraces at Belkash, 5-8 metre vertical bluff between two successive terraces on left bank of Damodar River near Hatsimul, presence of palaeochannels at Barsul, 10-12 metre vertical scarp near Salalpur and Palla and fragmented clay band in Quaternary sand layer at Palla forming seismites indicating seismic activity).

(a)

(b)

Figure 4: (a) Glimpses of fragmented clay spots in yellowish-brown sand at Palla and (b) fragmented clay band in quaternary sand layer forming seismites indicating seismic activity, north bank of Damodar River (18/01/2009 Vijay Shivgotra, ER, EQ Geology Div., Kolkata) In between 2001 and 2006, there is yet again an increasing trend of SSI (1.13 1.18) in all four reaches. Sinuous pattern is achieved from downstream to upstream direction and the most important fact is that HSI is radically increased in all four reaches (62 to 93 percent) in compare to TSI (7 to 38 percent). Especially in between Idilpur and Chanchai, HSI has contributed 92 percent influence on sinuosity and in between Chanchai and Paikpara, it is 85 percent. Taking entire channel segment, we have obtained that SSI of 2006 is 1.16 which was only 1.04 in 1943 (figure 5).

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(a)

(b) Figure 5: (a) Temporal Pattern of Changing SSI for Lower Damodar River and (b) Significant Deviation of SSI of Four Reaches of Damodar River in between 1943 and 2006 The long profile of river bed in post-dam situation from Damodar Bridge site to its confluence with River Hooghly shows remarkable low gradient and slight concavity with in conspicuous break of profile (due to cessation of sedimentation and diversion of supply to Mundeswari River) at the bifurcation point (near Paikpara village) where main Damodar River and Mundeswari River are diverged (Sen, 1985; Bhattacharyya, 2011). In between 1943 and 2006 the channel length of Damodar is increased from 91.23 to 96.20 km and valley length is reduced from 87.13 to 83.12 km. Alongside SSI is increased from 1.04 to 1.16 and there are much deviation of SSI in selected reaches in between 1943 and 2006 (figure 5). In pre-dam period TSI is more dominant than HSI to control total sinuosity of Damodar River. It is surprising that though upper reach of Damodar (situated in Jharkhand) is tectonically guided (so TSI is high), similarly lower alluvial reach (TSI>60%) is more or less straight (west east direction) except sudden southerly 90o bend near Palla village. It signifies valley straightening, slow neo-tectonic activity, high channel gradient and less lateral migration (meander accretion). But in course of time after crossing Anderson Weir River is getting more sinuous with increasing contribution of HSI (15 40%) but still TSI is greater (60% in 2006) as we consider the total reach in between Rhondia and Paikpara. If we look closely at temporal channel pattern of four reaches we have found that in pre-dam period (1943) the Bend III and IV were very much straight in plan having more influence of TSI (>70%) but in postdam period (2006) the HSI (>80%) is dominated over TSI. It implies the increasing flow velocity in monsoon, high flash flood magnitude, thalweg shifting, lateral migration and probability of changing course or bank failure in lower reaches. Analyzing temporal pattern we can infer that hidden neo-tectonic activity of Bengal Basin once had guided the slope of the river valley, which would result in corresponding changes in sinuosity so as to maintain an equilibrium channel slope (Babar, 2005). We have understood that the Damodar River is in transition phase between straight and sinuous, having sign of braiding, i.e. lack of competence. Geomorphologically straight stretches often occur in conjunction with or between bends or along braided reaches (Morisawa, 1985). Even stretches with straight embanked banks have a sinuous thalweg pattern with asymmetrical shoals and point bars alternating along either bank, just like lower Damodar River (Morisawa, 1985). Post-dam changes in escalating SSI and HSI signifies that because of reduced sediment load downstream from a dam, the channel pattern of a river may be changed from braided to split or single thread, and may tend

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to become more sinuous (Bhattacharyya, 2011). Channel sinuosity appears to increase with water and sediment discharge from straight to sinuous single channels, but then decreases towards the transition to braiding (Bridge, 2003). Streamow below the control points (dams) has been reduced resulting in changes in channel morphology (increasing tendency of braiding) and the cause of modication of channel pattern is the imbalance between the process of sediment transfer and energy dissipation (Garde, 2006; Bhattacharyya, 2011).

Figure 5: (a) Shifting Courses of Damodar, creating wide floodplain downstream of Anderson Weir, Rhondia (b) Right Bank Migration near Belkash forming long stretch of point bar, chute and terrace on left bank (c) Sudden Right Angle Turn of Damodar (signifying neo-tectonic activity) near Chanchai, 25 km Downstream of Barddhaman Town, and (d) Shifting towards Left Bank and Braiding Pattern of River near Jujuti Sluice [Photographs (a) & (b) are Landsat TM, 2006 and (c) & (d) are Google Earth, 2012] The hidden hydraulic activities are much more pronounced in the downstream section at the season of monsoon rainfall when the excess water is released from the reservoirs, causing initial degradation of reach (thalweg shifting) and leading to channel widening (bank erosion) and aggradations (formation of bars and islands). As studies done by Sen (1985, 1991), Garde (2006) and Bhattacharyya (2011) bankfull discharge, variable flow velocity, fluctuating monsoonal flow regime, high hydraulic radius of channel, channel bed roughness, turbulent monsoonal river flow including eddies, coarse sand bed and vegetation growth on bars and banks, low sediment supply due to trap efficiency of upper catchment reservoirs, elevated concrete embankments and flow diversion through canals are the dominant hydraulic factors to deviate channel sinuosity in the downstream section. According to Schumm (1968, 1977) classification of channels Damodar River is regarded as mixed suspended and bed load channel, having 30 65 percent of silt-clay on channel perimeter and high width to depth ratio (> 40). In that reason sinuosity index is less than 1.3 and channel slope is low to transport all bed loads, maintaining meandering thalweg to dissipate less energy. 5 Conclusion It is generally argued that the natural alluvial river has high degree of meandering and SSI (indication of late maturity) but in case of lower Damodar River it is not absolutely established, as the above analysis suggests (tending towards equilibrium). Pre-dam analysis of channel pattern imply partly straight type, having dominance of topographic constraints but post-dam sinuosity (slight sinuous) is affected by aforesaid hydraulic factors which are exaggerated by construction of flood control measures, viz. large reservoirs, dams and barrages, sluices, weirs, canal head works and channel straightening. Due to enormous soil erosion of deforested upper catchment and wide coverage of high drainage density, the rate of sediment supply is increased gradually in spite of trap efficiency of reservoirs (siltation problem). As the lower reach is already surplus with coarse sediments, then the capacity of Damodar River to transport further addition of sediment has been reduced

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remarkably due to the decline of flood peaks making a series of bars and islands. Though, the Damodar valley shows straight pattern but the thalweg shows meandering pattern, showing a special feature of alluvial river. As the geomorphological studies done by Sen (1991) and Bhattacharyya (2011) the areas of greater slope and larger grain size are generally associated with less sinuous course up to Barsul village whereas those of much gentler slope and fine grain size show greater sinuosity up to Paikpara village. Current increasing sinuous pattern of lower reach is the consequence of mutual interaction in between sudden peak monsoonal discharge and flood controlling actions of DVC authority, including recent riparian anthropogenic activities, viz. sand quarrying, embankments, bank side intensive agriculture and grasping of bars and islands for agricultural uses and settlement. Shifting its thalweg frequently, Damodar River now intends to move freely along its confined valley through its increasing percentage of hydraulic activities but topographic hindrance and human interferences are still sustained. It is understood that inducing a threshold of big dam construction, Damodar River is forced to enter in a new equilibrium and the river instability is again revived together with slow changes in hydrogeomorphic characteristics within the controlled fluvial system, readjusting its path in the periods of monsoonal peak discharge. The most important query is arised about the exact neo-tectonic or hydrogeomorphic factors of straightening of lower Damodar River and post-dam change in sinuosity value. As SSI, TSI and HSI are frequently changed it compels to think about potential chances of channel shifting and probability of devastating flood in future. References Babar, Md. (2005). Hydrogeomorphology: Fundamentals, Applications and Techniques. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi Bhattacharyya, K. (2011). The Lower Damodar River, India: Understanding the Human Role in Changing Fluvial Environment. Springer, New York Brice, J. C. (1964). Channel Patterns and Terraces of the Loup Rivers in Nebraska. Geological Survey Professional Paper 422-D, Washington, p. D2 D41 Bridge, J. S. (2003). Rivers and Floodplains. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Chandra, S. (2003). India: Flood Management- Damodar River Basin. WMO/GWP The Associated Programme on Flood management, p. 1-9 Ezizshi, A. C. (1999). An Appraisals of the Existing Descriptive Measures of River Channel Patterns. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(2), 253 257. Friend, P. F. and Sinha, R. (1993). Braiding and Meandering Parameters. In Braided Rivers (eds. Best, J.L. and Bristow, C.S.), Geological Society Special Publications, No.75, p.105-111 Garde, R. J. (2006). River Morphology. New Age International (P) Limited, New Delhi Goudie, A. S. (2004). Encyclopedia of Geomorphology (Ed.). Routeledge, London Haggett, P. and Chorley, R. J. (1969). Network Analysis in Geography. Edward Arnold, London Kale, V. S. (2003). Geomorphic Effects of Monsoon Floods on Indian Rivers. Natural Hazards, Springer, 28, 64-84 Kale, V. S. (2003). The Spatio-temporal Aspects of Monsoon Floods in India: Implications for Flood Hazard Management. In Disaster Management (ed. H. K. Gupta), University Press, Hyderabad, p.22-47 Morisawa, M. (1985). River - Forms and Process. Longman, London, Mueller, J. R. (1968). An Introduction to the Hydraulic and Topographic Sinuosity Indexes. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.58, No.2, 371-385. Panniza, M. (1996). Environmental Geomorphology. Elsevier, Amsterdam Prasad, N. (1982). Some Aspects of Meandering Streams of the Barakar Basin and Their Sinuosity Indexes. In Perspectives in Geomorphology (Vol. 4): Essay on Indian geomorphology (ed. H. S. Sharma), Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p. 93-102 Sen, P. K. (1991). Flood Hazards and River Bank Erosion in the Lower Damodar Basin. In Indian Geomorphology (ed. Sharma, H.S.), Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p.95-108 Sen, P.K. (1985). The Genesis of Floods in the Lower Damodar Catchment. In The Concepts and Methods in Geography (ed. P. K. Sen), The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, p. 71-85

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