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Running Head: EXPLORATION

Exploration of Physical Therapy Cassidy Lindler Chapin High School ALA

EXPLORATION

Exploration of Physical Therapy: An Annotated Bibliography Physical Therapy is defined as the treatment of physical dysfunction or injury by the use of therapeutic exercise and the application of modalities, intended to restore or facilitate normal function or development. Types of physical therapy can include massages, muscle endurance, strength training, and stretching. Physical therapy can be used to assist anyone of any age who is in need of movement/muscle regaining and rehabilitating. The art of therapeutic rehabilitation first began in the 1900s with nurses attending to injured soldiers during the First World War. Since then, physical therapy has evolved into treating patients with functional diseases, neurological diseases, and musculoskeletal aspects of different people. Physical therapy is a great way to strengthen muscles and regain the muscle memory that is required by your body to function correctly. Where there is physical therapy for adults, there is also an equally important need for therapeutic services for infants and children. Treating this age group is called Pediatric Physical Therapy. Pediatric Physical Therapy focuses on developing the muscles and tendons so that they can function and develop at a normal rate. Two types of technology that work specifically with this age group are the Lokomat, which is a machine to improve gait, and the Dandle Roo, which improves a babys positioning and helps serve as the basis for all future movement for an infant. Physical therapy not only focuses on the rehabilitation of muscles, but also on making sure patients can participate in sports and activities safely on a daily basis.

EXPLORATION

Chudy, J. (2006). The Evolution of Physical Therapy. PM&R Update, 9(2), 1-4. Retrieved February 27, 2013. This article explains the history and evolution of physical therapy as a whole. Physical therapy began in the early 1900s. Specialization of skills within physical therapy began in the 1970s with the development of the orthopedic section of the American Physical Therapy Association. About 10 years later technological advances of the 1980s introduced electrical equipment to the physical therapy practice. Ultrasound, electrical stimulation, and iontophoresis became widely used for the management of pain and injury. James Cyriax, a London internist and orthopedic surgeon, introduced a new practice of orthopedic medicine that was bad on three principles: every pain has a source, treatment must reach the source, and treatment must benefit the source in order to relieve pain. In addition to neurological diseases, physical therapists also treat musculoskeletal aspects of patients with cystic fibrosis, cancer, scoliosis, torticollis, osteogenesis imperfecta, abdominal and pelvic pain, headaches, and many other pain syndromes. This article helped me understand where physical therapy evolved from. I now know that physical therapy evolved from nurse treating injured soldiers during WW1. I also learned the different types of things that therapists treat in addition to just functioning diseases, such as cancer, headaches, and scoliosis.

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More Than Therapy. (n.d.). Physical Therapy Children's Therapy Corner. Retrieved February 28, 2013. Pediatric physical therapy is the evaluation and treatment of physical impairments in children, ranging in age from newborn to mid-20s. The goal of pediatric physical therapy is to assist children with physical challenges to maximize their independence and improve their mobility, self-care and other functional skills necessary for daily living. Physical therapists work with patients to set up exercise plans that best benefit them individually. From this short article on physical therapy, I learned that a normal physical therapy program for a child includes: stretching, strengthening weak muscles, balance and coordination exercises, exercises to improve endurance, exercises to facilitate gross motor development, and exercises to improve gait. Natalie Davis' Cerebral Palsy Patient Story. (n.d.). Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Retrieved February 28, 2013. This article tells the story of an 11 year old girl named Natalie Davis. She has had to cope with the daily struggles of cerebral palsy since she was a baby. Although she has a mild form of cerebral palsy known as spastic diplegia CP, she has had to endure physical and occupational therapy through a DeKalb County early intervention program since she was six months old. Natalie has had a few invasive surgeries, mainly on her hamstrings, leg tendons, and leg muscles. After having these

EXPLORATION

surgeries, she needed a way to re-strengthen her leg muscles so that she could walk and achieve her ultimate goal of playing soccer. On her journey to accomplish this, she used a robot-assisted walking therapy on the Lokomat, a high-tech treadmill with an robotic frame attached by straps to the outside of the legs. It is designed to improve one's walking pattern, speed, and endurance. In addition to Lokomat therapy three times a week, Natalie also participated in occupational therapy to work on fine motor skills and activities of daily living such as bathing and dressing, pool therapy and art therapy. In this article, I learned that the Lokomat is an effective form of therapy, and that Botox can actually be used to loosen muscles and help ease spasticity. Physical Therapy. (n.d.). Pediatric Therapy Network. Retrieved February 29, 2013. This article focuses on enhancing child development so that they can "safely participate in activities at home, in the community, classroom and on the playground". The physical therapists at PTN (Pediatric Therapy Network) focus on helping kids live normal lives through focus on their ability to crawl, walk, run, play games, and participate in sports. PTN also focuses on teaching kids with mobility aids such as wheelchairs, orthotics and other supports, how to navigate safely in various environments. From this article, I learned that children benefit greatly from the use of specialized adaptive equipment that will increase their physical performance and function.

EXPLORATION

Stringer, H. (2013, February 18). Early Bloomers. TodayinPT.com. Retrieved February 28, 2013. The main focus of this article is to express the increasing need for physical therapy for preemie babies. New research suggests certain facets of motor function declined while the babies were in the NICU. One of the most influential periods of a child's life is when they are a baby. The baby is more receptive and it is easier for them to learn and acquire new things because their brains are trying to take in new things. When a child is young, they are more influenced. This article suggests that preemie babies have a greater opportunity for their minds to be molded then normal born babies. Administering physics thereby to preemies can improve their posture, mind functioning, and help increase development overall. From this article, I learned about a n type of technology known as the "Dandle Roo". The Dandle Roo imitates a mothers womb and allows the baby to move and develop strength as if they were still inside the mother. I also learned that introducing a preemie to gentle forms of physical therapy can help increase development at a faster pace.