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Classroom Language

When it comes to teaching a foreign language, in this case English, teacher and students have to agree upon certain rules they all will comply. When teaching English language teachers goal is to learn its students as much as possible starting from simple phrases and expressions so that in the future they could expand their knowledge and achieve higher levels of competency. Classroom language can be seen as a concept that describes any usage of language in the classroom and any kind of communication that can be that between students and teacher or between students themselves1. It gives teacher the possibility to correct all mistakes made by students and the usual outcome is spontaneous and unpredictable learning.2 This paper will provide a historical background of classroom language and literacy and will provide the most common expressions and phrases that are most effective while teaching English language. Language used in classroom mostly determines what is learned and how learning takes place.3 The classroom is a perfect opportunity where students can use their oral and writing skills. According to Vygotskys social constructivist theory learning is socially based and integrated.4 Researches concerning this theory assume the following: Learning is a social activity; Learning is integrated; Learning requires student interaction and engagement in classroom activities.5 The most frequently used base for research of classroom language is

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search? q=cache:tojUgF5Bn28J:www.sehacesaber.org/sehacesaberadmin/userfiles/file/90743_BEST_1%281%29.pdf+&hl=hr&gl=hr, 2 February 2013 2 http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search? q=cache:tojUgF5Bn28J:www.sehacesaber.org/sehacesaberadmin/userfiles/file/90743_BEST_1%281%29.pdf+&hl=hr&gl=hr, 2 February 2013 3 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 4 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 5 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013

sociolinguistics.6 According to it the oral communication reflects social variables (gender, ethnicity, social class, age).7 If children want to move forward they have to participate in classroom activities meaning they have to engage themselves in successful communication with their peers and teachers. The best way of learning English is using it for communication in ones classroom. When learning new things the most effective methods are scaffolds by Vygotsky which have played a crucial role in the development of theory and research on language learning and literacy. 8 They are external structures that embrace other ones that are being built.9 One cannot express oneself in past tense if for example he/she doesnt know past tense of certain words. People use them unconsciously and they build their future knowledge on the existing one. There are two types of scaffolds, directive scaffolds and supportive scaffolds.10 Directive scaffolds are those that consider that the teachers primary job is to transfer the knowledge to its students. The best way to do that is a question-answer evaluation.11 Although this is a good method, all that it investigates is how much knowledge has been transmitted to students and tells us that the evaluation is teachers responsibility.12 I dont think this is a good method for todays teaching because everything is dynamic and students should be involved in each others evaluation and they should perform group tasks.
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An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 7 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 8 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 9 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 10 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 11 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013 12 An electronic journal of the International Reading Association, http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles%2Fhandbook %2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html, 2 February 2013

They are no longer passive observers and the receivers of knowledge; they should construct their knowledge through the process of learning. Supportive scaffolds are those that allow students to construct their knowledge and to evaluate themselves. They provide students with more opportunities and are good for better understanding. When using this kind of scaffolds teacher is only a guideline that corrects students if needed. When using scaffolds teacher should know from where to start. If the students are beginners teacher should first familiarize them with simple expressions and phrases. The most frequently used expressions are those of instructions (Come here please), encouragement (Well done) and those of control (Please be quiet).13 Sometimes it is very hard for students to come up with expressions in foreign language. Therefore if there is a possibility teacher should write those expressions on the board or can make posters with students containing those phrases. Teacher should encourage their students to use them even though they make mistakes. With time those phrases will become automatic and students will be able to expand their knowledge further. Some expressions for beginner learners are I dont understand, I dont know, What does it mean, Is this right?.14 If one wants to make learning fun and interesting and at the same time useful, there are certain games that one can use in classroom. They can measure students knowledge and at the same time students interact, communicate and test their knowledge. Some of them are Simon says, Do as I say, not as I do, Do whats right, not what I say.15 They can be very useful for students to expand their vocabulary learn their grammar better and at the same time they deal with how to overcome the problem of anxiety.
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http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search? q=cache:tojUgF5Bn28J:www.sehacesaber.org/sehacesaberadmin/userfiles/file/90743_BEST_1%281%29.pdf+&hl=hr&gl=hr, 2 February 2013 14 http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search? q=cache:tojUgF5Bn28J:www.sehacesaber.org/sehacesaberadmin/userfiles/file/90743_BEST_1%281%29.pdf+&hl=hr&gl=hr, 2 February 2013 15 http://edition.tefl.net/ideas/games/15-classroom-language-games/, 2 February 2013

Every teachers goal should be to learn its students foreign language as best as possible. In order to do that teacher should prepare all the material needed for the class and should have some additional information about what is being taught. Also the process of learning should be fun and should motivate students for further learning. Teacher should use different strategies and methods which instruct students and give them guidelines for successful learning. Sometimes games mentioned in this paper can help students and familiarize them with expressions used in everyday life. All the strategies and methods used in teaching make certain base for further knowledge. If teacher achieves certain positive mood in classroom through classroom language then the outcome of learning will definitely be positive one. Sometimes learning new languages can be boring and therefore teachers should be innovative and include their students in different communicative situations, group discussions and task performing.

REFERENCES
1. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?

q=cache:tojUgF5Bn28J:www.sehacesaber.org/sehacesaberadmin/userfiles/file/90743_BEST_1%281%29.pdf+&hl=hr&gl=hr
2. http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=%2Farticles

%2Fhandbook%2Fwilkinson%2Findex.html
3. http://edition.tefl.net/ideas/games/15-classroom-language-games/ 4. http://www.cambridge.org/us/ESL/letstalk/support/language.htm 5. http://www2.education.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.Bilash/best%20of

%20bilash/classroom%20language.html