Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 1

HeLa Cells: An Immortal Impact

Kathryn Jiang, Priscilla Wong, and Tiffany Zhao Senior Division Group Website

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 2

Works Cited Primary Sources Court Cases Moore v. Regents of University of California. No. 51 Cal.3d 120. Supreme Court of California. 9 July 1990. This court case established that patients could not profit off of scientific advancements through the patient's discarded bodily materials. Similar to Moore's lack of profit, Henrietta Lacks' family received no money from the sales and usage of her cells. Salgo v. Leland Stanford etc. Bd. Trustees. No. 154 Cal.App.2d 560. First District, Division One of California. 22 Oct. 1957. The case of Salgo v. Leland and its ensuing decision marked the origin of human informed consent with the risks of anesthesia and surgery. Henrietta Lacks signed an operation permit for anesthesia and surgery, but not for research purposes. Documents Hippocrates. Hippocratic Oath. Ts. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Frankfurt. NOVA. 27 Mar. 2001. Public Broadcasting Service. 26 Jan. 2013. The website provided an English translation of the Hippocratic Oath, which contains ancient moral guides for those practicing medicine, some of which were not legally upheld until recently. Researchers, like those of Henrietta Lacks, did not follow all of these guidelines and sometimes practiced medicine unethically.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 3

Nuremberg Code. Ms. Nuremberg. The Office of Research Integrity. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 26 Jan. 2013. The Nuremberg Code established much clearer concepts of human experimentation, including voluntary human consent, minimizing risk, and allowing the subject to end the experimentation at any time. Human experimentation following HeLa often did not abide by regulations of the Nuremberg code. Images Andrews, Paul D. Divide and Conquer A. Digital image. Immortal HeLa Cells. 17 Feb. 2010. Rense.com. 2 Jan. 2013 <http://rense.com/general89/divideandconquer.jpg>. This picture of a HeLa cell dividing shows the immortal characteristic of the cells. Bermans School of Bioethics Logo. Digital image. Neuroethics and Law Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://kolber.typepad.com/.a/6a00d83452c65869e2010536681924970c800wi>. An interviewee is affiliated with Johns Hopkins University Bermans School of Bioethics . The Cancer Institute of New Jersey Logo. Digital image. Center for Biomedical Engineering and Informatics. CBII UMDNJ, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://pleiad.umdnj.edu/CBII/images/cinj_logo_med.gif>. Dr. Shridar Ganesan, whom we interviewed, is a researcher at the Cancer Institute of New Jersey. Cell Picture. Digital image. Cell. Elsevier Inc., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://download.cell.com/images/edimages/Cell/picshow/images/full/441.jpg>.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 4

This stained picture of a cell showed organelles and different structures. Columbia University Logo. Digital image. Columbia University. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.columbia.edu/files/columbia/content/template-ppt2.png>. This logo is an accurate representation of Columbia University with which an interviewee was affiliated. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Logo. Digital image. Northwestern University. Northwestern University, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://blog.oncofertility.northwestern.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2010/08/Dana-Farber.gif>. An interviewee is affiliated with the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Deerinck, Thomas. HeLa (cancer) cells (300x) Technique: 2-Photon fluorescence. Digital image. Small World Nikon. Nikon Instruments Inc., 2012. Web. 30 Mar. 2013. <http://www.nikonsmallworld.com/galleries/entry/2011-photomicrographycompetition/12>. This colorful microscopic picture was used in the slideshow to show a different view of the HeLa cells. Deerinck, Thomas. A Microscopic View of Henrietta Lacks' 'Immortal' Cells. Digital image. Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Media. 2 Jan. 2013 <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/women-inscience/115193624.html?c=y&page=1>. This picture of a HeLa cell dividing shows the immortality and durability of the cell line.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 5

Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Logo. Digital image. Montclair State University. Montclair State University, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://odyssey.montclair.edu/images/rutgerslogo2.jpg>. This is a logo of the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, the school where Dr. Suzie Chen is a professor at. Evans, et al. Punctate Signals. Digital image. BioMed Central. BioMed Central Ltd, 2003. Web. 30 Mar. 2013. <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6890/3/2/figure/F1?highres=y>. This picture shows HPV integration into HeLa cells. The famously vigorous HeLa cell is such a common contaminant of other cell lines that many laboratories refuse to work with it. Digital image. Science.kqed.com. 23 Nov. 2012. KQED. 27 Jan. 2013 <http://science.kqed.org/quest/files/2012/07/HeLa_ATCC_crop.jpg>. This picture of HeLa cells shows its famous hardiness and evasive properties that contaminate many other cell lines. George Gey. Digital image. Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. 13 Jan. 2013 <http://www.medicalarchives.jhmi.edu/images/gey.jpg>. George Gey tried unsuccessfully to culture different cervical cancer cells until he got Henrietta Lacks' cells. Harvard Medical School Logo. Digital image. Semantic Web. WebMediaBrands Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://semanticweb.com/files/2011/09/harvard-medical-school-logo300x300.jpg>.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 6

This is a logo of Harvard Medical School, an institution that an interviewee is affiliated with. HeLa Cell Culture - Phase Contrast. Digital image. MicroscopyU.com. 2012. Molecular Expressions. 2 Jan. 2013 <http://www.microscopyu.com/galleries/dicphasecontrast/images/helapc.jpg>. These HeLa cells clearly show its cell structure and helps us provide a better understanding of their function in research and science. HeLa Cell Genome Landscape. Digital image. Real Science. REALscience, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.realscience.us/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2013/03/HeLaCellGenomicLandscape.png>. This visual representation of the recently-sequenced HeLa genome holds key information about telomerase and the secret to HeLa's immortality. HeLa Cells. Digital image. ScienceLine. NYU Journalism, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://scienceline.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Hela_Cells_Image_3709-PH640x479.jpg>. This photo gives a nice, three-dimensional view of HeLa cells. HeLa cells being used in cancer research. Digital image. Openi.nlm.nih.gov. Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. 28 Jan. 2013 <http://openi.nlm.nih.gov/imgs/rescaled512/3199121_JDD2012-837327.008.png>.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 7

This picture shows HeLa cells being used in cancer research to find out the treatment effect of carbon nanotubes, known to have small and large therapeutic molecules, on cancerous cells. HeLa cells could easily contaminate other cell cultures. Digital image. Science, Medical Research & Experimentation, & Litigation. 2011. LaGuardia Community College. 27 Jan. 2013 <http://www.laguardia.edu/henriettalacks/images/tissue%20culture.jpg>. This picture shows how easily HeLa could contaminate other cell lines and compromise entire research labs. HeLa cells dividing. Digital image. Scientific B-Sides. Wordpress.com, 29 Mar. 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://scientificbsides.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/hela-3small.jpg?w=580&h=210>. This picture of HeLa cells dividing was used in our website because it represents the unique property of being able to divide an infinite number of times. Henrietta Lacks. Digital image. Georgia Institute of Technology. 7 Sept. 2012. Georgia Institute of Technology. 5 Jan. 2013 <http://stacadvising.lmc.gatech.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/HenriettaLacks1.jpg>. This famous photo of Henrietta Lacks captures her life and personality, which was often overlooked in the presence of the success of her cells. Hsu, T. C. Human Karyotypes. 1979. Memorial University of Newfoundland. Human karyotypes: 2n = 48 or 46? 2011. 3 Jan. 2013 <http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Karyotype_Denver_system.jpg>.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 8

This photograph shows the correct number of human chromosomes, which could not be determined until a new technique of counting chromosomes was invented. This technique originated from HeLa cells. Institutional Review Board Services Logo. Digital image. Irbservices.com. IRB Services (Ltd.). 30 Jan. 2013 <http://www.irbservices.com/irbservices/News/News_files/IRBS%20Master%20Logo.pn g>. The logo for the Institutional Review Board represents the message it conveys to the research participants that the experiments will be reviewed to follow strict ethical guidelines. Johns Hopkins Donates Fortune. Digital image. Discover Baltimore. 2013. R2 Productions, LLC. 26 Jan. 2013 <http://baltimore-maryland.org/history/johnshopkinshospital.jpg>. As the site where HeLa cells were first taken from Henrietta Lacks' body, Johns Hopkins University played a pivotal role in cell cultures. Their laboratories also were the site of the first successful HeLa cultures and further testing. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Logo. Digital image. FindTheBest. FindTheBest.com, Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://img3.findthebest.com/sites/default/files/728/media/images/Johns_Hopkins_Unive rsity_School_of_Medicine_2.jpg>. This logo of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine was used because an interviewee is affiliated with that school.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 9

The Johns Hopkins University. Richard W. TeLinde. Digital image. Named Professorships, Deanships, and Directorships. The Johns Hopkins University. 26 Jan. 2013 <http://webapps.jhu.edu/namedprofessorships/images/telinde,richard.jpg>. Dr. Richard TeLinde was one of the top cervical cancer experts during Henrietta Lacks' time who tried to determine different types of cervical cancer through samples collected from patients, including HeLa cells. Johnston, Frances. A laboratory class at the Tuskegee Institute. 1902. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Purdue University. Purdue University. 2 Jan. 2013 <http://www.cla.purdue.edu/think/images/2012/stories/tuskegee.jpg>. The Tuskegee Institute was where HeLa cells were mass-produced in a factory to transport throughout the world. Jonas Salk Polio Vaccine. Digital image. My Hero. 2010. The My Hero Project, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013 <http://www.myhero.com/images/guest/g223534/hero62440/g223534_u70647_salk2.jpg >. HeLa cells provided a platform for the polio vaccine breakthrough. This picture shows Jonas Salk holding test tubes that were used in experiments. Kedersha, Nancy. A Microscopic View of Henrietta Lacks' 'Immortal' Cells. Digital image. Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Media. 2 Jan. 2013 <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/women-inscience/115193624.html?c=y&page=3>.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 10

This picture of HeLa cells that allowed us to visualize the appearance of HeLa cells. Kessel, Richard. A Microscopic View of Henrietta Lacks' 'Immortal' Cells. Digital image.Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Media. 30 Jan. 2013 <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/women-inscience/115193624.html?c=y&page=4>. This picture of a prophase stage in mitosis of a HeLa cell was used in the title of the website. Landry, Jonathan. Digital image. European Molecular Biology Laboratory. European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 11 Mar. 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.embl.de/aboutus/communication_outreach/media_relations/2013/130311_H eidelberg/PR_Steinmets_110313_image_FiNAL_l.jpg>. This picture of the sequenced HeLa genome and timeline illustrates this milestone, along with previous important HeLa discoveries. M-FISH experiment with HeLa cells. Digital image. Innovative Technologies in Multidisciplinary Health Research Training. 2003. 3 Jan. 2013 <http://www.itmhrt.ca/course2.html>. This image of FISH stained HeLa cells shows false colors and the chromosomal pairs. HeLa cells evolved to have a non-human number of chromosomes. Mailman School of Public Health Logo. Digital image. The New York Academy of Sciences. The New York Academy of Sciences, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nyas.org/detail/image.axd?id=e9f3582f-a118-48eb-8b55-b666f7d90528>.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 11

This logo is an accurate representation of the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, with which an interviewee was affiliated. New York University Logo. Digital image. Joomag. Joomag, Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.joomag.com/res/edu_logos/New_York_University.png>. This logo is of New York University, with which an interviewee is affiliated with. PMCA ATPase Antibody (MA3-914) in IF. Digital image. Thermo Scientific Pierce Antibodies. Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., 2013. Web. 30 Mar. 2013. <http://www.pierceantibodies.com/PMCA-ATPase-antibody-clone-5F10-Monoclonal--MA3914.html>. The pictures showed the HeLa cells stained for nucleii and antibodies. It is a nice colorful representation of the cells. Polio Vaccine Collage. Digital image. Dipity.com. 2011. Underlying, Inc. 2 Jan. 2013 <http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/76ab5519621d37f495efef417361e33f_1M.png>. This collage of newspaper headlines shows the public's relief at finding a vaccine for the polio crisis. HeLa cells were used as a platform for experimentation for the vaccine. Porges, D. Avram Hershko. Digital image. Nobel Prize. 2004. Nobel Media AB. 1 Jan. 2013 <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2004/hershko.jpg>. Avram Hershko used HeLa cells in his experiments that led to his Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2004. He also extracted certain proteins from HeLa cells, showing the durability of this cell line half a century later.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 12

Public Domain. Hippocratic Oath. Digital image. NOVA. 27 Mar. 2001. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2 Jan. 2013 <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/assets/img/hippocratic-oathtoday/image-02-small.jpg>. The Hippocratic Oath was the first medical document that doctors swore by to practice medicine ethically. After, doctors practiced some questionable experiments against this oath. Radium Treatment in a London Hospital, England 1940. Digital image. IWM. Imperial War Museums. 1 Jan. 2013 <http://media.iwm.org.uk/iwm/mediaLib/40/media40600/large.jpg?action=d>. This picture of radium treatment was the same type as the one Henrietta Lacks' received when she was in the hospital to fight cervical cancer. Rutgers Logo. Digital image. Parchment. Parchment Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.parchment.com/c/images/college/1087-crest-250-200219180101beadea2280ac0528953715c.png>. This logo is an accurate representation of Rutgers University, with which an interviewee is affiliated. Skloot, Rebecca. Henrietta Lacks' Death Certificate. 2 June 1953. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown, 2010. This photograph of Henrietta Lacks' death certificate served as a reminder of her short life, as opposed to the immortality of her cells.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 13

Southam, Chester A., and Moore. Southam & Moore: Induced Immunity to Cancer Cells. Digital image. Creating Human Lab Rats: Cancer Induced In Man For Vaccine Development. 1 Oct. 2012. 1 Jan. 2013 <http://www.winstonsmith.net/tumor%20transplants%20in%20human%20subjects_files/ image008.jpg>. The graph shows the results of experiments by Southam after he injected patients with HeLa cells to see their reactions. This was another example of where the patients did not know the cells they were injected with were cancerous. Special Committee on Bioethics and the Law. Digital image. American Bar Association. American Bar Association. 1 Jan. 2013 <http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/images/bioethics/spc_bioethics_law_430x 250.jpg>. The American Bar Association has a special committee on bioethics, signifying the prominence of patient rights is in today's society. HeLa cells helped fuel the awareness for better bioethical oversight. Stained HeLa Cells. Digital image. Nikon Small World. Nikon Instruments Inc., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nikonsmallworld.com/images/made/images/remote/https_s3.amazonaws.co m/nikonsmallworld/2000/2000_17_main.jpg>. This photograph of stained HeLa cells shows different internal organelles and chromosomes inside the cell.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 14

Su, Kuan-Chung, and Mark Petronczki. Cell Division. Digital image. Wellcome Image Awards 2012. 2012. Wellcome Trust. 1 Jan. 2013 <http://www.wellcomeimageawards.org/#>. This time-lapse photo shows HeLa cell division with a stained nucleus, giving us a better understanding of HeLa's immortality. UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine Logo. Digital image. University of California, Los Angeles. University of California, Los Angeles, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://carmichaellab.neurology.ucla.edu/images/ucla%20logo%202.jpg>. Dr. Wayne Grody, whom we interviewed, is a professor at the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, which is shown in this logo. UMDNJ Logo. Digital image. UMDNJ. UMDNJ-Center for Continuing & Outreach Education, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://ccoe.umdnj.edu/images/new/umdlogo.jpg>. Dr. Shridar Ganesan, whom we interviewed, is affiliated with Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Logo. Digital image. University of Arkansas at Little Rock. University of Arkansas at Little Rock, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ualr.edu/audiology/_backup/lgUamsLg.gif>. An interviewee is affiliated with the University of Arkansas Little Rock. University of Arkansas Logo. Digital image. University of Arkansas. University of Arkansas, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://styleguides.uark.edu/UA_Logo_Horizontal.png>. This logo is an accurate representation of the University of Arkansas, with which an interviewee was affiliated.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 15

What Is Cervical Cancer? Digital image. Web MD. WebMD, LLC., 2011. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/cancer/cervical-cancer/ss/slideshow-cervical-cancer-overview>. These exemplary pictures of cancerous cells were used to show its characteristics in comparison to normal cells. Interviews Barondess, Jeremiah A., Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 20 Mar. 2013. Dr. Barondess, Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at Columbia University, shared his knowledge of the obtainment of HeLa cells at Johns Hopkins. Bradley, Ann M. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 7 Jan. 2013. Ann Bradley, from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, replied about U.S. regulations to protect human test subjects. Current revisions would mandate informed consent for all patients, unlike the case of Henrietta Lacks. Bestor, Timothy. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." Telephone interview. 22 Mar. 2013. Mr. Bestor, from the Department of Genetics and Development at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, was extremely helpful in sharing his knowledge with us. Carrese, Joseph. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 29 Jan. 2013.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 16

Joseph Carrese, a physician at John Hopkins School of Medicine, used his academic interest is bioethics to discuss the advancement of ethics because of HeLa cells and crossing the line between patient rights and scientific advancement. Chen, Suzie, Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." Personal interview. 15 Mar. 2013. Dr. Chen, Professor at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy and researcher at the Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, shared her knowledge in the field of cancer research. Clayton, Ellen, Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." Telephone interview. 22 Mar. 2013. Dr. Clayton, a professor of Pediatrics from Nashville, Tennessee, shared her knowledge in medicine with us. Ganesan, Shridar. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." Personal interview. 25 Jan. 2013. Dr. Ganesan, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Researcher at the Cancer Institute of New Jersey discussed his personal experience in the lab using HeLa cells to study breast cancer. In addition, Dr. Ganesan showed us strains of HeLa cells in microscopes in his laboratory. Goldberg, Gary S. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 20 Jan. 2013. Dr. Goldberg of University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey offered professional insight into the uses and effects of Henrietta Lacks' cells in biology and research. Grody, Wayne W. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." Telephone interview. 25 Apr. 2013. Dr. Wayne W. Grody is a Professor in the Divisions of Medical Genetics and Molecular Diagnostics, the Director of the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories, part of the

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 17

Departments of Path. & Lab. Medicine, Pediatrics, and affliated with Human Genetics in UCLA School of Medicine, UCLA Institute for Society and Genetics, Clinical Genomics Center, and UCLA Medical Center. He was previously interviewed for his experience and knowledge in ethics for Rebecca Skloots book, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. He was very helpful in providing insightful information on the ethical background and legal changes because of HeLa cells. McClatchey, Andrea, Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 11 Mar. 2013. Dr. McClatchey, Professor of Pathology at the Harvard Medical School Department of Pathology, was extremely helpful in sharing her knowledge of how HeLa cells affected cell biology. National Cancer Intitute. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 21 Dec. 2012. The National Cancer Institute provided exact current definitions of human specimens, like HeLa cells, and test subjects for use in cancer research. Nurse, Paul, Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 21 Mar. 2013. Dr. Paul from the Royal Society in London gave us a deeper understanding of HeLa cells. O'Neil, Collin, Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 18 Mar. 2013. Dr. Collin, an assistant professor at the Center for Bioethics at New York University, shared his knowledge of medical practices before and after the HeLa cell line. Pellman, David, Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 8 Mar. 2013. Dr. Pellman, Professor of Pediatric Oncology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Professor of Cell Biology at Harvard Medical School, and Investigator at the Howard

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 18

Hughes Medical Institute, shared his knowledge of how HeLa cells affected cancer research and genetics. Reis, Robert J. S., Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." Telephone interview. 19 Mar. 2013. Dr. Reis, Senior Research Career Scientist, Veterans Medical Center, and Udupa Chair of Gerontologic Research at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, shared his knowledge of research with us. Rosenbauer, Oliver. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 23 Jan. 2013. Mr. Rosenbauer of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative wrote about the importance of the eradication of polio in some areas and the ongoing eradication. HeLa cells acted as a medium for experimentation and enabled the mass production of polio vaccines. Simmen, Rosalia, Dr. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 19 Mar. 2013. Dr. Simmen, Professor of Pediatrics and Physiology & Biophysics at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Senior Investigator in Developmental Biology Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, was instrumental in aiding us about HeLa cells. Sugarman, Jeremy. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 16 Jan. 2013. Mr. Regenberg of Johns Hopkins University acted as a substitute for Dr. Sugarman, who did initially respond to our email. Mr. Regenberg's responses covered his personal use of stem cells and his opinions on the moral dilemmas surrounding the circumstances under which HeLa cells were obtained. Swartz, Kimi. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 17 Mar. 2013.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 19

Ms. Swartz, an alumna of the Center of Bioethics of New York University, gave us her unique perspective from her studies. Truog, Robert. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 22 Jan. 2013. Dr. Truog of the Division of Medical Ethics at Harvard University was unable to answer our questions concerning Henrietta Lacks, but he e-mailed us supplementary materials that were subsequently used in our website. In addition, some of the materials he emailed to us were published by himself. Zhou, Renping. "Henrietta Lacks Research Interview." E-mail interview. 22 Jan. 2013. Dr. Zhou, Professor and Chair of Chemical Biology at Rutgers School of Pharmacy, Laboratory for Cancer Research, wrote how HeLa cells are essential to the study of human cancer and better allows research to identify and study cancer. Journal Articles Gartler, Stanley M. "Apparent HeLa Cell Contamination of Human Heteroploid Cell Lines."Nature 217 (1968): 750-51. Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group. 27 Jan. 2013 <http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v217/n5130/abs/217750a0.html>. This article written by Gartler drops the "HeLa bomb", or that HeLa has contaminated supposedly-sterile cell cultures worldwide. This shows how invasive HeLa cells can be and the fear of contamination of scientists around the world. Hayflick, Leonard, and P. S. Moorhead. "Hayflick L & Moorhead P S. The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains." Citation Classics (1978): 144. Penn Libraries. University of Pennsylvania. 3 Jan. 2013.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 20

The paper written by Hayflick and Moorhead discusses Hayflicks' findings that normal cells have a set number of cell divisions before they die. HeLa cells contradicted their findings in that they were uniquely "immortal" and seemed to have the ability to divide forever. Scherer, William F., Jerome T. Syverton Dr, and Gey O. George Dr. "Studies on the Propagation in Vitro of Poliomyelitis Viruses." The Journal of Experimental Medicine 97 (1953): 695-710. PMC. US National Library of Medicine. 26 Jan. 2013. This publication was the first, original publication that introduced HeLa cells and their abnormal ability to divide repeatedly. The publication was used in our website to determine the initial response and research of HeLa cells. Shafi, Gowhar et al. "Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa." Cancer Cell International 9 (2009). Cancer Cell International. 27 Nov. 2009. BioMed Central Ltd. 20 Jan. 2013 <http://www.cancerci.com/content/9/1/29>. This article discusses results from a cancer research experiment using HeLa cells. Shepley, Michael P., Barbara Sherry, and Howard L. Weiner. "Monoclonal antibody identification of a 100-kDa membrane protein in HeLa cells and human spinal cord involved in poliovirus attachment." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85 (1988): 7743-747. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. 26 Jan. 2013.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 21

This article discusses how the poliovirus was made using HeLa cells. This showed the significant role HeLa played in developing the polio vaccine. Tjio, Joe Hin, and Albert Levan. "The Chromosome Number of Man." Hereditas Genetiskt Arkiv (1956): 1-6. Digital.CSIC. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas. 26 Jan. 2013. The article (which was in English) published the findings of Tjio and Levan, who determined the number of chromosomes in humans. Van Valen, Leigh M., and Virginia C. Mairorana. "Hela, a new microbial species." Evolutionary Theory 10 (1991): 71-74. Leighvanvalen.com. Leigh Van Valen. 10 Jan. 2013. Van Valen and Mairorana's work suggested that HeLa be classified as a separate species because they had evolved so much that their genetic makeup was no longer human. It was the first time that a new species was totally reliant on lab conditions. Wesierska-Gadek, J et al. "Outcome of treatment of human HeLa cervical cancer cells with roscovitine strongly depends on the dosage and cell cycle status prior to the treatment." Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 105 (2009): 937-55. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 1 Apr. 2009. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 28 Jan. 2013 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180585>. This is another experiment using HeLa cells, aimed at treating of human cervical cancer, the type of cancer Henrietta Lacks died from. Lecture

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 22

Hershko, Avram. "The Ubiquitin System for Protein Degradation and some of its Roles in the Control of the Cell Division Cycle." Nobel Lecture. Sweden, Stockholm. 8 Dec. 2004. Avram Hershko's Nobel Lecture talks about his work using HeLa cells to discover a new system for protein degradation and the cell cycle. Legislation U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration. "Code of Federal Regulations Title 21." U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1 Apr. 2011. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 27 Jan. 1981. The federal regulations were used to create a further understanding of the current legal rights of patients, usage of their body parts, and informed consent laws. Current laws and their enforcement were compared to the treatment of Henrietta Lacks. Newspapers Barrett, George. (1956, May 23). Convicts to get cancer injection. New York Times (1923Current File). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/113843711?accountid=40905. This newspaper explains an experiment where prisoners were injected with live HeLa cells, just one of many examples of human experimentation done without full explanation of possible risks. "Cancer Research Done with Help of Prisoners." Spokane Daily Chronicle 2 Apr. 1958, Empire Edition ed.: A3. 26 Jan. 2013.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 23

Prisoners in the Ohio State penitentiary participated in a study where they were injected with HeLa cells but were not aware of the full risks. Not only is this relevant because HeLa cells but also because it was another example of patients being unaware of the consequences of their trials. Goodman, Walter. "Doctors Must Experiment on Humans but What are the Patient's Rights?" New York Times (1923-Current file): 125. Jul 02 1967. ProQuest. Web. 14 May 2013. This is just one of many articles expressing outrage for the lack of patient rights in that time period. Osmundsen, John A. "Many Scientific Experts Condemn Ethics of Cancer Injection." New York Times (1923-Current file): 70. Jan 26 1964. ProQuest. Web. 14 May 2013. This article expresses the general outrage of scientists at the time of the cancer injections into subjects. Plumb, Robert K. "Scientists Split on Cancer Tests." New York Times (1923-Current file): 53. Mar 22 1964. ProQuest. Web. 14 May 2013. This article shows the divided viewpoints between the researchers who want to advance science by conducting investigations and the patients who feel their rights were violated. "Unit at Tuskegee Helps Polio Fight." New York Times (1923-Current file): 25. Jan 10 1955.ProQuest. Web. 14 May 2013. This article explains the HeLa cell factory at the Tuskegee Institute that cultured cells to help create a platform for testing the polio vaccine.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 24

Video BBC News. Prod. Adam Curtis. Perf. Deborah Lacks. 1997. BBC News. 25 June 2010. 27 Jan. 2013 <http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/adamcurtis/2010/06/the_undead_henrietta_lacks_and.html>. This film included interviews with Henrietta Lacks' family, scientists, and other professionals that helped us understand the scope of HeLa cells and their influence on science and society. Hela cells dividing in culture. Dir. Rob Cross. YouTube. 14 Nov. 2009. 29 Jan. 2013 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WWCVNjri7Hs>. This video shows stained HeLa cells undergoing mitosis, helping to give a visual representation of the speed of duplication. HeLa Cells. Vimeo. 2011. 29 Jan. 2013 <http://vimeo.com/9581140>. This video shows HeLa cell mitosis, and compares the cell processes and behavior to normal cells.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 25

Secondary Audio Longzijun. Free Background Music 12: Dreams (120 bpm). Youtube.com. 16 Mar. 2011. Youtube. 30 Jan. 2013 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRtHl9n-G3o>. This song was used as the introduction music on the website home page. It sets the atmosphere for the scientific achievements that came about because of HeLa. Skloot, Rebecca, Mary Kubicek, and Howard Jones Dr. "Famous Tumors." Interview by Radiolab. Radiolab. WNYC. WNYC, San Diego, CA. 2010. This interview with Rebecca Skloot, Mary Kubicek, George Gey's assistant, and Dr. Howard Jones, included first hand recollections of Henrietta Lacks' tumor and the unique immortality of HeLa cells. Recordings of Deborah Lacks, daughter of Henrietta, and medical record information was also broadcast. Books Skloot, Rebecca. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown, 2010. This book about Henrietta Lacks was one of the main resources used. It provided an entire overview of Henrietta Lacks' life and the author's journey, including dozens of relatives and doctors directly relevant to HeLa cells to discover more about her. Websites "About Henrietta Lacks." The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. University of Maryland. 26 Jan. 2013.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 26

This page of the website provided information on the background of Henrietta Lacks, which was used in our websites to provide information about Henrietta's personal life. Biba, Erin. "Henrietta Everlasting: 1950s Cells Still Alive, Helping Science." Wired.com. 25 Jan. 2010. Conde Nast Digital. 3 Jan. 2013 <http://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/01/st_henrietta/>. This article about the effects of HeLa fifty years after their discovery shows the longlasting legacy of that cell line, as well as other common cell lines used in research. Cantwell, Alan. "Immortal HeLa Cells and the Continuing Contamination of Cancer and Vaccine Research." Rense.com. 19 Jan. 2013. Dr. Cantwell's paper on the contamination of cancer and vaccine and research described some of the unsuccessful early concoctions used by scientists to artificially grow cells in the laboratory. It showed how unsuccessful scientists were in trying to grow cells before HeLa cells were put into use. Freeman, Shanna. "How HeLa Cells Work." HowStuffWorks. Discovery, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. The magazine HowStuffWorks, sponsored by Discovery, explains the medical aspects of the far-reaching aspects of HeLa cells and the significance of the cells in history as the very first human cell line. "HeLa cells." Medg421. 7 Apr. 2012. Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics. 28 Jan. 2013 <http://www.cisreg.ca/medg421/wiki/index.php?title=HeLa_cells>.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 27

This website gave us a general understanding of HeLa cell uses in cancer research and the resulting contamination. "History of the Bioethics Commission." Bioethics.gov. Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. 26 Jan. 2013. The history of the bioethics commission provided insight into the timeframe during which bioethics and its moral guidelines became a forefront priority. Notably, the Commission only became prominent after Henrietta Lacks' death, signifying the lack of bioethical consideration during that time period. "Institutional Review Board." Irbservices.com. 2012. IRB Services (Ltd.). 30 Jan. 2013 <http://www.irbservices.com/irbservices/Home.html>. This website was used to find the purpose of the Institutional Review Board which protects human research patients to make sure ethical guidelines are followed. Manfuso, Jamie, and Stephanie Desmon. "Honoring the Henrietta Lacks Legacy at Hopkins."Johns Hopkins Medicine. 20 May 2011. The Johns Hopkins University. 3 Jan. 2013. <http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/publications/hopkins_medicine_magazine/hopki ns_medicine_magazine_spring_summer_2011/web_extra_honoring_the_henrietta_lacks_ legacy_at_hopkins>. The story told from the researcher's at Johns Hopkins explains the background behind trying to grow immortal cell cultures. The long-term effects and recognition of Henrietta Lacks' cells were also discussed.

Jiang, Wong, Zhao 28

"Polio." The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. University of Maryland. 26 Jan. 2013. The website discussed one of the most influential uses of Henrietta Lacks' cells: the creation of the polio vaccine. It discusses the magnitude of the polio virus, which illustrates how important HeLa cells were. "Polio Vaccine." Medline Plus. National Institute of Health. 26 Jan. 2013. The National Institute of Health provided a detailed background of polio and its widespread and deadly effects, and showed the importance of eradicating polio world wide. HeLa cells were instrumental in the creation and testing of the polio vaccine. "Richard W. Telinde Distinguished Professorship in Gynecological Pathology." Named Professorships, Deanships, and Directorships. John Hopkins University. 26 Jan. 2013. The professorship established in the estate of Richard Telinde provided background information about Richard Telinde. His discoveries of cervical cancer and his contact with Gey made him relevant to the obtaining and usage of HeLa cells. "The HeLa cells, an African American Woman's Contribution to Cancer Research." Aaregistry.org. African American Registry. 26 Jan. 2013. The African American Registry briefly summarized the obtainment and consequent controversial usage of HeLa cells. In addition, it discusses the possible contamination of other cell lines by the rapidly-growing HeLa cells.