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HUGO'S FRENCH SIMPLIFIED

The book comprises the following


I.
:

A Simple bat Complete Grammar, containing


cessary for speaking

all

the mlef ne-

and writing French

correctly.

II.

III.

IV.

French Pronunciation; a series of Easy Anecdotes, with the Translation and Pronunciation of every word, and complete rules on Pronunciation. French Idioms; Practical Sentences, introducing all the Important Idioms and peculiarities of French construction. A Key to the Conversational Exercises in the Grammar.

296 Pages.

12mo, Cloth, $1.00

HUGO'S FRENCH VERBS SIMPLIFIED


Rules for the formation of tenses and complete tables for reference, showing at a glance the conjugation of every verb, regular
;

Limp

Cloth, 50 cents

HUGO'S SPANISH SIMPLIFIED


I.

A Grammar,

II.

This book comprises the following containing all the rules necessary for speaking and writing Spanish correctly. Spanish Reading: Made Easy, a collection of Short Stories with
:

foot-notes to
III.

each page.

IV.

Spanish Conversation, being practical and colloquial sentences introducing all the important idioms. A Key to the Exercises in Grammar.

220 Pages.

12mo, Cloth, $1.00

HUGO'S SPANISH VERBS SIMPLIFIED


An exhaustive treatise, with original rules on the formation of tenses, showing the easiest and quickest way of learning all Spanish verbs, Regular and Irregular. With tables for reference, which show at a glance the complete conjugation of every Spanish Verb.
Complete Lists and Tables for Reference 96 Pages. Limp Cloth, 50 cents

HUGO'S RUSSIAN GRAMMAR SIMPLIFIED


The Only Real
Exercises,
Self Instructor

Vocabularies with the Pronunciation of Every Word Exactly Imitated The Russian is guaranteed correct, such as is used by the educated classes in Moscow and Petrograd. Every word has been written by a Russian University man, and carefully revised by other educated Russians.

Key and

12mo, Cloth, $1.00

f>H

HUGO'S

SPANISH
SIMPLIFIED
COMPLETE CONSISTING OF
I

A SIMPLE BUT COMPLETE GRAMMAR


Containing all the Rules necessary for Speaking and Writing Spanish correctly

The Pronunciation

of

Every Word Exactly Imitated

II.

SPANISH READING

MADE EASY

foot-notes

Consisting of Anecdotes and Short Stories, with about Sixty on each page, so that reading becomes a pleasant recreation, even to beginners

III

SPANISH CONVERSATION
and Colloquial Sentences,
all

Practical

in-

troducing

the

important

Idioms

IV

A KEY

to the

EXERCISES

in the

GRAMMAR

PHILADELPHIA

DAVID McKAY,

Publisher

604-8 S. Washington Square

CONTENTS.
SECTION
I.

Grammar
Anecdotes

II.

(with Exercises and Pronunciation). (with Notes) for Reading Practice.

III.

IV.

Key

Idiomatic Conversation. to Exercises in Grammar.

INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS.
After acquiring a general idea of the Pronunciation, learn the Grammar. This can best be done by reading carefully several times through each rule, pronouncing the new words aloud, and writing out the translation to the Exercise Then compare your work carefully with the Key, oil that rule. marking all errors, and afterwards reading again through the Examples to the rule forgotten. If necessary, translate the Exercise a second or third time, and on no account attempt the Collective Exercise until you can do the short Exercises correctly.
five or six lessons in

(Students
English.)

who

lective Exercises

may

experience a difficulty in translating the Colfirst translate them from the Key into

or two of the Reading matter

After having mastered five or six lessons in this way, a page may be advantageously translated with each lesscta. This will relieve the -monotony of learning so many rules, and greatly enlarge the number of words at the student's command, if each page is gone through two or three No attempt need be made to learn the words iu the times. reading pages by heart ; they will be acquired gradually and without effort.
great benefit from writing out the pages in English, afterwards re-tradslating without reference to the original.

Advanced Students

will derive

literal translation of these

The conversation pages


study
;

will well repay the trouble of careful but 12 or 14 lessons should be learned before this section

* uttered.

JVJ120311

'RESERVATION

OPY ADDED

PREFACE.
All Hugo's Grammars are contained in about a fourth of the usual compass, because rules which are the same in English are omitted ; but everything necessary for practical purposes is fully given, and clearly explained. It is not assumed that the student is an expert in English grammar, a mistake which most grammarians make, with the result that their rules are quite incomprehensible to the average man.

Our
in such

rules are given in the order best tending to rapid progress, and way that the student can at' once make practical use of what he

has learnt. This -departure from custom will be found of special advantage with the Verbs, which are given in the way that shows how each Tense can be most naturally formed from another previously learnt. After the Regular Verbs have been fuliy treated, the Irregular ones
follow, in order of importance.

As no one should attempt a systematic study of the Irregular Verbs until he has thoroughly mastered the Regular ones, we have saved space, and^iraplified the students work, by only giving the Tenses that need
be
learnt.

All other Tenses are regular, or formed according to our


useless to foreigners, is dealt

rules

In the simplifies the Verb. conjugation of each Tense, this form merely appears as a note, so that the student has only three or four endings to learn instead of six.

on the Irregular Verbs.. The Familiar Form, which is quite with in a manner which still further

The Subjunctive Mood, a grammatical nicety which few natives understand properly, was dealt with in the original edition for reference purposes only. We have now added a simple explanation of all the important rules on the use of this Mood, together with practical exercises. The Pronunciation is given in the first twelve lessons but as every
;

Spanish word is pronounced according to the few simple rules on pages 5 to 9, the student cannot fail to pronounce any new word correctly, long before he has reached Lesson 12.
Special attention is called to the remarks on varying pronunciations on page 9. The Spanish Academy says that B, D, and V should be pronounced in Spanish as in French and English, and there is no reason whatever for foreigners to depart from this rule, although they will often hear educated natives do so.

I
Augmentative and Diminutive terminations were needlessly grammar by a pedant more than a century ago and his idea was copied by all succeeding grammarians, until we bad the courage to ignore precedent, and relegate this utterly trivial matter to the Appendix. These terminations have in the past made many a student discontinue the study of Spanish in despair. Yet a knowledge of them is absolutely useless, because io foreigner can possibly know to which words they may be added. A dictionary will always tell him this^j it is the grammarian's province to teach what CANNOT be found in dictionaries. Hugo's Spanish Grammar, originally published in 1888, was the first
Tfae

introduced in his

attempt ever made to simplify that language. All previous grammars dealt with the ten parts of speech in the old-fashioned stereotyped order, without any attempt at simplification, condensation, or what is most
important of all separation of trivial detail from matters of fundamental An enormous number of the original edition have been importance. sold, and the numerous highly flattering testimonials received from all
parts of the world testify to its clearness, conciseness, and simplicity. The principle on which the work is written was copied almost immediately in various quarters, often without acknowledgment. In one case, a well-known firm of London publishers brought out a Spanish Grammar

which calmly appropriated, not only the wording and order of our original rules, but even our exercises and vocabulary, with hardly a word altered.* As our original edition applied for the first time the principles of Hugo's French Simplified* to Spanish, it speedily became the standard text-book on the subject but it bore many traces of the haste with which it was written, to meet the sudden demand occasioned by the Argentine Republic boom of some twenty years ago. Since then, we have used the book for teaching thousands of students, and consequently learnt its weak points. Guided by this extended experience, We have re-writlen the work with the utmost care, correcting errors, improving the rules, and adding many additional explanations while every word /of the Spanish has been revised and re-revised by competent educated natives. Th3 work therefore now takes a permanent stereotyped form and we hall watch that this present improved and revised edition is not copied. Teachers and students are hereby warned that any other book
* ;
;

purporting to be Hugo's Spanish System is nothing of the so?*/, but merely an imitation of the first edition, with just enough alterations to spoil the arrangement, and make the exercises laughable.*

*We may mention


'

a very amusing instance of

this.

Not

to

copy our

exercises exactly, the plagiarist altered one of our sentences, ' Is your bro' ther smoking ? to * la your sister smoking ? thus avoiding the of

charge copying Word for word, but making himself ridiculous in the process*

CONTENTS.
Accents, Signs of Punctuation, etc.
...

PAGE
...

Division Syllables, words into ...

Of
...

8
90

Adjectives, Qualifying

20

Adjectives, Feminine and Plural of ... 20, 21 Adjectives, Contractions of


57

Terminations, Augmentatative and Diminutive ...

"to "before an Infinitive 74,75 Use of "a" before Object 31 when a person ...

49 Adverbs ... ... ... Adverbs and Adjectives, Comparison of 36, 49, 72, 79 5 ... ... Alphabet

REGULAR VERBS
Present Tense ... Perfect Tense ... Imperfect Tense Past Definite Tense Future Tense ...
Conditional

23 to 51

Participles, Present and ... Past... 28,78,79


23,
... ...

24
31

Articles, Definite, Indefinite,

and Partitive

43
39
44

11,12,56,58,71

Demonstrative Adjectives

38,

and Pronouns

...

...

27

34, 35
...

Familiar Form Hour of the Day

...
...

...
...

83
53

Mood

Indefinite Adjectives

and
56, 58

Pronouns

...

41 ... Imperative Mood Subjunctive Mood 50, 51 Subjunctive Mood, use

Interjections

85

of

...

...

86 to 91

Interrogative

and Pronouns

Adjectives
...

...

30

IRREGULAR VERBS 67 to 85
Verbs changing stressed Vowel of Stem 63, 64, 81, 82 Auxiliary Verbs
10, 14, 17, 28, 35, 39, 41, 43,

Negations 10,14, Nouns, Gender of

25, 50, 58
...

11

Nouns, Plural of Numbers, Cardinal Numbers, Ordinal Personal Pronouns


Polite form of address

1 1,
...

90
52 55

50,51,73,75, 76

...

Reflective Verbs

59, 60, 61

10, 13, 44, 46 to 48

Impersonal Verbs 70, Negative and Interrogative

71

Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns

...

10,13 16

Forms

...
...

10,25,28
...

Passive Voice

61

33, 34

Prepositions and Conjunctions ... ... 13, 65

Changes in Stem of Regular Verbs 62, 84


* ' Conjugation of tener

Pronunciation ... 6 Relative Pronouns

to 9, 22,

26

(see Auxiliary Verbs)


*

39, 40

Ser and estar,' ence between


4

'

differ...

18

five preliminary pages need not be the Rules of Pronunciation ; contain They merely and as the pronunciation of each new word is given as it occurs in

SPECIAL NOTE.
first.

These

learnt at

the Rules or Exercises,

THE STUDENT SHOULD AT ONCE COMMENCE


to 9

AT THE FIRST LESSON (page 10). Pages 5 tered gradually, by occasional perusal.

can best be mas-

In studying the Lessons, first read each Rule carefully, comThen translate and paring with the Examples underneath. re-translate (preferably in writing) the Exercise which follows,
until

you can translate every sentence correctly and

readily.

THE SPANISH ALPHABET


(K and
ah*

(for reference only); with the names of the 29 letters.


occur in words taken from other languages)

Pron.

/fo-tah*

RSTUV
:

ABCCHDJEFGHI JKLLL M NOPQ


:

w only

bay thay*

chay

day

ay

eff-ay* //ay* ah-chay ee

kah ell-ay ^11-yay exnm-ay enn-ay enn-yay

o*

pay koo

X
pronounced as
if
if

airr-ay es-ay* tay

oo vay do-blay-vay ay-kis* ee gre'ay-gah thay-tah

*If our Imitated Pronunciation is

part of an English word,

it

will always be understood

each syllable were but the exact


;

Hound will be still more nearly obtained borne in mind

the following instructions are

th

must be pronounced
is

like

TH

in

thin,'

never like

TH in

they.*

H
3

to be pronounced gutturally.

is

always to be pronounced

like the

S3

in

'

missing/ never like the

Sin

'easy.'
is

Thu Spanish a
'

pronounced

like
it
*

'ah/ but shorter ^than in 'harm*

part/
like

'cast.'

We
'
;

in

hat

by 'ah/ because the sound is never but the ah must be pronounced short and sharp
imitate
'

The Spanish o resembles the sound


a** > roaches the
t

of

o in ' not/ and even

aw in

law.'

It is not so long as in the

slightly in go."

PRONUNCIATION OF THE VOWELS.


The VOWELS
letters are

in Spanish are a, e, i, 0, U,

y.

The remaining
PRONOUNCED
:

CONSONANTS.
EXAMPLES.

A
E

is

pronounced

like all

AL, LA,

AMAN

ahl, lah,

,ah.-mahn*

I or

ay
ee o

U
*The

MEj DE, LE MI, PEIMA, Y LO, NO, SIDO


TU, SU,
is

may, day, lay


mee, pree-mah, ee
lo,

no,

oo
REMARKS.

UNO

too, soo,

see-do OO-no

syllable that takes the stress

printed throughout in thick type."

is

not quite so pronunciation of the vowels is also shortened, as in other languages, when they occur in an unstressed word or syllable, or precede a consonant.

Each vowel has only one sound in Spanish, which sound long and broad as the English equivalent given above. The

EMPHASIS OR STRESS IN PRONUNCIATION.


Words ending in a Consonant stress the last syllable ending in a Vowel stress the last syllable but one, thus : baston tomar edad rico papel pluma
paper pah-pel
stick
to take
;

words

golpe
blow

age

pen

rich

bah-ston

to-mar

ay-dahdf

ploo-mah rree-ko goll-pay

But the Consonants (always n or s) which are merely added to form the Plural do not then affect the stress, which is always the same in the Plural as in the Singular, thus :
la
the

otra

pluma,

las

otras

plumas

other pen lahf o-trah ploo-mah

PRONUNCIATION OF THE CONSONANTS.

Z is pronounced like th in MONTH or THICK, thus


voz
voice

luz
light

paz
peace

zapato
shoe

capaz
capacious

vez
-time

voth

looth

pahth

thah-pah-to

kah-pahth

veth (or vayth)

is

pronounced like the German guttural ch' (as in AUCH), or as in the Scotch word LOCH, thus
:

ojo
eye

jugar
to play

juzgar
to

jefe
chief

bajo
under

caja
box.

judge

o-Ho
students

#oo-gar

#ooth-gar

^ay-fay

bah-#o

kah-jEfah
;

is merely the English h, pronounced in the throat an<jl experience any difficulty with the Spanish guttural are it an like h. to advised aspirated pronounce

This sound

who

and

J
;

English

way

are the only two consonants pronounced quite unlike the but the following points should be noted.

before

or i

is

pronounced like the Spanish z

and

G
cena
supper

j,thus:
cinco
five

once
eleven

general
general

giganie
giant

Coger
to seize

thay-nah thin-ko

on-thay ^ay-nay-rahl ZTe-galm-tay ko-5air


is

O before any other letter like g in GO QU before e or i pronounced like the g in GO


;

is

before

any

other vowel like

gw or goo
all,

is

not pronounced at

thus

:.

gato
cat

guerra
war

guia
guide

bablar

ha

hijo
son

herir
to

htuno
smoke

to speak -has

wound

gab-to gairr-rah ghee-ah ah-blar ah (gh as in GHOST)

ee-#o ay-reer
;

oo-mo

LL
S"

is

pronounced nearly

like 11 in

MILLION

ni
calle
street

in COMPANION, thus

silla
chair

liamar
to call

nino
child

senor
sir

cuna
wedge
koo-n'yah

kah-1'yay see-ryah 1'yah-mar nee-n*yo say-a'yor

QU CH R
S

is

pronounced like
as

iii

the English

CHEAP

or

MUCH

is rolled (on the tip of the tongue) more than in English, especially at the beginning of a word or syllable ;
is

always pronounced sharp, as in SEE or LAST Z, as in EASY, MISER, thus :

never like

quo
that

quince
fifteen

muchacha
girl

raro
rare rrali-ro

casa
house

mesa
table

kay

kin-thay

moo-chah-chah

kah-sah may-sah

DIVISION OF

WORDS INTO SYLLABLES.

A^already shown, words ending in a consonant stress the last syllable, while words ending in a vowel stress the last syllable but one. The
following rules are therefore important.

RULE. When two vowels come together, they are pronounced separately,
and form DISTINCT SYLLABLES
deseo, desire
;

as,

teatro, theatre (PBON. day-say-o, tay-ah-tro).

EXCEPTION.
however, one of the vowels is i or u, the other vowel takes the stress, and the i or u is lightly pronounced in the SAME SYLLABLE (i.e., with the same emission of the voice) ; as,
If,

cuando, when

jaula, cage

aire, air

viaje, voyage.

(PBON. koo'alin-do, /7ah'oo-lab, ah'e-ray, ve'ah-#ay)

Wheri i and u occur together, the stress is on the vowel which comes last ; as, viuda, widow cuita, grief (ve'oo-dah, koo'ee-tah)
;

is

not in accordance ^ith rule, an acute accent always placed in Spanish* over the emp. asized vowel ; as,
the stress
is

When

alii, there

h&bil, clever (?RON. ah-fyee, ah-bil).

in words ending in

*Until the latter half of the nineteenth century, the stress was not marked n or s, thus nacion, jamas. But ,as n and s are the two consonants added when forming the* plural in Spanish, it is now cusetc.), to

tomary to add the. accent (naci6n, jamas, baston, despues, show that the n or s is not merely a plural termination.
in

Similarly, it is no longer customary to mark the accent in words ending or s when the stress is not on the last syllable, thus antes, joven
:

(pronounced ahn-tace, 176- ven), and formerly writ! en antes, jdven.

VARYING PRONUNCIATIONS.
The lisping pronunciation of z, and of c before e or i (ce=ze, Ci=zi), usual in Castile ; and as Castilian is considered the best Spanish, we advise Englishmen to adopt this pronunciation in preference, thus : luz
is
'

(LIGHT),

looth

'

and

so on.
it is

But

in South

Spain,

usual to

cinco (FIVE), thin-ko once (ELEVEN), on-tbay, and Central America, and in some parts of pronounce z, and c before e or i, like the English s.
;

'

Many Spaniards pronounce the final d like th in the English THIN, MYTH and some pronounce d in the middle of a word something like th in the English THEN/ Thus, edad (AGE)=ay-dahth madre (MOTHER)
;
4

=mah-thray.
that of v.

unusual for Spaniards to confuse the soumd of b with But foreigners should pronounce the Spanish d, to, V, exactly as they are pronounced in English, not making the final d too sharp and distinct
It is also not

ACCENTS, SIGNS OF PUNCTUATION,


The ACUTE ACCENT
indicates that the
;

ETC.

( ')

is

STRESS or EMPHASIS

the only accent used in Spanish. It is to be laid on the vowel over

which it is placed as, medico, physician (PRON. may-de-ko). It is also used to distinguish between words similarly spelt, but of different meaning: It never alters the prote, thee te, tea (PRON. of both, tay)
;

nunciation of a letter.

The accent is. also used in such words as cuando (WHEN), donde (WHERE), when they actually ask a question, thus When does the boat arrive ? i Cuando llega el buque ? but : Does he know when the boat arrives 1 Sabe el cuando llega el buque 1
:

(Literally,

when
:

arrives the boat


el

pronounced

sab-bay

? knows he when arrives the kwahn-do 1'yay-gah el boo-kay).

boat

The NOTES or INTERROGATION and EXCLAMATION are placed at both


ends of the phrase, the
I

first
7

one being inverted


7
j

as,
!

qu6 tiene

el

what has he

gracias a Dios

thank God

that the

The DIARESIS is placed over u (ii) preceded by g, to indicate u must be pronounced as, agiiero, omen (PRON.; ah-goo'ay-ro).
;

()

The TILDE (~
like

) is

placed over n,

when

that letter

is

to be pronounced

ni in union

as, nifio, child

(PRON.: nee-n'y)

10

FIRST LESSON1.

SINGULAR.

1st Pa-son I

2nd
3rd *~
*

2nd you vo&Otros* thou tli 3rd they ellOS* 61 ; she, ella When these words are FEMININE, the ending OS is changed to as
],

yo

1st Person

PLUEAL. we nOSOtrOS*

he, 7

FRON. yo, too, ell, ell-yah, nos-o-tros, vos-o-tros, ell-yos, etc. The SECOND PERSON is only used in addressing near relations, very form of address intimate friends, children, and animals. The ordinary polite written V. or Vd., and nstedes (PLUis usted (SINGULAR), commonly PRON. oos-ted, oos-tay-dace. RAL), written Vs. VV. or Vds. Usted is a contraction of vuestra merced (your honor), and the Verb of which it is the subject must therefore be in the THIRD PERSON Vd. tiene you have (siNG.)=your honor has (pLTJB,)=your honors have Vds. tienen have you (STNG.)=has your honor ? i tiene Vd. ? etc. The Second Person (i.e., the familiar form) is given throughout this book the polite form when adfor Reference only, as foreigners must always use The employment of the Familiar Form will be dressing any adult.
:

explained later on.

2.
I have

yo you; Vd.
he has 61
she

PRESENT TENSE 0/to have, tener. we (M.) have nosotros tengo we (F.) nosotras
(

tenemos

\
(

tiene

you
they (M.) they (F.)

Vds.
ellos ellas
;

ella

<
(

tienen

Familiar

PRON. ten-go, te-ay-nay, tay-nay-mos, te-ay-nen. Form thou hast, tu tienes you have, vosotros teneis.
:

3. NOT

is
I

translated

have not,

by no, which is placed BEFORE THE VERB yo no tengo has he not ? i no tiene 61 ?
;

as,

EXERCISE
1.

I.

ellos tienen
;

2. i

tengo yo
9.

?
?

3.
6.

,;

no tengo yo
tiene
;

? 4. ella
7. i

no tiene
10.

5. i
?

tenemos nosotros
tienen Vds.?

Vd.no

no
?

tienen ellas
13. I

8. i
;

nosotros no tenemos.

she has 11. have they not ? 12. have you (SING.) have not 14. you (PLUR.) have not 15. have I not 16. we have ; 17. have 'you (PLUR.) not ? 18. she has not.
;

11

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS.


4.

The PLURAL

is formed by adding S to Nouns ending in a VOWEL ; es to Nouns ending in a CONSONAOT or y.


;

boy,
pen, into

muchacho boys, muchachoS pluma pens, plumaS ;


;
,

train;

king,
is

trea trains, trenES rey kings, reyES.


;
;

If the

ces

as voice,

SINGULAR ends in z, the PLURAL voz , voices, voces.


;

formed by changing the z


;

PRONUNCIATION: moo-chah-cho, moo-chah-chos


ploo-mah, ploo-mahs
ray'e, ray-yace
;

; trane, tray-nace votb, vo-thace.

THE GENDER OF NOUNS.


(Names 5.
of living beings

have the same Gender as in English.) are FEMININE.

Nouns ending in a, ion, d, Z, are MASCULINE.


The Gender

All others

In accordance

of Nouns will only be given in the Vocabularies with the foregoing rule.

when

not

EXERCISE

II,
;

Form
t

the Plural of
;

1.

padre, father
;

2.

libro, book

3.

nuez, nut
;

4.

seJaor, gentleman
;

5.

Idpiz (MASC.),
;

pencil

7. ciudad, town 6* pluma, pen 8. hombre, man; 9. luz, light; 10. tia, aunt; 11. iglesia, church; 12. ley (FEM.), law 13. sombrero, hat.
;

PRON.: Tpah-dray 2lee-bro 3 noo'aith 4say-n'yor 6 lah-pith ; 6 ploo-mah ; 7 the'oo-dahd 8om-bray 9 looth 10 tee-ah ; 11 e-glay;
; ; ;

se-ah

12 lay-e

3 som-bray-ro.

6
SINGULAR.
a,

THE ARTICLES.
PLURAL.
(F.) (F.)
lahs.
[

an

un
el
;

(M.),

una
la
s ;

the

(M.),

some, any the

unos
los

(M.),

Unas
las

(F.) (F.)

(M.),

PRON.: oonn OO-nos oo-nahs

00-nah; el; lah(*ah' always pronounced short);


los
;

Articles take the

GENDER and NUMBER


;
;
:

of the following

NOUN

as,

a man, un hoxnbre
the man, el

an aunt, una tia


the aunt, la tia
;
; ;

hombre

some men, unos hombres the men, los hombres

some aunts, unas tias the aunts* las tias.

12

The MASCULINE ARTICLE is used before a FRMTNTNE SINGULAR NOUN commencing with a or ha, if the a or ha takes the
V.
stress
;

as,

a beech, un haya (fern.) the wing, el ala (fern.) r but . the flour, la harina a spider, una arafia.
,

REMARK. The Neuter Article lo, which has no plural, is only used lo dificil, the difficult. before other Parts of Speech used as JNouns, thus ah-ree-nah ah-rah-n'yah; de-fee-thill. PRON,: ah-lah
,

ah-yah

EXERCISE*
1.

III.

a brother 1
2
;

2 2. a sister
;

3.

some brothers 1
;

4.

some
;

sisters

7. the sister 6. the brothers ; the brother 5 4 3 11. a wing ; water 8. the sisters ; 9. the houses ; 10. the 6 14. the books ; 15. a pen 12. the beautiful ; 13. a father 8 16. the pencil ; 17 the ink 7 ; 18. some pencils ; 19. a village 7 tinta; 6 hcrmoso 5 ala 3 casa 4 agua 2 hermana 1 hermano 4 ah3 kah-sah 2 air-mah-nah PRON. 1 air-mah-no 8 aldea.

5.

gwah

or ah-goo'ah

5 ah-lah

6 air-mo-so

7 .tin-tab

8 ahl-day-ah^

EXERCISE

IV.

Tiene el 2. plumas ? 3. Nosotros tenemos una casa. 4. Yds. tienen unas plumas nosotros tenemos unos libros. 1 has two 2 wings. 6. The bird 5. You have a brother. 8. Has he not the 7. You (PLURAL) have not the books. 2 3 10. I have not a ink ? 9. The mother has two houses. 6 4 5 but friend has some Has he the letter 7 ? 11. my pens. pen,

TRANSLATE
;

1.

Yo no

tengo un libro.

las

pajaro
1
;

2 dos

pah-/7ah-ro 6 ah-tnee-go 7 kar-tah.

PRON.

3 inadre , 4 pero , 5 mi ; 6 2 clos ; 3 mall -dray ;

amigo 7 carta. 5 4 pay-ro


;

me

READING AND PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE.


Vd.
los
the
los

Know

you

sah-bay oos-ted

Si; son los esparioles ? numbers Yes (they) are the Spanish ? los see son noo-may-ros es-pah-n'yo-lace
;

niimeros

: uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, following : one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, se-ghe-en-tace oo-no dos trace koo'ah-tro thin-ko say-is se-ay-tay o-cho

siguientes

nueve,
nine,

diez,
ten,

once,
eleven,

doce,
twelve,

trece,
thirteen,

catorce,
fourteen,

quince,
fifteen,

noo'ay-vay de-eth on-thay do-tbay tray-thay kah-tor-tbay kln-thay

SECOND LESSON.
8.

OF or FROM is translated by de (PRON. day) ; TO or AT is translated by a (PRON. ah). de el is contracted to del, and d el to al as, to the father, al padre of the man, del hombre
;
,

de and &

are

NOT contracted with any word but


;

el,

thus

of the houses, de las caaas of a pen, de una pluma ,

to the

men,

to a father,

a 16s hombres ; a un padre.

9.

The construction Thfcre is NO POSSESSIVE CASE in Spanish. must therefore be changed as in the following examples,
friend's houses=the houses of my friend, las casas de mi amigo =the hat of the man, el sombrero del hombre man's hat
;

my
the

the boys' books

=the books

of the boys, los libros

de los muchachos.

EXERCISE
1.

I.

from the church8 4. of 6. of the mothers 5. to a book the water of the pond 4 7. to the stones 8. of some letters 9. from the wings of a bird 10. to some books 11. of some birds 12. to a house; 14. of the ink ; 15. of the brothers 16. of 13. to the book the wings of the birds 17. the boy's 5 book 18. a soldier's 6
of the
;

man 1
;

2. to
3

man 1

3.

horse7
1

19. the soldier's horses.


;
;

2 iglesia 3 pantano 4 piedra 5 muchacho 6 sold ado hombre 2 e-glay-se-ah 7caballo. PRON. 1 om-bray 3 pahn-tah-no 4pe-aydrah 5 moo-chah-cho 6 sol-dah-do , 7 kah-bah-1'yo.
;
;

10.

The "Pronoun which is the SUBJECT of a Spanish Verb generally omitted, if the meaning is clear without it ; as, I have a pen, tengo una pluma or yo tengo una pluma have I a pen ? j tengo una pluma 1 or i tengo yo una pluma ?
,

is

It is, however, never wrong to insert the Pronoun ; and it cannot be omitted when emphasized, thus : SHE has two books, and WE have three, ella tiene dos libros, y nosotros tenemos tres. Usted cannot be omitted, as ifc stands for vuestra merced (your tartt), and is therefore really a Noun.

u
11.
I

have

yo he
Vd.
61
) >
)

PRESENT TENSE <?/to hare, haber. we (M.) have nosotros we (P.) nosotras
you

t,

A%v^, nemos

ou y h e has
she

Yds.

ha
:

ella
Familiar

Form

ellos > han they (M.) ellas ) they(r.) PRON.: ay, ab, ay-mos, ahn. them hast, tii has you have, vosotros habeis.
,

12.

There are two Spanish Yerbs meaning to have.' Tener is used as a principal Verb, meaning to hold, to possess. Haber is only used as an AUXILIAKY ; i.e., to form the It must therefore COMPOUND TENSES of other Verbs. precede a Past Participle.
'
*

possess can be substituted for have,' tener must be employed. ].i Thus, in the Collective Exercise below, sentences 3 and 4 might be worded ' 4 Do we not possess the hats ? Does the church possess an altar I Therefore, tener is the verb to employ. But in sentences 1 and 2, we possess written,' you possess not Haber must therefore be used. seen,' makes no sense whatever.
l :
' '

'

The Student should


I

carefully

compare the following examples


have seen a house (Yo) he visto una casa They have written the letter (Ellos) han escrito la carta You have taken a book Vd. ha tornado un libro
I

have a house

(Yo) tengo una casa They have the letter (Ellos) tienen la carta

You have a book Vd. tiene un libro


13.
(A) In

He

Compound Tensfcs, precedes the AUXILIARY has not written the letter, (el) no ha escrito la carta.

no

as,

haber,

(B) In Compound Tenses formed with the Present Tense of the Subject in questions is usually placed AFTER the Past Participle, this construction being considered more elegant ; as,

Have you seen the house ? Has he not taken the nuts Have the men written 1

Ha visto

Vd. la casa

No ha tornado el las nueces ? i Han escrito los hombres ?


j

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
have written 1 some letters. 2. You have not seen 2 the houses. 3. Have \ve not the hats 3 ? 4. Has the church an altar4 ? 5. I have seen2 the altar4 of the church. 6. The 5 7. Who has taken6 the in<<c ? kings have the horses.
1.

We

15

The man lias an axe 7 9. The vessel 8 has an anchor. 11 10 13 12 10. Has the servant given a chair to the gentleman ? 11. I have not an envelope, 14 but my 15 brother has some 16 17 13. Have envelopes. 12. What have you (PLUR.) done ? 18 ? 14. The men have some you seen the king's gardens horses. 15. Why 19 have you not written 1 the letters ? 16. A man has spoken 20 with 21 the servant. 11 17. Have we
8.
? 18. Yes,24 we have a book have not seen the man's house. 25 have not taken 6 the pens. '20. The girls 21. You have some letters. 22. You have not the books. 23. The girl's25

not a book for22 the

woman 23

and two pens.

19.

We

brother has not written a letter to the gentleman. 13


1 escrito

7 hacha
llero
;

2 visto ; 3 sombrero ; 6 tornado 4 altar ; 5 qui&i ? 8 buque ; 9 ancla ; 10 dado 13 caba11 criado 12 silla ; 14 sobre ; 15 mi ; 16 qud ? 17 becho 19 por qu 1 18 jardin
,

20 hablado

21 con

1 PBON.: 3 som-bray-ro ; 4 ahl-tar ; 6 to-mah-do ; 9 ahn-klah ; 8 boo-kay 7 ah-chah ; 5 ke-en ; 11 13 kah-bah-l'yay-ro 10 dah-do ; 12 see-l'yah kre-ah-do; 15 19 14 so-bray ; me 16 kay 17 ay-cho 18 JiTar-deen por kay ; 24 see; 20 ah-blah-do; 21 kon ; 23 moo-J2air ; 22 pah -rah ;
, ; ; ;
;

22 para ; 23 mujer es-kree-to ; 2 vis-to


;

24

si

25 muchacha.

25 moo-chah-chab.

READING AND PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE.


Los otros numeros son
The
los
:
.

dieciseis or diez
sixteen,

other numbers o-tros noo-may-ros

are son

seis, dieeisiete, seventeen,

de-eth-e-say-is,

de-eth-e-se-ay-tay
etc.
etc.

dieciocho,
eighteen,

diecinueve>
nineteen,

veinte,
twenty,

de-eth-e-o-cho
<;

de-eth-e-noo'ay-vay

vay-in-tay
gracias.
thanks.

et-thay-tay-rah

C6mo
How
la

esta
are

Vd.
you
?

Muy
Very

bien,
well,

La

Have
key

ko-mo es-tah oos-ted

moo'e
esta
is

be-en grah-the-ahs lab


<;

Tyah-yay

de

puerta
door

no

aqui.
here.

Quien Who
ke-en

esta
is

hablando

day lah poo'air-tah no

es-tah ah-kee

speaking ee-tah ah-blahn-do

en
in

la
lah

calle ?
street?

La
lah

cerveza
beer

no

es
is

buena.
good,

en

kah-1'yay

thair-yay-thah no

ess

boo'ay-nah

16

THIRD LESSON,
14.
1st Person

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

my
thy
his, her, its

mi
tu

our
your their

nuestro*
vuestro*

2nd

3rd
*

su

SU
to

When

the following Noun thus :

mi, tu, su, are PBON. me, too,

is FEMININE, the final o is changed nuestrA, vuestrA. ALIKE in Masculine and Feminine.

soo, noo'es-tro, noo'es-trah, etc.

formed by adding s to the miS, nuestroS, nuestraS, suS. Possessive Adjectives always take the GENDER and NUMBEB of the following NOUN, thus my house, mi casa my houses, mis casas ;
15.
of these words is

The PLURAL

Singular, thus

his,

her or their pencil,

su lapiz
,

;* his,

our book, nuestro libro our church, nuestra iglesia

her or their pencils, SUS lapices ; our books, nuestros libros ; our churches, nuestras iglesias ;

my
his,

brother,

mi hermano

my
;

sisters,

mis hermanas
sus

her or their aunt,

su tia

his,

her or their aunta,

tiaa,

16.

YOUR

(polite form),

su

(singular),

SUS

(plural).

Foreigners cannot employ tu (thy) or vuestro (your), any more than tu (thou) or vosotros (you). As all adults must be addressed as Usted ' (=your honor), phrases like have you lost your hat ? become * has your honor lost HIS hat ? ' Q Vd. su sombrero perdido ?) and so on.
'

Ha

Consequently, su is used, not only for HIS, HER, THEIR, but also for YOUB, the context usually showing which is meant. In conversation, su usuaUy means YOUR, unless another person has just been mentioned. When it is
desired to

make a distinction, the hat of you,' the books of her,' * the mother of them/ etc., must be employed, thus el sombrero de Vd., los libros de ella, la madre de ellos (or ellas). [After a Preposition, HIM is el, HER ella, and THEM ellos, ellas,
' :

see paragraph 65.]

The construction

u sombrero de
used

Vd., sus libroa dt ella,

madre de

ellos,

is

also occasionally

if
EXERCISE
'

I.

1.
5.
9.

my garden our glass1 ; 6. our village


;

2.

his ink
;

8.
7.

her ink

4.
8.
;

their ink

;
;

my aunt2

my aunts2

their cat3

10. their cats 3


;

11.
;

our gloves4

12. his shoes 5 ;

13. his sisters

14. her sisters 15. their money 6 ; 16. my 7 8 9 hands his our 18. 19. her wish ; ; eyes ; 9 10 21. their namos 22. your pen ; 23. your 20. his wish ; 25. your (SING.) hands 7 ; book 24. your (PLUR.) house 26. your (PLUR.) hands 27. lie has not broken 11 his pipe 12 ; 28. Have the children 13 taken your gloves4 ? 29. Have you taken your money 6 ?

servant

17.

8 ojo

vaso 2 tla 3 gato 4 guante 9 deseo 10 nombre 11 roto


; ;
;

5 zapato

;
;

6 dinero

mano (PEM.);
;

12 pipa

PEON. 1 vah-so 2 tee-ah ; 3 gali-to ; pah-to 6 de-nay-ro 7 mah-no ; 8 o--fo 9 day-say-o 11 rro-to ; 12 pee-pah ; 13 nee-n'yo.
;
; ;

13 nino. 4 goo'ahn-tay
;

5 tbah;

10 nom-bray

17.
I

PEESBNT TENSES
estar

of to be,

estar and ser.


estar

ser

ser

am

estoy

soy

we

are

estamos somos

PBON.

es-to'e, es-tah, es-tah-mos,

es-tahn

so'e, ess, so-mos, son.


;

Familiar

Form
,,

of

estar of ser
:

estas (sing.), estais (plur.) eres (sing.), sois (plur.).


:

The
f

full

conjugation

is

as follows

art
is
is

estar yo estoy
41 esta

ser yo soy
tu erea
61

estar
are nosotros estamos you are vosotros estais tbey are ellos estau (F.) ellas estan

ser
nosotroa somos vosotros sois
ellos

we

tbou art tu estas

he
be

es

ella esta

ella es

ellas

SOQ son

EXERCISE
1.
;

II.

(on ser).
;
<{

somos ; 2. no son 3. & soy yo ? 4. ella no es 5. no somos nosotros ? 6. no soy 7. es Vd*? 8. Yds. no son. 9. is she ? 10. he is not 11. are they (FEM.) not ? 12. you ? 14. are we ? 15. am I not ? not are are 13. (PLUR.) you
;
<j

16. I

am

17.

she

is

not

18. I

am

not.

#.&*

18

EXERCISE
4.

III. (on
el ?
?

no estoy; Vd. no esta 5.


t.
,
:

2.

esta

3. 6.
<?

<;

estan ellos

estar). no estamos nosotros? esta Vd. ? 7. Vds. estan.


;

I ?

are you not ? 10. they (F.) are not 8. \ve are ; 13. is he not? 14. she 12. you (PLUR.) are
9.
;

11.
is

am
;

not

15. are

we

16
is

you are not

17, I

am

not

18. are

18.

Estar

used in speaking of any

TEMPORARY

condition or
:

action, or of the place in which a person or thing is, thus be is at the door, esta a la puerta* ; I am here, estoy aqui

we are speaking, estamos hablando ; they are not busy, no estan ocupados

Ser

is used in speaking of a PERMANENT state or condition, a profession or calling, or a natural characteristic. he is not English, no es ingles ; am I tall ? j soy yo alto 1 son soldados they are soldiers, el papel es bianco ; the paper is white, he is the manager of the firm, es el gerente* de la casa.
;

SPECIAL REMARKS.
of course used before any Present Participle, as the phrase ONE is DOING at the time only. then expresses
is

Estar

WHAT I am smoking

estoy fumando
to.

PLACE
4

is

always expressed by estar, no matter how long the person

or thing has been in the place referred lent to stand,* thus :

Estar

is

really almost equiva-

Madrid

is

(=stands)in

Castile,

Madrid esta en Castilla*


Londres*

the Bank of England is in London, el Banco de Inglaterra* esta en

^ST Ser should always be employed, unless the action or condition spoken of must necessarily by its nature be temporary.
Property in
thus
:

(i.e.

possession of) anything


is

is

always expressed by ser,


:

this

book

is

mine, este libro es mio.

The Passive Voice

always expressed by ser

he

is

loved,

es

amado

'PRONOUNCED

poo'air-tah, /fey-ren-tay, kah-stee-l'yah, in-glab-tairr-rah, Ion-dress.

1.

We are
4

EXERCISE IV. (on ser and estar). not workmen. 2. Are you ready 2
1

3.

They

(PEM.') are here.

tening.

6.

Who

5. I am not lis[a] soldier ? 5 6 is in the street ? 7, He is very indus-

4.

Are you

19
trious.7
Italian.*
14

8. I

am

10,

We
He

8 9. I am not [an*] Englishwoman. [an] 10 are speaking with his cousin. 11 11. Are
?

12 they nob princes

12.
17

We

are sailors. 13
15

13.

He

is

not
16

We are not smoking. [a] postman. 16. Are you [a] Spaniard ? 17. They are my uncles. 18. My aunt is not here. 8 19. She is not at home. 19 20. We
writing.
14.
is

15.

18

19

are waiting. 20
1
;

21.

He is

[a] professor.

21

obrero 2 listo ; 3 aqui ; 4 escuchando ; 5 calle (FEM.) ; 6 muy 7 8 inglesa ; 9 italiano 10 hablando ; 11 primo(M.), prima (F.) , laborioso 12 prlricipe ; 13 marinero ; 14 cscribiendo ; 15 cartero 16 fumando ; 17 18 tto ; 19 en casa ; 20 aguardando ; 21 profesor. espaflol PRON. 1 o-bray-ro ; 2 lis-to ; 3 ah-kee ; 4 es-koo-chahn-do ; 6 kah-1'yay 6 moo'e ; 7 lah-bo-re-o-so 8 in-glay-sah 9 e-tah-le-ahno ; 10 ah-blahn-do 11 pree-mo ; 12 prin-the-pay 13 mah-re-nay15 kar-tay-ro ; 16 foo-mahn-do ; 17 es-pahro? 14 es-kree-be-en-do n'yol 18 tee-o 19 enn kali-sab ; 20 ah-goo'ar-dahn-do 21 pro-fess-or.
;

;.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1.

2.

Our friends 1 are in2 the garden, looking3 for 3 their dogs. 4 Are you my friend's uncle ? 3. No, 6 sir,6 I am not his

uncle, I

am

his father.
7

4.
is

My
am

smoking a

cigar.
3

5.

Who
7.

friend there 8 ?

is 6.

in 2 the street,

What

are

you

writing a letter to your father. 8. Your children 9 are growing10 very 11 fast. 11 9. My friend's brother "is not industrious. 12 10. Have you a servant ? 11. Our sister is clever. 13 12. Your mother is in the garden. 2 14. You 13. My shoes are on the floor, 14 near 15 the chair. 15. My book is in the drawer. 16 16. Is are not soldiers. a b 17 b your brother smoking ? 17. To whom have you written a 18 letter ? our lessons. 19 18. We are not studying

(PLUB.) looking

for3 ?

'

6 3 buscando ; 4 perro ; 5 no . 2 en ; 1 amigo (M.), amiga (F.) ; 9 hi jo (*OTI); 10 crcciendo 11 mucho (much') ; senor 7 cigarro ; 8 alii 16 caj6n ; 17 quin ; 18 12 laborioso ; 13 babil ; 14 suelo ; 15 cerca de estudiando; 19 leccion.
; ; ; ; ;

PRON.
6 say-n'yor
;

1
;

5 no 4 pairr-ro 2 enn 3 booss-kahn-do ah-me-go 9 ee-Ho 10 kray-the-en7 the-gahrr-ro ; 8 ab-l'yee


;
;

do 11 moo-cho 12 lah-bo-re-o-so 13 ah-bil 14 soo'ay-lo 15 thair16 kah-TZon 17 ke-en 18 es-too-de-ahn-do 19 lek-the-on. kab day *In the Exercises, words not to .be translated are placed between square and words which are required in Spanish, but not in Engbrackets [ ], ). lish, between parentheses (
; ;
;

20

FOURTH LESSON.
QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES.
19.
Adjectives agree in Gender and

Number

with the

Noun

ihey qualify ; and generally FOLLOW that Noun. Thus : a cheap watcb, un reloj barato; cheap watches, relojes baratoa

a cheap

chain,

una cadena barata

cheap chains, cadenas baratas

an English newspaper, un pefiodico ingles English newspapers, periodicos ingleses French literature, la literatura francesa
Spanish grammars,
.

gramaticas espanolas
if

are,

Adjectives generally PRECEDE the Noun they qualify shorter than the Noun, or are used figuratively ; as,

they

un escritor pobre a poor(=in poverty) writer un pobre escritor a poor(=unfertunate) writer PRON. ray-lo#, bah-rah-to, kah-day-nah, pay-re -o-de-ko, in-gless, le-tay-rah-too-rah frahn-thay-sah, grah-mah-te-kahs es-pah-n'yo-labs, cs-kre-tor, po-bray.

Btieno

(good) and

malo

They acfe then contracted to buen and mal, but SINGULAR ONLY,- see Paragraph 94.
An. Adjective
is

(bad) usually precede the Noun. in the MASCULINE

PRON. boo'ay-no, mah-lo, boo'en, mahl.


sometimes put before the
;

Noun

for

EMPHASIS

a magnificent day, un magnificodia a splendid day, un csplendido dia PRON. mahg-nee-fe-ko, es-plen-de-do, dee-ah.

is

The position of the Adjective before or after the Noun which it qualifies largely a matter of taste and euphony, respecting which no exact rules
be fiven.

ca

few Adjectires nearly always precede the Noun,

see pars.

9*1,

95.

THE FEMININE OP ADJECTIVES.


80.
'If

the

MASCULINE ends

in o, the

FEMININE
(fern.)

is

formed by

changing the o into


industrious,

as,

laborioso (masc.), laboriosA


(masc.),

Busritn,

ruso

rusA

(tern.)

21

81.

If the Adjective denotes

sonant, the Feminine culine ; as,


Spanish, espafiol (m.), espafiola

is

NATIONALITY,* and ends in a conformed by adding a to the MasEnglish, ing!6s(m.),

(f.);

inglesa

(f.)

REMARK
Nouns
:

Adjectives denoting NATIONALITY can also be used as an Englishwoman, una Ingksa. an- Englishman, un Ingles
I.
;

REMARK II. Most other Adjectives which can be used as Nouns denoting a person add a in the FEMININE, \vhether used as Nouns or AdjecThese generally end in n or or. Thus : tives.
an an
idle servant,
idler,

un criado holgazan (m.), una oriada holgazanA (.) un holgazdn (m.), una holgazanA (f.)
DO NOT

22.

CHANGE

Adjectives not included in the foregoing Rules in the Feminine ; as,


;

an easy book, un libro f&cil an easy lesson, una leccion facil

easy books, libros faciles


;

easy lessons, lecciones faciles

PBON. ol-gah-thahn, fah-thil, leck-the-on.

THE PLURAL OP ADJECTIVES.


is formed in the same way as the Nounsf (see paragraph 4) as, a skilful workman, un obrero hdbil skilful workmen, obreros habiles a happy girl, una muchacha feliz happy girls, muchachas felloes sick children, ninos enfermos a sick child, un nino enfermo

23.

The

Plural of Adjectives

Plural of

an English manuscript, ufca escritura inglesa English manuscripts, escrituras inglesas


PBON. fay-leeth or fay-lith, en-fair-mo, es-kre-too-rah.

EXERCISE
Form
1.

I.

the Feminine Singular, and the Masculine and Feminine Plural, of the following Adjectives :

4. diligent,

6.

caro laborioso aplioado, 7. cheap, baratO easy, fdoil


good,
;

bueno
;

2. dear,

3.

capacious,

oapaz
9.

5.
8.

French, franoes

dry,

seco

brave,

* These Adjectives do not

commence with a

capital letter in Spanish.

f The Plural

is

of course formed from the Singular of the

valiente

10. cold,

frio

ll. hot,
;

cdlido

12.

alemdn
15.

13. difficult, difioil

14. English,

German, ingles
; ;

heavy, pesado ; 161 Persian, persa. 17. a good horse 19. a bad pen 18. good horses pens 21. a difficult lesson ; 22. difficult lessons.
; ;
;
;

20.

bad

PRON. 1 boo'ay-no; 2 kah-ro 3kah-pahth; 4 ah-ple-kah-do frahn-thess 6fah-thil ; 7bah-rah-to 8say-ko; 9 vah-le-ezm-tay; 10 free-o 12 an-lay-malm 11 kah-le-do 13 de-fee-tbil 14 in;

gless

15 pay-sah-de

,*

16 pair-sah.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1;

His friends are not brave.


3.
?

2.

The French

milliner 1 has

sold 2 a cheap hat. you a good servant


[ones].
6. I

Our
5.

lessons 3 are very easy. 4. No, sir, my servants are not


1

Have

have seen

(to)* a brave soldier. 7.

8. We are English sailors. 9. Why are you 6 10. The German girls (PLUR.) not studying your lessons ? are happy 6 11. To whom 7 have you given your books ? 12. I have given my Spanish books to my friend's cousin. 13.

good have [some]

cold meat. 4

Our
not

lesson
9
12

is

well, thank
ill.

15. Very you ? but I have been 11 ill. 12 16. Your sister is you 17. Your (PLUR.) aunts are very clever. 18.

very

difficult.
;

14.

How 8 are

10

10

Her

brothers
20.

are

ill.

19.

Your friend (FBM.)

is

[an]

She is not Italian, she is Spanish. 21. What have you done with my book ? 22. It is on the table. 18
Italian.
1

modista
7 quten
;

2 vendido
?

feliz

8 como

9 bicn
*

3 Iecci6n ; 4 came (FEM.) 5 estudiando 11 estado ; ; 10 gracias (thanks) ;


;

6.

12

enfermo

13 mesa. see paragraph 37. 2 ven-dee-do 3 lek-the-on ; PBON. 1 rno-dis-tah 4 kar-nay 5 es-toode-ahn-do 6 fay-leeth 7 ke-en 8 ko-mo 9 be-en 10 grab13 may-sab. tbe-ahs 11 es-tah-do 12 en-fair-mo
;

SPECIAL REMARK. It must be constantly borne in mind that the English and Spanish vowel sounds do not correspond exactly, and that the
Spanish sounds are not so long as those given in our Imitated Pronunciation.
?

*ay

).

THEY SHOULD ALL BE PRONOUNCED SHORT (especially ah and To remind students of this, we give such words as Irenes, feliz, in' '

differently as trenn-ess or trane-acc, fay-leeth, lay -lith, or fell-ith.

FIFTH LESSON.
REGULAR VERBS
The INFINITIVE of every Spanish Verb ends in ar, er, or ir. The part PRECEDING these terminations is called the STEM. to speak hablAR Thus INFINITIVE STEM habl... to owe debER deb... to live vivIR viv...
: :
:

PRESENT INDICATIVE OP REGULAR VERBS.


24.
Present Indicative of Verbs ending in ar adding to the STEM the following terminations :
1st Pers.

The

is

formed by

SING.

2nd

Pers. 3rd Pers.

PLUR.

1st Pers.

2nd

Pers. 3rd Pers.

O
The
full

as

A
we speak
you

AMOS
is

ais

AN
;

Conjugation of the Present Indicative

therefore as follows

I speak

(yo)

(ellos) they PRON. ah-blo, ah-blah, ah-blah-mos, ah-blahn. Familiar Form thou speakest, (tu) hablas ; you speak, (vosotros) bablais. NOTE. Except in the FIRST PERSON SINGULAR, these terminations are the same as those of estar (see Paragraph 17) ; but in Regular Verbs the STRESS IS REGULAR (see page 6).

you speak bespeaks

Vd.
(el)

hablO -u^-un A hablA


)

(nosotros)

hablAMOS

Vds.

EXERCISE I. 3. he buys 5. 4. we buy buy 2 3 6. they buy 7. he takes 8. we find you (PLUR.) buy 10. they (F.) take ; 11. you find 12. you (PLUR.) 9. 1 find 15. you carry 5 take 13. he smokes* 14, they smoke 6 17. we send 16. I carry 18. you (PLUR.) send.
1. 1

buy
;

2f y<jsu
;

1 comprar 2 tomar 3 hallar PRON. 1 kora-prar 2 to-mar ; var; 6en-ve-ar.


;

umar

5 llevar
;

6 enviar.
:

3 ah-l'yar

4 foo-mar

5 1'yay-

25.

The
for

like that of

A in the terminations.

Present Indicative of Verbs ending fn Verbs ending in ai% except that

er

is

formed

E is substituted

24
The
I
full

Conjugation of the Present Indicative

is

as follows:

owe

(jo)

debO debE
:

we owe

(nosotros)

debEMOS

Familiar

PRON. day-bo, day-bay, day-bay-mos, day-ben. Form thou owest, (tu) debes you owe, (vosotros)
;

debeis.

EXERCISE
1. I
1 ; ;
;

II.
;
;

5. 4. we drink 3. he drinks 2. you drink drink 2 8. we 7. he believes 6. they drink drink (PLUR.) you 4 3 12. you (P.) 11. you learn 10. I eat believe; 9. they eat 5 15. they possess. 14. 1 possess 13. he learns ; believe
;

beber

2 creer 3

2 kray-air

3 comer 4 aprender ko-mair 4 ah-pren-dair


;
; ;

5 poseer. PRON. 5 po-say-air.

bay-bair

26.

is In the Present Indicative of Verbs ending in ir, added to the Stem to form the IST PERSON PLURAL, and IS to form the 2ND PERSON PLURAL. ^- The terminations of the er and ir Verbs are otherwise EXACTLY ALIKE, in every other Mood and Tense.*

IMOS

The

full

Conjugation of the Present Indicative

is

as follows:

I live y'ou live


e lives

(yo)

VivO

we
you

live

(nosotros)

vivIMOS

Vd.
(el)

Vds.
(ellos)

they,,

Pam. Form

PRON. vee-vo, vee-vay, ve-vee-mos, vee-ven. thou livest, (tii) vivcs you live, (vosotros) vivls (vc-veess)
;

EXERCISE
1. 1

III.

receive 1

2.

you receive
;

3.

he receives
;

4.

we

receive;
;

7. he writes 2 6. they receive you (PLUR.) receive ; 3 11. he divides 1 10. I supply 9. you supply 8. we write 14. we supply. 12. we divide 13. you (PLUR.) wrftef;

5.

recibir

2 escribir
;

3 surtir
;

4 dividir.
;

PRON.
*

rray-the-beer

2 es-kre-beer
is

3 soor-teer

de-ve-deer.

the Plural Familiar Form of the ImperaIt is therefore the simplest plan for foreigners, who tive (sec par. 57). should never use the Familiar Form, to consider the ir Verbs as conjugate! exactly like the er Verbs throughout, except that the former take in the First Person Plural of the Present Indicative. instead of

The only (tther exception

EMOS

IMQ3

25
NOTE. -ALL REGULAR VERBS ending in are conjugated all in like deber, and all in IR like vivir, Tener, haber, ser and estar are irregular.

hablar,

ER

AR

like

27.

QUESTIONS
Subject
;

are formed by putting the Verb before the Thus : DO, DOES, DID, are not translated.

does he speak ?=speaks he ? i habla el ? does his friend smoke ?=smokes his friend ? i fuma

sn amig-o ?
?

do you owe ?=owe you ? do the men write ?=write the men

debe Vd.
?

escriben los hombres

28.

NEGATIONS
Auxiliary
translated.

are formed

by putting
13)
;

no

before the

Verb or
not

(see

paragraph
:

DO, DOES, DID, are

Thus

Vd. no compra you do not buy=you buy not do you not buy ?=buy you not ? i no compra Vd. ? the boy does not learn=the boy learns not el muehacho no aprende does not the b$y learn ?=learns the boy not ? I no aprende el muohacho ? does the train start ?=starts the train 1 i sale el tren ?
does not the boat arrive=arri ves not the boat
?

no llega

el

buque

EXERCISE
1.

IV.
2.

you
?

find,
3.

you do not find

do you

find

do you

not find
the

the

men
;

6. do we discover ? do we not dis; cover 7. I receive, I do not receive ; 8. do I receive ? do I not receive ? 9. the girl owes, the girl does not owe ; 10. does the girl owe ? does the girl not owe ? 1. descubrir.

we do

drink ? not discover

4. do drink, the men do not drink ; do the men not drink ? 5. we discover}

men

1.

Do you

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. owe [any] money to my friend ?


to

2. 1

do not

3. The Spanish servant your friend. 4. We do not smoke cigars. 5. The induscalls 1 to his dog. * 3* 6. What does trious pupil 2 learns his b less<msb easily. 5 4 7. Do they (PEM.) not work well? your mother want ?

owe [any] money

'Words and phrases marked A precede

in Spanish those

marked

&,

M
8.

Who
10

livet in

your aunt's hous

9.

My

ooueina

uncle i* in Madrid. 6 10. The officer 7 drinks a there, but 11. receive letters from your uncles delicious 8 wine. 9

my
11

We

every day. an umbrella. 14

12. I 13.

do not want* a stick 12 because 13


,

have

We believe

17 14. How 18 much 18 shop. that we owe four 19 shillings 20 to the shopkeeper, 21 and three 22 16. Perhaps* 3 he does not smoke. shillings to the servant.

that 15 his samples 16 are in the money do we owe ? 15. I believe

17.

Who

lends 24

money

to

my

friend

18. I

often 255 lend*

time 26 does the train 27 20. My train 27 does not start 29 yet. 80 21. I do not fear 31 the punishment 32 ; it is not very great. 8 * 22. The boys do not throw 34 stones. 23. You do not drink beer. 35 24. Do you not understand 36 the lesson ? 25. I understand 36 the lessons very well. 26. Do they understand 37 38 your explanation ? 27. Where do your cousins live ? 28. My cousin (FEM.) lives in Madrid, and I live in London. 28

your friend. money for London 28 leave 29 ?


to

19. At- what

llamar
;

5 trabajar
;

2 discipulo (M.), disclpula (F.) ; 3. facilmente 4. desear 6 Madrid 7 oficial S delicioso 9 vino 10 cada (e.acli) 1 1 dla.
;

14 paraguas (SING, and PLUB. the 12 bast6n 13. porque (MASC.) 16 muestra ; 17 tienda 19 cuatj-o 18 cuanto? 15 que 20 same)
,

chelin

21 tende.ro
;

22 tres

23 tal vez
;

24 prestar

25

amenudo

27 tren; 28 Londres 29 salir (par. 148); 30 todavia 26 hora 34 tirar $5 cerveza 36 comprender 31 temer ; 32 casiigo 33 grande 37 explicaci6n 38 d6nde ?
; ; ;

PEON.*
say-ar
O-so
;
;

ryah-mar
;

5 trah-bah-//ar

2 dis-thee-poo-lo 3 fah-thil-men-tay 4 day6 mah-drid ; 7 o-fee-the-ahl 8. day-lee-the,

9 vee-no

10
;

kah-dah
15 kay
;

11

dee-ah

12 bahs-ton
;

14 pah-rah-goo'ahs
;

16 moo'ess-trah
;

17 te-en-dah
;

13 por-kay ; 18
; ;

19 koo'ah-tro 21 ten-day-ro koo'ahn-to 20 chay-leen 22 tress 23 tahl veth 24 pres-tar 25 ah-may -noo-do 26 o-rah 27 tren 28 Ion-dress 29 sab-leer 30 to-dah-vee-ab 31 tay-mair 32 kahs33 grahn-day 34 te-rar 35 thair-vay-thab 36 kom-prentee-go dair 37 ex-plc-kah-the-on 38 don-day.
;
; ;
;

Respecting tbe Imitated Pronunciation, note once more tbat TH must always be pronounced as in montb,' and S SHARP, like SS in 'hiss. Tbe vowel sounds must not be made too long peseta (franc), for example, which we give as pay-say-tah/ might almost as weJl be
'

'

imitated thus

'

pess-ett-ab.'

2?

SIXTH LESSON.
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNS.*
29.
this
(this)

MASC.

FEM>

MASC.
these
(these) those those aquellos

FEM.

este that ese

esta esa
;

estos esos

estas esas

that

aquel aquella

aquellas

PRON. es-tay, ay-say, ah-kel

es-tah, ay-sah, ah-kell-yah; es-tos, etc.

Note that the Feminine Plural is formed by adding s to the Singular, and that the Masculine Plural only differs'from the Feminine in the vowel of the termination. Examples this man, este hombre these men, estos hombres that pencil, ese or aquel lapiz those pencils, esos or aquellos l&pices this letter, esta carta these letters, estas cartas
:

that house,
;

esa or aquella casa

those houses,

esas or aquellas oasas

Este usually indicates something near the speaker, ese something near the person addressed, and aquel something near neither. Thus : these those chairs (close to you), esas chairs (close to me), estas sillas those chairs (close to neither), aquellas eillas. 'Sillas
;

pQ/ The

(esto) and THAT. (6SO, same way as the above. They have o"|tquellO) no plural, and neither precede nor replace a Noun, thus * Who has done this ? i Quien ha hecho esto ? No he oido eso. I have not heard that.
Neuter
differ in the
:

forms for THIS

Kjuello
I

is

take

this,

seldom used unless three things are referred to as, my friend takes that, and his brother takes that
;

yo tomo
1.

esto,

mi amigo toma
2.

eso,

y su hermano toma aquello


I.

EXERCISE
that
;

boy
;

these
;

women
6.

3.

table

5.

that church
9.

those streets

those envelopes 4. this 7. these horses ; :


;

those pictures 1 ; 11. that bread2 ;, 4 3 15. we 12. this town ; 13. these numbers ; 14. that lady are not sure 5 of that ; 16. I do not' believe this.
8. this

ink

this cat

10.

cuadro
2 pahn
;

dro

PEON. 2 pan 3 niimero 4.senora ; 5. seguro. 5 say-goo-ro. 4 say-n'yo-rah 3 noo-may-ro


; ;
;

koo'ah-

'ADJECTIVES are always followed by a Noun, and take the Gender PRONOUNS are used instead of a Noun, and Number of that Noun. and take the Gender and Number of that Noun.

II

PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES.


31.

The

Participles

are
:

formed bj adding to the STEM the


PAST PARTICIPLE.

following terminations

PRESENT PARTICIPLE.

Verbs ending

in

ar erorir

...ANDO
...IENDO
;

ADO
...IDO
;

EXAMPLES.
1

speaking,

2 owing, 3 living,

hablando debiendo
; ;

spoken,
lived,

hablado
; ;

owed, debido

viviendo

vivido

4 sending, enviando ; 5 receiving, recibiendo

sent,
;

enviado

received,

recibido

6 believing,

creyendo*

believed, creido.
is

An
The

unaccented

between two vowels


is

always changed toy.


first

Stress in Past Participles

invariably on the

vowel

<

termination
2 day-be-en-do, day-' ah-blahn-do, ah-blah-do 5 rray 4 en-ve-ahn-do, en-ve-ah-do 6 kray-yen-do, kray-ee-do.* be-en-do, rray-the-bee-do

PRON.

3.

vee-ve-en-do, ve-vee-do

The

Participles of tener,
1

haber, ser, and estar are


;

regular,^

having, teniendo,

3 being,

habiendo siendo, estando


;

2 had, tenido,
4 been, sido,
;

habid

estado-^
ah-tp

2 tay-nee-do, PBOK. 1 tay-ne-en-do, ab-be-en-do 4 see-do, es-tah-do. 3 se-en-do, es-tafcn-do


;

32.

When
put
Is

the Subject in questions


;

is

a Noun,

it is

ft

buaes

last

as,
?

Is the girl industrious

Es aplicada

servant waiting ? Are not the men drinking


Is that

my

i
?

la muchachs Esta agruardando mi cfl

No

wine good

Es bueno

estan bebiendo lo ese vino ?

^pbbrtft

(see also

Paragraph 13)

This

meaning dog ? i Esta


ftiuotion

when the optional, the English construction being preferable would otherwise be doubtful. Thus Is the boy ill-treating the
is
:

muchacfco maltratando el perro ? Is the dog ill-treating the boy V mean might
el
'

The other con*

ft

EXERCISE
1.
; ; ,

II.
;

3. living, lived ; 2. owing, owed smoking, smoked 5. reading2 read 6. have you not had ? 4. asking, 1 asked 8 8. being soldiers 9. being in the room ; 7. 1 am not having 11. Have you been in 10. not having written the letter 4 13. She is not Spain ? 12. We have not been sailors. What he has the man 14. is Where 15. ? reading. drinking 17. Is not been ? 16. Are not the English soldiers brave ?
; ;
;

this lady speaking ?


1

18.

My

uncle has not arrived. 5


;

preguntar
1

2 leer

3 cuarto or babitucion
;

4 Espana

6 llegar.
;

pray-goonn-tar ; 2 lay-air 5 1'yay-gar. ess-palm-n'yah


;

PBON.

3 koo'ar-to, ah-be-tah-the-on

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1.

Have you not read


?

studying his lessons


of good wine,
it*

that letter ? 2. Why is that boy not 3 Those servants have drunk a bottle 1
5.

and

five 2 bottles of
?

they smoking cigars


to

German beer. 4. Are 3 Having read the book, I shall send

much money
Those

5 7. How 6. When 4 does the boat start ? has the merchant 6 sent to his banker7 ? 8. Have not the pupils learned these lessons ? 9. These white8

my

brother.

envelopes are

ladies are

my uncle's [translate of my uncle]. 10. 11. The Spanish professor is my nieces. 9


:

10 12. I am reading a French newspaper. 11 13. speaking now. have been in the country. 12 14. These bottles 1 are not 15. I have been [a] carpenter. 14 full. 18 16. Have you had time 15 to 16 read 16 this letter ? 17. Have you forgotten 17 this ? 18. Are those ladies looking for a cab 18 ? 19. Do you believe that ? 20. I do not understand this. 21. Not being satisfied 1 * with the book, I 20 shall sell it. 20 22. Is not that dog ugly 21 ?

We

2 cinco ; 3 lo enviare* (see pars. 43 and 67) ; 4 cuando ? ; 6 comerciante ; 7 banquero ; 8 bianco ; 9 sobrina ; 10 ahora ; 11 periddico 12 campo ; 13 lleno ; 14 carpintero ; 15 tiempo ; 16 para 20 lo vender^ ; 21 feo. 19 satisfecho 17 olvidar ; 18 cocbe leer*;
1

botella
;

5 buque

3 lo en-ve-ah-ray ; 4 koo'ahn-do ; 5 boo-kay 6 ko-mair-the-ahn-tay 7 bahn-kay-ro ; 8 blahn-ko ; 9 sobree-nab ; 10 ab-o-rab 11 pay-re-o-de-ko ; 12 kahm-po ; 13 Pyay-no ; 14 kar-pin-tay-ro ; 15 te-em-po ; 17 ol-re-dar ; 18 ko*chay ; 19 sab-tigfay-cho 20 to ven-Hay-ray ; 21 fay-o.
1

PEON.

bo- tell -yah


;

2 thin-ko
;

so

SEVENTH LESSON.
INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.
33.

who

whom
WHOSE

?
?

quien
I

(SING.)
?

qui^nes
:

(PLUR.)
?

de quien

literally

of

whom

Who is upstairs ? To whom are you speaking ?


Whose are these pens Whose hat is this ?
1

Quien esta arriba ? ^ A quien esta Vd. hablando ? i De quien son estas plumas ? ^ De quien es este sombrero ?
^
?

34. which

or which one ?

cudl
?

which or which ones

what

que

which brother ? cual hermano ? which men ? cuales hombres ?

(SING. PLUR.) which house ? cual casa ? which chairs ? i cuales sillas ?

&

what dog ? i que perro ? what churches ? i que iglesias ? what is that

what
?

village
?

?
!

which churches
i

que aldea ? cuales iglesias

que es eso
? if

WHAT ?
What What

is translated by cudl followed by a Noun.


is your opinion ? are his intentions

cudles
i

preceding part of

ser
?
?

Cual es su opinion (de Vd.) Cuales son sus intenciones


!

35.
what

que

is

also used for


\

WHAT A
I

in exclamations
!

as,

what a misfortune
pictures
If
I

que desgracia qu6 cuadros !


\

what a hat \ que sombrero ! what a mistake que error !


!

KoTE.

an Adjective occurs in such exclamat ions, tan (so) is generally inserted for emphasis ; as, what an ugly dog ! tan feo (=so ugly) ! | quo" perro

what beautiful

horses

que caballos tan hermosos


I.

EXERCISE
1.

3. which which gentleman ? 2. which gentlemen ? chair ? 4. which streets ? 5. what name ? 6. which shoe ? 10. 9. which train ? 7. what men ? 8. what a noise 3 12. which woman ? what a fog2 11. what a pity 5 4 15. which cup ? 13. which days ? 14. which lamps ? 6 1 7. Whose is this knife ? 18. Whose ink 16. what hats
1
! ! !
!

is this ?

this

21.

23.

What
;

19 % Whose friends are these ladies ? 20. Whose is What idle 7 boys 22. What a great mistake 8 9 is the price of this ? 24. What is the number 10 ?
!

2 niebla 3 lastima 4 lampara 1 ruido 5 taza 6 cuchillo ; 7 holgazan 8 error 9 precio 10 numero. PRON. 1 rroo-ee-do ; 2 ne-ay-blah ; 4 lahm-pah-rah 3 lahss-te-mah 5 tah-thah 6 koo-chee-l'yo ; 8 airr-ror ; -9 pray-the-o ; 10 noo-may-ro. 7 oll-gah-thahn
;
;

36.

The Past Tense can sometimes be rendered in Spanish by the Perfect Tense,* thus : PAST. PERFECT,
he spoke did hq speak ? he did not speak did he not speak

he has has he he has has he

spoken spoken ? not spoken not spoken

ha hablado i ha hablado (el) ? no ha hablado i no ha hablado (el) ?

[NOTE CAREFULLY that the Past Participle must be preceded by part of haber (to have). For instance, Vd. visto, yo escrito, etc., is an incorrect
construction, just as 'you seen, 'I written,' etc.,
1

is

impossible

ill

English.]

EXERCISE
;

II.

1. he (has) bought 2. have they bought ? 3. 1 have not 4. have you not bought ? 5. have they (FEM.) bought 2 spoken ? 6. the girl has spoken 7. has the doctor written ? 3 8. the merchant has not sold 9. have not the ships arrived ? 10. 1 have not dined (Beaten) 11. has not the shopkeeper sent ? 12. you have written 1 13. you (PhUR.) have seen 4 14. have they not found ?
;
1

1 escrito

2 m<Sdico
;

3 to

sell,
;

vender

4 visto.
;

PRON.

ess-kree-to

may-de-ko

3 ven-dair

4 viss-to.

37.

When the Object of a Verb is a person or persons, should precede the Object ; as,
I

&

(to)

do not understand your friend.


believe the boys
?

Do you
BUT
:

do not understand this

letter.

Do you believe that story ? Tener is an important


I

No comprendo 4 sn amigo. I Cree Vd. a los nnichachos ? No comprendo esta carta.


I

Cree vd. ese cuento ?


:

exception to this Rule, thus

have a

sister.

Tengo una hermana.

The ordinary English Past Tense (I spoke, he wrote, we did not lend, rendered by the Spanish Past Definite. The formation of the Past Definite is explained in Lesson 9 student* may meanwhile translate the English Past by the Spanish Perfect Tense,
etc.) is usually best
;

EXERCISE HI. have seen a very celebrated general.2 2. Have you (PLUR.) found your friends ? 3. Has he [any] brothers ? 4. I'have seen that gentleman in Madrid. 5. Do you expect 3 your nieces to-day 4 ? 6/We do not expect? [any] letters. 5 5 5 5 7. We are looking for our keys. 6 8. Are you looking for 7 your nephew ? 0. i have not seen the b king b<fe>-day. a
1.

We

cdlebrc

2 genera!
;

3 esperar

boy

C Have (FEM.)

5 buscar (to seek, look for)


3 Css-pay-rar
4

7 sobrino:
;

PRON.
booss-kar

1
;

thay-lay.bray C i'yah-vay ;

2 //ay-nay-rahl
7 so-bree-no.

oh-e

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
Have you found my brother in the garden ? 2. Which book have you had ? 3. Whose is thai horse ? 4. What man does not love his mother? 5. Whose is this umbrella ? 6. Have you (PLUR.) seen the English travellers 2 ? 7. What a 3 b 4 8. The cheap watch you have bought* this morning 5 clerk has received that money. 9. Who is smoking in this room? 10.Hehasnotsentthegoods$ in(=:to)time. 7 11. "What
1.
1
.

51

a b easy lessons you have

12.

For

whom

are these letters

To whom have you lent your knife ? 14. Who are these men ? 15. What people 8 are9 there9 in the house ? 1C. Have you not called the servant (FEM.) ? 17. Which cups has she broken ? 18. In which room have you found the red 10 ink ? 19. What a b'ad pen this5 isa ! 20v\Vhich [ones] do you 22. want? 21. Which is the "way 11 'to the station 12 ? What is the cause 13 of his silence 14 ? 123. What are their 15 plans ? 24. What is (hat ? __
13.

(PLUR.)

6 gcneros f> 2 viajcro 4 maftana 3 reloj depcndientc 11 camino 10 rojo 8 gente (FEM.) hay tiempo 15 plan. 12 cstaci6n 13 causa; 14 silencio PRON. 1 ah-mar; 2 ve-ah-7/ay-ro, 3rray-lo//; 4 mah-n'yah-nah 8 /fenn-tay ; 7 te-em-po 5 de-penn-dc-enn-tay C //ay-nay-ros
1

amar
;

9 ah'e or i 10 rro-//o se-lenu-the-o ; aab ;


;

11

kah-mee-no

12 es-tah-the-on

13 kafc'oo-

15 piabu.

33

EIGHTH LESSON.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
38.
ours, mine, mio ; FAMILIAR FORM 2nd
:

nuestro
Pers. thine,

his, hers, theirs,


?

tuyo

yours,

vuestro.

formed by changing the o into a, and the Plural by adding 3 to the Singular (Ex. mia, mios, mias, suya, snyos, suyas, etc.) PRON. me-o, noo'es-tro, soo-yo. too-yo, vob'es-tro, me-os, me-ahs, tc.

The Feminine

is

Your

sister is in London, and mine is in the country. His friends are English, and

Su hermana de Vd. esta en Londres, y la mia esta en el campo. Los amigos de el son ingleses, y los
nuestros son americanos.

ours are Americans.

These words are preceded by the Definite Article, except when used with ser, in a phrase meaning TO BELONG TO. This pipe is not his it is mine. Esta pipa no es de el (or suya),* es mia. Esos cuadros no son nuestros. Those pictures are not ours. Este baiil es mio 5 BUT. This trunk is mine. Here is your trunk where is Aqui est& su baiil ; i donde est& el mio ? mine ? Mine (FEM.) is on the table. La mia esta sobre la mesa.
; ;

NOTE
Noun
*

that Possessive' Pronouns take the Gender and Number of the they stand for, NOT the Gender and Number of the Possessor.
el,

de

de

ella, etc., being clearer, are preferable to

suyo, suya.

EXERCISE
1.

I.

This stick

is

not mine.
4.

2. Is

that house his

3.

These

are industrious, and mine 6. Our friend (F.) is 5. These pencils are hers. are idle. 7. That key is mine. here, but hers has not arrived yet.
letters are ours.
8.

Your pupils

Our

lessons are difficult, but theirs are very easy.


placed on the Possessive Adjectives (see

39.

If

any emphasis

is

par. 14), mio, SUyo, etc, are used instead, after the It is not HIS mistake! No es error suyo.
It is

Noun

OUR

fault.
'

Es culpa
etc.

nuestra.

40.

The

phrases

of mine, of ours, of his/ etc. are also usually


;

translated

mio, nuestro, SUyO,


I

as,

a relation of mine

two

friends of bis

un pariente mio dos amigos suyoo

u
41.

YOURS

(polite forin) is translated


etc.

suyo,
:

or (preferably) el

de Vd., la de Vds.,
He

Examples

Has brought my letters, but he has forgotten yours. Is this cab ours, or yours (plur.) ?
'This hat
is .yours.
?

Ha
I

traido mis cartas,pero ha olvidado las de Vd. Es este coche nuestro, 6 de

Are not those cigars yours

Vds.? Este sombrero es de Vd.* i No son de Vd. esos oigarros ?

42.*

De

preference to
clearness,

Vd., de 61, de ella, etc., are usually employed in suyo, suya, suyos, suyas, for greater
and
*

my

gloves, his

hers,

*Este sombrero es
belongs to you

el

mis guantes, los suyos y los de ella. de Vd. would mean This hat is THE ONE WHICH
*

(in contradistinction to another that does not).

The

phrases el

de Vd., la de

ella,

etc.,

must be employed

in such phrases as the following : mi casa 6 la de mi my house or my father's our'horses and our friends* nuestros caballos
neither his mistake nor his servant's

padre [amigos los de nuestros ni su error ni el de su criado

EXERCISE
1.
3.

II.
;

my oak 1 and mahogany 2 tables 2. my dear3 mother ; an aunt of his ; 4. my wishes, hers, and theirs 5. This is
;

HEE work (=
Is this

work of-hers).

6.

He

is

a clerk of -mine.

7.

garden yours (PLUR.) ? 8. Those keys are not yours, 10. They are are mine. 9. Is this newspaper yours ? they frien'ds of -ours, 11. That is not MY mistake ; it is hers6 12. Neither4 hi$ shop nor 5 his neighbour's is open. 7
f roble
,

2 caoba (translate

querido (beloved)'', 4 PEON. 1 rro-blay ^ ' QO 1 ah-be-air-to.

';

tables of oak and the of mahogany) 3 6 vecino 7 abierto (translate are open). 2 kab-o-bab 3 kay-ree-dp 4, 5 ne 6 vay-thee:
,

5 ni

THE FUTURE TENSE.


43.
SING.

The Future Tense


1st Pers.

of all Regular

Verbs

is

formed by adding
:

to the Infinitive the following terminations

2ndPers. 3rd Pers.

PLUE.

1st Pers.

2nd

Pers. 3rd Pers.

4s

EMOS

eis

AN

These terminations ace the same as those of the Present Tense of haber.

S5
The
I shall
full

conjugations are therefore as follow

speak

we

will shall
,,

hablare hablara

debere debera
73

they will

hablaremos hablaran
;

"*

deberemos o deberan
JJ

5
l

*.

vivira

10

~'~ viviran

viviremos
;

PEON, ah-blah-ray, ah-blah-rab, ah-blah-ray-mos, ah-blah-ralm ve-ve-ray, etc. day-bay-ray, etc,

Fam. Forms

hablaras, hablardis

deberas, debereis
is

viviras, vivirdis.

44.

The Future Tense


habr...

of

tener

terminations to tendr..., and of

haber

formed by adding these by adding them to

The Future Tenses of ser and estar are REGULAR.

The
shall he will
I

full

conjugations are as follow


I shall

have tendre

habre

be sere

tendra

we

shall

they will
F.

habra tendremos habremos habran tendran


etc.
;

he will

sera
, v

estare estara

we shall
they will
;

seremos estaromos seran estaran


;

PRON. ten-dray,

ah-bray,
;

etc.

say-ray, etc.
;

es-tah-ray, etc.
;

Form

tendras, tendr^is

habras, habr^is

seras, sereis

estaras, estar^is.

EXERCISE
1.
;
<j

III.

estaremos 2. i no tendra (el) ? 3. ^ hablaran Vds. ? 4. no recibire ; 5. Vd. no bebera ; 6. hallara (ella) ? 7. escribiran.
8. shall I

take
?

9.

you

will not have

(tener)
;

10. will

they be (ser)
divide
;

11.

We
?

shall not be (estar)


;

12.

he will

13.

you

will not have sold

14.

they will
?

smoke

15, shall

we have

sent

16. shall I

have (tener)

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1.

The

1 professor has corrected

my

exercises,

but not

3 3. My friend you be to-morrow ? yours. 4 5. 4. I shall not have enough money. will be [a] doctor. We shall speak to your father. 6. How much will you receive ? 7. My friend has sold his house, and his son's 5 ; he 7 will now 6 live in mine. 8. I shall buy a table and six 8 10. They 9. That mistake will be very serious. chairs. will break that window*9 11. I shall not buy this house. 12 13. His I shall have sent his orders 10 and his neighbours'. sister has found her gold 11 and her silver 12 rings. 13 14. Here

2.

Where

shall

Is

my stick f where is yours ?


his,

and
17.

15. We have seen our mother but not hers. 16. It will be his fault, 14 not yours. Why have you brought 16 your umbrella, and not mine ?

18.

We shall

keep

16

this watch,

and .(shall)

sell

the other. 17
;

1 corregir ; 2 tema(MASC.) ; 3 mafiana ; 4 bastante ; 5 hijo ; 6 ahora 10 pedido ; 11 oro ; 12 plata ; 13 sortija 7 seis ; 8 grave ; 9 ventana 14 falta i 15 traido ; 16 guardar , 17 otro.
; ;

2 tay-mah 3 mah-n'yah-nah 4 bahsPEON. 1 kor-rray-#eer tahn-tay 5 ee-Ho ; 6 ah-o-rah 7 say-iss S grah-vay 9 ven-tah12 plah-lab 11 o-ro nah 10 pay -dee -do 13.sor-tee-fab 14
;
;
,

fahl-tah; 16 trah-ee-do

16 goo'ar-dari 17o-tro.

NINTH LESSON.
COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES.
more,

m6s

less,

menos;

than,

que.

PEON, mahss, may-nos, kay.


the Czar more powerful than the German Emperor ? These flowers are less beautiful than the others.
IB

EXAMPLES. I Es el Zar mas poderoso que


el emperador aleman ? Estas fiores son menos hermosas que las otras.

The Comparative
She
is

is

always formed vith

mds,

thus

The climate of Norway

ill) to-day. is colder than the climate of England.

worse (i.e more

Esta hoy mas enferma. El clima de Nornega es mas frio que el clima de Inglaterra.

THAN'IS translated by de before a Number, and by de lO before a Verb. Examples I have more than ten pounds. Tengq mas de diez libras. His trunk is heavier thaif he says. Su baul es mas pesado de lo qne dice.
:

46.
great, small,

The

following Comparatives are irregular


greaterj smaller,
better,

good,

grande pequeno bneno

mayor menor

bad,

malo

mejor

high, tall, alto low, short, bajo

worse, peer higher, superior lower, inferior


;

These words can also be compared regularly (mas grande, etc.) mas bueno and maB malo are hardly ever employed.
;

but

PEON, grahn-day, mah-yor pay-kay-n'yo, may-nor ; bcx/ay-no^ mali-lo, pay -or ; ablto, soo-pay-re-or ; bah-JSTo, in-fay-re-or
;

87

EXERCISE
1.

I.

The
.

coffee 1 is colder than the tea. 2


3.

2.

That man

is

8 stronger than you.

The apples4

This water is 7 6. Is not the city of Madrid larger than Paris. smaller than Paris ? 7. This beer is very good, but the wine 8. I shall not receive less than five shillings, is better. 9. This house is cheaper than you believe.
pears
4.

are not riper 6 than the not colder than the other. 5.

London

is

1 cafe"

2 te
1

3 fuerte
;

4
;

manzana

5 raaduro
;

6 pera

7 Paris.
;

PRON.
dOO-ro
;

kah-fay 6 pay-rah

2 tay 3 foo'air-tay 7 pah-riss.

4 mahn-thah-nah

man-

47.

The

former
His exercise

Superlative is the same as the Comparative, but the " THE " is always preceded by ; as,
the worst.

is

The largest towns of France. They are the least clever of

Su tema es el peor. Las ciudades grandes de Francia Son los menos habiles de mis disci-

ms

my
48.

pupils.

pulos.
it

When MOST means VERY, EXTREMELY,*


translated

is

generally
to

muy.
is

NOTE.

A more emphatic way

to

add isimo (-ma, -mos, -mas)


:

the Adjective, omitting final vowels (see par. 157), thus Son corteses or Son cortesisimos They are most polite. She is most diligent. Es aplicada or Es aplicadiaima

muy muy

*
*.e.,

when

it is

not used in a Comparison.


II.

EXERCISE
1.

the idlest of your servants. 2. It is most difficult 3. That picture is the most beautiful in 1 the collection.* 4. This water is the clearest. 3 5. These windows are the 4 smallest. 6. The smallest mistake has at times most serious
is

He

consequences
1

5
.

7.

Our house
:

is

the most convenient.


; ;

IN after a Superlative is de 2 coleccio'n 3 claro 4 vez ; 5 consecuencia. 2 ko-lek-the-on 3 klah-ro ; 4 veth ; 5 kon-say-koo'en-the-fih.
;

49.

as...as,

tan...como;

as much.. .as,
;

tanto...como.

PRON. tahn, ko-mo tahn-to, ko-mo. REMARK I. tan is invariable, and is used before Adjectives and Adverbs tanto takes the Gender and Number of the following Noun.
;

3$
REMARK
changed
to
II.

When
;

MUCH
She
is

SO in English

following a NEGATION, the first AS is generally but the Spanish is the same. The Plural of
:

is

MANY.

Examples

as diligent as you. They arc not so good as his. I eat as much meat as you. You have not found so many names as your sister.

Es tan aplicada como Vd. No son tan buenos como los de el. Como tanta carne como Vd. Vd. no ha hallado tantos nombres como su hermana.

EXERCISE III. Have you received as much, money to-clay as yesterday? 2. Your son is as clever as [he is] industrious. 3. These chairs are as cheap as those. 4. Have y nl as many pens as
1.

[have]

5.

This lady
1

is

not so

tall as
7.

you.

as

many presents as she much furniture 2 as you.


1

[has].

We

6. He has brought have not bought so

regalo

;.

2 rauebles (PLUR.).

PRON.

rray-gah-lo

2-mbo' ay-bless.

50.

THE PAST DEFINITE


,the following

is
:

formed by adding to the STEM


PLURAL.

terminations

SINGULAR.

Verbs ending in AR

6
:

aste
iste

6
16
is

amOS
imos
:

asteis
isteis

aron
ieron

ER
hable hab!6

or IR

The
I

full
I

conjugation

as follows
I

apoke

owed

he

ne

debi debio

lived

he

vivi vivi6

we
they

hablamos
hablaron

we
they

debimos
debieron

we
they
;

vivimos
vivieron
day-bee, day-

be-o,

PRON. ah-blay, ah-blo, ah-blah-mos, ah-blah-ron ve-vee, etc. day-bee-mos, day-be-ay-ron Fam. Forms hablaste, hablasteis debiste, debisteis ;
;

viriste, vi?isteis.

51.

The Past
is

Definite

Stem

of

tener
is

is

tUV.

.,

that of

haber

hub..., and that of estar


of the

estuv...
is

52.

Whenever the STEM

PAST DEFINITE

irregular, the

Singular terminations are the same as those of the ar Verbs/ and the Plural terminations the same as those of the er and

ir Verbs. The STRESS in the Singular, however, is regular. 'Except the Familiar Form, where the Termination is iste, not aste.

Ser is quite
The
I

irregular (see last

column of
:

table).

full conjugations are as follow

had

he

we
they

hube tuve hubo tuvo tuvimos hubimos fcuvieron hubieron


;

was

he

we were
they

cstuve estuvp estuvimos estuvieron


;

fui

fue

fuimos fueron
etc.
;

PEON, too-vay, too-vo, too-vee-mos, too-ve-ay-ron


es-too-vay, etc.

oo-bay,

foo'ee, foo'ay, foo-ee-mos, foo-ay-ron.


;

Fam. Forms

tuviste, tuvisteis ; hubiste, hubisteis fuiste, fuisteis.

estuviste, estuvisteis

IV. (on the-PAST DEFINITE*). 1. I sold ; 2. did they buy ? 3. you (PLUR.) received ; 4. 5. they had not (tener) ; did she not arrive ? 6. was he

EXERCISE

(estar)
10.

7-

did

we

fear
;

? 8. I

smoked

9.

we did

not find

11. did you send ? 12. had I not you were not (ser) 14. you (PLUR.) had not we wrote ? 13. ; (haber) learned 15. were they not in the room ?
;

is used in speaking of an event entirely past. The Perfect Tense (see par. 36) can be employed instead, as in English, if a recent past Thus : I (have) received your letter this morning ; is referred to.

This Tense

Recibi (orHerecibido)su carta esta maiiana-

TENTH LESSON.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
Relative Pronouns relate or refer to a preceding word or sentence. In Spanish, they are the same as thfe Interrogative Pronouns (see Paragraphs 33, 34), except that the Relative Pronoun cual, cuales is preceded

by the

Definite Article,

and that

WHOSE/ when

Relative,

is

usually

translated

(koo-yo), enya, cuyos, ciiyas, instead of de quien. the gentleman whose bouse is there el senor cuya casa esta alii

cuyo

63.

WHO, WHICH, THAT

(relative) are generally translated


el

the man who has done this the girls who are downstairs the houses which they built the money that the child has lost

que. hombre que ha hecho esto las muchachas que estanabajo


las casas
el

que edificaron
is

dinero que el nino ha perdido

Paragraphs 54 and 55 show when

que

NOT employed.

40

64. WHOM after a Preposition is translated qtlien, quiene&; as, the person of whom you spoke la persona de quien Vd. hablo the gentleman with whom we dined el senor con quien comimos the lawyer whom I shall consult el abogado a quien consultare

WHO

is

translated

quien, quienes
;

after part of

'TO BE'

and a Noun or Pronoun as, Is it he who has made the mistake ? It is this workman who smokes. It ia we who have spoken to the
banker.

Es el quien ha hecho el error ? Es este obrero quien fuma. Somos* nosotros quienes nemos hablado al banquero.
I
its

*Note that ser takes the same Number and Person as

SUBJECT.

55,

preceded by a comma,* are generally transel cual, la cual, los cuales, las cuales ; as, Your aunt, who was here yesterday, Su tia, la cual estuvo gqui will return to-morrow. ayer, volvera mafiana. *i e., when the Relative Sentence is as important as the Principal Senlated
I

WHO and WHICH,

tence, not subordinate to

it.

REMARK
choose,

If

cual
;

is

indirectly Interrogative,

it is

not preceded by

the Definite Article

as,

He
is

does not

know which

of the

two

I shall

No sabe
II.

cual de los dos eligire.

REMARK
is

WHICH

translated lo

sentence instead of to a word.

He has

que if referring to a preceding forgotten the pronunciation, which

not very surprising.

Ha

olvidado la pronunciaci6n, lo que

no es

muy estrano.
:

56. The Relative Pronoun can NEVER be omitted as in English the man he met el hombre 4 quien encontro This is not the hat I bought. Este ho es el sombrero que compre.
The Subject in Relative Sentences is frequently put LAST, position does not make the meaning doubtful (see par. 32) as,
the windows you have broken, the goods the shopkeeper sells
if

the trans-

las ventanas que ha roto Vd. los g6neros que vende el tendero

EXERCISE I. The house you (PLUR.) have bought is more convenient1 than mine. 2. Is this the captain 2 whose ship you have seen ? 3. The gentleman who spoke with the children is their uncle. 4. We are not sure which [ones] he will keep. 5. Tho
1.

41

boy we saw
ten the
live) ?
8.
7.

(translate

name

He

: have seen) is ill. 6. Have you forgotof the gentleman I live with (=with whom I has read the letter I received, which is a pity.

9. I have I have bought is not very strong. 3 brought six books, which I shall lend this evening to your brother. 10. No, it is not this gentleman who is smoking.

The horse

convenient

2 capitan
;

PEON.

kon-vay-ne-en-tay

2 kah-pe-tahn

3 tarde (FEM.). 3 tar-day. ;

67.

The IMPEBATIVE MOOD


following terminations
:

is

formed by adding to the STEM the


PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

Verbs ending in

ar : erorir:

emos
axnos

EN
;

AN

The Imperative (Familiar Form excepted) can therefore be formed from the Present Indicative, simply by REVERSING THE TERMINATIONS that is, by substituting E for A in the ar Verbs, and A for E in the others.
The following are the full conjugations : us speak hablemos let us owe debamos let us live live viva, speak hable (s.), hablen (pi.) owe deba, deban
let
I
I

vivamos
vivan

PRON, ah-blay-mos, ah-blay, ah-blen day-bah-mos, day-ban, day* bahn ; vee-vah-mos, vee-vab, vee-vahn. Familiar Forms habla, hablad j debe, debed vive, vivid.
;
:

Vd. is generally
Do
not read the

added to the Polite Form of the Imperative


letters.

No lea las cartas.

Send (PLUR.) the goods. Manden los generos. more elegantly, no lea Vd. las cartas, manden Vds. los generos.

68.
let

The

Imperatives of TO HAVE and TO BE are as follow : tener. haber. ser. estar.


.

tengamos hayamos let us be seamos estemos sea est6 Jtenga haya sean esten (tengan hayan PRON. ten-gab, etc.; ah-yah, etc.; say -ah, ete.;es-tay, es-tay-mos, es-ten^
us have

have

(
(

Familiar Forms

ten,
'

tened

he\

habed
*

s<5,

sed

esta, estad.

59.

Such phrases as

let

him speak/

let

are usually rendered by putting que the Imperative, thus : let him wait que espere (61) let them send the wine que manden el vino

her owe/ c let them live/ before the 3rd Person of

When LET means

TO ALLOW,
| |

it is

Let the children (=allow them to) play in th*. room.

translated by dejar. Dejen Vds. & los en este cuarto.

1.

dernos.
estas

caballo. 3. No aguarBebamos agua. estos No 4. cigarros. 5. No guardemos compre (Vd.) muestras. 6. No fumen (Vds.) todavia. 7. Este (Vd.)en
8.
\

EXERCISE II. 2. Venda (Vd.) su

tiempo.
10.

Tenga (Vd.) lastima


to

9.

Tome

Lend your umbrella

my

cousin.

11.

(Vd.) esta silla. Let the boy

13. speak == allow the boy to speak. 12. Let us dine now. 1 15. Be there 14. Let her buy the dress. Let them wait.

this evening.
3

16.
4

Send the

2 parcels to

my

house.

17*

Have

the kindness to wait a


1

little
;

6
.

vestido

PRON.

ves-tee-do

3 bondad ; 4 de 2 paquete 3 bon-dahd 2 pah-kay-tay


;

5 poco.
4

day

5 po-ko.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
2 Do not break the plates I bought yesterday. 3. Do not forget 3 4. Do not lend (PL.) to buy [some] tea, coffee, and sugar.* 5 6 6. Look [any] money to that man. 5. Let us eat this fruit. at 6 those shops. 7. Do not break that glass. 8. Do not let us 7 speak to that man. 9. The person for whom he works is 8 10. The officers you (have) found downstairs will here. 11. The bread as as ate is this. be here to-morrow. you good 12. They have not received the newspapers I sent, which is 10 9 very strange. 13. Guess which of the girls is the best. 14.
1.

Take the umbrella which


2

is

in the corner. 1

have found several 11 important 12 documents, 13 which I shall send to our lawyer. 15. Do not answer 14 (to) that question. 16 16. Is it they who are working ? 17. Do not be so impolite. 1
I
4 aziicar 5 fruta 6 mirar ; 7 persona 3 de 2 plato 1 rinc6n 11 varies 12 importante ; 18 docu 10 adivinar 8 abajo ; 9 estraiio mento ; 14 contestar ; 15 pregunta 16 descorte"s.
; ; ; ;
;

2 plah-to 4 ah-thoo-kar ; 5 froo-tah ; 6 me* rrin-kon 9 es-trah-n'yo 10 ah -de ve-nar } 8 ah-bah-^o 7 pair-SO-nah rar II vah-re-os 12 im-por-tahn-tay 13 do-koo-mea-to 14 kon-tess-t&T 15 pray-00un-tah ; 16 dess-kor-tess.
1
; ;
;

PRON.

41

ELEVENTH LESSON.
REGULAR VERBS
The
six remaining Tenses are

(continued.) formed according to this simple Rule

60.

In the Imperfect, the Conditional, and the four Tenses of the Subjunctive, the Third Person Singular is like the First. The remainder of the Tense can always be formed by adding to the First Person Singular the following terminations :
1st Pers.

SING.

2nd

Pers. 3rd Pers.

PLUR.

1st Pers.

2nd Fers. 3rd


is

Pers.

MOS

These endings are the same as in the PRESENT TENSE.


5* In all parts of the
tive, Imperative,

Verb except the three Present Tenses (Indicaand Subjunctive) the STRESS is on the FIRST SYLLABLE OF THE TERMINATION.
is
:

61.

THE IMPERFECT TENSE


the following terminations

formed by adding to the STEM


:

Verbs ending in

ar

ABA

Verbs ending in er or ir
full conjugations
t

iA*

The following are the

JL

was speaking or used to speak

hablaba

we were
they were I was owing or used to owe, I was living or used to live,
etc., etc.,

habldbamosJ hablaban debia, debiamos, debian vivia, viviamos, Vivian

PRON. ah-blah-bah, ah-blah-bah-mos, ah-blah-bahn ; day-bee-ah, day-bee-ah-mos, day-bee-ahn ; ve-vee-ah, etc. Familiar Forms : hablabas, hablabais : debias, debiais ; vivias, viviais.

62.

The Imperfect of SEE Fam. Forms : eras, erais.


;

is

era, dramos, eran.


:

PRON. ay-rah, ay-rah-mos, ay-rahn.

Tener, haber and estar are, regular in the Imperfect, thus habia, etc. estaba, etc. tenia, etc.
;

63.

HAD, WAS, Tense; as,

WERE

are generally rendered

by the Imperfect

he had forgotten, habia olvidado it was not mine, no era mio we were not writing, no est&bamos escribiendo, or no escribiamos
;

44

EXERCISE L (on the IMPERFECT*), 2. were they not smoking ? used to have 3. 1 yon used not to divide ; 4. was she eating ? 5. I used to b 7. had you (PLUR.) not 6. we were not (estar) ; (S8r) 9. we used not to be taken ? S. used you not to smoke ? dined he ? he had 10. was 11. 12. used ; listening (ser) 13. we were working ; 14. were they not you to read ? 15. They were friends of mine. 16. He hadn't calling ? time. 17. We had forgotten her name.
1.
;

*The Imperfect Tense is used in referring to a CONTINUOUS, an INCOMPLETE, or a FREQUENTLY REPEATED past action.

64.

THE CONDITIONAL MOOD


STEM, of the Future, thus
:

is

formed by adding ia to the

I should speak I T. Q ^ IQ we should speak hablariamos Q he would hablarian l&aDiana they would I should owe, etc., deberia, deberiamos, deberian
I
|

I should have, etc.,


I should be, etc.,

tendria,
etc.
;

etc.

habria,
etc.

etc.

seria,

estaria,

ah-blah-ree-ah, ah-blah-ree-ab-mos, ah-blah-ree-ahn ; dayetc. ten-dree-ah, etc. ah-bree-ah, etc. say-ree-ah, etc. ; Familiar Forms : es-tah-ree-ah, etc.

PBON

bay-ree-ah,

hablarias, hablarlais

deberias, deberlais

tendrlas, tendrfais, etc.

REMABK.

As

in the Imperfect, the Stress is invariably

on the

first

Vowel

of the Termination.

EXERCISE II. (on the CONDITIONAL). 2. I should riot find 3. would they would receive ; 4f we should have ; 5. I should not have you believe ? sold ; 6. would he be (ser) ? 7. you would not be (estar) ; 8. would you (PETJR.) not have spoken ? 9. we should break ; 10. she would not write ; 11. we should send ; 12.
1.
;

would you learn

DISJUNCTIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.


(i.e.,

NOT Object

of the

Verb)
themselves,
)

65.

me, ml
thee, tl
;

himself, herself,

itself,

gj

yourself, yourselves (Polite

Form)

45
These forms are used after Prepositions, thus : of herself, de si. for me, para mi ; without thee. sin ti conmigo is used for con mi (with me), contigo for con ti, and consigo for con si. PEON, mee, tee, see ; kon-mee-go, etc. After Prepositions, the other Pronouns retain the forms given in Paragraph 1 but si is used in preference for Pronouns of the 3rd Person, and for Vd., Yds., when the person has already been mentioned in the sentence,
;

by

us,

por nosotros

to her,

& ella

for them,
for you,

with him, con el or consigo para ellos or para si


si.

para Vd. or para


III.

EXERCISE
1.

2 towards 1 us 3. by him 4. of you ; 5. 8 6. with you (PLUR.) without them (FEM.) ; 7. in him ; 10. from them 11. with me ; 12. by 8. at me ; 9. to her us (F.) ? 13. without him ; 14. against4 you ; 15. among5 your17. with her ; 18. for yourself. selves ; 16. for them

for her

2.

hacia

2 por
;

3 sin
;

4 contra
;

5 entre.
;

PEON.

ah-the-ah

2 por

3 sin

4 kon-trah

5 en-tray.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
were working with him. 2. We should study 1 was in the jug. 2 4. Would you 3. The milk Spanish. 3 merchant ? 5. The paper was not good, but the the to speak 4 6. were have very good. They always beei} with me. pens 7. Who used to be the captain of this ship ? 8. Used we not 5 9. Was (PAST DBF.) to have seven chairs in this room ?
1. it

We

not you who brought this present for me? 10. The 6 11. It was (fueron) these soldiers spoons were not ours. who won7 the battle.8 12. Was it not early 9 when he arrived ? 13. Would you buy these knives and forks 10 ? 14. I should not keep that dress. 15. He used always 4 to speak of himself. 16. We used not to travel 11 without him. 17. At what time used you to dine 12 ? 18. Take 13 your children with you.
1 leche (FEM.) 2 jarro ; 3 papel ; 4 siempre ; 5 siete 6 cuchara ; 9 temprano ; 7 ganar ; 8 batalla 11 viajar ; 10 tenedor 12 comer ; 13 llevar (convey, carry). 4 se-em-pray PRON. 1 lay-chay ; 2 jE/ar-rro 3 pah -pel 5 se7 gah-nar 9 tem-prah 8 bah-tah-Fyah ay-tay ; 6 koo-chall-rah no ; 10 tay-nay-dor ; 11 ve-ah-Z/ar ; 12 ko-mair , 13 Tyay-var.
; ; ; ; ; , ;
; ;

46

TWELFTH LESSON.
66.
me, to me,
;

me
te
;

thee, to thee,

us, to us, you, to you (Fam. Form);

nos

OS

him, lo
it,

her,

la

to him, to her, le
;

to them,

les

lo (MASC.), la (FEM.)
PRON. may,

them, los (MASC.), las (FEM.)


;

tay, lo, lah, lay

uos, os, less, loss, labss.

The above words (called Conjunctive Personal Pronouns) usually PRECEDE the Verb of which they are the Object.
have it do you lend us
I

lo
1

tengo nos presta Vd.?


form

he does,not send me shall I have them ?

no
;

me

envia
?

los tendre

I should not wait-for her

No

la'

esperaria
:

In the

polite

of address,

YOU must be rendered thus


MASC.PLUR.

YOU
TO-YOU
we

MASC. SING. FEM. SING. lo la

FEM.PLUR.

le le I do not understand you (PLUR.) send to you (PL.) les enviamos

los las les les no los (or las) comprendo he lends (to) you le presta

translation of

In the Masculine Singular, le is often used instead of lo, as a YOU or HIM. But this substitution of le for lo is only
is

permissible when ONE MALE person Don't you believe him ? Don't you believe it ? Don't you believe her ? Don't you believe them ?

spoken to or

of,

thus

No lo (or le) cree Vd. ? I No lo cree Vd. ? I No la cree Vd. ? I No los (or las) cree Vd. ?

67. In Compound Tenses, these words PRECEDE the Auxiliary, as : He has given me ten shillings. .Me ha dado diez chelines. Have you sold him your house ? i Le ha vendido Vd. su casa ? That man had spoken to us. Ese hoinbre nos habia hablado.
| I

EXERCISE
have it understand me ?
1.

I.

has taken them. 3. Do you (P.). 4. 1 shall buy it to-morrow. 5. The shop2 keeper does not believe us. 6. Have you paid 1 him the bill ? 3 7, We have seen them in the street. 8. 1 should not wait for 3 them. 9. Would you have sold it ? 10. My friend
2.

We

He

will keep
12. I shall
1

them

11. Your uncle had forgotten us. (F.). speak to you this evening,
1

pagar ; 2cuenta ; Saguardar.

pah-gar j 2 koo'en-tah 3 ah-goo'ar-dar.


;

47

88.

When two

Indirect Object

The Object is be placed before it without altering Does he sell it (F.) to us ? He will lend it (to) me. My friend has not sent them to me.

Pronouns are Objects of the same Verb, the the PERSON) is put first. (i.e. always Indirect when preceded by TO, or when TO can
its

meaning. Examples os la vende ? Me lo prestara. Mi amigro no me los


I

ha enviado.

09.
I

When
the
first

both the Object Pronouns are in the Third Person, or les) is changed to se ; as, (i.e. le

used to owe it (F.) to them. We often lend them to her. She Bas brought them to him. My clerk will send it to you. We shall not sell them to you.

(Yo) se la debia.

Se los prestamos amenudo. Se los ha traido.

No

Mi dependiente se

lo enviara. se los venderemos.

Vd. etc., (see page 45) may be placed after the meaning of se, le or les clearer, thus : Why does he not sell it to them ? I Por que no se lo vende a ellps ? El banquero se los prestara a 61. The banker will lend them to him. Who has given you the key ? I Quien le ha dado la Have a Vd? No le debemos el dinero a ella. We do fcot owe her the money.
70. d
61,

&

ellas,

the Verb, to

make

71.

shown
He
[

61, d nosotros, d Vd. etc., MUST be added, as in the preceding paragraph, if there is any emphasis on the Indirect Object :

a mi, d

has written to us and to you. them to her, but not to her sister. They owe the money to me, but not
shall lend

to

my cousin.

Nos ha escrito a nosotros y a Vd Se los prestare a ella, pero no a su hermana. Me deben el dinero a mi, pero no a mi primo.
2.

EXERCISE II. They used to send it to me every day. them to us ? 3. He has written to her, and
1.

Has she sent

4.
it

(to) her mother. His aunt has spoken to me, but not to you. 5. Did she read to them yesterday ? 6. The banker will lend it to them, to their
riot

but not
8. I

lawyer.
.

7.

have

explained
9.
it

it

Have you explained 2 it to them ? to them yet, but I shall explain it


sell to

to

them to-night 3

We

you (PLUR.), not

to

them.

(FEM.) to us to-morrow. 11. not explained them (FEM.) to me.


10.

He

will sell

The

clerk has

abogado 2 explicar ; 3 this night (noche, FEM.). PEON. 1 ah-bo-gah-do 2 ex-ple-kar 3 no-chay.
; ; ;

48

72.

The 'Object Pronouns are placed AFTER* the Infinitive and and when they follow the Verb, they the Present Participle form one word with it, but do not alter the Stress. Examples :
;

to lend them to me, prest&rmelos^ debiendoles sending it to him, envi&ndoselo * This is* optional when an Auxiliary Verb, or a Verb used as an Examples She was writing to us, estaba escriAuxiliary, precedes. I want to speak to you, biendonos or, nos estaba escribiendo deseo hablarle or, le deseo hablar.
to find them,

hallarlos

owing you

(PL.),

73.

The Object Pronouns


unless
it is

are also placed

AFTER the Imperative,

in the Negative, thus : do not buy them, no los compre Vd buy them, comprelos Vd. do not send it to me, ne me lo envien send (PL.) it to me,- envienmelo

Yds.
lend
it

Vds.

Vd.

do not lend it to her, 510 se lo presto presteselo Vd. send it to them (p.), and not to me, envieselo Vd. d ellas, y no a mi. let him read it, que lo lea (Subjunctive, therefore Pronoun precedesX
to her,

EXERCISE
1.

III.
.3.

Read

it

to
4.

me.

letter to us.

Read me the letter. Do not read them (FEM.) to us.


2.

5. Sell

Read that them

your watch. 6. Do not send her the letter. 7. Buy (PLUR.) 9. Lend it it. 8. Was he speaking to you, or to your .father ? 10. Do not lend him [any] money. 11. It is not to them. 1 easy [to] understand him. 12. Teach (PLUR.) it to them. 13. Do not teach 1 (PLtTR.) it to them. 14. Let him listen 2 tome.
lensefiar;
2escuchar.

PRON.

en-say-n'yar

2 es-koo-cfcar.

1.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. Look at him, not at me. 2. Let me (i.e.


it.

allow

me

to)

Why have you sold her your ring ? 4. He will 5. Do they owe it to us ? 6. Do not forget you (TLUR.). not listen to him. 7. He has not brought them (FEM.) to us. 9. When 8. He used to lend money to you, but not to me, 10. Who has done it ? 11. How shall you (PLUR.) buy it ? much money do we owe him ? 12. 1 have lent them to her, 14. Sell (PLUR.) them 13. He will have them to-morrow. 16. Does he owe it to 15. Do not send it to me. to him. as ? 17. Let us keep it. 18. Do you expect him to-day ?
have
3.

THIRTEENTH LESSON.
74.
Adverbs which are formed in English by "adding LY to the Adjective are formed in Spanish by adding MENTB to the Feminine Singular of the Adjective. Examples : caro f caraxnente dearly A^- f f dear AA Adverbs Adjectives
|

PRON.. kah-rah-men-tay fah-thil-men-tay. NOTE. If two or more Adverbs ending in mente occur together, the termination is added to the LAST only ; as, They have fought bravely, enthusiastically, and nobly. Han peleado valiente, entusiastica y noblemente.
;

^
2.
7.

ficil

^y

facilmente

EXERCISE
1.

I.
;

surely
;

cheaply
gladly
1
;

3.
8.

heavily

4,

coldly

5.
8

cleverly

6.

bravely

doubly

2
;

9.
;

purely.

1 glad,

alegre

2 double,

doble

3 pure,

puro.

75.

The Adverb usually follows the Verb (or the Participle in Compound Tenses), and precedes the Noun which is the
Direct Object of the Verb.*
*

This is customarily the case ; but the position of the Adverb is varied, It is therefore to a large as in other languages, for emphasis or euphony. extent optional. Examples The child does not always read. El nino no lee siempre. I am now writing to my uncle. Estoy escribiendo ahora & mi tio hablaban amenudo. They often used to speak to me. No hallara facilmente la casa. He will not find the house easily.
:

Me

EXERCISE
1.
1 Copy the names

II.

Are they still 2 listening ? 3. Yesterday I, bought a watch, and to-morrow I shall sell it. 3 4. This man does not always work well. 5. Hardly had I finished4!^ work when my friends arrived. 6. We always drink tea and coffee. 7. To-morrow we shall receive eight5 pounds.*
carefully. 2.
1

copiar

2 aiin

3 apenas

4 acabar

5 ocho

libra.

76.

Adverbs are compared

like Adjectives (see 9th

Lesson)

as,

fdcilmente friamente easily coldly more easily more coldly mas fdcilmente friamente the most coldly lo mas friamente the most easily lo mas facilmentO most surely, seguramente, or segurisimamente

mas

muy

B.8.S.4.)

NEGATIONS.
77.
never,

nunca, jam&s*;
ni...ni
;

neither... nor,

nobody, nadie ; nothing, nada: not no, any, ninguno, ninguna.

PKON. noonn-kah, /Zah-mahs,

nah -de-ay, nah-dah ;

nee, nin-goo-no.

When
Verb, thus
I

the above words follow a Verb,


:

no

must precede the

He

have never seen it. spoke to nobody. I have neither your pen nor your penHe has no houses. [cil.

No lo he visto nunca. No hablo a nadie. No tengo ni su pluma ni su lapiz. No tiene ningunaf casa.

If, however, these words precede the Verb, no is not used ; as, Nadie ha estado aqui. Nobody has been her^e. Never will I believe that. Jamas (or Nunca) creere eso. Hoy no ha llegado ninguna carta To-day no letter has arrived.

EXERCISE
1. I

III.
'

2. Neither my bushave any difficulty. 1 2 3. The servant has neither band nor my son is 3 upstairs. 4 brought coffee nor tea. 4. Nobody is do\vnstairs. 5. 1 met nob 6. No house would be large enough. body in the garden. 7. Nothing is more certain. 5 8. This boy understands nothing.

shall not

44

1 dificultad

2 esposo

3=are

4 arriba

5 seguro.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


(for

Reference only)

78.

The Third Person Singular of the the same as the Imperative, thus :

PKESENT Subjunctive

is

liable-

sea deba este tenga haya hablemos debamos tengamos hayamos seamos estemos sean bablen. esten deban tengan hayan
Fam, Forms
:

babies, hableis
;

debas, debais

tengas, tengdis

hayas,

hayais

"seas, seals

est^s, est^is.
is

Jamas

seldom used except with a Future Tense.


used.

t The Plural Forms ningunos, ningunas, are not

51

79-

TbT Stem

of "the IMPERFECT,^ FUTURE

Subjunctive is obtained by taking ron from the 3rd Person Plural of the Past Definite (see Paragraphs 50 to 52), thus :
habla...,

debie..., vivie..., tuvie...,

hubie..., fue..., estuvie...


:

To

this

STEM

the following Terminations are added


;

IMPERFECT se
The
full
:

FUTURE re

CONDITIONAL ra
:

Conjugations are therefore as follow

IMPERFECT

hablase, hablasemos, hablasen


tuviese,
etc.
;

debiese,
etc.

etc.

fuese,

FUTURE

hablare, hablaremos, hablaren ;


tuviere,
etc.
;

debiere,
etc.
;

etc.

fuere,

CONDITIONAL
Fam. Forms
:

hablara, hablaramos, hablaran


tuviera,
:

debiera,
:

etc.

etc.

fuera,
;

etc.

hablareis, etc.

FUTURE hablartfi, IMPERFECT hablases, hablaseis, etc. CONDITIONAL hablaras, hablarais, etc.
;
:

se,

The STRESS re or ra.

is

always on the vowel preceding the termination

NOTE. The Subjunctive is used under certain conditions, no rdatter what the English construction is. We therefore refrain from the misleading custom of giving MAY, MIGHT, etc., as the English of the Subjunctive, because this would often be a totally incorrect translation. The use of this Mood is explained in Lesson 24.

1.

have a blue 1 dress here.


2

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. 2. He hardly*

waitedb a

morrow.

Perhaps I shall receive some presents toThat customer 3 has already4 bought the lamp. 5. I shall certainly 5 speak to them to-night. 6. Did you 8. not find my umbrella here ? 7. Nobody is listening. 9 He firmly 6 refused 7 [to] continue. 8 9. Sometimes 1 drink 10 10. I want principally beer, but I never drink wine. [to] 11 to He 11. speak him, not to his partner. spoke clearly and
minute.
3.

4.

12 13. It 12. Do you expect a letter to-day ? energetically. 15. They is of no consequence. 14. He believes nothing.

found nobody at home.


;

16.

Never have I read [a]

better b book, a
;

6 firme 1 azul ; 2 minuto ; 3 parroquiano ; 4 ya ; 5 de seguro 7 rehusar ; 8 continual ; 9 4 veces ; 10 principal (Adjective) ; (Adjective) 11 socio 12 eneVgico (Adjective).
;

^FOURTEENTH LESSON.
80.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
The

(Those printed in thick type are all that need be learned. remainder are Compound Numbers formed regularly.)
1

uno

(M.),

una

(F.)

101 ciento uno, (una, F.)

200 doscientos (M.), dos300 400 500 600 700 800 900
cieutas (F.) trescientos, -tas cuatrocientos, -tas

quinientos, -tas
seiscientos, -tas setecientos, -tas

ochocienlos, -tas

novecientos, -tas

1.000
1.001 1.100 1.101 1,200

mil

mil uno, (una F.) mil cien(lo)t mil ciento uno mil doscientos, -tas 2,000 dos mil J 100.000 cien mil 200',000 doscientos mil
1,000,000 un millon 2,000,000 dos millones

PEON. 1 OO-no, 00-nah 2 doss 3 tress ! 4 koo'ah-tro 5 thin-ko ; 10 de-eth Jl on8 o-cho 6 say-iss 7 se-ay-tay noo'ay-Tay 15 kin-thay ; 12do-thay; 13 tray -t bay ; 14 kah-tpr-thay thay 30 tray-in-tah, etc. 20 vay-in-tay 16 de-eth-e -say-iss * The Compoiuid Numbers (17 to 99, except the even tens) can also be spelt diez y seis, veinte y dos, cuarenta y cinco, etc.
; ;

etc.

t The numbers 1,100, 1,200, etc., cannot be translated oncecientOS, The correct form is mil cien(to), mil doscientos, etc. J mil employed as a Numeral has no plural as, BUT, 300 trescientos; 8,000,000 -ocho millones. 6,000 iBeis mil
;

81.

TJHO

is

and Ciento

if a Noun or an Adjective follows, contracted to to cien, unless a Numeral Adjective follows. fifty -one books, cincuentiun libros cien buenos marineros cien mil gracias cien millones de hombres

un

mil and millon

after millon,

de is always placed are considered as Nouns. millones, if the -Noun immediately follows.

53

82.

All the Cardinal Numbers are invariable except UHO and CientOS, which change in the Feminine to una, Cientas one woman, una mujer four hundred houses, cuatrocientas casaa.
:
;

EXERCISE
1.

I.
;

nineteen days 3. six weeks 1 ; 2 3 5. eighty-eight years 6. one minute ; 4. twelve months 1 8. ninety-seven pounds ; 7. one week 9. twenty-three 10. eighteen pence 4 ; 11. forty-two dollars 5 ; shillings 12. one hundred and seven books 13. five hundred and
thirty-five children
;

2.

14. thirteen hundred seventy-three shillings houses ; 15. five thousand and twelve hours 6 ;
;

and

fifty-one

16. sixteen

thousand seven hundred and sixty-four miles7 ; 17. a hundred million pounds; 18. a hundred schools 8 19. five million two hundred and eighty-six thousand four hundred
;

and
1

fifteen inhabitants. 9

semana
;

7 milla

2 mes 3 aiio ; 8 escuela 9 habitante.


;
;

4 penique

5 duro or peso

6 hora

83.

The HOUR OF THE DAY is expressed in Spanish thus : one o'clock, la una two o'clock, las dos five o'clock, las cinco, etc. la, las are used because hora (hour), which is understood, is feminine.
;

84.

QUARTER

is

translated

cuarto, and HALF media.


:

PRON. koo'ar-to, may-de-ah.


Note the following expressions a quarter past four, las cuatro y cuarto half past four, las cuatro y media a quarter to five,las Cinco menos cuarto
twelve minutes past six, las seis y doce twenty minutes to seven, las siete menos veinte

85.
it is

"!T is"

is

translated
?

es

before

la una, and son before


? i

the other hours, thus one o'clock, es la una


;

is it

half past

two
IT.

son las dos y media

EXERCISE
;

1. eleven o'clock ; 3, 2. twenty-five minutes to eight ; half past ten 5. five minutes past 4. a quarter to eleven ; 7. It is a quarter past nine. one ; 6. ten minutes to eight 8. Is it one o'clock ? 9. It is not twelve o'clock yet. 10.
;

It is nineteen

minutes to three.

54

86.

The names

of the

DAYS and MONTHS


,

are as follow
July,

Domingo Monday, Lunes


Sunday,
Tuesday,

January,

Martes

Enero February, Febrero March Marzo


r

Julio

August,

Wednesday, Miercoles
Thursday,

April,

Abril

Jueves Friday, Viernes Saturday, Sabado

May,
June,

Mayo
Junio

AgostO Septiembre October, Oetubre November, Noviembre December, Diciembre


September,

ve-air-ness,

PRON. do-min-go, loo-ness, mar-less, me-air-ko-less, #ooay-vess, sah-bah-do; ay-nay-ro, fay-bray-ro, mar-tho, ah-bril,

mah-yo, ^Too-ne-o, J3bo-le-o, ah-gos-to, sep-te-em-bray, ok-too-bray, no-ve-em-bray, dee-the- em-bray.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1.

What time
it
is.

what time
starts

1 2. I (trans, hour) is it ? 3. It is half past twelve.

do not know1
4.

The
5.

train

at

twenty -three

minutes past eight.

He

has

two hundred and eighty-one miles. 6. We have in the bank 2 7. This country 3 has [a] hun1,954 17s. 6d. dred million inhabitants. 8. I lent them eighteen hundred and fifty pounds. 9. There 4 are4 not [a] hundred good soldiers
travelled

in the regiment. 5 10. He will be here at ten minutes to one. 11. It is a quarter to twelve. 12. That merchant has 500,000.
13. Fourteen thousand eight hundred and fifty soldiers 6 14. It is not a quarter past three yet. fought in that battle. 15. They have sent [off] ninety-two parcels, haven't7 they 7 ? 16. How 8 many 8 days are4 there4 in a week ? 17. There 4 are* seven days, a hundred and sixty-eight hours, or ten thousand and eighty minutes in a week. 18. What are

the names of the days ? 19. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wed4 4 nesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday. 20. There are twelve months, or three hundred and sixty-five days, in a year. 21. The months are : January, February, March, April, May, June,
July, August, September, October, November, December.
1 no *6 ; 2 banco ; 3 pals 4 hay 5 regimieflto no ot veidad ? (is it not truth ?) ; 8 cudntos ?
;

6 peleor

7 i

55

FIFTEENTH LESSON.
87.
1st

ORDINAL NUMBERS,
primero
6th sexto 7th septimo 8th octavo 9th noveno, 10th decimo
llth

undcimo or d&fmo

2nd segundo 3rd tercero


4th cuarto 6th quinto
*

primero 12th duodecimo or

dcimo

nono

20th vig&imo

[segundo

21st vige*simo priraero, etc.

(The student need only learn the first ten words in the above list. Beyond the TENTH,' Cardinal Numbers are nearly always used in preference to the Ordinal, the latter being very lengthy and cumbrous. Thus : the 36th page, la pagina trigesima sexta but better, la pagina
treintiseis
;

the 27th chapter

= chapter
the

27, el

capitulo veintisiete).

88.

All the ORDINAL NUMBERS form their Feminine and Plural in the usual way, thus :

the fifth street* la

quinta calle

first

names, los primeros

nombrea
DAYS OB

89.

The Cardinal Numbers are used for expressing THE MONTH, the first (el primero) excepted

the
as,

the 1st of July el primero de Julio ; the 2nd of August el dos de Agoato 30th of May el treinta de Mayo the 1 1 th of March el once de Marzo ;

90.

In writing the date with figures, no letters corresponding to the English th. are used after the figure, THE IST (1) again excepted, thus :
London, July 1st. Madrid, August 21st.

Londres, (el) 1 de Julio. Madrid, (el) 21 de Agosto.


:

Dates can also be written thus

Agosto 21 de 1907,

etc.

91.

After the names cf monarchs, etc., the Ordinal Numbers are used (WITHOUT the article) up to the 10th. Beyond the lOfch, Cardinal Numbers are generally employed ; as,
II.,

Henry

ccra)

Enrique II. (segundo) Catherine III., Catalina BUT Louis XIV., Luis XIV. (catorce).
;

III. (ter-

EXERCISE
1.

I.

the
;

first

inhabitants

2.
;

mistake

4.

the fifth shop

the eighth part1 ; 3. the tenth 2 6. the 5. the second classes ;

se
7. the third window on4 thd seventh street on 3 the right ; 4 8. the 15th of October ; 9. the first of May ; left ; 10; the 25th of August ; 11. Pius 5 the ninth ; 12. Isabella6 II. ; 13. Charles 7 XII. ; 14. Paris, June 18th, 1907,
1
3

parte(FEM.)
;

2clase (FEM.)
*

6 Isabel

7 Carlos.

3 la derecha* 4a la izquierda* ; 5 Pio Feminine, Jsecaupe mano (hand) is Feminine.


;

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.t


92.

The
usual

following words form their Feminine and Plural in the

way

(see

any, some,

alguno
;

Paragraphs 20 and 23) : ; no, none, not -any,

ninguno ;t
?

muoh,J
other,

mucho
same,

how much

<{

cudtito

otro

mismo
;

all,

the whole, everything,

todo
0-tro
;

too much, demasiado ; little, a few, PRON. ahl-goo j no nin-goo-.no; moo-cho mi3-mo: to-do; day-mah-se-ah-da ; po-ko.
all

poco.
;

koo'ahn-to

the other men, los otros hombres the ink, toda la tinta
? 1

much

patience,

mucha

paciencia

many numbers, muchos numeros


the same book, el mismo libro the same cups, las mismas tazas
:

how much money ? ;cu,nto dinero ti many streets ? i cuantas calles

93.

The

following words do not change

anyone, anybody,
each, every,

alguien

nobody,
;

nadie

cada
:

nothing,
;

nada
;

PKON.

ahlg-e-cn

nah-de-ay

something, anything, kah-dah nah-dah ahl-go.


;
;

EXAMPLES

every three weeks, oada tres semanas ; is (there) any one at home ? I hay alguien en casa ?

EXERCISE
1.

II.

have found nothing.

2.

rich 1

man

always has

They looked at it every ten minutes. 4. How many pounds 2 do I owe you ? .5. Do not drink all the water. 6. Have you bought any books to-day ? 7. Is 3 there 3 anybody upstairs ? 8. We sold it to them the
[a great]

many

friends.

3.

other day.

9.

You have
1 rico

too
;

many
;

dogs.
3 hay.

2 libra

tw* foot-notas,

pages 27 and 50.

The Plural

of

MUCH

is

MANY,

5?

04.

The

final

of

(bad), (good), (no, none), is omitted have you any money ?

malO

primero (first), tercero (third), bueno alguno (some, any), and ninguno
if
i

Noun
;

immediately follows

as,

BUT

tiene Vd. algiin dinero ? a good soldier, un buen soldado the first day, el primer dia a good and brave soldier, un bueno y valiente soldado
final

The

A of Feminine Forms

is

not omitted

as,

the third door This is not a good pen.

la tercera puerta

Esta no es una buena pltuna.


large) precedes the
to

95.

When grande (great, de is generally omitted.


grande
precedes the

Noun, the

final

Ncun when
Paragraph
a great

tactual size (see

Remark
;

to

refferjing 19), fcbijs :


;

QUALITY

instead of to

a great queen, una gran reina

a great friend of mine,


large) ship,

amigo mio
06.

BUT

(i.e.,

un gran un buque grande.

Santo
name

(Saint) is contracted to of a saint ; as,

San

when preceding the

St. Peter,

San Pedro

a great saint,

un gran santO

EXERCISE

III.
;

a bad a voyage 111 ; 2. a great a noise b 3. a great chimney 2 ; 4 5. St. Paul 6. the third boy in the first 4. a great favor3 5 5 class ; 7. There is a little (of) coffee, but I have neither
;
;

sugar nor milk. 8. He never spends [any] 9. I have a bad pen, but good paper.
1

money

here.

viaje

2 chimenea

3 favor

Pablo

5 hay.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1.

ink the
his

are
last.

died 2 December 1st, 1825. 2. How much b is there in the inkstands 4 ? 3. This is a good* boy, but 5 4. He is the first in others have not done any work. cousins which is 5. My class, (PEM.) very large. almost6 always the first in the list, 7 and my sister is the

Alexander1
8
3

1.

6.

Who was (PAST


line. 9.
?

DEF.) the
9

first

King

of Spain 8

7.

Copy every fourth


(PLUR.) written

8.

How many words10

Catherine 11 II. was 12 born 12

have, you May 2nd,

sa
2 10. This is the first tim* 1729, and died Nov. 17th, 1796. 11. The second lesson that I have found anyone at home. 13 13 14 is the most difficult. 12. On the contrary, 1 think that the first lessons are very easy, and that the eighth is the most
14 13. Do yomnot think that the Iast 15a chapters 16b of book are very amusing 17 ? 14. She was (PAST DBF.) a great 18 15. This is the first mistake I have made to-day. 16. queen. I have filled 19 this inkstand, 4 and my brother has filled all the others. 17. How many brothers have you ? I have only^one.

difficult.

this

2 mnri6 (see par. 163) 3 hay 4 tintero 5 de ; 6 casi _9 renglbn 10 palabra ] 1 Catalina ; 12 nacio" (see ) 4 use creer (to believe) 15iiltimo; 16oa par. 168); 13 al contrario pltulo ; 17 divertido ; 18 reina ; 19 llenar ; 20 solamente.
1

Alejandro
;

lista

Espana

SIXTEENTH LESSON.
INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNS
97.
(concluded).

SOME and ANT


He
has given

before a

Noun

translated, or rendered

un poco
sugar.

in the Singular are either not or poco de (A LITTLE) :

un

me some

Me ha dado un

poco (de) azucar.

98. SOME and ANY before a Noun in the Plural (i.e. meaning A FEW) are either not translated, or rendered by unos or

algunOS;

as,
*

Have you any.nuts

,{

Vd.^ece^^algunas
ANY
is

nueces,

99.

After a Negation,

translated

ninguno, and ANY-

(or ANYONE) nadie, thus : They have not built anyhouse[s]. No han edificado ninguna casa. No he visto a nadie. I have not seen anybody.

BODY

EXERCISE
1

I.

2 1. Lend him some tools. 2. We have some salt, but we have neither mustard 3 nor pepper. 4 3. Have you not met5 4. Has the waiter 6 brought [any] bread and anybody ? cheese ? 5. My wife 7 has bought some furniture. 6. Haven't 7. This pupil hasn't [any] you seen any samples to-day ?

59
ink. 8. That servant (PEM.) has broken some plates, but 9. He has given me she has not broken any glass [es].

some presents

for
;

my

daughter.
;

2 sal (PEM.) 1 herramienta 3 mostaza 8 hija. 6 mozo ; 7 esposa (or senora)


;

4 pimienta

6 encontrar

REFLECTIVE VERBS.
When
the Verb
is

the Object of a Verb


called

is

the same person or thing as

its

Subject,

REFLECTIVE. NOT REFLECTIVE. He amused me. I amuse him. The boys amused us.

Examples

REFLECTIVE. He amused himself. I amuse myself. The boys amused themselves.

100. The Reflective Pronouns MYSELF, THYSELF, OURSELVES, YOURSELVES (Fam. Form), are translated me, te, BOS, OS.
Note that these are the same as the ordinary Object Pronouns (see Par. 66). ) himself, herself, itself, one's self, translated a themselves, yourself, yourselves (Pol. Form) )

101.

These words immediately precede or follow the Verb, in accordance with the Rules in the 12th Lesson, thus
:

lavarse I wash myself, me lavo you wash yourself, Vd. se lava has the boy washed himself ? j se ha lavado el nmchacho ? wash yourself, lavese Vd. do not wash yourself, no se lave
to
self,

wash one's

lavandose nos lavamos you wash yourselves, Vds. se lavan


washing one's
self,

we wash

ourselves,

the childrenwill not wash themselves

los ninos no se lavaran us wash ourselves, lavemonos* do not let us wash ourselves, no nos
let

Vd.
*

lavemos,

etc., etc.

The final S or D of the Imperative is omitted "before the Reflective " " Pronouns nos and os. Thus, the Familiar Form for wash yourselves is lavaos, not lavados.

EXERCISE
1. I

II.

wash myself 2. we are not washing ourselves ; 3. have they not washed themselves ? 4. you will tire 1 your1 self 5. she would congratulate 2 herself 6. do not tire 3 not have ? 8. 7. he hurt himself has yourselves ; you
shall
; ;

2 hurt 3 yourselves ? 10. 9. they congratulate themselves ; wash yourselves ; 11. the workmen used to tire1 them-

selves

12.

we

shall congratulate 2 ourselves.


1 cansar
;

2 felicitar

3 lastimar.

60

102.

Many Verbs

to make a mistake, equivocarse to get up, levantarse to complain, qnejarse to aJight, apearse or bajarse

are reflective in Spanish, but not in EngKdi. 1 made a mistake, me he equivocado he used to get up, se levautaba we do not complain, no nos quejamos you will alight, Vd se apeara or bajar

EXERCISE
1. 3.

III.

they used 2 7. get up imescaped ? 3 8. I am getting4 tired4 ; 9. has he not mediately alighted yet ? 10. we should get up ; 11. let us rejoice 5 12. get down (=alight) here ; 13. they have got married, 6
4. I shall interfere
;

do not complain 2. why do you interfere 1 ?.


; ;

my

friend has

made

a mistake;
5.

not to interfere
!

6.

has the

man

1 to interfere, meterse ; 2 to escape, escaparse ; 3 inmediaiamente ; to get tired, cansarse ; 5 to rejoice, alegrarse ; 6 to get married, casarse.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
is very careless, 1 but he thinks2 that he never makes a mistake. 2. They alighted at the door 3 of the church. 3. I do not complain of this, but4 of that. 4. Why does that boy not wash himself ? 5. 1 have not made a mistake

1.

That clerk

up every day at half past six. 7. We 6 8. The children laave behaved 6 themselves very well. 9. Your friend, congratulated himself too 7 soon. 8 10. Do not tire yourselves. 11. We do not want
this time. 5
6.

We get

shall not interfere in that.

12. [to] tire ourselves. station. 13. They sold

Let us get out

= alight)
10

at 9 this

me some good

some very b goodb cigars. a 11 rarely makes a mistake.


16.

and him 14. This is a good pupil ; he 15. At what time do they get up ?
tobacco,
17.

We

always

shall alight at the door 3 of the hotel. 12 7 13 18. Don't interfere gets up too late.
19.

He

in
20.

these

matters. 1*

When

will they get married


21.

They

have already got married*

Why
; ;

don't you get


;

up

4 sino (see par. 115) 3 puerta 1 descuidado ; 2 creer (to believe) 8 pronto ; 9 =2 7 demasiado 5 time=iocca8ion, vez ; 6 comportarse 10 tftbaco ; ILraramente ; 12 hotel ; 13 tarde ; J4 asunta
;

61

SEVENTEENTH LESSON.
THE PASSIVE
A Verb is made
Our mother
I

VOICE.
:

Passive by changing its Object into the Subject, thus


I

ACTIVE VOICE.
loves us did not write the letter
|

PASSIVE VOICE. We are loved by our mother The letter was not written by me

Passive Voice is formed in Spanish with Ser, the 103. Past Participle taking the Gender and Number of the Subject.

The

i no eramos respetados ? (on the PASSIVE VOICE). 1. they are not believed 2. are you (PEM. SING.) not feared ? 3. we were called ; 4. is she loved ? 5. the glasses will be broken 6. the window was broken by the servant; 7. the 8. am I not believed ? 9. they are not loved. queen is loved

am respected, soy respetado am respected, soy respetada she be respected ? i sera respetada ? will is he not respected ? j no es respetado ?
1

(M.)

they (F.) are not .respected,

no

I (F.)

_son respetadas
were we (M.; not respected ?

EXERCISE

I.

104. After the Passive Voice, BY is usually translated de if the Verb expresses a MENTAL action otherwise por is used. He was respected by all his family Fue respetado de toda su familia The houses were built by these Las casas fueron consfruidas por'
;

masons

estos albaniles

105.

Passive Voice is not much used in Spanish, the Form (or the Active Voice) being generally employed instead, thus : it is believed se cree se habla* espanol Spanish spoken that house was sold esa casa se vendio
Reflective
phrases, the Subject
is

The

*In such

often placed after the Verb.

106. The Reflective Form is also generally used in phrases like PEOPLE BELIEVE, THEY (not meaning certain persons)
BELIEVE,
NOTE.
etc.
it is

they expect, people expect,

expected

it

expects

itself,

se espera

should be avoided if the Verb expresses a mental actipn. For instance, 'the Queen is loved' is better translated * la reina es amada, because la reina &e ama means the Queen
Reflective
loves herself.'

The

Form

62

EXERCISE
1.

II.

(In translating this ExercisS, only use the Passive Voice befor^BY.)

Foreign

money

is
?

2 changed in that shop.

2.

Are these

'books lent to 3 read 3

People believe that the queen is 5 4 6 ill. 4. These oranges are sold at sixpence a dozen. very 8 7 6. Milkc 5. Those masters are respected by their servants.
3.
6

8. The box was (PAST 7. Cigars sold here. 10 9. It .is feared that the DEF.) inad6 by this carpenter. 10. Money lent. 11. The accident 11 will be serious. 12. It is hoped letters will be written by the clerk.

sold b here. a

that he ^will arrive to-morrow.


1

cxtranjero
;

;
;

2 cambiar
7

6docena

amo

3 para leer ==for readying') 4 naranja ; 10 hecho 11 accidente. Srespetar 9 caja


; ; ;

REMARKS ON THE STEM OF REGULAR VERBS.


107. The
spelling of the STEM of some Regular Verbs is slightly altered in 'certain parts of the Conjugation, so that the ORIGINAL PRONUNCIATION may be preserved. These alterations are :

VBBBS ENDING'IN
car
change the

EXAMPLES.
-to

into

gar
zar
ceroroir

QU before GU
C
Z
J
a

look f or, Jbuscar ; 1 looked for, -busque

(.to

e
(

pay,

pagar

let

him pay, que pague

C
G-

or

J to attain, alcanzar ; ( let us attain, alcancemos j to conquer, veneer ;


(

conquer,

venzo

gerorgir
quir eer change

aoro
aoro

J to direct, diyigir; let us direct, dirijamos (


(
(

QU
the^

C
28.

tp transgress,
I trangress,

delinquir ; delinco

tion into y,

unstressed i of the terminawhenever it occurs between

two vowels,see page

to read, leer be read, Iey6 he used to read, leia I BUT


j ]
:

EXERCISE
it

III.
;

they believed 3 3 up ; 4. I attained


1.
;

2. let
;

5.

do I conquer 5 ? 10. I enjoyed 6 11. touch4 them them 13. do not arrive too late
it

up

7.

3. us pay 1 Let us touch 4 8. he read


;
;

Do not
;

let

us pick 2
;

6. let

him pick 2

9. I

did not read

12.
;

do not touch (PLUR.) 14. pay 1 me ; 15. let

63

him pay
18.

16. I
2

touched
21.

17.

Pick

up thac apple.

Direct 7 the letters.


1

Do

Let us conquer 5 this difficulty. 19. Let us look for a cab. 20. not touch those books.
4 tocar
;

pagar

2 recoger

3 alcanzar

5 veneer

6 gozar

7 dirigir.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1.

Newspapers sold here.

2.

Pay the carpenter. 1


4. I

3.

This

window was not broken yesterday. tenth of December. 5. As 2 soon as 2


to

arrived [on] the


I

overtook 3 him,

spoke

4 [to] examine it. I that believed had 7. They made a mistake. 8. Without doubt5 the parcels 6 will be found by the boy. 9. The message* was sent to the captains. 10. Let us take 8 hold of 8 this rail 9 ;

him.

6.

Pick up that stone

want

the staircase 10

is

not very safe. 11

11.

Do

not let us touch the

12 18 papers, because we shall disarrange them. 12. He addressed himself to his friend, but received no answer. 14 13. It is

15 14. ship has been wrecked. good 15. They were wounded loved by her children. 16. It is doubted 16 whether 17 he will ha<ve by the soldiers. 17. I advanced 18 carefully towardsenough patience. 18. People believed (IMPERF.) that the the horse's head. 19 7 19. Luggage 20 is not received here. message had arrived.

believed that a
is

mother

1 carpintero 2 luego que or tan pronto como ; 3 alcanzar 4 examinar 5 duda ; 6 paquete 7 parte ; 8 coger; 9 barandilla 10 escalera* 11 seguro 15 to be wrecked, nau12 desarreglar; 14 contestation 13 dirigir fragar ; JL6 dudar ; 17 si ; 18 avanzar ; 19 cabeza 20 equipajes (PLUR.>
; ; ; ;
;

EIGHTEENTH LESSON.
108.

VERBS SLIGHTLY IRREGULAR. Many Verbs change the VOWEL OF THE STEM
change

takes the STRESS,* but are otherwise quite Regular. Verbs consist of the following two classes f of the Stem to IE the (1) Verbs which
(2)
*
i.e.,

whenever it These

E O

UE

and in the Third Person Plural, of the IMPERATIVE, PRESENT INDICATIVE and PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. Tbe remaining Tenses are perfectly Regular, as the Stress is ON THE TERMINATION, see par. 60.
in all the Persons of the Singular,

64

EXAMPLES,
to shut,

cerrar

to lose,

perder

to cost %

costar

to move, mover.'

show us ISrwe should think ; do not deny it. 18. show me 19. 20, Why do you not sit down ? let us sit down ; 21. Do 1 you think (that) it will freeze to-morrow ? 22. Let us return b will rainb soon. a 2 it 23. If 3 I meet him, I shall speak home 24. They would come back at half past nine. to him. 25. 26. Why does not your servant It does not thunder now. come back ? 27. If they deny it, I shall not believe them. 28. Has he not lighted the fire yet ? 1 use creer 3 si. 2 & casa
childlifibw ?
16.

14."dolT6t
?

do you think

17. 1

REMARKS ON PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS.


111.

Verbs immediately preceded by a Preposition must be the Infinitive ; as,


|

in"

in speaking, en hablar before reading, antes de

without arriving late, sin llegar tarde


after having

leer

seen,despu6s de haber visto

112.

FOR (para) is translated por when referring to an EXCHANGE or EQUIVALENT ; i.e., when meaning in exchange
for, in

return for

He has given me his watch


I shall

for mine.

Me ha dado
peniques.

change this shilling for twelve

su reloj por el xnio. Cambiar6 este chelin por doce

pennies.

113.
lli

AND
:

(y) is translated

before words commencing with i pr


I

as,
stories of this author.

He

is

very clever and ingenious.

The*

poems and

Laspoesias 6 historias de este


escritor.

Es muy habil

e ingenioso.

114.

OR

(6) is translated
as,

u before words
[
|

commencing with o or

hO;

Lend me seven or eight pounds. Did you break it yesterday or to-day?

Presteme Vd. siete u ocho libras i Lo rompio Vd. ayer u hoy?

115.

BUT

(pero)

is
;

translated

sino

after

a Negation, unless

as, I have not seen him, but his wife.

a Verb follows
I

No le he visto a el, sino a su esNo le he


posa.

BUT

have not seen him,but

have

seen his partner.

visto a

61,

[& su socio. pero he visto

116.
I

The Conjunction Spanish; as,


am
sure
it

que

(that) should not be omitted in

does not freeze.

Estoy seguro que no

hieia.

C6
.

EXERCISE" 11^
;

3. silver or having waited; 4. sons and daughters 5. sons or daughters 6. gold 2 before 2 starting 7. without drinking 8. before lending it 9, brothers and sisters 10. after having shown me his music 3 and instruments 4 ; 11. in showing them to him; 12. ten or eleven ^hillings 13. Change this cup for the 5 other. 15. The boat has 14., It is not my fault, but his. uot arrived to-day, but perhaps it will arrive to-morrow

I.

in working;
;

2.

after 1

despu& de

2 antes de

3 iniisica

4 instrumento

5 culpa,

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
His master 1 does not approve [of] his conduct. 2 2. Before recommending the book, I shall examine it. .3. They bought it without examining it, 4. I believed it would rain. 5. After having sat down, I related the facts 3 and incidents4 5 6 of my voyage. 7. He did 6. Is your room light or dark ?
1.

me, but to you. 8. Do you deny that the discoveries 8 and inventions 9 of this century 10 have been 11 9. Let us begin now. 10. Do not begin very useful ?
not
his ticket 7 to

show

yet

am

not ready.

It.

Do

but shut the windows. 12 and &11 my opinions have in your (translate
eight shillings in
sixty dollars,

12. If I

not light the fire in my room, return in time, I will explain


13.

ideas. 13
:

Show me what 14 you


14.
I

the) hand.
15

have seven or

my
16.

pocket.

15.

He

sold
18.

me

his ring for


17*

He

returned

last 16

week. 1G

Do

not

yourself before starting, 19. How much did you receive for your watch ? g). After having done their work, they will come back, 21. He recommended a grammar 17 to us, but we have
18 22. My breakfast 19 costs forgotten the title, 21 23. Mine costs me more. shillings a day.
1

come back without speaking

to him.

Warm

me

about 20 two

amo

8 descubrimiento
lo

que

(=
;

2 conducta 3 hecho 4 incidente 5 claro 6 obscuro 7 billetc ; 9 invenci6n lOsiglo 11 litil 12 opinion 13 idea 14 that v:hich) 17 gramatica; 15 bolsillo 16 la semana pasada
;

18 titulo

19 almuerzo

20 aproximadamente

21=eacA.

C7

mNETEENTH
117.

LESSONl

IRREGULrAR VERBS.
differ in any respect from the regular Conjugations, either in stem or termination, are called IRREGULAR. Even the irregularities, however, are subject to certain rules ; and when these rules are mastered, the Irregular Verbs
little difficulty.

Verbs which

The

present following are the chief points to be


every Tense except the
is regular. ser, to be. ver, to see
;

remembered
I.

The Termination's
4

of

PRESENT

INDICATIVE are
II.

QUITE REGULAR.*
of the
:

The Stem

IMPERFECT
go
;

Exceptions
III.

ir, to

The PAST DEFINITE


:

Exception

ir,

follows the Rule in Paragraph 52.f to go, the Past Definite of which is the same as that of ser.
(polite

IV.

The IMPERATIVE

form)

is

formed by changing
of the

the final vowel of the FIRST

PERSON SINGULAR
go
;

PRESENT
to

INDICATIVE.
Exceptions
:

ir, to

dar, to give

saber,

know.

are always formed according to the Rules in Paragraphs 64, 78, 79, no exceptions.

V.

The CONDITIONAL and SUBJUNCTIVE

full,

i^T Therefore, to be able to conjugate any Irregular Verb in the Student WHO HAS LEARNT THE REGULAR CONJUGATIONS,

AND THE ABOVE RULES,


the irregularities in the PRESENT INDICATIVE, the FUTURE and PAST DEFINITE STEMS, the Singular (familiar form) of the IMPERATIVE, and the PARTICIPLES.

need only

know

All the irreguproceed to give the important Irregular Verbs. printed in thick type, the few exceptions to the above Rules being indicated by CAPITALS, and given in this lesson. TENSES FORMED ACCORDING TO OUR RULES ARE OMITTED HERE; the full conjugation of every Irregular Verb is giveu for reference in Hugo's Spanish Verbs Simplified.'
larities are
*

We now

118.
PRES. INDIC. PAST DEF.
*

to give,

dar.
damos,
;

I give, etc., doy, das, da ; I gave, etc., di, diste, dio

dais, dan.

dimos, disteis, dieron.

Excepting also the Singular (familiar form) of the Imperative, the final vowel of which is sometimes omitted. f A few Verbs ending in ir change the Vowel of the Stem in the Third Person of the Past Definite. These will be found ia the 23rd Lesson.

119.
PRES. INDIC.
I

to know,

saber.
;
;

know, etc., se, sabes, sabe sabemos, sabe'is, saben. I knew, etc., supe, snpiste, supo supimos, PAST DBF* supisteis, supieron FUTURE I shall know, etc., sabre*, sabrds, sabra sabremos, sabreis. IMPERATI 1 E know, etc., sabe, sEPa sepamos, sabed, sepan. [sabrani
;
;

to go, ir (to go away, irse). 120. PRES. PARTIO. going, yendo. PAST PARTIC. gone, ido. PRES. INDIC. I go, etc., voy, vas, va vamos, vais, van. IMPERFECT I used to go, etc., iBa, ibas, iba ibamos, ibais, iban.
,-

PAST DEF. IMPERATIVE

went,

etc.,

go, etc.,

Ve,

VAYa
*

fuf, fuiste,
;

fuE
'

fuimog, fuisteis, fueron.

vamos,

id,

vayan.

121.

yendo

Such phrases as I am going cannot be rendered by preceded by part of estar. The simple Tense of ir must be used, thus : Was be not going to speak ? i No iba el a hablar ?

122.
I

TO or AND,

if is

preceded by part of ir, and followed by


;

another Verb,

translated &.

am going to smoke, voy a fumar


2. I shall
5.

go and look for

it,

Vaya a buscarlo.
?

EXERCISE L
1. I gave did not go
;

not give

3.

will they

know
;

6. I

do you know do not give


;
.

4. 7.
;

he

they

10. going 11. 1 us go ; 9. I do not know 13. used they to kno\y ? 14. you used not to give go 15. do you go away ? 16. we do not give 17. do go away 19. go away (PLUR.) 18. know 20. Let not give (PLUR.) us give him this grammar. 21.The professor is giving a'lesson. 1 1 23. 22. Go (PLUR.) to his house the day after to-morrow. 24. We gave it to you last2 week. 2 25. Give it to us soon. 26. Do you know it ? Will your cousin not go to-night 3 ? 27. I do not know who has gone to buy them.

knew
;

8. let

12.

pasado manana

2 la semana pasada

past)

3=this night.

123.

to say, to
;

tell,

decir.
;

PAST PARTIC. said, dicho. PRES. PARTIC. saying, diciendo I say, etc., digo, dices, dice PRES. INDIC. decimos, decis, dicen. I said, etc., dije, dijiste, dijo ; PAST DEF. dijimos, dijisteis, dyeron. I shall say, etc., dire\ diras, dira FUTURE diremos, dir^is, dir&n. IMPERATIVE say, etc., dl, diga ; digamos, decid, digaru
;

124.

to see,

ver.
;

PBES. PARTIC. seeing, viendo ; PAST PARTIC. seen, visto ; I see, etc., veo, ves, ve PRES. INDIC. vemos, veis, ven. I used to see, etc., vEia, velas, vela IMPERFECT veiamos, veiais, veiah. IMPERATIVE see, etc., ve, vea veamos, ved, v'ean.
;

125.
PRES. INDIC.

to err,

errar

(very rarely employed).


;

IMPERATIVE
let

yerro, yerras, yerra ; erramos, errais, yerrari. err, etc., Yerra, yerre erremos, errad, yerren.

I err, etc.,

EXERCISE
1.

II.

4. shall 3. I do not see ; they said ; we not tell ? 5. they say 6. he used to see ; 7. we do not see ; 8. what is he saying ? 9. you saw 10. we have told 11. do not say 12. seeing 13. did we say ? 14. do not see 15. I do not say ; 16. Go and see who is in the garden. 17. Tell me whether you are tired. 18. He has told me nothing.

us see

2.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
The captain did not give anything to the sailors. 2. They told me that their clerk had no experience. 1 3. Let us tell them what2 we think. 4. I do not kno\y whether they 4 3 5. When I go into the country, I see go every day by rail.
1.

them. 6. Let us see who has gone home. 7. He does not understand what 2 they are saying. 8. I am going to explain it to him. 9. We are going to see our uncle. 10. Go and see who is at the door. 11. He used to know several languages, 5 but he has forgotten them. 12. Tell me when he will come back. 13. Why do they not tell us the truth 6 ? 14. Go home 15. If I see the man, I will your father wants to see you.
;

tell

17.

him what 2 you want. They used often to go


a chair
22.
?

16.

We

went
19.

to

London
18.

to the theatre. 8

our friends until 9 (the) evening. 10

Why
?

year/ never see do you not give

last

We

him

20.
I

Who

told her that

21. 1 tell

you

it is

true. 11

When
it.

saw him, he was going home.


never give
26.

23. I shall

soon know

24. I

station to-morrow.
1

Do
;

it to him. 25. I shall go to the not give it to him, but to me.


4

carril

experiencia ; 2 what-=that which is translated lo quc ; 3 ferro4=/o ; 5 idioma (MASC.) 6 verdad 7 el afio pasado ; 8 teatro ; 9 hasta ; 10 nocbe OEM.) ; \\=ztruth> verdad.
;
;

'

70

TWENTIETH LESSON.
126.
PAST PARTIC.
PRES. INDIC. PAST DEF.
to do, to make,
done, made, hecho.
I do, I make, etc., bago, haces, hace ; hacemos, hace'is, hacen. 1 did, J made, etc., hice, hiciste,bizo ; hicimos, hicisteis, hi-

nacer.

FUTURE
IMPERATIVE

I shall

do or make,

etc.,

do, make, etc., haz,

haga

hare\ haras, hara, etc. [cieron ; hagamos, haced, hagan.

127.
PAST PARTIC.
PRES. INDIC.
I

to put,
put, puesto.

poner.
; ;

put,

etc.,

pongo, pones, pone

PAST DEF.

FUTURE
IMPERATIVE

I put, etc., puse, pusiste, puso I shall put, etc., pondr, etc.

ponemos, pond's, pdhen, pusimos, pusisteis, pu[sieron

put,

etc.,

128.
PRES. INDIC,
I

ponga pongamos, poned, pongan. to be worth, valer.


pon,
;

FUTURE
IMPERATIVE

worth, etc., valgo, vales, vale valemos, valets, valen. be worth, etc., valdxe', etc. be worth, etc., val or vale, valga valgamos, valed, valgan.
;

am

I shall

1.

he would put
;
;

EXERCISE I. 2. I do not make


5.
8.

not put (PLUR.)


7.

am
we

worth

?
;

6.

4. do 3. let us do they are not worth


;
;

you have put


;

12. we do ; 13. did 11. putting let be worth ? 15. us I do not 1C., 14. ; you put put would it not be worth ? 17. Where shall we put them ? 18. Do not do it yet. 19. Put them in the corner. 20. Does he put his letters here ? 21. He used not to maKe them, 22. What have you done this morning ? 23. 1 am not doing any thing
10.
;

make they did not make


shall
;

9.

will it be

worth

IMPERSONAL VERBS.
129.
Impersonal Verbs have no person or thing as their subject, and are only used in the Third Person Singular as, it is growing dark, anochece it is raining, llueve it does not appear, no parece it thunders, truena
; :

Impersonal expressions are frequently constructed with liacer, ser, and other Verbs.' Note the following it is cold, hace frio it is windy, hace viento it is hot, hace oalor it is certain, es cierto; it is true, es verdad it is necessary, es menester
;
; ;

130.

All such phrases can of course be vised in any Tense, negatively and interrogatively, thus : will it be windy ? i hard viento ? it was not true, no. era verdad ; is it not cold ? i no hace frio ?

71
13J.

THERE is, ARE, WAS, WERE, WILL BE, WOULD BE, etc., are translated by the Third Person Singular of haber ; but in is used instead of ha. the Present Tense, Examples

hay

there is, there are, hay is there ? are there 1 i hay ? will there be 1 i habra ?

there is not, there are not, is there not ? are there not 1 there was or were not, no

no hay i no hay ?
habia

there would be a great many men there, habria alii muchos there is no ink or there is not any ink, no hay tinta there will not have been time, no habra habido tiempo

hombres

NOTE.

hay simply expresses EXISTENCE.


alii

If

OUT

esta

(there

is),

or alii

estan

(there are)

anything has to be POINTED is employed.


is

132.

If

SOME, ANY (not followed by a Noun), or NONE,

preceded by
IT or

THERE

THEM.

WAS, WILL BE, etc., Examples :


is,
if

it is

translated like

We shall

buy some cakes,

there are

Compraremos algunos pasteles, si los

{none. any. I looked for some inkj but there was

Busque

tinta,

hay. pero no la habia.


:

133.
*

AGO

is

translated

hace
;

(or

h*),

thus

a month ago,

hace un mes

three years ago,


as,

hace tres auos

ha can

only be used at the end of the sentence ; a long time ago, mucho

tiempo ha

EXERCISE
1.

II.
;

there

twenty years ago is no difficulty ;


?

2. it

would be worth more


;

3.

weather] hot
train ?
8.

will

it
;

5. was* it [the your hat. 6. there was* no chair 7. was* there a 10. there not be worth ? 9. an hour ago 4. there is
;

are our cousins

not certain ? 12. will it be windy ? 14. it is not hot to-day ; 13. there will not be enough bread 16. is it [the weather] cold ? 17. 15. there was* no mistake was* it not worth more ? 18. is there [any] water ? 19. there
11. is
it
;

is

the station

20. six

months ago

21.

He wanted* [some]

money, but he had* none.


134.
it

mucho

(much)

is

used with

VERBS and NOUNS.

was very hot=it made much heat hacia mucho calor it is not very windy=it does not make much wind, no hace mucho viento no me ha lastimado mucho Jie has not hurt me much * Use the Imperfect in all these cases, see Note on page 44.

(very)~is used with ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES, and with Past Participles used as ADJECTIVES.! Examples : Are you much hurt 7 i Esta Vd. muy lastimado ? The window was not much broken. La ventana no estaba muy rota. The prince is much beloved. El principe es muy amado. fi.e., when the Past Participle is preceded by part of ser or estar.

136.

muy

i I

m-ucho

is

used instead of muy when the Participle or Adjective PRECEDES

they are celebrated, but not very,

son celebrados, pero no mucho


as

136.

tan (see par. 49) follows the same Rules tanto the same Rules as mucho as,
;

muyyand

it is
it is

not so certain as cold=it makes as

no 63 tan segUTO
much
cold

hace tanto

frio
:

137.

Adjectives qualified by
it is

muy follow the Noun, thqs


una buena pluma una pluma muy buena
III.

a. good

BUT

it is

es pen a very good pen es

EXERCISE
1.

much esteemed 2. are you (FEM.) fatigued 1 ? not very 3. a bad boy ; 4. a very bad boy ; 5. is it as windy as [it was] yesterday ? 6. I am not so satisfied as you 7. a 2 3 8. It will be very cold ; 9. Was very celebrated painter 4 it not very hot ? 11. Is 10. He was not much applauded the queen much loved ? 12. I have not so much money. 13. He was as much hated 5 as his father.
they are
; ;

1 fatigar

2 celebre

3 pintor

4 aplaiidir

5 odiar.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. Do me the favor to wait a little. 2. Is this picture 1. worth as much as the other ? 3. There were several 2 children who were making [a] noise. 4. Put [some] wine on the
1

table.

6. I shall do it to5. I hope it will not be so windy. b 3 morrow, if I have time. 7. This beautiful f urniture was 8. He will put some flowers in made a hundred years ago. the window. 9. The king is not so much esteemed as the

11. I 10. I believe it will be very hot to-morrow. queen. 3 4 12. There is no room to put them in the box a week ago. There is ths 14. it ? hats, 13. Have here our you put put

78
stick
it to him. 15. There will not be enough time to4 ; give do it. 16. I never do it. 17. There was one picture which was very much admired 5 18. Those are the pictures that were so much admired. 19. The travellers 6 were (IMPERP.) 20. I have not put anything in the tired, but not very. boxes. 21. What is he putting inside 7 the drawer ? 22. Why does he not do his work ? 23. I put it there now.
.

favor

2 varies

sitio

4 para

5 admirar

6 viajero

7 dentro de.

TWENTY-FIRST LESSON.
138.
to be willing to, to like or wish to, to like to have,
1 wish, I

querer.

PRES, INDIC.

PAST DEF.

FUTURE
IMPERATIVE

willing, etc., quiero, quieres, quiere ; quere[mos, quisisteis, quisieron. mps, quere*is, quieren. I wished, I was willing, etc., quise, quisiste, quiso quisiI shall wish, I shall be willing, etc., querre*, etc.
;

am

wish,

etc.,

quiere, quiera

queramos, quered, quieran.


;

TO BE WILLING TO is translated by querer as. Will you lend me your umbrella 1 1 Quiere Vd. prestarme su paraguas?
in the sense of

WILL

139.

to be able to,

poder.
;

PRES. PARTIC. being able, pudiendo. PRES. INDIC. I can, I am able to, etc., puedo, puedes, puede podemos, [pudisteis, pudieron. pode*is, pueden. PAST DEP. t could, I was able to, etc., pude, pudiste, pudo pudimos, FUTURE I shall be able to, etc. t poctre*, etc.
;

140.

CAN (and sometimes MAY)

is

translated

by the Present

Tense of

poder

as,
I

We cannot see
May
141.
I

the light.
?

No podemos
i

ver la luz.

speak to you
is

Puedo hablarle a Vd. ?

COULD

translated by the Past of


|
f

poder

Could you find the house ? They could not come yesterday,

No pudieron venir

Pudo Vd.

fcallar la

casa

ayer.

COULD=SHOULD
of

poder

or WOULD BE ABLE TO is rendered by the Conditional they could come to-morrow, podriazf* venir manana.
etc.,

When

CAN, COULD, SHALL BE ABLE,

referjJo

an accomplishment

that has to be ACQUIRED,

saber is usually employed instead of poder. I cannot paint, No se pintar. Can you swim ? i Sabe Vd. nadar ? They could not (=s*lid not know how to) write, No sabian escribir.

74

EXERCISE
1.
;

I.

do not want to 3. was he able to ? i. we liking shall not be willing to ; 5. can he ? 6. wilj they not like.to.? 7. were you willing to ? 8. we could (== were able to) 9. we could (= should be able to) 10. being able to 11. do you 12. I used to be able to 13. we do (PLUR.) not wish to ? not wish to 14. he will not be able to 15. would she like to ? 16. may we ? 17. you cannot 18. they used to like to 19. will you ? 20. would she not be able to ? 21 we cannot i 22. You cannot doubt it. 23. 1 was not able to arrive in time* 24. He could not speak Spanish. 25. Can't the child read ?;'
2. I
;

TRANSLATION OF "TO" BEFORE AN INFINITIVE.


The second
Infinitive*
I
;

of

two Verbs coming together must be in the


I

as,

am
*

Do

beginning to understand it. not forget to send them to us.

Empiezo a comprenderlo.

No
'

olvide Vd. de enviafnoslos,

The Auxiliaries

be and to have are immediately followed by a but this Rule is otherwise invariable. Participle
c

to

'

'

TO before an
It is

meaning IN ORDER
I shall

Infinitive is generally translated de, unless TO, when it is rendered by para.

time to- begin. not refuse to give it to him. That gentleman was waiting (in order) to see you. He said it to prove I had made a
mistake.

Es tiempo de em^ezar. No rehusare de darselo.


caballero estaba esperando para verle. Lo dijo para probar que me habia equivocado. I Ha traido los cuadros para. venderselos a Vd. ?
certain

Ese

Did he bring the pictures to

sell

them

to

you
is

143.

TO

translated

after
:

Verbs,

of

which the

principal are the following


to authorize, autorizar to begin, empezar to

to continue,

ar

contin lifconvidar

to learn, aprender to persuade, persuadir

to invitar, to teacb, ensenar invite, Also Verbs of MOTION, such as : to run, correr to go out, salir (IEREG.) to walk, andar (IRREQ.) to come back, volver (IRREG.) ; to come, venir (IRREG.),
; ;

commence, comenzar

The

ladies

I shall teach

began to sing. him to write.

Las senoras empezaron dcantar. Le ensenare a escribir.


Corrio a ver quien estaba
to all
alii.
as,

He

ran to see

who was

there.

NOTE.

Paragraphs 121 and 122 apply

Verbs of MOTION

He

is

coming

to see

me

to-night.

Viene a verme eeta noche.

75
TO is not translated at all after certain Verbs, of which the principal are the following : to make, hacer to be able, poder

144.

to allow, to

let,

dejar

to_aj)pear, parecer "todesire, to want, desear

to order, to command, to owe (must, ought), deber to permit, permitir

mandar
to>

to fear, to feel,

temer
sentir

please

= have the kindness


(see par. 160.)

ser-

virse

to hear, oir to hope, esperar to intend, intentar to know (how to), saber

to promise, to see, ver

prometer
querer

to be willing, etc.,

EXAMPLES.

Was

he not able to understand you They want to speak to us.


Please walk in.

No pudo comprenderle Desean hablarnos.

Sirvase Vd. entrar.


it

He

promised to bring

to

me.

Prometi6 traermelo.
II.

EXERCISE
1.

have invited them to dine with Us. 2. It began to3. I cannot answer. 4. Will you give -me your card ? rain. 5. I wrote to him yesterday to tell him you had arrived.
1

We

7. It appears to be She did not intend at them. look to impossible. has brought the letter home to read it. 10. 1 used to teach my b childrenb to a swim. 3a 11. Do me the favor to give me a glass

6.

We

went

to see
8.

your uncle yesterday.

He

of water.

12.

Leave

off
;

4 (PLUR.) talking (=cease to speak).


\

1 tarjeta

2 imposible

3 nadar

*"
;

4=

cesar,

145.

Deber

used

before
of)

another Verb expresses DUTY, or

(a certain

amount
(or

COMPULSION.
expresses a stronger degree of Spanish Verbs Simplified/ page 93.

Tener que
compulsion,
see

haber de)
'

Hugo's

MUST (or HAVE TO) is rendered by the PRESENT TENSE deber, or by tener que, haber do, thus I must speak to them. Debo hablarles.
:

of

have

to speafc to to)

the..
{

Must you (0?- are you

copy this letter

g Debe SStSff^
?

Vd.. copiar esta

carta ?

76
These expressions can be used with the same meaning in other Tenses, tlius:^' The servant will have to fill it. El criado tendra que (or habra de)
llenarlo. b [bajar? L Would they not have to work ? I No tendrian que (or habrian de de) tra1 shall have to sell them=the right thing , , , . debere venderlos for me to do will be to sell them|
|

146.

OUGHT

is

rendered by the CONDITIONAL of


.

deber.

Subjunctive is generally employed in preference to the Conditional Indicative but either is7 correct.

In such

cases, the Conditional

You ought to sell them to him. The children ought not to make so much noise, f

Vd. debiera

(better than deberia) venderselos. [ruido. Lo$ nines' no debieran hacer tanto

1.

We must go home.
6.

EXERCISE III. 2. You ought not

to

do

that.

3.

will have to wait until (the) evening. 4. work have you to do ? 5. They had to start without

You

How much
buying

their tickets.

Must you copy


to

it ?

7.

He

has several

things to do.
as you.
9.

8.

We

should not have to pay so

much money

They ought not

smoke

so

much.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
1 ought to obey the officer, but they do not will do it. 2. you not show me the picture ? Why always 4. Will you tell him your 3. I do not like to put it here. name ? 5. I cannot lend you this book it is not mine. & 7. I must teach him to speak more He had nothing to do. 2 We able 9. We 8. were to finish 3 it yesterday. correctly. 10. They have not been able to could finish it to-morrow.

1.

The

soldiers

them yet. 11. We (have) said it to persuade 4 him. 5 12. They wanted to learn to speak Spanish. 13. Run and see who is at the door. 14. We could not wait to see him we had to go away. 15. He wanted to keep all the money for himself. 16. He will not like to come back without receiving 17. You ought to give me more time. 18. Could a reply. 6
find
;

the lawyer understand

19.

We

to-morrow.

20.

He

wrote

.to

me

6 expect to receive a reply to say he had made a.

77'

mistake.

21.
22.

Would you be

able to send us the goods


23. 1

them to him, to show7 him that I am not offended. 8 9 10 25. Cannot your friend 24. You must not sing so loud. invite them to dine ? ? not to 26. German you Ought speak 11 as well as you ? 28. I 27. When shall I be able to draw
cannot play 12 the piano. 13
2 correctamente ; 3 acabar 5 correr1 obcdecer 4 persnadir 8 ofendido ; 9 cantar 6 resptiesta 7 demostrar (demonstrate) 10 alto lldibujar \2=touch (tocar) 13 piano. (high)
; : ; ; ;

to-day to give

We must ask our master now.

am

going

TWENTY-SECOND LESSON.
/to come, venir. 147. FEES. PARTIC. coming, viniendo. I come, etc., vengo, vienes, viene venimos, venis, vienen. PRES. INDIC. 'I came, etc., vine, viniste, vino PAST DEF. vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron. I shall come, etc., vendre", etc. FUTURE IMPERATIVE come, etc., ven, venga vengamos, venid, vengan. * ; to 148. go out, salir . I go out, etc., salgo, sales, sale PRES. INDIC, salimos, sails, salen. I shall go out, etc., saldre", etc. FUTURE IMPERATIVE go out, etc., sal, saiga salgaraos, salid, salgan.
; ; ;
;

149.
PAST DBF.
I

to walk, andar. walked, etc., anduve, anduviste, anduvo auduvisteis, anduvieron.

anduvimos,

to hear, oir. PAST PARTIC. beard, oido. PRES. PARTIC. hearing, oyendo.' I hear, etc., oigo, oycs, oye PRES. INDIC. olmos* ois, oyen. I beard, etc., oi, oiste, oy6 PAST DEF. oiraos, oisteis, oyeron. IMPERATIVE hear, etc., oye, oiga oigamos, old, oigan.
;

150.

EXERCISE
1. I
;

I.

4. you 3. did they walk ? hear ; 2. do not come 7. we used will not go out ; 5. they will come ; 6. I came 10. did we hear ? 11. do to walk ; 8. gone out ; 9. coming 14. do 13. I do not come not let us go out ; 12. walking 16. you will 15. they did not hear ; you (PLUR.) come ?
; ;
;

"conjugated like

valeh

78
"hear
18. we used to come 19. let us hear ; go out ? 21. do we come ? 22. I should come 23. do not go out (PLUR.) now. 24. I have come to see you. 25. He has heard me speak. 26. He walked very 1 27. I am going out to see the town. 28. We shall quickly. come next 2 week. 2 29. He heard me perfectly, 3 because I
;

17.

hearing

20. does she not


;

4 30. I am coming to explain it to you. spoke slowJy. 6 5 what to hear is being said. 32. The noise is not Try 7 often heard from here.

31.

1 deprisa ; 2=the week which comes ; 3 perfectamente ; 4 despacio 5 tratar ; G lo que (WHAT is translated lo que when Kelative) ; 7 desde.

151.
PRES. INDIC. PAST DEF.

to bring,

traer.

I bring, etc., traigo, traes, trae ; traemos, trae*is, traen. I brought, etc., traje, trajiste, trajo ; trajimos, trajisteis, tra-

IMPERATIVE

bring, etc., trae, traiga

traigamos, traed, traigan.

[jeron.

152.
PRES. INDIC.

to
fall, etc., cae,

fall,

caer.
caemos, cadis, caeD. caigamos, caed, caigan.
;

I fall, etc., caigo, caes. cae

IMPERATIVE

caiga

153.
PRES. INDIC. PAST DEF.

to be able to be contained,
;

caber.*

quepo, cabes, cabe cabemos, cabe'is, caben. cupe, cupiste, cupo cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron.
,

FUTURE
IMPERATIVE
%

cabre, etc.
;

cabe, quepa quepamos, cabed, quepan. *The following examples show how this difficult Verb is employed This room used to hold all his fumiture=AH his furniture was able to be contained in this room. Todos sus muebles cabian en este cuarto. There is room for me here=I am able to be contained here. Quepo aqui.
:

154.
PRES. iNDiq.

toplay,jug*ar.
I play, etc., juego, juegas,

juega

IMPERATIVE
15fx,

play, etc., juega,

juegue

jugamos, jugais, juegan. juguemos, jugad, jueguen.


;

following Verbs have irregular Past Participles : INFINITIVE. PAST PARTICIPLE PAST PARTICIPLE. to print, imprimir absuelto to absolve, absolver impreso to resolve, resolver resuelto cubierto to cover, cubrir to volver come disuelto vuelto to dissolve, disolver back, return,

The

INFINITIVE.

to open, abrir

abierto

to write, escribir

escrito

These eight Verbs are otherwise quite Kegular, except those ending in OLVER, which are conjugated Jike mover (see paragraph 108).

REMARK.

79

156.

Spanish Verbs have a regular and an irregular form the Past Participle. The Irregular Form, however, is generally used as an Adjective only, the Regular Form being employed in the Compound Tenses. For complete list, see

Many

for

to join,

Hugo's Spanish Verbs Simplified,' pages 62 to 64. we have joined them, los hemos juntado juntar it is not joined, no esta junto or junta
.

EXERCISE
1.

II.
;

do you not play ? 3. I used to write 4. have they opened ? 5. we do not bring 6. do not bring (PLUR.) 7. it is able to be contained 8. they were not able to be contained 9. we have not printed 10. do not fall 11. you have not brought 12. it is covered 13. hasn't he come back yet ? 14. let us print- it 15. I do not open them 16. it will not be able to be contained ; 17. I have brought; 18. I do not bring 19. you will fall 20. do not play 1 21. cover them 22. I fall 23. There is room for all the I expect in it me now. this box to 25. 24. money Bring It is 26. Will you open the window ? they will fall. 1 already open(ed). 27. There is not room for me in .this 2 28. Every kind 2 of foreign books printed here. carriage. 30. Why do 29. Bring us the answer as 5 soon as possible. 3 4 4 you not put your hat on ?
;

we play
;

2.

use caber

2=all

class

3 lo antes posible

4 cover yourself.

SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.


157.
MOST (meaning VERY, EXTREMELY) can be expressed by

islmo (-ma, -mos, -mas) to the Adjective, omitting the final vowel. Adverbs can be formed by affixing mente to the Feminine Singular of the Superlative. facilisimamente very difficult dificilisimo very easily rarisimo very rare very rarely rarisimamente
affixing
I j

The
and z

termination

ble

is

changed to bil, CO to qu,


very very very very
noble

go

to

gu,

to c, thus : noble noble noblemente nobly


bitter

nobilisimo

nobly
bitter

nobilisimamente

amargo
ricamente

amarguisimo
riquisimamente

richly

richly

80
158.

The most important


celebrated
faithful

Irregular Superlatives are as follow


very very very very very very
celebrated
faithful

celebre
fiel

celebemmo
fidelisimo

good

new
strong wise

bueno nuevo
fuerte sabio

good

new
strong wise

bonisimo novisimo
fortisimo sapientisimo

Many Adjectives, such as those of more than three syllables ending in ble, cannot take the isimo termination, which is given here for Reference only. The Student should employ muy, except in the following Exercise.

EXERCISE
1.
;

III. (on the


;

isimo Termination).
;
;

1 most certainly 2. extremely happy (MASC. SING.) 1 3. very happily 4. most rare (MASC. PLUR.) 5. extremely good (PEM. PLUR.) ; 6. most honorable 2 (MASC. PLUR.) 7. with very much pleasure 3 8. My dogs are most faithful. 9. These children are extremely good. 10. His answer is extremely useful. 11. It is an extremely easy [piece of] work.
;
;

raro

2 honorable

3 gusto.

1.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. Bring them to me as soon as possible


1

1
.

2.

He

never

4. You comes very early. 3. We ought to give it to him. 2 2 ought to wait a little. 5. He will not come back before six 3 month. 3 o'clock. 6. They came back last 7. We shall 4 4 come back to-morrow morning. 8. We shall have to open all the windows at 5 once. 5 10. There 9. Open the drawers.

room6 for the things in this box. 11. I hope they come back soon. 12. He will have to bring it to me tomorrow4 morning. 4 13. At what time will the carriage come back ? 14. I have to go out to buy several things. 15. Why do you walk so slowly ? 16. I hope they will come to see us
will be will

next 7 week. 7 17. It is almost impossible to hear the noise. 19. The train 18. The children are playing downstairs. 8 20. He never brings them always leaves at half past eight.
early
1

enough.*
:

na

lo antes posible 2 volver 3 el mes pasado ; 4 manana por la mana5 enseguida ; 6 use caber ; 7 the week which is~cominy ; 8 goes out.
;

81

TWENTY-THIRD LESSON.
(The Verbs in
this

takes the Stress, like those in Lesson 18

Lesson change the Vowel of the Stem whenever it but their PRESENT PARTICIPLE,
;

PAST DEFINITE (3rd Person), and PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE and IMPERATIVE (1st Person Plural), contain a further irregularity in the Vowel
of the~STEM.

For complete

list,

see

Hugo's Spanish Verbs

Simplified.'

159.
PRES. PARTIC, PRES. INDIC.

to ask, to request,

pedir.
;

PAST DEF. IMPERATIVE PRES. SUBJUNC.

asking, pidiendo. I ask, etc., pido, pides, pide pedimos, pedis, piden. I asked, etc., pedi, pediste, pidid ; pedimos, pedlsteis, piask, etc., pide, pida pidamos, pedid, pidan. [dieron. I ask, etc., pida, pidas, pida ; pidamos, pidais, pidan.
;

160.

The

principal Verbs conjugated like


to follow, seguir to laugh, reir

pedir

are as follow

to choose, elegir to clothe, vestir to correct, corregir to dye, tenir

to measure, medir to prevent, impedir

to repeat, repetir to rule, regir to serve, servir to smile, sonreir

In Verbs conjugated like pedir, the UNACCENTED i of the termination omitted after i or n, thus laughing, riendo he laughed, rio dyeing, we used tifiendo they dyed, tineron BUT he used to laugh, reia
is
:
;

to dye,

teniamos,

etc.

EXERCISE
1.
;

I.
;

3. will he laugh ? you asked ; 2. we did not repeat 4. do not choose (PLUR.) 6. you used to laugh 5. smiling 7. do you not rule ? 9. It is not known 8. we follow whether he can prevent it. 10. Why are you laughing ? 11. Do not laugh. 12. Follow us.
;

161.
PRES. PARTIC. PRES. INDIC.

to

feel,

to be sorry,

sentir.
;

PAST DEF. IMPERATIVE

feeling, sintiendo. I feel, etc., siento, sientes, siente I felt, etc., sentl, sentiste, sinti6
feel, etc., siente,
feel, etc.,

sentimos, sentis, sienten.


sentiraos, sentisteis, sin-

PRES. SUBJUNC. I

sintamos, sentid, sientan. [tieron. sienta, sientas, sienta; sintamos, sintais, sientan

sienta

162.

The

principal Verbs conjugated like


to (tell a)
to prefer,
lie,

sentir

are as follow

to consent, consentir to defer, diferir

mentir

preferir

to divert, divertir

to repent,

arrepentirse

to require, requerir to suggest, sugerir to wound, herir

H.S.S. 6.

82

EXERCISE
1.
;

II.
;

did he consent ? 2. I did not suggest 3. what did you 1 6. suggest ? 4. we did not wound 5. they will consent also Do not defer it. 7. Which of the two do you prefer ? 8. Used he not to tell lies ? 9. He isb now* repenting. 10. Did you not feel the blow 2 ? 11. Let us repent. 12. We 3 are
;

very sorry for


1

it.

13. I

am
;

very sorry
it

-[to]
;

disturb 4 you.

tambie'n

2 golpe

3=wefeel

much

4 molestar.

163.
PRES. PARTIC. PRES. INDIC. PAST DEF.

to die, dying, muriendo.

morir.
PAST PARTIC.
died,

muerto.

1 die, etc., muero, mueres, muere; I died, etc., morl, moriste, muri6 ;

morimos, moris, mueren morimos, moristeis, mu-

IMPERATIVE
PRES. SUBJUNC.

die, etc., muere, muera ; muramos, morid, mueran. [rieron. 1 die, etc., muera, mueras, muera ; muramos, murais,

mueran.

164.
lar

dormir,
;

to

sleep, is

conjugated exactly like

morir,
is

except that

PAST PARTICIPLE (slept, dormido) dormirse means to fall asleep, go to sleep.


its

regu-

165.

Irregular Verbs and their


alike.

compounds are usually conjuis

gated

Examples

suponer (to suppose) convenir (to agree) contrahacer (to counterfeit)


*

conjugated like

poner
venir hacer*

satisfacer (to

Familiar
dict

Form

but the Singular satisfy) is also conjugated like hacer of the Imperative is sometimes regular (satisface).
;

All the Compounds of decir (contradecir, to contrapredecir, to predict, etc.) take dice instead of di in the Singular Familiar Form of the Imperative, thus contradice. The Past Participle and the Future Stem of the Compounds of decir are regular.

EXCEPTIONS.

EXERCISE
1.

III.
;

he will contradict
;

2.

don't go to sleep
;

3.
;

we sleep

;
;

4.

7. I slept 6. dying they did not agree to not used die 9. would 8. you sleep ? 10. you (PLUR.) ; had he supposed ? 11. do not let us'counterfeit 12. He died 5 4 rather 1 young. 2 13. Do you ever 3 sleep in the afternoon r 6 14. Are the children not sleeping ? 15. I suppose so.

they died

5.

1 algo

2 joven

3 alguna vez

4 por

5 tarde (FEM.)

6=that yes.

83

THE FAMILIAR FORM.


is used by Spaniards in addressing near relations, intimate friends, children, servants, and animals. A knowledge of this form of address is therefore essential, as it is of frequent occurrence in books but FOREIGNERS SHOULD NOT EMPLOY THE FAMILIAR FORM. Its formation has been explained in previous lessons.
;

The Second Person of Verbs and Pronouns

EXERCISE IV. (on the FAMILIAR FORM) 4. do buy (SING.) 2. fear (PLUR.) ; 3. thou findest you owe ? 5. thou dost not fear 6. you used to send ;
1.
;
;

8. thou wouldst not do 7. thou wilt break 9. you have come 10. art thou (FEM.) ready ? 11. hast thou not put ? 14. write (PLUR.) 15. 12. what hast thou ? 13. you went 16. are you willing to come ? 17. you are you listening ?
;

will not have

18.

show

(SING.)
?

it

to

me

thou hadst not 19. had you waited ? 20. 21. do (PLtJR.) it ; 22. art thou not
; ;

English

23.

you are not workmen.

166.

The Familiar Form of the Imperative cannot be used in the negative. The Present Subjunctive* (see Paragraph 78) is employed instead, thus :
speak (SING.), habla drink (PLUR.), bebed
I

do not speak (SING.), no hables do not drink (PLUR.), no bebais

167.
wash

When
yourselves,

Familiar

Form

the Reflective Pronoun OS is added to the Plural of the Imperative, the final d is omitted,t thus :

lavaos (not lavados)

rejoice,

alegraos (not alegrados)

EXERCISE V. (on the FAMILIAR FORM)


3. write (SING.) 2. do not take (PLUR.) 1. take (PLUR.) 5. go away (SING.) do not write (SING.) 6. go away 7. speak to me (SING.) ; 8. do not speak (SING.) to (PLUR.) 11. 10. do not tire yourselves 9. do not tire yourself us learn (PLUR.) 12. do not learn (PLUR.). 13. Buy (SING.) this
;

4.

watch. 14. Do not sell (SING.) this watch. 15. Lend (PLUR.) me your umbrella. 16. Do not read the letter. 17. Read it (P.).
*

The

Polite

Form
is

is

really the Subjunctive used as

an Imperative,

t The only exception

irse (to go away), the Plur, Impera, of which is idos.

S4

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. me [for] five shillings. 2. I shall give them to him this evening. 3. Show me what you have chosen. 2 5. When I arrived, the children 4. Please take [a] seat.
1.

He

asked

7. Repeat -6. 1 shall ask him [for] something. 9. He never corrects us Will you follow me ? when we make a mistake. 10. Please 1 (PLUR.) wait a little. 11. One of the two has been4 telling lies, 4 but I don't know which. 12. 1 find 5 it extremely difficult. 13. He is very sorry 14. When did he die ? he will not be able to come to-night. 6 15. Please tell me the exact time. 16. 1 cannot tell you (it) ;

were
it.

asleep.

8.

17. I am very sorry for (=1 feel much) Don't make any noise ; they are both8 3 19. 1 suppose they will arrive soon. 20. Repeat what asleep. 9 you (have) said. 21. He consented at once. 22. They laughed when we told them that. 23. He prevented us from 10seeing it.

my watch isn't going. 7


that accident.
18.

2 asiento 3 dormido (or durmiendo) 1 Imperative o/servirse 6 encontrar ; 6 exacto ; 7 andar ; 8 ambos ; 9 reirse ; 10 de.
; ;

4 lied

TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON.
168.
Verbs ending in acer,* ecer, OC6IS* or ucir, change
the

into

ZC

before

A or O.

to
PRES. 1NDIC.

know
I

(to be acquainted with), conocer. know, etc., conozco, conoces, conoce conocemos,
;

etc.

IMPERATIVE

know, etc., conoce, conozca; conozcamos, conoced, nozcan.


in

co-

169.

The Verbs ending

ducir

are also irregular in the

Stem

of the Past Definite. to translate,


PRES. INDIC.

traduclr.

IMPERATIVE
PAST DEF.

I translate, etc., traduzco, traduces, traduce ; traducimos, etc. translate, etc., traduce, traduzca ; traduzcamos, traducid,

traduzcan.
I

translated, etc., traduje, tradujiste, tradujo


tradujisteis, tradujerou.

tradujimos,

*Except hacer and its Compounds, and cocer (to cook), which is conjucocemos, coc&s, cuecen). gated like mover (cuezo, cueces, cuece
;

85

EXERCISE
4.

I.
?
;

grow do they cook 3 ? 6 7. they were born 10. do I not cook 3 ? 3 you to cook ? 14.
1.
;

2.

does he not grow 1 5. I do not know4


;

3. it
6.
;

did not shine1 ; do not recognize 5 ;


;

8.

we produced7
!

11. shine 2

ns translate 8 ; 12. they deducted9 13. used


9. let
?

When

were you born6 (PAST DBF.)

15.

10 appear to be tired ? 16. They will translate 8 this letter in half [an] hour. 17. I do not know4 the price. 18. Do 4 know this you gentleman ? 19. I do not recognize 5 him.

Do

crecer
;

nacer

7 producir

2 lucir 3 cocer 4 conocer 5 reconocer 8 traducir ; 9 ded'ucir ; 10 parecer .


; ; ;

to be born,

170. Verbs ending


example
PEES. INDIC.
:

in

uir* are conjugated like the following to destroy, destruir.


destruyo, destruyes, destniye
;
;

I destroy, etc.,

destruimos,

destruls, destruyen.

IMPERATIVE

destroy, etc., destruye, destruya

destruyamos, destruid,

destruyan.

EXERCISE
1.

II.

do you distribute 1
; ;

/2.

they
;

fled 2

3.

following

3
;

4. I
;

3 do not attribute 4 5. I follow 3 6. we did not follow 6 5 7. you will destroy 8. would you (PLIJR.) not distinguish ? 8 7 1 10. you used not to distribute 9. I argue 11. Please follow 3 them. 12. Do not destroy 5 these documents.
;
;

distribuir
;

6 distinguir

2 huir 7 argiiir

3 seguir (see Par. 160) 4 atribuir 8 servirse (see Pars. 144, 160).
;

5 destruir

THE INTERJECTIONS.
171.
I
i
I

The
i
l

principal Interjections are

ah ay

oh oh
!
i

!
!

OHj OH
!

(denoting grief) (denoting pain)


!

i
i

ha
ho
o
!

!
!

he
!

AH
!

(denoting joy)
!

hola
!

chito

chiton
!

SILENCE
!

i I

hombre
i

I
I

cuidado TAKE CARE ! INDEED die veras ea animo WELL COME ON


!

Oh
!

HI HULLO DEAR ME OH (denoting


! !

sur-

prise)
f*
i

ojald

WOULD TO GOD

*This form of conjugation only applies to Verbs where the u is pronounced $ not to such as distinguir (to distioguigh).

SI

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


Write out the four Tenses of the Subjunctive Mood (see paragraphs 78, 79).
of the following

Verbs

EXERCISE
1.
;
;

III.
; ;

tener, to have ; 2. haber, to have 3. ser, to be 4. 6. beber, to drink 5. tomar, to take 7. estar, to be 8. to escribir, to write dar, give (paragraph 118) 10. venir, to come (par. 147) 9. ver, to see (par. 124) 12. ir, to go (par. 120) 11. poder, to be able to (par. 139) 14. morir, to die (par. 163). 13. decir,to say (par. 123)
;

TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON.
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS ON THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
The employment of this mood is largely a matter of taste. The and even when the SubIndicative would sometimes be equally correct junctive ought to be employed, the omission to do so seldom destroys or The proper use of the Subjunctive is alters the meaning of the sentence. a GRAMMATICAL NICETY, which foreigners need not study too deeply.
;

The second of two Verbs connected by que must be put in the Subjunctive under certain conditions, explained in Paragraphs 172 to 190, NO MATTER WHAT THE ENGLISH WORDING JS ; and if the second Verb in English is not preceded by ' that,' the alteration in construction must be made before translating, thus : INTO CHANGE

We deny their hav- We deny


ing said that. It is impossible for

that they have said that.


it.

Negamos que hayan


eso.

diclio

It is impossible that

him

Es imposible que lo haga.

to

do

it.

he [should] do
It is not fair that

It is not fair for us

we

No

es justo que los guarsentence.

to keep them.

[should] keep them

demos.

The

Hhat' is called the DEPENDENT EXAMPLES OP and DEPENDENT SENTENCES. PRINCIPAL SENTENCES
sentence following

it is

am

necessary (es menester) that he should read it (que lo lea) that they are aiot here (que no esten aqui) sorry (Siento)
'

<gT If the Subject of the Verb in the dependent sentence would be the same as in the principal sentence, the Infinitive, a
(simpler construction, is

employed in preference, thus

87

} I I

am am

have met you. very pleased very pleased that I have met you. J
to
)

Negamos haber dicho eso. Me alegro mucho de haberle


encontrado.

EMPLOYMENT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD,


The Subjunctive is used after most Verbs expressing MENTAL ACTION OB EMOTION. Examples We cannot allow you to keep it No podemos dejar que Vd.
172.
i

(=allow that you keep it). want them to tell me (= I wish


that they
tell it to

lo guarde. Quiero que me lo digan.


I.

me).

EXERCISE
1.

2. They want you to want 4. She us to keep it. They accept wants us to stay 2 there. 5. We do not want them to hear 7. What does he us. 6. Do you want me to shut the door ? want me to do ? 8. They want us to pay the bill at3 once. 3

Does he want her


1

to read it* ?

this.

3.

will not

1 aceptar ; 2 quedarse (to stay, to remain) ; 3 enseguida. ' * Translate Does he want that she read it ? and use the same construction (desear, followed by que and the Subjunctive) throughout the above Exercise. In all cases where the Subjunctive Mood is required in this Lesson, the PBESENT Subjunctive is to be employed.
' :

173.

The Subjunctive is used after most IMPEKSONAL VERBS and


Examples
:

expressions.

It is necessary for us to give it to them (=that we give it to them).


Is
it right that the prisoners [should] be punished ? It is. better that we [should] send the answer by post.

Es menester que
castigados
?

se lo demos.

Esjusto que los presos sean

Es mejor que enviemos


respuesta por el correo.

la

EXERCISE II
not necessary 1 for him to pay us (=^ that he pay 3 2 us) much. 2. It is necessary that he [should] start directly. 4 4 4. We are sorry that 3. It is possible that the money is his. he has not found us. 5. She is 5 afraid 5 he will come. 6. Is it necessary for us to write to them ? or, that we [should] write to them ? 7. Do you wish 6 me to open the windows ? 8. Does
1. It is

he wish6 us
1 necesario
;

to

put

it

here

2salir(seepr.

H8)

Sal instante

4 sentir

5 fears

6 querer

8S

The Subjunctive is used after certain CONJUNCTIONS, of which the principal are : after, despnes que before, antes que unless, a menos quo in order that,a fin de que, para que until, hasta que when, cuando. EXAMPLES nntil he arrives hasta que llegue jefore he telegraphs antes que telegrafie when they send (at some future time) cuando envien
174.
;
; ;
;

Cuando

is

only followed by the Subjunctive

when

it is

not
:

Interrogative, and refers to the future, thus : When I have time, I shall do it. Cuando teng A tiempo, lo har6. BUT When [ever] I have time, I do it. Cuando tengo tiempo, lo'hago. I used to do it when I had time. Lo haoia, cuando tenia tiemp6.
1 did
it

when

had time.

Lo

hice cuando tuve tiempo.


III.

EXERCISE
1. after

in order that it [may] not 4. When I cost too much ; 3. before they do the work. receive his answer, I shall show it to you. 5. I shall expect you, unless it rains. 6. When he arrives, I shall speak to him. 7. We shall send them the goods when we have time.
to see us
;

he comes

2.

me know 1 when you are disengaged. 2 9. Wait until are shall pay them before they have they ready. 10. 11. They will pay his bill 4 when they have finished 3 it.
8.

Let 1

We

When he comes to s"ee me, he never stays 5 When they come back, I shall explain it to very long. them. 14. He always speaks to me when he sees me.
more money.
6 6

12.

13.

1 to let

know

= advise, inform, avisar


;

2 desocupado

3 terminal

4 cuenta

permanecer

much
is

time.

175. The Subjunctive FORM of Verbs.


IMPORTANT EXCEPTION

generally used after the

NEGATIVE

The Negative Forms


:

of

saber and decir


alii ?

are not followed by the Subjunctive, thus Don't you know he will be there ? i No

sabe Vd. que estara


2.
3.
it

EXERCISE
1. 1

IV.

do not believe he wants to go out. whether he would be able to do it. Bay 4. Is believe he will receive any reward. 1

He

We

did not do not

not probable2

M
that they will be able to see it ? 5. Don't you expect that his cousin will come the 3 day after to-morrow 3 ? 6. don't expect they will bring it. 7. It is not necessary for us

We

to

4 copy the addresses he gave


1

us.

premie

2 probable

3 pasado

manana

4 direcci6n.

TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON.
USE OF THE TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE..
176.
177.
If the first
is

Verb

is

PRESENT

or

FUTURE, the PRESENT

Subjunctive

employed, as shown in the previous lesson.


is

If the first

Verb

PAST or CONDITIONAL, the IMPERFECT

We

Subjunctive is employed. were afraid you would not reit.

Temimos que Vd. no


biese.
.

lo reci-

ceive
it

Would you like me to copy it (=would )


please you that I copied
it)
t

(I

Le Sustana que lo copiase ?


;

REMARK
Pronouns.

I.

of the Imperfect Subjunctive, able after the Conjunctions

The Conditional Subjunctive can often be used in place and vice versa but the Imperfect is prefermentioned in par. 174, and after Relative

REMARK

II.

The Conditional Subjunctive


?

is

frequently substituted

for the Conditional Indicative (see par. 146).

Who

would have guessed that


to explain
it

You ought

to them.

i Quien hubiera adivinado eso ? Vd. debiera explicarselo.

EXERCISE
1. 1

I.

had come. 2. We wish2 they hadn't 3 2 4. Did he want begun. 3. I wish she were not here. them to for me to do it ? 5. It was not necessary speak. 6. He would have denied that his brother was there. 7. I should like to have more money.
didn't think 1 he
1

use

'

creer
'

'
;

2 render as

should like

'

(Conditional of

desear ')

Imperfect of

desear.'

The Imperfect Subjunctive is used after si (if), when the other clause of the sentence is in the Conditional. We should give them a prize, if Les dariamos un premio, Si fuesen mas aplicados. they were more industrious.
178.

do
179.
whether,' it is followed by the Conditional of the INDICATIVE. Examples I did not know if they would 'come. No sabia si vendrian. He asked me if I could lend him Me pregunto si podria presten pounds. tarle diez libras.
(if)
:

When

si

means

'

180.

The FUTURE Subjunctive may be


;

used,

if it refers

to the

future

but this Tense


it, if

is

very seldom employed.


si

I will do

I can.

Lo hare

pudiere (far
II.

better, si

puedo).

EXERCISE
1. 1

should help 1 him, if I were less busy. 2 2. He would copy it, if he had more time. 3. "We should pay them at 4. If he were here, I once, if we had enough money. 5. I should work better, if I had. should give them to him. better tools. 3 6. Ask them if (= whether) they will be at4 the station to-night. 7. Do you know if he lives in Madrid now ?
1

ayudar

2 ocupado

3 hcrramientaj 4 en.

AUGMENTATIVE AND DIMINUTIVE TERMINATIONS


are added to Nouns (and occasionally to Adjectives) to qualify their meaning but as the use of these terminations presents great difficulties, foreigners should always employ Adjectives instead. The following are the principal :
;

181.
also

on, azo, acho, ote


a big

express LARGENESS, the three" latter


badly built

implying some degree of DISPEOPORTION and AWKWARDNESS.

hombron,

man

hombrazo, a

tall,

man

mujerona,* a big woman.

182. ito, iCO, illo, uelo express SMALLNESS, ito implying in addition NICENESS, FONDNESS, and uelo CONTEMPT. Examples : Pedrillo, little Peter senorita,* an unmarried lady ; perruelo, a cur. perrillo, a little dog ; * All these terminations have a Feminine Form.
;

THE PLUEAL OF NOUNS


'

(see also par. 4).

more than one syllable which end in s, and do not take the stress on the last syllable, are alike in the Singular and Plural, thus : the umbrella, el paraguas the umbrellas, los paraguas. 184. Nouns ending in i (accented) add es, thus

183.

Nouns

of

the ruby, el rubi

the rubies, los rubies.

91

FURTHER RULES ON THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
185*

The Subjunctive

is

generally used after

quienquiera

que (whoever), cualquiera que quiera que (wherever).


I shall

(whatever), arid

donde

not believe

186.

The
May

creere, quienquiera que lo 4iga. Subjunctive is also used in a wish or imprecation.


it,

whoever says so.

No lo
Viva

Long

live the

King

el

Thy Kingdom come

!
!

j j

he arrive in time

Venga Tu reinp Que llegue a tiempo


!
:

rey

A preceding Verb is understood


Quiero que viva
el rey,
is

in such sentences, thus

Deseo que llegue a tiempo.

187.

used after a Superlative, and words" equivalent to Superlatives, such as primero (first) and

The Subjunctive
(last).
first

ultimo
Give
it

to the

man

that

comes.

Deselo Vd al primer hombre que venga.


:

188. The Verb is put in the Indicative if it expresses a CERTAIN FACT instead of a doubtful contingency. Compare the following although (= even if) he writes to me aunque me escriba although it is late, I shall not go away aunque es tarde, no me ire
189.

The following are the 'principal Verbs expressing a MENTAL EMOTION which are followed by the Subjunctive
see page 86). prohibir, to prohibit querer, to wish regocij arse, to rejoice rogar, to entreat

(unless the Infinitive can be substituted, esperar, to hope aconsejar, to advise evitar, to prevent alegrarse, to be glad avisar, to advise impedir, to prevent insistir, to insist consentir, to consent decir, to tell (only when intentar, to intend negar, to deny meaning to order ')
*

sentir, to regret

sorprenderse,. to be
surprised

dejar, to allow

desear, to want dudar, to doubt

pedir, to request permitir, to permit preferir, to prefer


is

suplicar, to entreat

temer,

to fear

used after the following Conjunctions, in addition to those given on page 88. in case, en caso que although, aunque notwithstanding-, no obstante que except, salvo que, excepto que for fear that, por miedo que provided that, con tal que however, por mas que supposing that, (su)puesto que in such a way that, de modo que, whether, sea que

190.

The Subjunctive

de manera que

without^ sin

que

VOCABULARY.
The Numbers indicate the Paragraphs in which the Conjugations of IRREGULAR VERBS, and the various ways of translating PRONOUNS, etc., are given. .The Cardinal and Ordinal NUMBERS, and the names of the

DAYS and MONTHS, will be found in Lessons


The Gender
A, AN, un, una, 6 to be able to, 139 accident, accidente
to address, dirigir to admire, admirar
after, despue's

of

Nouns is only given when


5.
asleep, dormido,

it is

14 and 15. not in accor-

dance with the Rule in Paragraph

durmi-

de

afternoon, tarde, FEM.


against, contra ago, 133 to agree, 1 65 to alight, apearse, all, todo, 92 to allow, dejar almost, casi

02

already,

ya

afso, tarnbie*n

altar, altar

always, siempre among, entre

amusing, dpertido
anchor, ancla and, y, 113 answer, contestaci6n to answer, contestar any, 6, 92, 97 to 99, 132 anybody, anyone, 93, 99
to appear, parecer, 168 to applaud, aplaudir

apple, manzana to approve, 1 10 are there ? hay ? to arrive, llegar


as, 49,

136

as many, as much, 49 as soon as, luego que to ask (enquire), pre-

guntar
to ask (request), 159

clever,

habif

94

95
roOBEY,obedecer,168

96
Spain, Espafia Spanish, espanol to speak, hablar
speaking, hablando to spend, gastar
thy, 14, 16 thyself, te
ticket, billete

watch, reloj
water,

agua

way, camino
we, nosotros

spoken, hablado spoon, cuchara to start, salir, 148


station, estaci6n
stick,
still,

time, tiempo time occasion, vez time (of day), hora

week, semana
well, bien

to tire, cansar
tired,

cansado

to get tired, cansarse


to,

bast6n

a (and page 74)

what? jque*? what (RELATIVE) lo que when, cuando where, donde


whether, si which, 34, 53, 55 white, bianco
\vho, 33, 53, 54, \vhole, todo

aiin

to the, 8

stone, piedra
street, calle,

FEM.

to-day, hoy to-morrow, maiiana


to-night, esta noche tobacco, tabaco
told,

strong, fuerte to study, estudiar

55

studying, estudiando sugar, azucar


to suggest, 162 to supply, surtir to suppose, 165
sure, segurb

dicho

demasiado too much, too many, 92 tool, herramieuta


too,

to touch, tocar

? 33, 54 whose, 33 why ? i por que* ? wife, esposa, senora to be willing to, 138

whom

towards, hacia

to win,

town, ciudad

TABLE,
to take,
tall, alto

mesa

tomar

train, tren to travel, viajar


traveller, viajero truth, verdad

taken, tornado
tea,
te"

ganar wind, viento window, veutana windy, 130 wine, vino


wing, ala wish, deseo to wish, 138
with, con without, sin

to teach, ensefiar to tell, 123

UGLY, feo
umbrella, paraguas uncle, tlo comto understand,
i

than, que

thank you, gracias

woman, mujer
word, palabra work, trabajo to work, trabajar workman, obrero worse, peor, 46 to be worth, 128 to wound, 162
to write, escribir, 155 writing, escribiendo written, escrito

that (CONJ. & EEL.) que that (DEMONST.), 29, 30


the, 6, 7

prender until, hasta


upstairs, arriba us, to us, 66 useful, util
j
j

theatre, teatro thee, 65, 66


their, 14,
theirs,

15

38 to 42
66, 69

VERY, muy,
vessel,

134, 137

them, to them,

buque

themselves, 65, 100 then, entonces there, alli v 131 there is, are, etc., 131
these,

village, aldea

voyage, viaje
to

WAIT

(for),

aguar-

YEAR,
yes, si

auo
pasado

29

they, ellos, ellas thing, cosa think, creer, 109


this, 29,

dar, esperar waiter, mozo, criado

last year, el afio

30

those, 29

thou, tti to throw, tirar to thunder, 110

aguardando, esperando to walk, 149 to want, desear, 138 to warm, 109


waiting,
to wash, lavar

yesterday, ayer
yet, todavia

you, to you,
youjr, 14, 15,

1,

66 16

yours, 41, 42
yourself, -ves, 65, 100

SPANISH READING
SIMPLIFIED
A COLLECTION OF

AMUSING ANECDOTES,
with

Etc.

COPIOUS FOOT-NOTES ON EVERY PAGE


rendering a

DICTIONARY UNNECESSARY
THE ONLY FULLY ANNOTATED READER IN EXISTENCE

PHILADELPHIA

DAVID McKAY,

Publisher

604-8 S. Washington Square

INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS.
The Student is assumed to know the ARTICLES and NOMINATIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Lesson 1 in " Spanish Simplified ") the POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (Lesson 3) and PRONOUNS (Lesson 8), the DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVESand PRONOUNS (Lesson 6), the INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES and PRONOUNS (Lesson 7), the RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Lesson 10), the NUMBERS (Lessons 14 and 15), the PRESENT TENSES of tener, haber, ser, estar, and of the REGULAR VERBS (Lessons 1 to 5), and a few words of very frequent occurrence. He should also know the ordinary way of FEMININE and PLURAL and it would be advithe forming
*
1

sable to read carefully through Lesson 12 in our

Grammar,

before beginning this Reader.

A number after a word


at the foot,

refers to the English translation

which bears the same number. If several words are translated together, the number is given after the first The literal translations are followed by word and the last. a translation in good English, preceded by the sign

Nouns

are translated

in

the

SINGULAR, and Regular

Verbs in the INFINITIVE,

PREFACE.
In the study of Languages, the importance of READING the Foreign Idiom as soon as possible is universally admitted. Unfortunately, every year thousands of students give up
the attempt in despair. Very few have the time and perseverance required to search for every word in a Dictionary. beginner takes three or four hours to go through an ordinary page under these circumstances ; and even then it is doubtful whether he has translated correctly. to "HUGO'S SIMPLIFIED READER " has been

compiled prevent this great waste of time. By its aid a beginner can easily after a few weeks' study of our Grammar
translate a page in less

than half an hour,

WITH THE CER-

MEANING OP A TAINTY THAT HE HAS NOT MISTAKEN SINGLE PHRASE. This is ensured by the copious foot-notes, every word being translated until it has occurred' several times.

ME

An

extensive Vocabulary

is

thus acquired without

effort.

The contents consist of amuse the student, as well


avoided,

interesting Anecdotes,
as instructing

etc.,

which

dry extracts from classical it being of far more practical use to acquire the language as spoken and written at the present time. Compilers of Reading Books usually explain the absence of notes by the statement that looking out words in a Dictionary impresses them better- on the memory. This is a very
poor excuse.

him. In selecting, authors have been carefully

The real reason is that ONE PAGE WITH CAREFULLY PREPARED NOTES INVOLVES AS MUCH LABOR AS A DOZEN UN ANNOTATED PAGES, and therefore cannot be produced without much trouble ami expense.

Most Reading Books are of no more tise to the average student than a newspaper or an ordinary book, as it is nearly as much trouble to refer to a Dictionary as to a Vocabulary on a different page; whereas the copious notes in Hugo's Reader, being always at hand for instantaneous reference, make this book invaluable to the learner.

LIST

of

WORDS

not translated in the Foot- Notes.

& to, at

'La Hospitalidad.*

soldado pregunto 2 a uno de sus camaradas, 3 que volvia* de una campafia, 5 si habia 6 hallado 7 mucha1 hospitalidad 1 en Holanda. 1 j Oh si, mucha, 1 respondio 1 todo el tiempo que he estado 8 alii lo he pasado9 en el hospital.
!

Un

not to be translated
2 asked 3 comrade 8 been ; 9 passed.
;

was returning

the same, or nearly the same, as in English. 5 campaign 6 (he) had ; 7 found ;
;

La Cuna. 2 Una pobre mujer pidio 4 un dia limosna5 a un


3

caballero
1
.

muy alto 6

con unos pies 7 desmesurados, 8 y le 9 dijo, viendo 12 14 13 11 16 que no la queria socorrer, que por el amor de Dios le diese 15 al menos 17 uno de sus zapatos. 18 Y que quiere20 Vd. Como 19 uno de mis zapatos 18 ? 21 hacer con el ? Hare 22 una cuna2 para mi nino.
I
!

2 cradle 3 poor 4 asked 5 alms 6 tall 7 foot 8 huge 9 (to) him 10 seeing 11 (he) would 12 succour 13 her 14 Jove 15 he should give 19 what 20 will 21 do 22 (1) shall make. 16 her 17 least 18 shoe
;
;
;'

El Charlatan.
charlatan 1 de los 2 que venden 3 especificos 1 universales, 1 mando 4 a buscar 5 aun medico 6 porque 7 estaba8 malo. 9 Llego 10

Un

medico, y luego que le vio le dijo que no tenia nada r15 y que podia 16 haberse excusado 16 de llamarle 17 por una
el

11

11

13

12

13

14

15

cosa tan 18 frivola. 1


i

Como 19
3

frivola 1
21

que por descuido

sabe respondio el charlatan, he tornado 22 una de mis pildoras 23


?
<;

20

Vd. 20

sell ; 4 sent ; 5 seek , 6 physician ; 7 because ; 8 (he) was , 2 those ; 9 ill ; 10 arrived ; 11 as soon as ; 12 (he) saw ; 13 (to) him ; 14 (he) said ; 16 (he) might 15 (he) had nothing=nothing was the matter with him ; have excused himself (=avoided) ; 17 call(ing) him ; 18 so ; 19 how ; 20 do

you know
*

21 carelessness

22 taken

23

pill.

English words ending in ^usually end in dad in Spanish.

El Valor.

Un

hombre, que

en eierta4 ocasion 1 de sus fanfarronadas, 7 que


t

se 2 habia vanagloriado 2 de su valor,1 huy6 3 de su contrario, 5 y uno de los testfgos 6


le8
el,
?

Donde
13

esta ese valor 1


:

vio 8 correr,9 le 11 grit6 10 : sin dejar 12 de correr, 9 le 11

replieo

En
;

las piernas. 1 *
;

not to be translated 1 the same, or nearly the same, as in English. 2 had bragged 3 fled 4 (a) certain ; 5 opponent 6 witness 7 boast ; 8 saw him 9 run ; 10 called out ; 1 1 to him ; 12 =ceasing ; 13 replied ; 14 leg.
; ; ; ;

El Aldeano 2 y los Monos.3 aldeano que llevaba4 de 5 parte 5 de su amo 6 al seiior 7 del 1^ 11 9 8 13 13 pueblo de regalo un canasto de peras, encontr6 en la 3 14 escalera dos grandes monos con vestidos 16 azules 15 bordados 17

Un

de oro 18 y espada 19 ceiiida, 20 que se 21 arrojaron 21 a la fruta 1 en 22 cuanto 22 la 24 vieron. 23 Como 25 el aldeano 2 no habia26 visto 28 nunca27 esta especie 1 de animates, 1 se 29 quito la montera29 con mucha1 cortesia, 1 y les 31 dejo 30 hacer 32 lo 38 que quisieron. 33 35 3 36 12 34 87 Apenas agarraron los monos algunas peras cuando se 38 39 40 37 marcharon a comerlas, y tomando en ton ces su canasto, 11 7 Este 42 noto 43 la falta 44 y preguntole45 se 41 presento 41 al senor.
-^n

a lo que contesto 48 el labriego47 49 51 Senor, lleno venia, pero los senoritos, vuestros hijos, 54 55 53 52 han tornado las que f altan, y quedan comiendolas56 en la 26 57 36 58 escalera. 14 Algunos criados que habian sido testigos del

que

consistia,

46

44

50

Jance,

59

descubrieron 60
1

la sencillez

61

del aldeano, 2

62 que fue

muy

celebrada en la casa, y todo


,
; ,

el

8 63 63 pueblo se rio de

ella.
;

3 monkey 4 was taking 5=on the part 6 master 7 squire 2^ villager 8 village 9=as-a 10 present 11 basket 12 pear 13 encountered 14 stair19 sword 18 gold 17 embroidered 20 girded case 15 blue 16 dress 23 they saw 24 it 25 as 21 flung themselves=darted 22 immediately he off his 29 took 30 let 28 seen 31 them 27 never 26 had cap 35 seized 36 some 37 they 33 what they liked \ 34 hardly 32 do 40 then 39 taking 41 he presented him38 eat them marched off 45 asked him 44 deficiency 46 it con43 noticed self 42 =the latter 49 it came 50 full 51 young gentlemen sisted 47 peasant 48 answered 56 eating them 53 those 54 are missing 55 remain=are now r>2 taken 60 discovered=made known ; 61 sim59 incident f>7 been ; 58 witness plicity ; 62 was ; 63 made merry.
; ;
; ;

From this point the Student is assumed to understand the formation of the Participles and the Future Tense (see Lessons 6 and 8 in

"SPANISH SIMPLIFIED.")
Dispute 1 de dos Reos. 2

de caminos 3 y un deshollinador,4 convencidos6 de un robo domestico, 1 fueron7 condenados1 a muerte 8 a un mismo tiempo. El salteador,3 ricamente9 vestido,10 subio 11 al 12 1 14 1 13 patibulo con mucha arrogancia y descaro, pero parecio
3
6

Un salteador

que ponia 17 y ligioso,

15

la

mayor16 atencion 1 en
se
18

las exhortaciones 1 del re-

el deshollinador4
21

sus palabras

edificantes.

20

acerco 18 a el para escuchar 19 8 22 24 28 Retirate, le dice el salteador

de camirios, 3 y trata25 de resignarte. 26 No quiero,27 le24respon28 1 29 30 31 de, pues yo tengo tanto derecho como tii a estar aqui.
7

wre

2 criminal 3 highwayman 4 chimney-sweep ; 6 convicted 6 robbery ; 8 death ; 9 richly* 10 dressed 11 mounted ; 12 gallows ; 13 im; ; ; ; ; ;
;

15 was placing 17 clergyman 16 greatest appeared pudence 18 approached ; 19 listen to 20 edifying 21 word 22 go back ; 23 says 24 (to), him ; 25 try ; 26 resign thyself j 27 I will 28 since ; 29 as much 30 right j 31 as. 14
it
; ; ;
; ; ;

__
;

Un

Hijo obediente.

2 3 5 6 4 padre anciano y rico pkro bastante avaro, envid a 1 8 7 su hijo a estudiar a Salamanca, encargandole sobre tpdo que viviese9 con la mas estricta 1 economia. 1 El joven, 10 a 11 f uer de11 12 12 13 1 hijo obediente, se informo del precio de los principales articulos1 de consu'mo 1 luego 14 que 14 llego 15 a la ciudad. 17 19 18 20 16 Pregunto cuanto costaba una vaca y le dijeron queQ 1 12 de trescientos a cuatrocientos francos ; informose luego 21 del precio 13 de las perdices22 y le respondieron 1 que de dos a tres francos1 cada23 una.

Un

Entonces, dijo para si el mozuelo, sera bueno comer 28 29 30 22 gusto a mi perdices todos los dias para obedecer y dar
padre.
2 old
;

24

25

26

27

3 rich ; 4 enough rather; 5 stingy ; 6 sent ; 7 charging him 8 9 he should live ; 10 youth ; 11 like ; 12 informed himself=enquired ; 13 price 14 as soon as ; 15 he arrived ; 16 he asked 17 how much ; 18 cow ; 19 cost 20 they told ; 21 afterwards, next ; 22 partridge 23 each ; 24 then 25 himself ; 26 youth ; 27 to eat ; 28 obey ; 29 give ; 30 pleasure,
;
;

above

English

Adverbs ending in ly usually end in mente in Spanish*

8
Estratagema singular de Cristobal Col6n.
Cristobal 2 Colon 2 hizo 3
5
1

un desembarco4 en Jamaica en

6 Los insulares* 1504, y trat6 de formar un establecimiento. se8 apartaron 8 de la costa9 dejando 10 a los Espanoles11 sin

viveres. 12

Una estratagema1 singular 1 se 13 puso 13 en ejecucidn1


de
tal 16

en vista

14

apuro.

16

breve 17 un eclipse 1 de luna. 18 Col6n de los pueblos23 vecinos,22 y les24 1 1 25 26 26 el dijo con tono firme : Muy pronto sereis castigados 27 11 1 dios todopoderoso de los Espanoles, que yo adoro, va28 a daros28 sus mas terribles1 golpes, 29 y en prueba30 de lo que os 32 digo, 31 vereis, 33 desde^esta 34 noche, encenderse35 la luna,18 36 37 despues oscurecerse, y negaros58 su luz. 39 Este seri40 el 1 41 42 43 preludio de vuestras desgracias, si no os aprovechais de

Debia17 haber

muy en

mand6 19 llamar20 a

los jefes21

mi

aviso. 43

Comienza 44 en^efecto1 a45 pocas45 horas el eclipse. 1 La desolacidn 1 entre46 los salvajes47 es tan 48 grande que van 49 todos 4 50 51 52 53 55 postrarse ^ los pies de Colon, jurando que nada le falta54 ria. Este hombre habil 56 aparenta57 dejarse conmover67 se58 encierra58 como 59 para desarmar 1 la colera60 celeste, 1 y muestrase61 pocb despues, 36 anunciando 1 que Dios se 62 haapiadado62 18 63 63 1 y que la luna volveria a aparecer. Los Indios, que qneda;

ron 64persuadidos1 deque este estranjero 1 disponia65 de lanaturaleza06 a su arbitrio,67 no le 69 dejaron 68 carecer70 de cosa alguna. 71
2 Christopher Columbus ; 3 made ; 4 landing ; 5 tried ; 6 settlement ; 7 islander ; 8 withdrew ; 9 coast ; 10 leaving ; 11 Spaniard ; 12 provisions ; 13 =was put ; 14 y^ew ; 15 such ; 16 want ; 17 =there was very soon tp take place ; 18 moon j_ 19 ordered ; 20 to call ; 21 chief ; 22 neighbouring ; 23 village ; 24 to them ; 25 soon ; 26 you will be punished : 27 almighty ; 28 ia going to give you ; 29 blow ; 30 proof ; 31 I say ; 32 to you ; 33 you will see ; 37 disap34 from this=this very ; 35 =show its light ; 36 afterwards ; 41 misfortune ; 42 you avail pear ; 38 deny you ; 39 light ; 40 will be yourselves ; 43 warning ; 44 begins ; 45 =in a few ; 46 among ; 47 savages ; 50 prostrate themselves ; 51 foot ; 52 swearing ; 53 48 so ; 49 they go nothing ; 54 should be wanting ; 55 to him ; 56 clever ; 67 pretends to allow himself to be affected 58~withdraws ; 59 as if ; 60 anger ; 61 shows himself 62 lias been appeased ; 63 would appear again ; 64 remained ; 65 disposed ; 66 nature; 67 will j 68 let ; 69 him ; 70 be in want ; 71 any
; ; ; ;

Ifrom this point the Student is assumed to understand the formation of the Imperative and Past Definite (see Lweow 9 and 10 in " SPANISH SIMPLIFIED
").

tin nino positivo.

Un nino lloraba2 mucho porque


cos que tenia.
con'solarle,
10
1

Un

tio

suyo

le

habia 3 perdido4 dos fran9 8 7 rega!6 igual cantidad para


:

13 11 12 "Si no pero el nino Iloraba aun mas y decia hubiese 14 perdido 4 mis dos francos, 1 ahora tendria 15 cuatro."

2 wept
;

3 he had
;

equal 9 quantity 161 should have.

4 lost ; 5 uncle ; 6 (of) his ; 7 regalar, to present ; 8 10 console him ; 11 wept ; 12 still ; 13 said ; 14 1 had ;

La Forma de

la Tierra.

maestro 2 de escuela, 3 querlendo 4 un dia explicar 5 a sus 8 6 1 7 9 discipulos la forma de la Tierra, la compar6 con su taba12 13 10 11 era redonda. dias la Pocos cual despues, presenquera, t6se 14 en la escuela 3 un inspector, 1 y segiin 15 costumbre, 16 1 18 20 17 19 dirigio algunas preguntas a los escolares. Despues de 20 1 21 1 examinarlos de gramatica y aritmetica, paso a geograf ia, 1 1 7 23 22 11 y les pregunto cual era la forma de la Tierra.
refrescar 27 la

Un

Todos permanecieron 24 callados. 25 El maestro, 2 a26 fin de 26 memoria1 de los muchachos, saco 28 la tabaquera10 del bolsillo 29 pero desgraciadamente, 30 para hacer 31 honor 1 al 10 34 33 1 32 inspector, habia aquel dia traido una tabaquera de plata 36 37 35 36 35 que no usaba mas que Ios domingos, y que era cuadrada.
;

Inmediatamente, un discipulo levanto la mano para indicar1 que el sabia40 la respuesta,41 y dijo " 36 36 37 7 Senor, la Tierra es cuadrada los domingos, y redon43 " 12 42 da los demas dias de la semana.
1 6 38

39

2 master ; 3 school 4 wishing 5 to explain ; 6 pupil 7 earth 8 com12 round ; 13 after 14 11 was 10 snuff-box parar, to compare ; 9 it 17 dirigir, to address 18 presented himself 15 according to ; 16 custom Borne ; 19 question 20 after examining them 21 pasar, to pass ; 22 preguntar, to ask 23 them ; 24=remained ; 25 silent ; 26 in order to.; 27 refresh 28 sacar, to draw out 29 pocket 30 unfortunately 31 do ; 32 had 33 brought ; 34 silver ; 35 he only used ; 36 on Sundays; 37 square 38 le yantar, to raise ; 39 hand ; 40 knew ; 41 answer ; 42 other 43 week.
; ; ; ;
;

10

Los ciuco Toros.


El Marques1 de Villa Hermosa2 tenia 3 intenci6n x de pasar* un lugar5 vecino 6 4 sus estados7 donde se 10 celebraba10 una corrida 8 de toros. 9 Sabiendo 12 los alcaldes11 la intencion 1 del 1 13 2 marques, f ueron a Cuenca, donde estaba, y con expresivas 1
15 17 14 16 17 18 19 suplicas le rogaron se dignase ir a tiempo que pudiese ver 20 la f uncion. 1 Alegrose 21 el marques del convite, 22 y con 25 24 23 9 grande alborozo les pregunto y que toros teneis26 ?
:
<r

Uno de
seiior
;

los alcaldes

si

1 1 respondio Cuatro, excelentisimo vuestra Excelencia 1 viene, 27 seran cinco.


:

11

1 the same, or nearly the same, as in ; English. 4 pass ; 5 place 6=near ; 7 state ; 8=fight ; 9 bull ; 10 was taking place ; 11 magistrates, authorities ; 12 knowing 13 went ; 14 request ; 16 rogar, to entreat ; 16 him 17=to condescend ; 18 to go ; 19 he could ; 20 see 21 was pleased 22 invitation ; 23 joy ; 24 preguntar, to ask ; 25 them 26 have you ; 27 comes.

not to be translated
;

2 beautiful

3 tad

La Habladora.
Para vengarse 2 de una habladora 3 in sufrible 4 y perjudicial, 1 la 5 presentaron 1 un dia un sujeto 6 que la8 dijeron 7 era9 un literato 10 de una conversacion 1 interesante. 11 Como 12 su flaco 13 era9 el 14 de hablar mucho y de creerse15 con talento, 1 le16 recibio 16 con
se 21

mucho

placer
al

17
;

18 19 20 pero ansiosa por lucir su pico

puso

21

a hablar
1

momento 1 haciendole 22 mil preguntas23

diferentes 1 sin lograr 24 la

men or 25

respuesta.
1

26

Hecha
la
8

27

la visita,

esta

Vd. contenta de su 28 presentado28


es

preguntaron.

Oh

si

29

29 estoy encantada
1

hombre de gran

talento. 1

A esta exclamacion
9 gran talento era

todos se 30 echaron a reir, 30 pues 31 este

un mudo. 32
;

2 avenge themselves ; 3 chatterbox ; 4 insufferable ; 5 to her ; 6 subject 7 they told 8 her ; 9 was ; 10 literary man ; 11 interesting ; 12 ; as 13 weakness 14=that ; 15 belie v(ing) herself ; 16 she received him ; 17 pleasure ; 18 anxious ; 19 to show off ; 20 loquacity 21 she put herself =she began ; 22 making to him=putting to him ; 23 question ; 24 obtain-

=person
;

(ing) 25 least 26 reply 27 done=over ; 28=the person presented to you 29=1 am indeed encBTanted 30 burst out laughing , 31 for ; 32 dumb,
;
; ;

-,

11

of the

From this point the Student is assumed to understand the formation Imperfect Indicative and Conditional Indicative (see Lweon 11 in" SPANISH SIMPLIFIED ').
1

El Cura y sus Visitas.

Cuando

los curas 3 parrocos

visitan 1 sus feligreses, 4 algu-

nas 5 veces 6 hallanse 7 en varies 1 incidentes, 1 unos 5 agradableg8 9 Hallose 10 en uno de los primeros casos 11 el y otros tristes. 3 cura de una parroquia12 no lejos 13 de Londres.

Habia visitado 1 algunos5 de sus feligreses4 cuando llego 14 15 hallaba 15 en las delicias16 del la casa de uno que se 17 17 La buena mujer no queriendo 18 presendia de lavado. 20 19 delante del senor cura 3 con el vestido 21 de lavar, 21 tarse
a
^

escondiose detras 23 del enjugador, 24 y dijo a su muchacho 25 26 28 27 que cuando abriera la ,puerta al cura, le dijera que habia salido 29 de casa.
22

el cura, y el muchacho cumpliendo* su encargo 34 29 56 empezo a decirle que su madre habia salido a dar un 37 36 38 38 la la Pero sin ver advertirlo, mujer, dejaba paseo. 40 41 24 39 del del pie por debajo enjugador. punta
1

Entro 30
33

32

El cura apercibiendolo42 dijo al muchacho Cuando tu madre vuelva43 le45 diras44 que la proxima46 vez* que saiga47 a paseo,48 no 49 olvide49 de Ilevarse 50los pies, 50 porque son cosas 51
:
5

muy

utiles62 para las peisonas 1 aficionadas 53 a andar. 53

not to be translated ; 1 the same, or nearly the game, as in English. 2 parochial 5 some ; 6 time ; 7 they find 3 parson 4 parishioner 9 sad; 10 found himself j 12 8 agreeable; 11 case; themselves; 16 delight ; 13 far 14 llegar, to arrive ; 15 found herself=was parish 17 washing-day ; 21 19 to present herself ; 20 before 18 wishing 25 boy=son washing-ciress 22 hid herself ; 23 behind 24 clothes-horse 26 he should open ; 27 he should tell 28 him 29 gone out 30 entrap to 33 began enter ; 31 cumplir, to fulfil 34 tell him ; 32 instruction 35 give=take 38=allowed to be seen ; 89 37 noticing it 36 walk 42 perceiving it ; 43 cornea back ; 40 foot 41 underneath point 47 she goes out ; 48 walk ; 49= 44 thou wilt tell ; 45 her ; 46 next she is not to forget ; 51 50 t^ke he.r feet with her ; 53 uge.ful ; thiag j
;

53=fond

of .walking.

El Laoftyo inocente.
XJn caballero mando3 a su lacayo 8 que viese4 la hora era en el reloj 5 de so! 5 qne habia6 sobre una piedra7 en el jardin6 ;

qt

y despues9 de haber 9
el

tardado 10
le 13 dijo
:

reloj
15

de
16

sol 5

mas de 11 una hora, le18 13ev6 12 Ahi 14 esta, busque 15 Vd. la


'

hora,

pues
;

17 yo no he podido
;

hallarla. 18
;

was

2 mandar, to send ; 3 footman 4 he might see 5 sun-dial 6=(there) 8 garden 7 stone 9 after having 10 tardar, to delay ll=than ; 12 llevar, to carry 13 to him ; 14 here ; 15 look for the time yourself ; 16 for ; 17 been able ; 18 to find it.
; ;

La

Tetera.

marinero1 a2 bordo2 de una fragata3 mercante,1 tuvo 5 6 la desgracia4 de dejar caer al mar 7 una tetera8 de plata,9 y lleno 10 de temor 11 se 12 fue 12 al camarote 13 del comandante,1 y le 15 dijo 14 Mi capitan, 1 se 16 puede decir 16 de una cosa"
: ;

Un

19 18 18 que se sabe donde esta, que esta perdida ? 18 21 18 20 su se sabe No, puesto que paradero. En ese caso,1 nada22 teneis que temer22 por vuestra 24 7 23 porque yo se que esta en el fondo del mar.

tetera,

2 on board

9 silver ; 10 full 16 can it be said

21 position

5 let f 6 fall ; 7 sea ; 8 tea-pot 4 misfortune ; 11 fear ; 12 he went ; 13 cabin 14 said ; 15 to him 17 thing ; 18 (it) is known ; 19 lost ; 20 supposing ; 22 you have nothing to fear ; 23 know ; 24 bottom.
; ,

3 frigate
;

;
;

Una Orden.
El ilustre1 caballero Taylor referia8 un dia los honored 1 1 3 que habia recibido de las diferentes cortes de Enropa,1 y 4 las 6rdenes con que habia sido condecorado 1 por un gran niimero 1 de soberanos. 5 Un caballero que se6 hallaba6 cerca7 de7 el le dijo que no habia nombrado 8 al rey de Prusia 1 : Presumo 1 (anadio 9) que este 10 no os 12 dio 11 ninguna 13 orden. Perdone 14 Vd.,14 repuso 15 Taylor, pues16 me ha dado 17 la orden4 perentoria1 de salir18 de 18 sus Estados. 19
2 was relating 3 received 4 order 5 sovereign 6 found himself= 7 near ; was 8 nombrar, to name 9 anadir, to add 10=tnis one 5 12 13 no 14 11 gave ; you ^ (I beg your) pardon ; 15 replied j 16 since; 18 out 19 states. 17 given go of=quit ;
;

13

From this poinTthe Student is assumed toMsnow Personal Pronouns, and the Rules on their po&ition SPANISH SIMPLIFIED").

the
(see

Conjunctive
Lesson 12 in

Un hombre

manos4 de la 8 1 quemaron en efigie. 9 11 mente el reo una de


1

El Condenado. 1 las llamas 3 se escapo de las 7 6 5 1 otra No hacer cosa, le justicia. pudiendo

condenado 2 a

10 Aquel mismo dia atraveso cabal-

las

mas

altas12 montafias 13

de los Piri-

Nunca16 he tenido17 deciau despues 15 : neos, 8 me el dia quemaron. que que


ir
;
; ;

mas

frio 18

2 condenar, to condemn 3 flame 4 hand ; 5 being able ; 6 to do ; 7 thing; 12 high ; 13 10 passed over ; 1 1 exactly 8 quemar, to burn ; 9 criminal mountain ; 14 he used to say ; 15 afterwards ; 16 never ; 17=been : 18 cold.
;

Abogado y el Burro. de Luisiana, 1 estaba el tribunal 1 2 1 de una causa,3 cuyo abogado4 no vista la con ocupado 6 7 1 1 5 gozaba de gran favor con el juez. Resumia el magistrado 3 10 8 los hechos de la* causa, cuando rebuzn6 descompasadamente 11 un burro,5 alii 12 cerca. 12 6 13 Que es eso ? pregunto el juez con enojo. 14
el

El Juez,

En un

distrito 1 judicial 1

<?

Nada,

15

seiior,

contesto 16 el abogado, 4 es el eco 1 de la voz17

de vuestra senoria. 18
Callose 19 el juez, 6 aunque 20 hubiera21 podido mandar21 a la carcel28 al insolente, 22 pero la casualidad24 vino 25 en su ayuda. 2 *

Cuando el abogado4 ref utaba1 con gran calor27 ciertas28 observaciones1 del juez,6 volvio 29 el burro a rebuznar20 con tanta80 f uerza, 31 que no se 32 oia 32 la voz 17 del abogado. Entonces33 el juez dijo con mucha gravedad 1 :
"Calle 34 uno de Vds. si quieren 35 ser oidos, 36 porque " hablanda los dos a un tiempo es imposible. 1
3 lawsuit ; 4 lawyer 5 gozar, to enjoy 6 judge 7 was 8 fact ; 9 donkey 10 rebuznar, to bray 11 excessively 12 there near=close by 13 preguntar, to ask 14 anger 15 nothing ; 16 con18 lordship ; 19 kept silent 20 although 21 he testar, to reply 17 voice could have sent 22 insolent (fellow*) ; 23 prison ; 24 chance ; 25 came ; 2-5 aid ; 27 heat 28 certain 29 the donkey brayed again ; 30 so much ; 34 be silent 35 you wish ; 36 heard* 33 then 31 force ; 32 was heard * Adjective* are very frequently used as Nouns in Spanish.

2 =lrial ;

summing up

14

Dispute entre un Viajero Espaflol y un Indiano. TJn viajero2 espanol encontro* a un indiano 1 en cierto4 5 Ambos6 iban 7 a8 caballo. 8 El espanol, que temia9 bosque. 10 11 12 el suyo no pudiese hacer el viaje, porque era muy que

cambiar 14 con el 15 del indiano, 1 que era 3 oven 18 17 17 y vigoroso. El indiano se nego a ello, y el espanol en19 1 18 19 20 a una tonces le movio las manos,21 disputa. Vinieron 1 22 22 bien estaba el se armado, y espanol, que apoder6 del caballo del indiano, en23 el que23 siguio 24 su camino. 25
malo, quiso
13
1

a 27 lo lejos, 27 y fue28 a dar29 1 obligado el espanol a comqueja^al juez del primer pueblo 33 34 que este era suyo, y muy parecer con el caballo, sostuvo 35 36 37 38 suyo como que lo habia criado el mismo desde chico.
31 32
;

El infeliz26 indiano

le siguio 24

No

habiendo pruebas 39 de

lo contrario,1 el juez31 iba40

demanda1 al espanol, cuando quitandose42 su capa43 el indiano y cubriendo44 con ella repentinamente45 la cabeza46 del caballo, dijo al mismo tiempo al juez 31 Yo probare47 de un modo 48 incontestable 1 mi asercion 1
: ;

declarar 1 absuelto 41 de la

que

49

diga
?

49

ahora

mi

contrario,

50

de que ojo 51 es tuerto 52

el

caballo

Del derecho,53 contesto 54 el espanol sin detenerse. 55 Pues56 no 57 lo es de mnguno, 57 repuso 68 el americano,1 destapando la cabeza del animal. Oonvencido60 el juez31 con una prueba39 tan higeniosa1 1 61 y fuerte, adjudic6 el caballo al indiano, y se termino 1 la
disputa.
1
59

46

4 certain ; 5 wood 6 both 2 traveller ; 3 encoritrar, to meet 7 were 11 do ; 12 journey 8 on horseback ; 9 temer, to fear ; 10 could going 13 wanted; 14 to change ; 15 the (one) ; 16 young ; 17 refused i 18 then 20 they came ; 21 hands=blows 22 took possession 19 moved him to 26 unhappy 23 upon which ; 24 followed ; 25 way 27 at a distance 29 give=make ; 30 complaint ; 31 judge 28 went 32 village 33 to appear 34 he maintained ; 35 brought up 36 himself 37 from 38 (its) 39 proof 40 was going 41 absolved 42 taking off 43 cloak ; youth 44 covering ; 45 suddenly ; 46 head ; 47 probar, to prove 48 manner ; 60 51 52 49 let .say opponent ; eye one-eyed ; 53 right j 54 contestar, to answer 56 57 it then is of not none=he is not so in 65=he8itating 60 convinced ; 61 strong. either ; 58 replied ; 59 -uncovering
;
;

; ;

. .

15
El Suftalterno E3ooc&3._
3 1 4 Se refiere una anecdota de un Eseoces qiie era oficia! 7 1 6 5 con su fue mandado Britanico del Ejercito regimiento y En aquel entonces8 era subalterno 1 y hallabase9 a Gibraltar. un dia de 10 guardia 10 con otro companero 11 oficial 4 que tuvo 12 de caer 13 en un .preeipicio 1 de cuatrocientos la desgracia 16 16 5 14 pies de profundidad y quedo muerto.

1-

Era deber en 10 la guardia10 y habiendolo 21 hecho asi, 21 anadio22 la " nada24 de 1 1 formula1 de costumbre23 particular ha ocurrido en la guardia." El fatal 1 accidente 1 de la caida25 en el precipicio 1 del otro 27 26 4 del comandante, 1 y naturalmente 1 la a, oidos oficial vino 1" 24 28 le caus6 1 extrafiez^. 29 frase de "nada de particula^ocurrido,
;

17

del subalterno 1 dar 18 cuenta19 de lo 20 ocurrido 20

";

Como 30
32

llama

oficial 4

exclamo 1 el Mayor 31 de la Brigada, 1 u <;Yd. a esto nada 24 de particular, cuando su companero 11 ha16 muerto 16 cayendo 33 de una altura 34 de cuatro!

"

cientos pies14 ?" " no 35 1 " he creido 38 Bien, Senor," replico el joven oficial, 37 1 en ello nada de extraordinario si hubiera el pobre 3* que
;

39 40 1 amigo hubiese caido en un precipicio de cuatrocientos pies 39 41 42 43 y no hubiera muerto, lo hubiera hallado muy extra44 44 42 45 1 46 " lo en hubiera ordinario efecto, y puesto en el parte.

is

related

;
;

mandar, to send panjon=fellow


,

22 anadir, to add 23 custom 24 nothing 25 fall ; 26 came 27=ears 28 phrase ; 29 astonishment 30 what 31 major.; 32 llamar, to call 33 falling 34 height ; 35^ young 36 creer, to 38 poor believe 37 there was 39 had 40 fallen 41 died 42 43 hallar^-to find 44 indeed ; 45 put ; 46. report. I should have
;

lt)==was killed ; 21 having done so


;

3 Scotchman ; 4 officer ; 5 army 6 British ; 7 8 then 9 found himself=was 10 on guard ; 11 com12 misfortune 13 (to) fall 14 foot 15 depth ; 17 duty 18 to give 19 account ; 20 what occurred ;
;
;

2 1 3 predicador dijo en un sermon que san Francisco 1 1 Xavier habia convertido en un dia diez mil4 hombres en

Un

isla 1 desierta. 1

2 preacher

3 saint

4 thousand.

El Enfermo invisible. 3 3 2 poco arnigo de los medicos, tuvo una vez 1 1 4 4 un una grave enfermedad, y que guardar cama por 8 7 6 7 5 6 amigo envio al momento a buscar un facultative. Luegoa 1 10 1 9 que llego se lo anunciaron al enfermo, quien respondio

Un

filosofo,

Decidle 11 que estoy malo, y que no recibo 1 a nadie. 12


not to be translated 2
little
;

3=once
j

8 physician

1 the same, or nearly the same, as in English. ; 4 to keep [his bed] 5 sent ; 6 at once.; 7 to seefc=for 9 as soon as he arrived ; 10 invalid ; 11 tell him ; 12 nobody.
;
;

El Negro. Carlos2 y dos amigos suyos Ilegaron 3 a un hotel 1 de Nueva4 8 1 6 7 5 York, donde debian pasar la noche. No habia vacia msts que una habitacion9 con una cama,10 en la cual se11 acomodaronu
sus dos amigos, y Carlos2 se resolvio 1 a dormir 12 en un sofa. Un negro 1 que estaba parando13 en el mismo hotel, ofrecio 1* 1 dividir 1 su cama10 con el, cuya oferta1 fue inmediatamente
aceptada.
1

mozo

19

apenas

21

que 23 22 22 cayo dormido, cuando sus amigos deseando


costa,
1

20

Carlos fue 15 a acostarse, 16 encargando 18 antes17 al le despertase 20 a las cinco de la manana ; pero
di~
20

vertirse 24 a su

vinieron 25 a
27

la

habitacion,
28 28

de tal ennegrecieron la cara con hollin, 80 1 10 29 parecia que en la cama habia dos negros. El mozo 19
le

26

y le manera1 que

1 31 desperto a la hora que habia indicado ; pero, 32 32 1 no seria su sorpresa cuando al mirarse al espejo 33con j cual 36 38 38 37 35 34 1 objeto de peinarse, vio una cara negra en vez de vuna -" Oh " exclamo 1 ; " este imbecil 1 de mozo 19 ha blanca39
!

31 38 1 38 negro en vez de despertarme a mi"; y despertado 41 41 40 diciendo esto, volvio a acostarse tranquilamente. 1
31

al

2 Charles 3 llegar, to anrive ; 4 new ; 5 they had to; 6 night 7 there was 12 sleep 11 accommodated themselves ; 9 room ; 10 bed ; 8 empty \1 before=first 13 parar, to stop ; 14 offered ; 15 went ; 16 lie down 21 him 20 that he should wake 18 instructing 19 waiter ; hardly 22 he fell asleep 23 desear, to wish ; 24 to divert themselves ; 25 came
;
;

; ;

;
;
,'

26 .blacked his face ; 27 soot ; 28 in such ; 29 it seemed ; 30 there were ; 31 despertar, to' wake ; 32 on looking at himself ; 33 mirror ; 34 comb(ing) 38 instead ; 3D white ; 35 he saw ; 36 black ; .37 face ; hte hair ; ^0 saying'; 41 he weni back to bed*
t

IT
From
tm'8~

SPANISH SIMPLIFIED," Irregular Verbs (Lesson 19)


.

Rules in "

point the Student

is

assumed

to

be acquainted with the

as far as the

commencement

of the

El Sermon. ultimo 2 sermon 1 de una mision, 1 que se 3 predioaba3 en cierta4 parroquia, 5 lloraron 6 todos los oyentes7 menos uno, a quien pregunto 9 su vecino 8 For que no lloras6 ? y el 1 no de esta parroquia. 5 respondio Porque soy

En

el

<;

2 last
7 hearer
;

3 was preached 4 certain 8 neighbour 9 asked.


;

5 parish

6 llorar, to

weep

Los Hijos de Noe. Se 3 presento 3 un tonto 2 al obispo 4 para 5 que le ordenase, 5 y el padre habia ya6 suplicado 1 que no se 8 le pusiesen 8 cuestiones 1 dificiles 1 en 9 atencion a 9 su escaso 10 talento. 1 El obispo 4
14 1 1 13 11 12 Sem, Cham y para servirle le hizo -solo esta pregunta 1 1 ? fue su de Noe, Japhet, hijos padre quien No supo 15 responder, 1 y no fue aprobado. 16 Fuese 17 a su casa y dijo a su padre lo 18 que18 se 19 le habia 20 1 19 preguntado, y que no habia podido responder, porque esas
:

cosas tan dificiles 1 eran solo 13 para

hombres

muy

abios. 21

Su padre mas facil. 24

se 22
S'i

echo a
el

22

reir,

le dijo

23 que no habia cosa


:
<j

del gobernador 27 " del 27 ":

26 25 4 el hijo obispo te hubiera preguntado 28 de quien es hijo ? hubieras respondidoi


<z

gobernador

no es verdad 29

En 30ef ecto, 30dijo el necio 2a su padre, no hay 31 cosa mas facil. 24 En 32 seguida 32 se 17 fue 17 al obispo,4 y le dijo que ya6 sabia33
14 35 35 que debia darse a su pregunta. 37 36 Volvio a hacersela el obispo con su santa paciencia 1 Sem, Cham y Japhet, hijos de Noe, quien fue su padre ? Y respondio 1 muy satisfecho 38 El gobernador. 27

la respuesta34
36

<;

4 bishop 5 in order that he 2 fool 3 presentarse, to present one's self 8=should be put to might ordain him 6 already 7 suplicar, to request 12 made=put 10 scanty 11 serve him him 9 in view of 13 only ; 16 aprobar, to approve 17 he went ; 14 question 15 he knew==could 18 what 19=he had been asked 20 been able to 21 learned 22 burst 26 pregwitar, to ask ; 25 had 24 easy out laughing 23 there was 29 truth 30 in effect=indeed 27 governor 28 thou wouldst have 31 there is 32=then 33 he knew 34 answer 35=ought to be given ; 36=put it to him again 37 holy ; 38 satisfied, R8
;

38

IS
Tuvieron* un altercado 1 bastante4 acalorado* en un caf& dos 6 3 2 particulares, y uno de ellos, para vengarse, tuvo la bafeza? de escribir8 al amanecer 9 en la puerta del otro, INFAME. 10 12 JSste Ultimo 11 f ue 12 a buscarle pero un criado le dijo que no estaba en su casa, y le suplico 13 dejase 14 per15 escrlto 15 lo 16
;

La Venganza

heroic*.

que tuviese qtie comunicarle. 1* 17 17 18 1 No, respondio, puede Vd. solamente decirle que he 1 20 a volverle 21 su visita, porque esta maiiana me ha yenido
dejado
22

16

escritfe

23

su nombre 24 en
; ;

mi

puerta.
; ;

2 certain persons ; 3 i*ad 4 enough=rather 5 heated 6 revenge him11 latter 12 went to 10 rascal 9 dawn '8 -write ; self ; 7 meanness seek him'=called on him 13 suplicar, to request ; 14 (that) he should leave; 19 tell him ; 20 dome ; 18 only 17 you may 16 what 15==in writing 22 dejar, to leave 23 written 24 name. 2.1 return him
;
;

Los cuatro Caballeros de Industria. Cuatro caballeros2 de industria2 habiendo comido8 en una 4 5 6 4 1 taberna, hicieron subir al criado y acordaron el escote por 8 El primero hizo 9 como que ponia9 la mano 10 el gasto 7 liecho. en el bolsillo. 11 El otro se12 la cogi6 12 deteniendola, 13diciendo 14 16 15 El tercero hizo 17 la misma riibrica,18 y el que queria pagar. 19 cuartomand6 al criado que no tomase 20 dinero 21alguno 21 de ellos. Como ninguno22 queria15 ceder,23 uno de ellos dijo vende* mos24 los ojos25 al criado, como en el juego 26 de la gallina27
:

ciega,

y aquel que coja pagara.. Ponen30 en obra31 su proyecto 1 y mientras32 que el muchacho
:

27

28

29

16

iba33 palpando^en el cuarto, ellos descamparon lindamente. 35 Sube 37 el amo 36 y nuestro muchacho le coge,29 y teniendolo 38
39 firine 1 le decia :

Vd. sera

el

que pagara

la cuenta. 40

2 swindler ; 3 comer, to dine ; 4 they made the servant mount=called 7 expense the servant upstairs ; 5 acordar, to agree on ; 6=settlement 10 hand ; 11 pocket 8 made ; 9 did as though he put=pretended to put 15 would 16 pagar, to 13 detaining it ; 14 saying 12 took hold of it pay ; 17 did 18=performance 19 mandar, to order 20 he should take 22 no one 23 give way ; 24 veiidar, to blindfold 25 eye 21 any money 26 game ; 27 blind hen=blind man's buff 28=the one ; 29 (he) catches 31 work=execution ; 32 while ; 33 was going ; hold of ; 30 they put 34 palvar, to grope about 35 neatly=softly ; 36 master ; 37 subir to go up ; 3$ holding him ; 39 said ; 40 bill.
;

19
Lnifl

XIV. y

el

Cortesano.

<?

Luis 1 catorce pregunto un dia a Sabe 3 Vd. el castellano 4 ?


1

uno' de SUB cortesanos2


2

No, Senor, respondio el cortesano, pero lo aprendere. Se 6 aplico 6 mucho para aprender 5 aquel idioma, 7 y despue"s8 de haber 8 tornado muchisimo trabajo, 9 porque le parecia 10 1 1 11 que el rey tenia intencion de nombrarle embajador en la corte 1 de Espana, 12 dijo un dia a Luis catorce 14 13 4 Senor, ahora ya se el castellano. Muy bien, respondio 1 el rey, en ese caso 1 puede 15 Vd. leer 15 el Don Quijote en su original. 1
.

3 'know; 4 Castilian=Spani8h 5 aprender, to learn ; Qapli7 language ; 8 after having 9 work 10 it apcarse, to apply one's self peared ; 11 appoint him 12 Spain ; 13 already 14 1 know ; 15 you can read.
;
; ; ; ; ; ;

2 courtier

;E1 Estudiante sagaz. 2

Estando en la clase 1 un escolar 1 travieso 3 y chistoso,4 pidi6 6 licencia6 a su maestro para salir, 7 pero este 8 se 9 la nego 9 con enfado. 10 Finjio 11 el estudiante 1 que no le habia oido, 12 14 13 14 1 y se le volvio a decir que no pero repitio la suplica, entonces 15 salio, 16 y el maestro no le detuvo. 17 Entro 1 una liora despues* 18 y el maestro encolerizado 19 le 20 a salir 7 sin mi licencia6 ? i Como te has atrevido dijo
; :

Respondiole muy humildemente el discipulo Le pedi 5 a Vd. licencia6 dos veces y ambas22 me dijo que 1 1 23 1 no'; como dos negaciones afirman, crei que consentia Vtl. 24 25 16 mas sin ?ali aguardar respuesta. Y 27 28 28 26 29 Quedo desenojado el maestro, y se ri6 de la agudeza.
1
:

21

2 sagacious 3 turbulent ; 4 humorous 5 asked 6 permission ; 7 go(ing) 10 vexation ; 11 finjir^ to pretend ; out 8=the latter 9 denied it to him 16 went out ; 16 then 13 request 14=was again told 12 heard 20 atreverse, to dare ; 21 humbly 18 afterwards 19 angry 17 detained 24 wait(ing) ; 25 reply ; 2G qtiedar, to remain ; 22 both 23 I thought 28 he laughed 29 acuteness. 27 appeased
;
;

Ha

" el Barbero 1 de Sevilla 1 visto Vd.

No, senor,

me2

afeito 2 solo. 3
2 I shave myself
;

3 aloae.

El Barfcero de 'JoatTTt. Tin dia, habiendo llegado el emperador1 Jose 1 a una ciudad antes2 que3 su acompanamiento,3 le pregunto el ama4 df la
posada,
pertenecia al sequito del emperador. 7 1 No, respondio el prineipe. 8 8 Sin embargo, con tan laconica1 respuesta9 no quedo 10 satissi
,

de la buena mujer. Busco un pretesto 1 12 1 13 para entrar en su cuarto, y viendole ocupado en af eitarse, le pregunto si tenia algiin 14 cargo 15 cerca16 del emperador. 1 1 1 14 veces le afeito. 13 Si, respondio el monarca ; algunas
f echa 1 la curiosidad 1
11
1

theless

6 he belonged ; 7 prince ; 8 never; 3 suite ; 4 mistress ; 5 inn ; 9 reply ; 10 quedar, to remain ; 11 buscar, to seek ;12 seeing him ; 13 ofeitar to shave ; 14 any, some ; 15 office ; 16 near.

2 before
;

.Los dos Marineros.

Dos marineros,2 el uno ingles8 y el ron5 en6 socorrerse6 mutuamente1 en

otro irlandes,4 convinieel caso 1 de sucederles7

1 1 Tuvo el ingles la desalgun accidente en el combate. 8 9 11 12 10 tma de su gracia perder companero le cargo al pierna, y momento sobre sus espaldas13 para llevarle^ a curar. 1 En el camino15 vino16 otra bala1 de can6n, 1 y le 17 llevo 17 la cabeza18 al herido,19 pero el irlandes4 no lo advirtio 20 y 22 21 23 sigui6 con el cuerpo sin deteners^. Un oficial24 que le vi6 25pasar1 con el tronco26 de un hombre eobre las espaldas,13 le pregunto a donde iba. 27 28 buscar28 al cirujano^responde. 1 Pero,majadero, 30 ^ no 3* ves que llevas14 uri cuerpo22 sin cabeza18 ? 34 su carga, 35 y exclamo 1 estas palabraB32 puso 33 en tierra mirando86 atentamente1 el cadaver37 : 38 me hardicho 39 que era una pierna10 la que 4 Si el mismo 9 habia perdido !

3 Englishman) 4 Irish(man) ; 5 agreed ; 6 to help each other ; 7 happening) to them 8 misfortune 9 perder, to lose ; 10 leg ; 11 com13 shoulder 15 way panion ; 12 loaded=took ; J14 llevar, to carry ; 20 noticed ; IScame; 17==took off ; 18 head ; 19 wounded (man) 21 ollowed=went on 22 body J 23 stop(pmg) ; 24 officer ; 25 saw j 26 trunk ; 27 he was going ; 28 to seek=for ; 29 surgeon 30 blockhead ; 31 seest thou 32 word ; 33 he put ; 34 ground ; 35 burden ; 36 looking at ; 37 corpse ; 38 himself 39 told.
sailor
; ; ; ;
;

21
El nuevo Hercules.

por muy diestro en los ejercicios de fuerzas, y al mismo tiempo muy robusto> 9 8 se 7 veia 7 frecuentemente 1 obligado 1 a medirlas con algunos. 13 n 12 10 Vino uno*de muy lejos a Iuchar con nuestro campeon, y lti 15 14 le dijeron que estaba en el cercado de la casa trabajando. 19 Echa17 pie 18 a tierra y va20 a buscarle al memento, con el
Tin artesano 1 que pasaba 2 en
5 6

el

pais

22 21 caballo de la brida, que ato a


1

una

estaca23 del cercado.

15

fuerzas,

Camarada, le dice, he oido hablar mucho de vuestras 29 26 28 27 6 y vengo de cuarenta millas a veros y ensayar 30 31 cual de los dos puede tumbar al otro. No habia hecho 32 mas que concluir 1 estas palabras, 33 cuando
24

25

nuestro hercules solt6 34 al


37

el azadon, le cogi6 por 41 39 las piernas, prado inmediato por encima de41 la tapia,42 y volviendo 43 a tomar 43 con mucha serenidad 1 44 el azadon, 35 continue su trabajo.

momento
40

35

36

le arrojo 38 al

Luego
despues

45

49

que el pobre diablo se de 49 tan fuerte 50 porrazo 51


53
1

45

46

48

47
:

levant 6 47

como pudo48
?
55
;

24 -el J?ien, le dice

otro, & tiene'Vd.

alguna cosa mds que

52

mandarme 52
54

No, senor, gracias, le responde espantado del vuelo echeme 56 Vd. aca57 por el mismo camino 58 mi caballo, pues88 he concluido 1 mi comision,1 y me quiero 60 marchar. 61
3 country 4 dexterous ; 5 exercise 6 strength(s) ; 2 pasar, to pass 7 saw(=found) himself ; 8 medir, to measure ;9=others ; 10 came ; 11 far ; 14 they told 13 champion 15 enclosure ; 16 trabajar, to 12 to wrestle 20 goes ; 21 bridle ; work; 17 he throws=puts ; 18 foot; 19 ground 23 stake 24 (he) says 25 heard ; 26 I come ; 27 mile 22 atar, to tie 31 overthrow ; 32 done ; 33 word ; 28 (lo) see you ; 29=to try ; 30 can 35 pick-axe 36 took hold of ; 37 legs ; 34 loosened=ttirew down 39 meadow 41 over 42 mud-wall 40 38 arrojar, to fling adjoining ; 44 45 46 work as soon as devil=fellow 47 got 43 again taking poor 51 blow ; 52 to command up 48 (best) he could ; 49 after ; 50 strong
; ; ;
;

me

53 thanks
;

57 (over) here

58

55 flight 56 echar, to throw 54 espantar, to frighten way 59 since ; 60 I want ; 61 marchar'se, to. go away.
;

En qne mes3 hablan menos 3 las mujeres ? En Febrero,1 porque s<5lo 4 tiene veinte y ocho
I

dias.

2 month

3 least

4 only.

22

Dos Borraohos.
de setenta anos 3 iba4 una vez buscando por5 5 todas paries un cuervo 7 joven. 6 8 9 1 Para que lo quiere Vd. ? pregunto un campesino. He pido 10 decir, 11 respondio el beodo, 2 que estas aves12 viven
trescientos anos, 3
2

Un borracho2

8 13 u 15 14 y quiero saber por mi mismo si es cierto. 16 16 17 Otro borracho se hallaba una noche a deshora sentado 18 en la esquina19 de una calle, cuando acerto 20 a psisar 1 21 1 21 por alii una patrulla.

22 23 Que haceis ahi ? le pregunta el sargento. 1 24 Veo que la tierra25 anda,2< y estoy esperando 27 que28 pase mi casa28 por29 aqui29 para meterme 30 en ella.
<< >

2 drunkard 3 year 4 went 6=e very where 6 young 7 raven 8 want ; 14 myself 11 say 12 bird 13 (to) know 9 countryman-; 10 heard 19 corner 18 seated 15 certain=true ; 16==was 17=an untimely hour 23 here 24 I see 22 are you doing 20=happened ; 21=that way 27 esperar, to wait 28=or my house to pass ; 26 goes round 25 earth 29=this way ; 30 put myself=go.
*

El Quitamanchas. brib6n 2 se introdujo 1 en casa de un caballero, entr6 l 5 hasta3 la antesala4 del primer piso, y no viendo 6 cosa de que 9 8 8 7 es de dos libreas 10 de los sino pudiese sacar partido 11 1 12 a con las se decidi6 apropiarselas por no salirse criados, 13 14 jnanos vacias.

Un

Al bajar la escalera hallo al amo, quien le pregunt6 de qui6n eran aquellos vestidos, 18 y adonde los llevaba. 19 1 1 20 20 ^ Pues que, senor, responde con mucha serenidad, no 22 21 me conoc^is ? Yo trabajo para vuestros criados soy el 18 24 2S 1 quitamanchas, y limpio los vestidos de vuestros lacayos. 25 26 27 1 de la a el dueiio darte mi En ese caso, dijo casa, voy 30 31 28 29 fcata, pues la he llenado de aceite.
;

16

15

16

17

Y al mismo tiempo se la dio.


;

32

2 rascal

3 as far as
;

make off with 9 except 10 away; 13 empty 14 hand


;

4 ante-chamber ; 5 floor 6 seeing 7 he could 12 go ; livery ; 11 appropriate them to himself 15 on descending ; 16 staircase; 17 master; ;
: ; ; ;

8=

18 suits
;

19 llevar, to carry
; ;

20=why
to clean
;

work 23 scourer 24 limpiar,


thee
;

28 dressing-gown

29 since

21 do you know 22 tralajar^ to 25 owner 26 I am going 27 give 30 llenar, to fill ; 31 oil ; 32 he gave.
; ; ; ;
;

23
El Representante del Pueblo. 2 candidate 1 de un arrabal 3 de una eiudad dijo d BUS con4 5 7 stituyentes que si querian nombrarle diputado^ les haria 9 8 10 11 Este gozar en todas estaciones del tiempo que quisiesen. ofrecimiento 12 fue tan seductor, 13 que no pudieron 14 menos de 15

Un

nombrar5 a

este

hombre que parecia16 tener un don 17 celestial. 1


18 18

Algiin tiempo despues de uno de sus constituyentes, 1 y

la eleccion, 1

le

pidio

20

fue 19 a buscarle un poco de lluvia. 21 ,


6
:

Bueno, amigo mio,


pides
22

la

lluvia21

Yo

la

necesito 26

diputado pero por que no hara23 daiio 24 a vuestros prados25 ? 27 28 para mis trigos, pues la yerba 6 el
<j

le dijo el

heno29 ya30 esta en casa. 31 ha encerrado 32 t Pero vuestro vecino


persuadido
1

el

suyo

?
33

Yo estoy

mucho. Eso si, es verdad, 34 no le vendria35 muy bien. Pues36 en ese caso, 1 amigo mio, ya 30 sabeis37 lo 38 que 38 os he dicho. 39 Yo os he prometido40 proporcionaros41 el tiempo 10

deque ahora la lluvia

21

le

perjudicaria

pero si yo os cloy la lluvia, perjudicare a vuestro vecino 31 asi44 pues, 44 el partido 45 mas prudente 1 sera el de oiros46 juntos,47 y que os48 concerteis48 sobre la especie49 de tiempo 10 que os convenga 50 a todos, y entonces 51 os prometo 40 complaceros52 porque mi intencion 1 no es de suscitar 53 querellas 1 entre mis conciudadanos54

que querais

42

43

21

33

dando 55

la preferencia1
3 suburb
;

a los unos sobre los otros.


; ;

4 they would 5 nombrar, to appoint 6 deputy ; ; 7 he- would make=cause 8 (to) enjoy ; 9 season ; 10 weather ; 1 1 they wanted ; 12 offer ; 13 attractive 14 they could (do) ; 15=than ; 16 ap21 rain ; 22 dost thou 20 requested peared 17 gift 18 after 19 went

2 village

23 will it do 24 damage 25 meadow 26 want 27 wheat ; 28 herb =grass 29 hay 30 already 31 neighbour ; 32 shut up=housed ; 33 per34 truth=true 35 it would come ; 36 then ; 37 you judicar, to injure know 38 what 39 told 40 promoter, to promise ; 41 to portion to you ; 42 you want 43 give 44 therefore 45 course 46 hear you ; 47 together 48 you agree 49 kind 50 suits 51 then ; 52 (to) please you ; 53 to stir up ; 54 fellow-citizens ; 55 (by) giving.
ask
;

'

Mas2 vale* acostarse 3 sin cenar4 que levantarse5 con


2
it is

deudas. 6
;

worth more=it

is

better

3 to go to bed

4 sup [ping]

5 to get

up; 6

debt.

M
El Corregidor y el Mayorazgo. 3 TTn caballerito2 mayorazgo muy loco4 y muy gastador* 7 6 8 el con estaba disgustado corregidor del pueblo, que era
hi jo de

un

carnicero. 9
12

El mayorazgo 3 vendio 10 unas


13
1

tierras11

y siis caprichos, sin pensar14 en sus 1 y un^dia que se presento muy elegante1 en un onyite 16 se17 pusol7* a referir18 las modas 19 y los trajes20 21 habia hecho,21 cuando^ repenlinamente,22 por que se
para sostener acreedores15
;

su lujo

abochornarle23

le dijo el corregidor7

Mejor

En29

hiciera24 si tratase26 Vd. 26 de pagar27 sus deudas.28 ef ecto,29 tiene 30 Vd. razon,30 y maiiana voy 31 a satis25

facerlas32

33 ; hagame su recibo 34 por una cabeza35 de ternera36 37 unas lenguas que debo a su padre de Vd. y

2 young gentleman ; 3 first-born=heir ; 4 silly ; 5 spendthrift ; 6 displeased ; 7 magistrate ; 8 village ; 9 butcher ; 10 vender, to sell ; 11 land ; 12 support ; 13 luxury ; 14 think(ing) ; 15 creditor; 16 feast ; 1'7 he put feimself=he began ; 18 relate ; 19 fashion ; 20 costume ; 21=hehadhadmade; 22 suddenly ; 23 (to) irritate him ; 24 you would do ; 25 better ; 26 you tried ; 27 pay ; 28 debt ; 29 indeed ; 30 you are right ; 31 1 am going ; 32 satisfy them ; 33 make me (out) ; 34 receipt ; 35 head ; 36 calf ; 37 tongue.

Padre e Hyo. El mar^cal 2 Lefevue era hijo de un pobre molinero8 de la Alsacia. Siendo aiin 4 joven6 entro en las Guardias 1 Francesas,
1

y
8

era sargento 1 cuando estallo 6 la^Revolucion, 1 que


el
10

hizo

sucesivamente1 de
9

ultimo, bajo el Imperia, Estaba muy descontento 1


11

un oficial, un un mariscal* de
de su
hijo,

general, Francia. 1

y por

1 cuya conducta

dia estando dirigiendole13 dejaba 1 14 entre le otras cosas : amargos reproches, dijo Tii no haces15 caso 15 de mis consejos16 ni reconvenciones,17 mal sujeto 18 : diriase 19 que te crees20 superior1 a tu padre.
1 21 respondio desdenosamente su hijo 22 de era un pobre de mi todo, hijo padre porque despues 3 23 molinero, y yo soy hijo de un rico mariscal de Francia.

mucho que12 desear. 12 Un

Es

muy

posible,
22

2 marshal ; 3 miller ; 4 still ; 5 young ; 6 estallar> to break out ; 7 made ; 9 under ; 10 empire ; 11 dejar, to leave ; 12 to desire 13 ad; dressing to him ; 14 bitter ; 155=payest attention ; 16 advice ; 17 recrimination j l&rsfellow ; 'l9=one would say ; 20 creer, to believe ; 21 disdain-

finally

fo%;

22 alter;

El Juramento.

un coche1 de 8 alquiler3 para ir4 a un pueblo 5 cerca6 de 8 Sevilla, 1 y el cochero7 le pidi6 8 catorce pesetas.
Tin escribano 2 tom6
1

Afirmaras 1
12

tii

bajo juramento
13

10

que ?se es

el

precio
lar

11

que

se

12

paga por este viaje ? Si, senor. El escribano 2 saco 14 entonces 15 y puso 16 sobre
1

mesa un

hizo 17 jurar 18 y le dio 19 seis pesetas, dici6ndele2d crucifijo, 23 21 2* 1 que retenia lo restante por el acta de*la prestacion del
le

juramento.

10

2 notary ; 3 on hire ; 5 village ; 7 driver ; 4 go ; 6 near ; 8 asked ; 9 under ; 10 oath ; 11 price ; 12 is paid 13 journey ; 14 sacar, to draw out ; 15 then ; 16 put ; 17 made ; 18 swear ; 19 gave ; 20 teliing him ; 21 retained ; 22 remainder ; 23 administration.
;

El Caballo y las Ostras. 3 4 viajero llego a una posada en una noche de las mis 5 4 5 6 1 frlas de Diciembre, y al pasar por la cocina7 vi6 8 gue todos los asientos9*estaban ocupados 1 por la mucha gente10 que habia11 alrededor 12 del f uego, 13 causandole 1 la mayor 14 penal& el no poder 16 acercarse 17 a calentarse 18 las manos. 18 19 20 21 22 1 Mozo, dijo en alta voz al criado, lleva dos docenas de 23 ostras a mi caballo. El mozo 19 obedeci6, 24 y las personas 1 que estaban calentandose 25 alrededor 12 de la lumbre, 13 no pudiendo 1* resistiri al deseo 26 de ver27 un animal 1 tan< extraordinario, 1 se 28 lefrantaron 28 y marcharon 1 en tropel 29 a la caballeriza. 30

Un

2 31 32 9 33 Entretanto, el viajero tomo el mejor asiento enfrente del fuego,13 y pocos momentos 1 despues34 ^olvio 35 el aozo w a 37 86 de los curiosos, 1 que el caballo no queria 38 decirle, seguido

comer 39
j

las ostras. 23
!

Como
41

no

las quiere 40 ?
41

pues

mere

entonces, a su salud. 43
; ;

,ponme

42

pregunta muy serio aqui la mesa, y yo

el viajero2

me
;

las co-

2 traveller 3 inn 4 one of the coldest nights 5 in passing 6 through 7 kitchen 8 he saw 9 seat 10 people 11 there were ; 12 round 13 fire ; 14 greatest ; 15 pain 16 be(ing)able 17 18 warm his (to) draw near hands 19 waiter 20 high ; 21 voice ; 22 take 24 obeyed ; 23 oyster 25 calentar, to warm 26 desire 27 see 28 got up 29 crowd 30 stable ; 31 meanwhile ; 32 best 33 front ; 34 after 35 came back; 36 tell him^ 37 followed 38 would 39 eat ; 40 he likes ; 41 well then ; 42 put me ; 43 healthu
;

26
Otra, otra.
s 2 capitdn de buque que no habia estado nunca en el 6 5 1 1 7 4 teatro, ni tenia voto ni aiin oido para la miisica, fue una

Un

noche a la opera en compania1 de un amigo. Cuando se9 acabo 9 la f uncion, 8 se 7 fue 7 a su posada,10 donde le preguntaron como habian desempeiiado11 las actrices1 sus papeles. 12 No me ban gustado, 13 respondio alii habia14 una mujer 16 17 15 que lo ha becbo tan mal, que la ban becbo volver a 17 " 19 18 dos 6 tres otra." veces empezar etra, gritando
;
:

2 ship ; 3 never ; 4=authority ; 5 yet ; 6 ear ; 7 went 8 performance ; itself=:was over ; 10 inn ; 11 desempenar, to fulfil ; 12=parts ; 13 gustar^ to please ; 14 there was ; 15 done ; 16 made ; 17 return to begin =begin again ; 18 gritar> to call out ; 19=encore.
;

9 finished

Las Estatuas.
tendero2 quo en poco tiempo se 3 hizo 3 rice,4 compr65 las haciendas6 de un caballero, y un dia quiso 7 hacer8 ver8 i uno de sus amigos su nueva adquisicion. 1 9 10 1 Llegaron al jardin y le mostro diferentes estatuas11 de 1 1 12 bronce qu^ adornaban las avenidas. 13 1 su amigo, mostrandole14 un ^ Que figura es esta ? le dice
busto, 1

Un

Esa figura ? ... espere15 Vd. ... no me16 acuerdo 16 ...ah, si, esa debe 17 ser la de Venus 6 Vulcano, pero no se 18 positivamente1 cual de las dos; lo preguntaremos al jardinero19 ;
<j

como son

del
;

mismo

1 metal, es

muy

dif icil 1 distinguirlas. 1


; ;

2 shopkeeper 3 made himself ; 4 rich ; 5 comprar, to buy ; 6 estate 9 garden ; 8 to make see=to show ; 10 mosfrar, to show 7 wished ; 11 statue 12 avenue 13 says ; 14 showing him ; 15 $sperary to wait 16 I remember ; 17 must ; 18 I know ; 19 gardener.
; ;

Un

caballero qxte tenia


<;

fue preguntado
conciertos 1
?

hermano se eordo4 como mi hermano, entonces me


2 they told
;

una grancle antipatia1 por la miisica1 1 por que no se suscribia a una serie de 1 y para decidirle a ello le dijeron2 que su habia suscrito. 1 ^Bien, dijo el, si yo fuera8 tan
suscribiria.

3 were

4 deaf .

27

La

Apuesta.

Cierto* caballero tenia, 8 oomo a punto 4 de honra, 6 no5 servirse jamds* de afirmativa. 1 Otro, a quien contaron7 eata 9 8 10 1 rareza, 'apost6 que le haria responder SI,* 6 NO, la primera

vez que

le encontrase. 11

Verificada1 la apuesta, 12 sucedi6 18 que un dia vio 15 el 16 14 16 derechamente 17 a dirigia apostador al caballero que se 19 entrar 1 en una iglesik 18 Saliole al encuentro, 19 saludole,20
21 21 va22 Vd. a la iglesia 18 pregunt6 Con que Este es el camino, 23 respondio el caballero. 2 certain 3 held 4 point 5 honor 6=never to make use 10 he would make 9 apoetar, to bet relate 8 originality

le

<;

7 cantor, to 11 he met ;

12 bet ; 13 suceder, to happen himself ; 17 straight 18 church bow ; 21 well 22 go ; 23 way.


; ;

14 wagerer
;

15
to

19=he went

saw 16 was directing meet him 20 aaludar, to


;

Las dos

Orejas.

ratero 2 a quien ya3 habian cortado 4 una oreja 5 en Bristol 7 8 6 9 por castigo, entr6* en una tienda, y dijo queria una pieza Mostraronle 13 varias, 1 y del mejor 10 encaje 11 que hubiese. 12

Un

14 14 16 16 despues de haber elejido la que le agrado, pregunto aj 19 18 17 comerciante cuanto le llevaria por medirle 20 ei largo21 1 1 1 5 al igual espacio que separaba sus orej as. El comerciante17 dijo que dos reales. 1

pag&ndole pero como yo tengo una 23 24 oreja aqui, y la otra esti clavada en la picota de Bristol, creo n 25 no tendri Vd. hoy bastante encaje para medirme 20 lo concer9 28 26 27 28 29 tado, y voy a tomar la pieza a buena cuenta, sin perjuicio de que procure29 completarme1 el resto 1 lo mas pronto 30 posible.

Bueno, dijo
6

el ratero3

22

2 rogue 3 already 4 cortar, to cut (off) 5 ear 6 punishment 7 shop j 8 he wanted ; 9 piece 10 best 11 lace 12 there was 13 they showed him ; 14 after having 15 chosen 16 agradar, to please 17 merchant j 18 how much 19=he would charge 20 medir, to measure ; 21 length 22pagar f to 26 agreed on (quantity) 25 enough pay ; 23 clavar, to nail 24 gibbet 27 I am going; 28 on account; 29=without prejudice to your try ing; 30 soon.
; ;
;

2 3 3 1 que se nos aparece una vez en un minuto, dos veces en un momento, 1 y nunca6 en un siglo 6 ? La letra 1 M,

Que
4
.

es lo2

'

>

2 what

3 appears to us

4 time

6 never

6 century.

28
El gran Rey.

Uno de
de
las

los liltimos2 reyes

de Espana, 8 a

quien

la suerte*

armas 1 habia privado 5 de varias1 plazas6 considerables, 1 recibia7 sin 8 embargo 8 de la mayor 9 parte 1 de sus cortesanos 10
et titulo 1
13

de Grande.
se 14
12 12 a dijo un espanol, se parece hacen 14 mayores9 en proporcion a

Su Grandeza, 11

la

de los

fosos, que 16 16 que les quitan.


;
;

la tierra15

3 Spain 4 chance=fortune ; 5 privar, to deprive 2 last 8 nevertheless ; 9 greater ; 10 courtier 7 recibir, to receive ness ; 12 resembles 13 ditch 14 make themselves=become earth ; 16 they take away from them.
; ;

6 place

11 great16 land,

El Aldeano
6 leria4 casi 5 vacia

el

Mercader.
3

que tenia la anaquede generos, 7 entro en ella, y con ironia1 8 9 Este pregunto al mercader que era lo que alii se vendia. 11 12 10 18 14 le burlarse contesto tambien con enfado y quiso
tiei\da
:

Pasando un aldeano 2 por una

venden9 cabezas15 de/asnos. 16 Aqui Grande es Iaventa17 de estacasa,segun 18 veo,19 ledice20riendo21 a carca'jadas21 el aldeano, 2 pues no queda22 mas* que la tuya.
se
dealer;
;

6 empty ; 7 goods ; 8 2 villager ; 3 shop ; 4=shelves ; 5 almost ; 10 wanted 5 11 also; 12 to jest; 13con9 venderse, to be sold 18 according 14 vexation ; 15 head ; 16 ass ; 17 sale testar, to answer 19 I see 20 says 21 laughing boisterously ; 22 quedar, to remain. as
j ; ; ; ;

El Vice-C6nsul flemdtico.

soberano 2 mando 3 suspender 1 un dia su arenga4 a un orador 1 diciendole 5 & Quien es Vd. ? Seiior, le respondio,1 6 por que no ha vesoy el segundo consul de mi pueblo. 9 10 nido7 el primero ? Tened, 8 seiior, la bondad de perdonarle,

Un

,;

12 11 13 Yo no veo, poderosa. pues tiene una razon bastante 16 17 1 15 14 repone el principe irritado, que es lo que piiede alegar. 1 18 1 es natural su con flema, que Sefior, contesta el orador murio 19 ayer. Entonces el rey le mando 3 continuar. 1

5 saying to him 4 harangue 2 sovereign ; 3 mcmdar, to order 10 perdonar, to pardon ; 11 9 kindness 6 town 7 come ; 8 have ; 13 reason ; 14 replies ; 15 prince ; 16 he 12 powerful ; sufficiently can; 17 allege ; 18 phlegm; 19 he died.
;

29

La Pronunciaeion
leer 2 el

Inglesa:

1 4 3 1 Para ingles no basta saber pronunciar el alf abeto, 1 7 6 5 en acaso no Europa, que preninguna lengua hay pues 1 1 sente 1 sonidos 8 tan varios 1 y excepciones tan iiumerosas a la 12 u 10 1 10 9 de una de modo que s61o por medio regla general 1 14 1 lectura13 asidua 1 y constante, bajo la direccion de un pro15 16 15 fesor 1 6 practicando1 con ingleses, se puede conseguir 17 1 17 1 tener una pronunciacion jnas 6 inenos perfecta.
;

18 Hay 5 tambien

ingles, franees

19

se

pronuncia
22
;

otra irr.egularidad 1 en la ortografia 1 del 20 7 20 una misma lefra1 otras lenguas, a saber y de varias 1 maneras, 1 6 por 21 mejor deeir, 21 re:

presenta
palabras

sonidos 8

enteramente 1
1

distintos,

en

diferentes

esta irregularidad es
24

sucede23 lo

mismo con
vocal,

como

"

"

" la Y," la cual se pronuncia a veces veces como consonante. 1 a y

muy extensa. 1 En Espanol

Consideradas1 todas estas irregularidades 1 que ocurren 1 tan 1 1 f recuentemente, de una man era u otra, en la mayor parte 1 de
se puede decir, que las letras inglesas casi de ninguna manera 1 representan 1 los sonidos 8 del lenguaje, 1 27 28 27 1 y por consiguiente es en cierto modo iinposible hallar la 22 1 29 la de las mera de las letras vista palabras por pronunciacion
las palabras,
22

25

26

26

inanuscritas1 6 impresas 30 del modo 28 ordinario. 1 Una cosa 32 es aprender31 a escribir una palabra, 22 y otra enteramente 1 diferente1 el saber 33 pronunciarla despues 34 de 34 escrita. 35
1 (se conthiuard en la paginal siguiente.^)

1 the same, or nearly the same, as in ; English. 4 to know (how) 3 bastar, to suffice 5 there is 6=perhaps ? 9 rule 10 so that 11 only 12 means 13 reading ; 7 tongue ; 8 sound 16 to attain 1 7=approaching 18 also 14 under ; 15=it is possible 21=it should rather be said 22 word 23 suceder^ 19 French ; 2Q=viz. 25 almost 26 it may be said 27 consequently ; to happen ; 24 vowel 28 way ; 29 sight 30 printed ; 31 to learn ; 32 (to) write 33 know(ing

not to be translated
;

2 read

how

to)

34 after; 35 written

36 following

37 page.

El gato 2 escaldado 3 del agua6


2 cat
;

fria 5

huye.
;

3 escaldar, to scald

4 flees

5 cold

6 water.

30

La Pronuhciacidn Inglesa (continuation). La Pronunciation Inglesa es tan dificil, 1 que tanto2 los Americanos como2 los Ingleses estan obligates 1 a tener para "
su uso 1
;

Diccionarios 1 de Pronunciation," con su clave 3 1 esto es, diccionarios en que las palabras 4 correspondiente
estan impresas, 5 tal 6 cual 6 deben 7 escribirse, 8
'

y a continuation mismas palabras4 con ciertos signos, 1 que 'muestran9 como deben 7 pronunciarse el metodo 1 6 sistema1 con que " 3 " la cual no es esto se 10 hace10 se 11 denomina 11 clave,
las
;

12 13 u Dicciosiempre la misma. Estos son los que se llaman narios de Pronunciaci6n.'**No los hay en castellano, 14 porque

no

se 15 necesitan. 15

La diferencia1 entre la manera1 de escribir 16 y la de pronuhciar las palabras 4 *en ingles, trae 17 su ori^en 1 parte 18 de 19 1 20 que la lengua inglesa^e ha formado de la mezcla de un 1 1 19 18 gran niimero de diferentes idiomas, parte de los grandes cambios21 que han ocurrido 1 en el metodo^-de pronunciar muchas palabras4 durance22 muchos siglos, 23 mientras24 que el metodo de escribirlas no ha cambiado 25 a proportion 1 pero 1 26 causa de 26 haber ^adoptado 1 el alfabeto 1 principalmente a
'

romano para representar el ingles, que tiene muchos mas sonidos27 que el latino, 1 y aiin 28 mas que el castellano, 14 y que 80 1 29 29 por tanto no puede representarlos por el alfabeto romano.
1 1

2 tanto ... <&mo, both ... and 3 key 4 word 5 printed 6 like ; 7 they 9 moslrar, to show 8 be written 10 does itself=is done : lL=is 14 Castihan=Spanish entitled ; 12 always ; 13 llamar, to call 15=are 17 draws=owes 16 writing ; 18 part(ly) 19 language. wanted ; 20 mixture 21 change ; 22 during ; 23 century 24 while 25 cambiar, 10 change ; 26 on account of ; 27 sound ; 28 yet 29 therefore 30 can.
; ; ;
;

must

,-

El Libro prestado.
1 2 ; por que causa no solian volverse2 a BUS dueiios 3 los libros prestados4 ? respondio Porque 5 es mas facil retener6 los libros que lo 7 que 7 contienen. 8
:

Preguntando un amigo a otro

2 were usually returned 3 owner retain ; 7 what ; 8 they contain.


;

4 prestar, to lend

5 easy

6 (to)

31
1 1 Se 2 cuenta2 una buena y autentica historia de la mujer* 4 1 de de un manufacturero de encajes Nottingham, que hal1 6 5 l&ndose con su marido en Paris y ocupada en mirar los 8 1 mostradores7 como sucede a los que visitan Paris, se* 10 4 enamor6 9 de un panuelo de encaje de una finura11 y

12 1 la delicadeza1 extrema, por el cual el tendercf le pidio 1 1 1 cuarenta francos. cientos cuatro de moderada suma 14 15 13 1 Ella inmediatamente lo hubiese comprado a no impe1 1 16 signos de disuasion que le hizo su 17 18 no mas, poco, tanto marido, los cuales le sorprendieron cuanto 19 sabia20 que su marido* era un buen juez en la

dirselo 15 los dif erentes


5

no podia21 por consiguiente explicarse esta materia 1 25 26 1 falta 24 de apreciacion sobre tan hermoso trabajo. 27 28 10 1 Ella examino el panuelo otra vez medio dudando, pero
;

22

22

23

32 30 panuelo era suave^en te;jido y de hermoso dibujo ; lanzo 1 5 33 el def no ecto le otro hallaba a su esposo y otra mirada que ser^caro 35 de 36 suerte que 86 con cierta pena 37 se 38 fue 38 dealli. 41 42 40 39 Apenas habia salido de la tienda, cuando interpe45 6 44 43 lando a sb marido le dijo Juan, por que no has querido

el

25

31

<;

comprar

14

una cosa tan hermosa25 como esa


la
:

?
48

Tienes46 razon,46 querida47 mia, 47 fue

respuesta

de Juan.

1 25 46 I}fectivamente 49 es unarticulo hermoso pero no he querido 14 50 w 62 51 mi de viene darte fabrica, compr&rtelo, pues y puedo

otro igual 54 por veinte francos


2
is

related

3 wife
;

8 suceder, to happen fineness 12 asked 13 would have 14 comprar, to buy 15=but was prevented by 16 made 17 sorprender, to surprise 18=all the 19 as 20 she knew 21 she could 22 therefore 24 want 23 explicar, to explain 25 beautiful 26 work 27 half 28 dudar, to doubt 29 soft ; 30 texture ; 31 design 32 lanzar, to dart 35 dear 36 so 33 glance 34 be(ing) that 37 pain=regret ; 38 she went away 39 hardly 40 she had ; 41 gone out 42 shop 43 interpelar, to appeal 44 John 45 been willing 46 hast reason=art right ; 47 my dear 48 reply 60 it 49 certainly, indeed ; comes ; 51 manufactory 52 I can 53 give thee 54 equal=like it.
;
;

4 lace 5 husband 6 look(ing) at 7 shop-counters; 9 enamorarse, to fall in love ; 10 handkerchief ; 11


; ; ;

En qu6 se2 parece2 un esqueleto3 a una comfda4 de viernes6 ? En qne le6 falta6 la came. 7
2 resembles
;

3 skeleton

4 dinner

5 Friday

it

lacks

7 flesh.

82
El Hisisipi.
Paseabase 2 un europeo 1 por las orillas 3 del Misisipf, 1 rio4 de> un labriego 7 Como se^ curso 5 muy veloz, 6 y pregunto 4 8 llama este rio ? No hay necesidad 1 de llamarle, senor, 9 10 n porque el se viene espontaneamente solo.
:
<;

2 was passing
co

be called

3 bank ; | river ; 6 current 6 rapid 7 peasant 9 comes ; 10 voluntarily 11 alone of its<own accord.
;
; ;

La Genero&idad.
Presentaron 1 a un caballero la cuenta2 de gastos3 del eti tierro 4 de su mujer, 5 y al 6 ver 6 a lo 7 que 7 ascendia, como, seiiores exclaino, 1 tanto 8 dinero por un convoy 9 f linebre9 ! Pues 10 que 10 cree Vd. que unos f unerales 'tan magnificos1
\
!

<j

hacen 11 por nada 12 ? no podemos13 rebajar 14 un cuarto. 15 16 17 10 Vamos, vamos,10 les contesta, hacedme el recibo, .pue& 18 18 de que mi pobre mujer5 ahora ya me hago cargo 19 21 20 hubiera pagado muy gustosa el doble 1 por -mi entierro,* 1 y no tfuiero22 cederla23 en generosidad.
se 11
2 account ; 3 expense 4 burial 5 wife 6 on seeing 7 what 8 so muchi; 9 funeral ; 10 well ll=are done 12 nothing 13 we can 14 to bate 15 (a small copper coin) 16 make me (out); 17 receipt 18 I think of it ; 19 would have j 20 paid ; 21 cheerfully ; 22 I am willing 23 (to) give way .to fcer.
; ; ; ;
;

>

Nueva Aritmetica.

1 1 3 2 abogado hizo la defensa de un litigante ante* ua 6 5 1 el uno tres de tribunal compuesto muy sabio,7 y los jueces,

Un

otros dos bastante ignorantes.

1
1^

Perdio^
burlarse
14

el pleito,

10

y queriendo

uno de sus companeros11


:
<;

,,

14 con este motivo dijo Pero, esperaban 17 16 16 asi con un sucediese Era Yds. otra coaa ? preciso tribunal 1 de cien jueces. 6 19 Cien jueces repuso 18 uno de ellos i pues no eran tres ? 24 23 22 21 20 tFno y dos ceros i cuanto hacen segiin vuestra cuenta ?

13

de

el,

respondio
;

el

5 composed ; 6 judge 7 learned ; 8==rather; ; 13 to make fun ; 14 did 11 colleague 12 wishing you expect ; 15 necessary ; 16 it should happen 17 thus ; 18 replied ; 19 then arbut ; 20 zero ; 21 iow many ; 22 do they make ; 23 according to ; 24 couat.
9 he lost

2 lawyer 3 ; ; 10 law-suit

abogado. made 4 before


;

From
Bules in

"SPANISH SIMPLIFIED,"

this point the Student

is

assumed to be acquainted with

all

the

including the principal Irregular

Verbs

(see Lessons 19 to 24).

Una

1 Campanario. senora vio 2 entrar 1 en su cuarto a

estatura 1 gigantesca, 1
3
1

y pregunto quien
4

era.

un hombre de una Es un hombre

que viene destinado para la iglesia, respondio el criado. 7 6 8 6 Mejor diria Vd., repnso la senora, para el campanario.
2 saw
;

3 oomes=is

4 church

you would better say


fiel.

6 replied

7 steeple.

El Criado

2 8 sefior, necesitando madrugar, dice a su criado manana debes4 despertarme 6 a las cuatro en6 puntoJ* Sera7 Vd. servido. 7

Un

Juan,

Y Juan,
cama12 una silla.
Pero
el

Mira8 que no
fiel 11

No tenga Vd. cuidado. 10 te olvides. 9 a su promesa, 1 resuelve 1 no echarse 1* en la 13 14 16 aquella noche enciende una vela, y se sienta en
;

1* 1 16 sueno, que no hace diferencia entre el desnudo 21 19 20 18 y el vestido, acaba por rendir a Juan, que empieza a De24 siibito24 se despierta,5 dormir 22 como un bendito. 23 consulta azorado 25 el reloj, que niarca1 las dos, y siu darse 26 cuenta26 de lo que hace, corre 27 a la camara28 de su amo, y

empieza
\

a gritar 29 desaforadamente 30 : Que 31 hay 31 ? son ya las cuatro Senor, senor


21
!
<;

<|

? res-

ponde

el

amo

sobresaltado. 32

1 No, senor, replica Juan, no son mas que las dos : vengo a 33 le quedan 34 dos hbras mas para dormir^; decirle que aun 35 aprovechelas Vd.

5 despertar, to wake ; 6 pre; 9 olvidat, to forget ; 10 care= 1 3 encetider^ to light ; 14 candle. ; anxiety; 11 faithful; 12=to go to bed 15 sentarse, to seat. one's self 16 sleep ; 17 undressed ; 18 dressed ; Waca20 to overcome 21 empezar, to begin ; 22 to sleep ; 23 fawyto finish blessed ; 24 suddenly 25 terrified 26;=thinkiug ; 27 correr, to run ; 28 chamber 29 to call out 30 excessively,; 31 what is the matter ; 32 startled33 still 34 quedary to remain 35 aprovechar, to take advantage of.

2 wanting
;

cisely

7=it

3 to rise early shall be done ;

4 you 8 look

must
;
;

3-SRS

34

La Base fundamental de
;

Jnsticla.

1 tfn abogado 2 que iba a establecer aa su escribiente* le dijo t Mire4 Vd. 4 antes6 de 6 ausentarme6 voy a comunicarle 1 una cosa muy importante. 1 Ya sabe Vd. los favores 1 que me

7 9 8 debe, pues yo le he ensenado el oficio, y gracias a mis cuidados10 no puede dejar 11 de hacer fortuna1 en este mundo 12 1 13 1 1 pero he reservado para el ultimo un servicio interesante.
;

cual es
el

Es
<

de
tin

inclicarle 1 la base1

fundamental 1 de

la justicia. 1

Y cual
15

es esa base ?

No puedo
16

decirla mientras14

no me>

pague

buen almuerzo.
2

en ,ello, ordene 17 Vd. .lo que quiera. 18 19 20 l abogado de ostras, 21 jamon,2 * un pidi6 dos docenab 1 23 24 26 25 16 langostas, en fin un almuerzo suculento, y des* pave,ti/onsiento 1

pues

26

le dijo
27

Vd., pues, que la base de toda-la justicia es la 28 prueba, la prueba, amigp mio, la prueba. 32 Comen,29 beben, 30 se divierten 31 pero todo placer tiene su

Sepa

fin

33
;

viene
3

la cuenta, 34

<escribiente,
I

abogado man da se la 'den ha hecho aquel obsequio. 37 es quien que

el

35

36

al

Yo

no, sefior.

<;

C6mo queno

amiguito,

38

ya sabe Vd.

Jo

39 que hemos convenido.

Pues que convenio40 he hecho yo ? Que se ha comprometido41 Vd. a pagarlo 16

to<i<K

d6nde

esta la

prueba

28

El abogado 2 f ue 42 quien pago 15 por no poder darla, 45 siendo eomo el mismo44 le habia dicho, la base 1 fundamental1 de la justicia. 1
2 lawyer.; 3 clerk ; 4 look (here) 5 before 6 aiteentarse> to absent one's9 thanks ; 10 care 11 leave==fail ; 7'ensenar, to teach ; 8 business 13 last \f 14 as loug as ; 15 pagar, to pay 12 world ; 16 breakfast ; 17 ordenar, to order 19 requested 18 you like 20 dozen ; 21 oyster j 22 ham ; 23 turkey 26 afterwards ; 27 know ; 24 lobster ; 25 in fact 28 proof'; 29 comer, to eat ; 30 beber, to drink 31 divertirse, to enjoy, one's self 32 pleasure 33 end 34 bfll 35 mandar, to order 36 (that) 3d convetur, to agree ; 40 agreethey give ; 37 civility ; 38 young friend was *& gi^e it ; 44 iumseli. {pent ; 41 comprometerse, to undertake 42
;

self

GO

'

HP
La Puerta
cerrada.*
fastidiosa8
1

y eterna, dio en la costumbre de ir f recuentemente a una casa donde no 8 7 8 1 6 fingia no hacer caso de las gustaban mucho BUS visitas 10 9 los le amos decia la de criada, que siempre que respuestas no estaban en 11 casa, 11 y se introducia1 sin cumplimiento12 13 todos los dias con estos pretefctos1 Bien, bien mientras 15 15 u vuelven voy ahablar con los niiios... Hare rabiar un rato 17
5
;
:

Un

caballero de

una conversacion

al

loro 16 ....

Aprovechare

18

esta ocasi6n 1 para arreglar19

mi

reloj

por
20

el del salon, etc. la criada tenia


9 ya su contestacion pen-

Una manana que


sada,
le

riendo 24
Seiior

vio venir de lejps 21 desde 22 una ventana, 23 fue cora la puerta, y sin abrirla25 le dijo desde 22 la rejilla2^ :

en

don Ramon, mi amo y mi ama ban salido, los ninos estan ha muerto, 28 y el reloj esta, parado. 29 Cerro la rejilla26 y no le dio lugar 30 a mas conversaci6n. 1
la escuela, 27 el loro 16

not to be translated ; 1 the same, or nearly the same, as in English. 2 cerrar, to shut 3 tedious 4=was 5 habit 6 gustar, to please 7fingirt to pretend 8=to take notice 9 answer ; 10 always ; 11 at home ; 13 while=until 151 will tease ; 14 volver, to return ; \2=ceremony 17 short time; 18 aprovechar, to take advantage of ; 19 (to) 16 parrot regulate ; 20 pensar, to consider ; 21 afar 22 from ; 23 window 24 correct to run ;- 25 abrir, to open 26 lattice 27 school ; 28 died ; 29 parar, to stop ; 30 place=opportunity,;

Un particular2 que ajustaba3 un borrico,4 dijo al molinero5 que


lo tomaria,

de que no tuviese ningiin def ecto. en ello, respondio el duenoJ Convengo 8 Pasados algunos dias el comprador9 advirtio 10 que el

con
6

la garantia 1

13 y quiso devolverselo diciendole 4 13 de Vd. no ve mas Amigo mio, su borrico que de un lado, 14 14 solo abre una ventana. porque Toma, 15 responde, eso no es un defecto,1 sino una desgracia. 16

borrico 4 era tuerto, 11

2 certain man 3 was bargaining 4 donkey ; 5 miller ; 6 convenir, to agree; 7 owner ; 8 passed=after ; 9 buyer ; 10 advertir, to notice^ ; 11 one-eyed 13 side ; 14 only opens j 15... well ; 16 misfortune. .12 to return it to him
; ; ;

88
Cddiz.

Pocos panoramas hay mas bellos 2 en el mundo,* y casi4 6 8 5 7 ningun cuadro en la naturaleza que cautive mas los ojos del espectador 9 por su diafanidad 10 y hermosura, 11 que el que of rece 13 la vista 12 de la ciudad de Cadiz, desde 14 uno de los 15 17 16 1 vapores que hacen la travesia de Sevilla a este puerto, 19 20 1 18 de su ternimo cuando tpca al espedicion, a los viajeros 21 1 22 que contemplan la linda ciudad que se levanta sobre el 1 24 23 24 1 25 mar, a la mahera de un palacio de pJata primorosamente 26 afiligranado. 27 La blancura28 de sus torres2? y de las azoteas 30 de sus casas, las ciipulas 1 y los torreones31 de sus 11 32 34 33 templos, y la belleza armonica de su conjunto, ceuido 35 36 37 88 por la ancha faja de piedra que la circuye, le dan por otro lado 39 el aspecto 1 de un gran buque40 de alabastro, 1 flotante 1 en medio 41 de los mares, 23 A42 medida que42 el vapor15 va adelantando43 rapido 1 hacia44 el muelle,46 el viajero 20 menos reflexivo 1 se convence 1 de que se 46 aproxima46 a una poblacion 1 iniportante 1 por su movimiento 1 mercantil 1 y los numerosos 1 buques40 de todos 48 47 de todas las naciones1 de Europa, portes y con banderas 50 51 49 51 que estan anclados en su bahia, y por entre los cuales 1 53 15 52 claramente le indican el vapor, cruza que la bella 2 ciudad aun 54 conserva 1 restos 56 honrosos55 de su antiguo57 59 58 poderio y de su pristina grandeza.
1
;

6 nature 4 almost ; 5 picture ; 3 world 7 cautivar, to 2 beautiful 11 beauty 10 transparency 8 eye ; 9 spectator 12 view captivate 15 steamer 16 passage across ; 17 port 18 tocar, to 14 from 13 offers 22 levantar, to raise ; 23 sea i touch ; 19 end ; 20 traveller ; 21 pretty 28 whiteness 29 tower 24=like 25 silver 26 elegantly 27 filigreed 31 turret 32 harmonious 33=grouping"; 34 cen/r, to gird 30 flat roof 38 circuir, to surround 39 side 40 ship ; 35 broad ; 36 band 37 stone 41 middle 42 in proportion as ; 43 moving forward 44 towards 45 quay 48 flag ; 49 anclar, to anchor 46 he is approaching 47 tonnage 50 bay ; 51 through 52 cvuzar, to cruise 53 clearly ; 54 still 55 honorable ; 66 remains ; 57 ancient 58 power 59 greatness.
;

con sombrero puestp, Quien es el que sin ceremonia 5 se sienta3 delante 4 del rey, del papa, 6 del emperador 1 ? El cochero. 6
I
3

2 put=on

3 sits

down

4 before

6 pope

6 coachman.

87

La Disputa de Cocina. Tramaron 2 una disputa 1 la criada y el cochero 3 de un ban1 quero de Murcia, sobre quien~~de los dos habia de ir al 6 7 5 4 desayuno del amo y este, oyendo los gritos, les llamo para 9 10 1 8 resolver sobre esta diferencia. La cocinera se quejaba de 11 11 3 la coque el cochero pasaba toda la manana rodando por 14 13 12 hacer ella tanto tenia un cina corno que zangano, y que 1 16 15 1 que no podia separarse del fogon un solo instante. 17 3 El cochero dijo que la crema no era de su obligacion. 1 18 Veamos, pues, cual es tu obligacion ? le pregunto el amo.
; <;

el

el;de cuidar los caballos, limpiar coche 22 y llevarlo 23 a donde su merced24 me mande. 25 Es verdad) 26 tienes27 razon, 27 y no exijo 28 mas de ti, pues 30 solo 29 para eso te tengo y en este supuesto todas las 21 32 31 mananas te levantaras al amanecer, limpiaras inuy bien el coche 22 y los caballos, y antes33 de33 almorzar4 ngancharas 34 36 35 9 23 y llevaras en el a la cociiiera al mercado para que 36 17 eompre la cremai El cochero se 37 rasco las orejas, 37 y se retiro. 1
oficio,

Mi

19

seiior, es

20

21

to call;
;

3 coachman ; 4 breakfast 5 hearing 6 cry ; 7 Hainan 9 cook ; 10 quejarse, to complain 11 wandering 12 kitchen about 13 idler 16 single ; 14 so much 15 hearth 17 cream 18 let us see 19 business 21 to clean ; 20 to look after 22 coach 23 llevai'^to take 27 thou 24 honor 2G truth 25 orders art right 28 exigir, to require 29 only 31 levantarse, 30 supposition to get up ; 32 dawn ; 33 before ; 34 enganchar, to harness 35 market ; 36 that she (may) buy ; 37 scratched his ears.
;
; ;

weaved=had

8=decide;

Entre un hombre pobre y un hombre hombre de diferencia. 1

rico

hay todo un

bufon 1 pregunto a uno que tenia las piernas* torcidas3 5 cadera derecha4 derrengada, 6 que camino habia tornado y para ir a Cadiz ?
la
<r

Un
He

venido todo 7 derecho, 8 respondio. 9 1 Pues, senor, en ese caso, repuso el buf 6n, se ha. 'transformado 1 Vd. enteramente 10 en el camino.
2 leg
;

3 distorted
;

4 right

5 hip

6 crooked

7=cquite

8 straight

9 replied

10 entirely.

Esopo y el Viajero. 1 1 1 Esopo, el celebre fabulista, era muy pobre, y mnchas En una de veces tenia que 2 ir a 3 pie^ de una ciudad a otra. BUS excursiones 1 encontro 4 en el camino aun viajero, el cual deteniendose 5 le pregunto 6 I Puede Vd. decirme a que hora llegare a aquel pueblo
'

que

esta sobre la colina7

lo se, dijo el viajero pero lo que "deseo saber, es cuanto 11 tiempo tar dare. 12 Esopo parecio^ofenderse^y repitio^a misma contestation,** El viajero continue 1 su camino diciendp para 15 si 15 Es
; :

En Ya

8 9 8 1 llegando lo sabra Vd,, contesto Esopo.

10

hombre me parece 13 un ignorante 1 y no me


necesito 17 saber.

dira 16 lo

20 19 18 Algunos minutos despues oyo que le llamaban, y vol 21 21 ?2 viendo la vista, vi6 a Esopo que le seguia i Que quiere Vd. ?' le pregunto. Dentro 23 de hora y media 24 llegara Vd. al pueblo, respon*
f

di6 Esopo.
1

Y por qu6
26
; ;

Antes
2=to
7
hill

lo dijo Vd. cuando se 25 lo pregunte 25 ? necesitaba ver lo 27 ligero 27 que Vd. andaba. 28

no

me

17

5 detenerse, to stop 6 can ; 3 .on foot 4 enconlrar, to meet 10 desear, to desire 11 8 you will know 9 contesiar, to answer how much 12 tardar, to delay 13 parecer, to seem j^^H answer ; 15 to 19 to himself 18 after hear j 16 will tell 17 mcesitar, to want o/r, 20 llamarr io call 21=turning round 22 seguir, to follow 23 within ; 24 rate I 26 27=the 25 asked before=first 28 cindar,. to^walk. ^alf you
->

Un pobre zapatero .encender4 la lumbre, 5


2

buscar un f uelle avaro 8 que vivia en la vecindad9


f

remend6n 2 se vio un dia apurado 3 para 6 y envi6 a un chiquillo, hijo suyo, a7 7 un prestado, por momento, d casa de un.
;

pero este dijo al nifio : 10 11 12 13 de Mira, dile a tu padre, que yo no dejo salir 'el fyielle mi casa; pero que puede venir cuando quiera^d sOplar 15 todo el dia en mi cocina. 16
2 cobbler ; 3=unable 5 fire ; 6 little boy ; 7 to seek a 4 (to) light 9 neighbourpair of bellows lent=to borrow a pair of bellows ; 8 miser ; hood ; 10 look (here) llteU; 12 ^ar, to let > 13 beUoTOl be Ifces;
; : ;

15(tp)blow;

89
Foote y
el Alcalde.

3 4 Viajando* una vez el actor Foote por el oeste de Inglaterra 6 7 5 8 Al arreglar las se detuvo en una posada para comer. cuentas9 el posadero 10 le pregunto si estaba satisfecho. 1 7 1 11 13 Perfectamente, dijo Foote, he comido mejor que nadie 4 en Inglaterra.

Excepto el alcalde, replico el posadero. Yo no hago excepcion 1 alguna. Pero debe 14 Vd. exceptuar 1 ^! alcalde. 13

13

10

15 16 17 16 encolerizado, volvio a replicar recalcando la 19 1 a 20 voz en cada silaba que ni aun exceptuaba al mismo alcalde.
]8

Y Foote,

tomo tales proporciones la pendencia, que el posadero 10 condujo23 a Foote en presencia1 del alcalde 13 del lugar. 24 Sr. Foote, le dijo este venerable 1 magistrado,1 ha de saber
Vd. que desde25 tiempo inmemorial 1 se 26 conserva26 aqui la costumbre 1 de hacer siempre27 una excepcion 1 para el alcalde,13 1 1 1 y con objeto de que lo tenga Vd. presente le condeno a cinco reales1 de multa,28 6 a cinco horas de arresto 1 si asi29
lo prefiere. 1 Foote se vio precisado 30 a pagar la multa. 28 En toda la cristiandad 32 no conozco 33

21

22

A su salida

31

dijo

un hombre mase

tonto 34 que ese posadero, 10 ... excepto 1 el senor 35 Alcalde hizo una solemne 1 reverencia1 a Su Senoria. 36
;

1 the same, or nearly the same, as in English. not to be translated 4 England 5 detenerse, to stop 6 inn ; 2 viqjar, to travel 3 west 11 better ; 12 nobody= 10 innkeeper 8 settling ; 9 account 7 to dine anybody ; 13 mayor ; 14 must 15 angered 16 returned to reply=replicd again 17=empbasizing 18 voice 19 even 20 himself ; 21 such 22 dis26 is preserved ; pute ; 23 conducir, to conduct ; 24 place ; 25 from ; 27 always ; 28 fine ; 29 thus, so ; 30 precisar, to compel 31 going out 32 Christendom 33 conocer, to know 34 foolish ; 35 Lord ; 36 lordship.
; ;
;

hombres pasan la mitad2 de su vida estropeando su salud,5 y la otra mitad 6 haciendo en-

La mayor parte de
3 4

los

8 7 sayos para remendarla.

2 half
cleavour

3 life ; 4 estropear, to cripple, injure 8 rementfari to mend.

5 health

6 half

eft-

40

Habiendo una bala* enemiga 1 dejado3 srn brazos4 a un soldado frances en la batalla de Hastembeck, su coronel 1 le
7 7 5 6 coronel, dijo el soldado, tal vez rega!6 un escudo. V. 8 S, 8 cree que he perdido 9 un par 10 de guantes. 11

~Mi
;

baps

2 ball 3 dejar, to leave 4 arm 5 regalar, to present 6 crown 7 per8 vttestra serlor/a==your honor 9 perder, to lose 10 pair 11 glove.
;
; ; ;

Mosiraba* un rico sus joyas 3 a un fi^sofo, 1 y este le dijo : 1 3 Gracias, senor, por**^$as brillantes joyas de que tan ca1 4 Como 5 se entiende 'rinosamente me hace Yd. participe, 1 Vd. Vd. participe 5 ? Si, senor, permite que yo las con1 dif erente 1 ? cosa otra hace ellas Vd. con y i temple
<;

2 mostrar,

to

show

3 jewel

4 kindly

5=how

do you mean share

londonenses2 no representaban las mujeres, tenian que desempenar 3 el papel 4 de estas 1 hombres disfrazados. 5 Impacientado una yez Carlos II.
los antiguos 1 teatros1
1

Como en

esperando
cio
9

el

comienzo7 de
le dijo
:

8 la f uncion, el director

compare-

ante

el

S. 10

M. 10dispense, u pero
;
; ;
;

rey y

la reina 12 no se

ha af eitado 13 todavia. 14
;

2 London 3 fulfil 4 part 5 disfrazar, to disguise 6 esperar, to expect; commencement 8 performance 9 comparecer, to appear; 10 Su Majestad^. Your Majesty 11 dispensar, to excuse 12 queen 13 to shave 14 yet.
7
;

una senorita romantica1 y poco4 le f alto 6 5 Pasaba para ahogarse. por casualidad un nadador, y lanzandose 7 al rio 5 la saco 8 desmayada, 9 en cuyo estado 10 fue llevada a su casa. Cuandp volvio 21 en si, 21 declaro 1 a sus 14 12 padres que queria casarse|? con el que le habia salvado la vida. 15 Es imposibl^, dice, su padre. Es esta ^ ya que casado 13 ? No. Pues diga Vd. no es aquel joven 16 vecino 17 nuestro ? Oh, no es un perro 18 de Terra-Nova. 19
rio 8
4
,;
:

2 Cay6se en un

'

3 river 4 5 chance drowned 9 insensible dut


fell
;

little
;

was wanting to her to drown herself=was nearly 8 sacar, to draw swimmer r 1 lansar, to fling
\
;

10 state

l'i=came
;

to herself again
life
j

13 casar, to marry neighbour ; 18 dog

14 salvar, to save 19 Newfoundland,

15

12 parents ; 16 young (man) ; 17


;

41

Un

caballerito

que iba a casarse* despues de haber confe-

1 1 Bado, entro ea

nn escrtipulo,1 y se volvio 3 al confesor. Padre, le dice, no s6 si me he confesado bien, pues veo que no me habeis impuesto4 ninguna peniteftcia. 1 El confesor, que era entendido, 5 le respondi6 Pues no
:

me

ha dicho Vd.,

hijo,
;

2 que iba a casarse

?
;

2 casarse, to get married 6 knowing.

3 volverse, to go back

4 imponer> to impose

En
hubo 3

la

representacion

tanta

demanda1 de4

billetes 6

de una nueva comedia1 casera2 de entrada, 6 que no fueron

suficienies1 los que habia 3 segiin 7 la capacidad 1 del saldn, 1 y 8 -algunos de los aficionados que hacian la comedia, introdujev 1 9 ron por el escenario, que tenia una puerta falsa, 1 mnchas
10 6 personas antes de abrir la entrada principal.

el director dijo llenar 14 el salon antes


;

muy

enojado de entrar 1
; ;

12

Al 11 ver11 esto Es una vergiienza 13 dejar


;
;

la gente. 15
;

2 domestic 3 there was or were 4=for 5 ticket 6 entrance 7 ac8 amateur 9 scene 10 open(ing) ; 11 on seeing 12 ancording to 14 (to) fill 15 people. 13 shame noyed
; ; ; ; ;
;

El gracioso 2 de un teatro 1 de Paris, 1 se 3 metio 3 una maiiana en una fonda,4 la primera que hallo a mano, y pidiendo 5 de
1 6 7 8 9 almorzar, suplico al fondista le hiciese cbmpaiiia a la 10 12 11 meza. Este, para mostrarle sin duda su aprecio, empezo, 13 sin hablar palabra, 14 a tirar 15 debajo 16 de 16 la mesa las cosas

que veia

sucias. 17

El gracioso, 2 que vio arrojar 18 las servilletas, 19 los cubiertos 20 15 22 21 y los cuchillos, no queriendo contrariarle, le imito tirando 25 1 24 23 precipitadamente las f uentes, los platos y los vasos, El fondista,8 sorprendido 26 al ver esto, le pregunto la causa, 1 con mucha serenidad 1 le dijo Hombre, 27 pensaba28 que el y 16 16 29 queria Vd. que almorzasemos debajo de la mesa.
:

2 comic actor ; 3 put bimself=went ; 4 inn ; 5 asking ; 6 breakfast ; 7 suplicar, to entreat ; 8 innkeeper ; 9 that he should make=keep ; 10 mos14 word ; 13 empezar, to begin ; trar, to show ; 11 doubt ; 12 esteem ; 15 ^'rar, to throw ; 16 under; 17 dirty; 18 fling; 19 napkin; 20 cover ; 25 glass ; 26 sorprender, to 22 to oppose ; 23 dish ; 24 plate 21 knife 27=well ; 28 pensar, to think ; 29 we should breakfast. surprise
; ;
;

42
El Barometro.

.Un medico andaluz 1 tenia un dia algunos amigos a comer2 en su casa. Uno de ellos le dijo que-deseaba ver su hermoso barometro 1 que decian le habia costado 1 mil francos,1 y
~

criado que f uese 3 a buscarlo 3 ; pero este, al 4 5 6 4 6 traerlo, lo dejo caer y se hizo pedazos. 7 Todos los convidados demostraron al doctor su sentimiento 8 1 1 No os aflijais,9 les dijo el por tan desagradable accidente.
a
:

mando

nn

buen agtiero, 11 pues hace 12 mucho 12 no como nunca13 he visto el barometro tiempo que llueye, y 14 1 tan bajo, es de presumir que vamos a tener agua. 15
medico
:

este suceso 10 es de

3=he should go and fetch it 4 on bringing it 5 fall 6 made 8 regret 7 guest 9 afligirse, to lament pieces=broke" in pieces 10 event 11 omen 12=it has not rained for a long time ; J3 never i 14 low ; 15 water=rain.
2 dine
; ;
;

itself

;:

j,

1 1 2 principe, queriendo divertirse a costa de uno de sus 4 3 cortesanos a quien habia empleado en diferentes 1 embaja-

Un

s 7 que se parecia a un buho. se no a quien me parezco, 6 respondi6 lo que Yo, senor, 1 se es que he tenido el honor 1 de repregentar muohas voces* 1 a Vuestra Majestad. & das, le dijo
:

2 prince

,
;

to resemble

3 courtier 7 owl.

4 emplear, to employ

5 embassy

6 parecerse,)

naturalmente 1 gracioso2 fue citado 3 para.de-j tribunaPcriminal 1 sobre una disputa 1 muy seria 1 6 5 que habian tenido dos comerciantes. Un abogado, que teniaj 1 7 1 a los testi* la reputacion de procurar siempre desconcertar 9 8 de la escena.* gos, le pregunto a que distancia estaba del sitio

Un hombre
4

poner ante

el

A
<;

un metro, 1 cinco centimetros1 y

BOJS milimetros,

1
.

le

respondio.

Como puede Yd.


11

Porque suponia he medido 13 el terreno. 14

1 ser tan exacto ? repusp ^ el abogado.^ lo preguntaria, que algiiu curioso^

me

6 lawyer ; 4 depose ; 5 merchant ; 2 witty?T 3 citar, to summon j 11 suponert to suppose^ 10 replied ; 7.try(ing) ;' -8 witness \ 9 place i# inquisitive (person) ; 1 3 medir to measure j II ground.
;
.

43
El Cirujano.
2 3 1 cirnjano muy gracioso f ue llamado para curar a un 1 caballero caprichoso que se habia hecho una pequena llaga4

Un

en una pierna. 8 El criado habia ido volando 6 a buscarle y el pobre llego casi 7 sin aliento 8 suponiendo 9 que eracosa de la mayor importancia. Reconocio 10 al her ido, 11 y no hallando sino12 un rasgimo 13 1 15 14 que se podia curar con tafetan, por burlarse de el mando a un criado que f uese 16 sin parar 17 a su casa por un balsamo 1 1 18 que indico, y que volviese al momento. 19 19 Pues que, dice el herido, 11 palido 1 y tremblando 1 de
tanto es el peligro ? No, seiior, dice el cirujano2 sino 12 que si tarda,22 temo 28 que no llegue a tiempo, p*orque la llaga4 se va a curar ! por si 24 sola. 25

aprension,

20

21

<;

2 surgeon ; 3 witty ; 4 wound 5 leg 6 volar4 to fly ; 7 almost 8 breath 9 suponer, to suppose ; 10 reconocer, to examine ; 11 wounded (man) ; 12 15 make game 16 he (should) go 14 sticking-plaster only ; 13 scratch 17 stop(ping) 18 he (should) come back 20 so much 19=why then 21 danger ; 22 tardar, to delay 23 temer, to fear ; 24 itself 25 alone.
; ;
;

La
tenia,

hija de un

alcalde2 estaba cuidando 3 ttn canario 1

que

y habiendo dejado

abierta 4 la ventanilla 5 de la jaula, 6


lo

se escapo 1 el pajarillo. 7

La primera precaucion 1 que tomo su padre, luego 8 que8 9 10 supo, fue mandar cerrar las puertas de la ciudad.
2 mayor 7
little
;

bird

5 little 3 cuidart to take care of ; 4 open 8 as soon as 9 he knew 10 to (be) shut.


;

window

6 cage

2 1 3 pobre artesano que estaba enfermo y sin un cuarto> 4 1 dijo a un amigo que pensaba consultar su mal con el medico N , pero que recelaba5 hacerlo por no poder pagarle, y el 6 amigo le contesto Creo que haras muy mal en llamarle si no tienes dinero, porque cuando ^1 esta enfermo,2 y se consulta d si mismo sobre lo debe7 tomar, se saca8 un que duro 9 de un bolsillo 10 y se lo mete 11 en otro.
:

Un

ill ;
;

Wilt do

3 a small Spanish coin ; 4 complaint ; 5 recelar, to mistrust 6 thou ; 7 he must ; 8 sacar, to draw ; 9 dollar ; 10 pocket ; 1 1 mefcr, to put.

44
El

Hombre

sin Sesos.

Dos

suizos2 estaban rifiendo 3 con el

mayor encarnizamiento4
;

en inedio 5 de una plaza6 publica, 1 y an aldeano,7 que casualmen te l pasaba por 8 alii, 8 quiso 9 separarlos 1 por compasion 1 10 11 pero ellos, que estaban ciegos de furor, le echaron a tierra de un sablazo, 12 y le hicieron 13 .una herida u en la cabeza, 15 por lo que fue preciso 16 le reeonocieW 8 un clr,ujano. 17
Procediendo 1 este 19 con tientp 20 para saber si tenia lastimados21 los sesos22 No se canse 23 Vd. en' buscarlos, le 7 24 el en la contienda, 25 dijo aldeano, pues cuando me meti no los tenia. ya
:

2 Swiss ; 3 renir, .to quarrel 4 fury 7 villager 5 middle 6 place 8=rthat way 9 wanted 10 blind 1 1 echar, to throw 12 cut from a sabre : 13 made=gave 14 wound 15 head 16 necessary 17 surgeon 18 should examine 19=the latter 20=care 21 lastimar, to hurt 22 brains 23 cansar, to tire 24 meterse^ to put one's self=to interfere 25 quarrel.
; ; ; ; ;
; ; ;

Que hace Vd. ? dijo a un gotoso,3 que estaba coimendo* 4 no ve Vd. que el jamon4 es malo jamon, un amigo suyo
:

para la gota ? Asi6 es, respondio


2 gouty (person)
;

el

doliente 7 ; pero es
;

bueno para el
;

gotoso.*

3 comer, to eat

ham

5 gout

6 so

7 invalid.

Habiendo dicho nn2 sugeto 2 a una senora que un boti4 amigo suyo habia quebrado y.se habia visto obligado 1 a cerrar5 la botica, 6 le pregun.t6 la causa. 1 Respondiola que era un hombre honrado, 7 que en 8 vez 8 de cargar 9 de remedios 1
cario 3

a sus enfermos, 10
12

aconsejaba respirar aire puro, por cuyo consejo perdia todo el -beneficio 1 que debia16 <iejarle la venta14 de sus drogas. 15
13
j

les

11

pueda
;

17 Pobre hombre replico la sefiora, es lastima que no 18 vivir de aire 1 como sus enfermos. 10
!

2 a person=some one 3 apothecary 4 quebrar, to become bankrupt ; 6 apothecary's shop 6 shut 7 honorable ; 8 instead*; 9 load(ing) 10
; ; ;

patient

15 drug

11 aconsejar, to advise ; 12 advice 16 ought ; 17 pity ; 13 can.

13 perder> to lose

H sale;.

45

El Poeta y
1

el Pastelero.

Un poeta hizo en unos versos1 el elogio 2 de un pastelero,3 6 5 4 y este creyo debia demostrarle su reconocimiento regalan1 1 8 7 dole un pastel, lo que ejecuto inmediatamente ; pero hael biendo advertido 9 el poeta 1 que el papel que cubria 12 fondo 11 del pastel 8 era parte1 de su produccion, 1 reconvino 15 14 13 amargamente a su protegido por tal desprecio, y este
10

le

respondio Pero que motivo 1 tiene Vd. para quejarse 16 ? Ahora es cuando estamos juego 17 a juego, 17 pues Vd. ha hecho versos 1 1 sobre mi pasta, 18 y yo he hecho pastas sobre sus versos.
:
<j

4 he ought 5 demostrar, to demonstrate J 2 eulogy ; 3 pastry-cook 9 advertir, to notice 8 pie 10 7 regalar, to present ; 6 gratitude 13 bitterly 12 reconvenir, to reproach ; 11 bottom cubrir, to cover 16 complain(ing) 17 game to 15 contempt 14 protected=pro%e IB pastry. game=quite
; ;

Mas
1

vale 2

un

"

" toma," que dos te dare.'

Me

haria Vd.

el

favor 1 de prestarme diez pesetas 1

1 3 Pero, senor, no tengo el honor de conocerle. Precisamente 1 acudo 4 a Vd. por esta misma 5 razon 5 pues 3 6 los que me conocen nunca quier^n prestarme un centime. 1
;

2 is worth 6 never.

3 conocer, to

know

4 acudir^ to appeal

5=?ery reason

El jardinero del Jardin Botanico 1 confio 2 a un criado algo 3 tonto 4 dos hermosos higos5 para Buffon. Por el camino6 el 7 8 9 1 mensajero, vencido de la tentacion, se trago uno y al
presentar
10

el otro al Naturalista, 1 este,


:

que esperaba
el otro
9

11

recibir
?

dos, dijo al criado

Que has hecho con


mundo. 13
;

higo

He
mayor
7

hecho

12

asi,

le
1

respondio, y tragose

el otro

con

la

tranquilidad del
;

4 foolish, simple 2 cow/far, to entrust 3 somewhat messenger 8 v e?cer, to conquer 9 tragar> to swallow 11 esperart to expect ; 12 thus ; 13 world.
;
;

5 fig 6 way 10 presenting)


;

46 El Eclipse suspendido. El eclipse 1 de sol 2 que fue pronosticado 1 para el aiio de .1724* asusto 3 tan to a los aldeanos4 de algunos paises, & que el cura6 de un pueblo, no pudiendo confesar1 a tantos parroquianos7 como acudian,8 creyendo llegado el dia del juicio, 9 les dijo en
10 10 Hijos mios, no hay que daros prisa, pues el 11 1 ha sido trasladado alcalde 12 orden del senor eclipse por 13 13 para el mes que viene.

el piilpito 1
1

4 villager 5 country 6 clergyman 7 parishioner 10 there is no occasion to give yourselves him) 9 judgment 11 12 hurry ==hurry yourselves mayor 13 next month. postponed
; ;

2 sun

3 terrified
;

8=rwent

(to

Un caballero
si le

2 que comia en un hotel pldi6 a uno a su lado* haria el favor 1 de pasarle la mostaza. 4 Cree5 Yd. que soy un criado ? le respondio.

Ah, no, senor,

le dijo el otro, creia


;

que era Vd. un caballero.


;

2 pedir, to ask

3 side

mustard

5 creer, to believe,

Estaba una compania1 de quintos2 haciendo el ejercicio 3 cuando uno de ellos, en4 vez4 de Ievantar 5 lapierna7 derecha, 6 levanto 5 la izquierda. 8 El oficial, que estaba al extremo 1 de la fila,1 habiendo ob10 9 1 Quien es ese .servadp dos piernas? muy proximas grito 7 1 5 bruto que levanta las dos piernas a la vez ?
:
<;

_____
6 right

2 conscript
7 leg
;

$ leit

3 exercise=drilL 4 in place 5 levantar, to raise 10 shouted out. 9 close together


; ; ;

3 1 2 sujeto muy inocenton aseguraba que no tenia con5 6 4 fianza1 alguna; en la/vacuna, y f undaba su aserto en la

Un

1 8 7 1 experiencia : Habia en una familia, decia, un nino sano y 9 1 robusto que dos meses despuea de estar vacunado cayose 13 12 11 10 las contra aiin de unarbol y se estrello piedras.
<;

se quiere prueba 14 mas^convincente1 de sirve 1 ^ para nada1 ^?.


2 person
;

que

la

vacuna4 no

eertion

; 3 tisegurar, to assert ; 4=vaccination ; 5/wwc?ar,to base ; 11 was dashed to pieces 7 there was 8 healthy ; 9 fell 10; tree 12 against ; 13 stone ; 14 proof ';'.;! 5 serves for (==^s worth) nothing.
; ; ;

451

El Pordiosero 3 holgazan. 2

Tin muchacho de once a doce aiios4 se llego 5 un dia a una 6 7 senora que iba a pie 6 con una doncella, y la pidio un duro 8 de limosna. 9
1

Como

<?

un duro 8 ? responde admirada 10


?
1

<;

Que modo 1

11 e8 ese de pedir la caridad

Senora, responde

1 ya no importunare a

cantidad 14 a tomar.
se

12 muchacho, pues que Vd. me lo niega, 13 ninguna otra persona esta corta 15 16 me hubiera hecho desistir del partido que iba Y al 17 decir 17 esto dio un profundo 1 suspiro 18 y

el

marcho 19
\

llorando. 20
'

Como

dice la senora a su doncella7


21

desgraciado
disparate
infeliz.
24
23

algiin designio

que

le

: tendra este induzca22 a ejecutar 1 un


<;

dime,

27
<:

ese quiero que por un duro se pierda Toma, dice llamandole, ahi26 tienes tu duro pero 28 12 por que te afligistes tanto -cuando te lo neue ?
?
25
:

No

25

Senora, es porque
2 idle
;
;

me
;

veia en la precision 29 de trabajar.


;

3 beggar 4 year 5 llegarse, to approach 6 on foot ; 7 maid ; 9 alms 10 astonished 11 charity ; 12 negar, to deny 13 short =small 14 quantity 15 would have 16 course 17 on saying 18 sigh ; 19 marcharse, to walk away ; 20 llorar, to weep ; 21 unfortunate (one) ; 25 (should) be lost 22 (may) induce ; 23 silly action ; 24 unhappy 26 here ; 27 tell me ; 28 qfligirse, to lament ; 29 necessity.

8 dollar

Un, hombre muy gloton2 decia mi padre comia mucho, mi madre muy aprisa,3 y yo he heredado4 ambas5 cualidades. 1
:

2 gluttonous ;

3 quickly

4 heredar, to inherit

5 both.

ladron2 que marchaba3 al patibulo, 4 suplico 5 que 1 7 8 8 6 detuyiesen la comitiva delante de una taberna, y pidio un vaso9 de aguardiente. 10 Se lo dieron, -y despues de haberlo bebido 11 : No tengo suelto 12 en este momento, le dijo al tabernero, 13 pero te lo pagare a la vuelta. 14
2 thief ; ^3 marchar, to go ; 4 gallows ; 5 suplicar, to request ; 6 they 8 before ; 9 glass ; 10 brandy ; 7 retinue==procession (should) stop ; 11 beber, to drink ; 12 change ; 13 tavern-keeper ; 14 return*
;

Un

48

La

Interpretacidn.

conducido1 ante 2 el niagistrado 1 por la sos4 3 un hermoso 5 carnero^a7 un pastor 8 liamade haber robado pecha do Bonifacio Conde Sanz Diaz, y le pregunto si sabia9 leer. 10
f ue

Un hombre
Un

poco, senor, respondio. Pues entonces no podia9 Yd. ignorar 11 de (Juien era el carnero 6 que confiesa 1 haber hallado, y que sin 12 embargo 13 dice ser suyo, pues ya ve que tiene la inarca1 de estas cuatro
iniciales,
1

B.C.S.D.
crei

Es verdad 13 que las tiene, pero yo " Carnero Sin Dueno. 14


2 before
;

que decian

"
:

Buen

3 suspicion
;

9 (he) could 8 shepherd 14 owner. 13 truth=true


;

5 fine ; 6 sheep ; 7=from 4 robar, to steal 10 read ; 11 be ignorant ; 12 neverthelecs


;

; ;

2 1 1 Viajaban en un coche varios amigos, uno de los cuales 4 4 3 5 empezo a dormir. Al poco rato le desperto uno de sus 6 Hemos corrido una diciendole ya companeros gran distancia 1 desde7 que se 8 durmio Vd. 8 Mucha ? pregunto el que dormia. 9 Si, muchisima, le dijo el otro, es tamos a mas de diez 1 10 leguas lejos de aqui.
:
.

<j

2 viajar, to travel ; 3 empezar, to begin ; pertar, to wake ; 6 correr, to run ; 7 since


10 far=distance.

4 after a short time ; 8 you fell asleep ; 9=sthan

2 3 Viajando un caballero^ llego a^un sitio donde era preciso 4 1 1 barca. Entro en nn rio en una el viendo ella, pasar y que

agua ^staba agitada : Digame Yd., amigo, dijo 7 8 ^ le ha sucedido a Yd. alguna vez el perder a estando las aguas5 enfurecidas9 ?

al ba?*quero,

6
1

los pasajeros

Nunca, 10 sefior, 11 ahogado siempre


2 place
;

le

respondio,

porque

los

que se

han

se 12
;

han vuelto a

hallar 12 al dia siguiente. 13


; ;

3 necessary
-8

happen drowned
;

losing

12=have

4 boat ; 5 water 6 boatman 7 suceder, to 9 furious=rough ; 10 never ; 11 ahogarse, to bo been found again ; J3 follpwing.

49

La Calabaza y

la Bellota.

Tin campesino,2 al'regresar3 a su casa un dia de verano* ee iendi6 6 para reposar 1 un ratito,6 a la sombra7 de una corpulenta1 8 2 encina, a la contemplaci6n de la cual nuestro campesino se
9 10 11 12 12 puso a menear la cabeza y A decirse a si mismo : ; 13 14 Si hubiera yo sido el Criador, hubiera15 dispuesto 16 las cosas de otra manera1 hubiera15 hecho que las calabazas 17 creciesen18 de este arbol,* 9 y a las bellotas20 las hubiera16 hecho el fruto 1 de tallos21 delicados. 1 Y en esto empezo 23 & dormir. 24 23 Apenas habia cerrado los ojos, cuando habiendose des25 20 27 26 28 prendido una bellota y dandole en la nariz, le desperto. Iinbecil29 de mi29 exclamo 1 entonces suerte^he tenido 1 19 20 13 pues si hubiese que la fruta de este arbol es la bellota 15 17 sido una calabaza, me hubiera dejado aqui tendido 5 con la
;

4 summer ; 5 tender, to stretch out ; 6 short ; ; 7 shade ; 8 oak ; 9 ponerse=to begin , 10 shake ; 11 head ; 12 say to himself ; 13 had ; 14 Creator ; 15 1 should have ; 16 disposed 17 pumpkin ; 18 (should)- grow ; 19 tree , 20 acorn ; 21. stalk ; 22 empezar, to begin ; 23 cerirar, to shut ; 24 eye ; 25 desprender, to loosen ; 26=strikjng him ; 27 nose ; 28^-despertar, to wake ;.29=fool that I am ; 30 luck ; 31 crushed.

cabeza11 aplastada. 31 2 countryman 3 return


j

time

Por que en invierno2 sale 3 tarde4 el sol 5 ? 8 6 7 8 Porque como hace frio, no le gusta madrugar.
;

4 late , 5 sun ; 6 it makes=it is 2 winter ; '3 goes out=rises 8 early rising pleases him not=he does not like getting up early.

7 cold

1 acompanando 4 algunas senoras 3 2 de 3 una espada4 delante por el museo de Oxford y parandose 6 5 la espada4 con tienen Yds. Ahi les enmohecida dijo muy 8 7 a burra.* su muerte de amenazo Balaam que Jamas he oido, observo una de la concurrencia, 10 que Balaam tuviese11 una espada,4 sino que ese prof eta1 deseaba 1 12 una, como cuenta su historia. Tiene 13 Vd. razon, 13 replico el estudiante, y esta es precisamente 1 la que el profeta1 deseaba.

Estaba

un

estudfante 1

7 amenazar, to 3 before 4 sword ; 5 rusty ; 6 here 2 stopping ; 11 had j 12 contar, to relate; 10 company threaten; 8 death; 9 ass 13 you^have reason=you are right.
;

8*8

50
Los Cometas.

Los cometas1 son unos astros* que por su irregular1 y 8or 6 4 5 1 prendente^paricion ban despertado el temor de los pueblos, siendo mirados7 como signos 1 de la c6lera8 celeste1 y prof etas1 de calamidades1 y desastres. 1 Pero la eiencia9 ha conseguido10 demostrar1 que son, valiendonos 11 de una celebre expresion, 1
" "astros2 inocentes, 1 que se mueven12 como los planetas1 alrededor13 del sol 14 en unas orbitas1 elipticas,1 es decir, de forma1 ovalada,1 muy largas16 y muy estrechas* 16

Se presentan1 acompanados1 de una rafaga17 tuminosa1 que 1 1 19 completamente 6 se extiende bacia un sdlo 17 20 recibe el nombre de cola,21 barba22* 6 lado. .Esta rafaga cabellera. 23 Los cometas, al24 recorrer 24 su orbita,1 se25 encuentran25 unas veces muy lejanos26 y otras muy proximos27
los rodea 18

Cuando estan muy lejos,26 se congelan 1 por falta28 de calor, y cuando se aproximan 30 al sol, el calor29 gasifica31 1 1 1 82 parte de los liquidos que pueden contener en su superficie, 1 1 1 1 era en el atmosf El sol ilumina su esta extiende y espacio. tenue 33 mater ia1 asi extendida, 1 y forma esa rdfaga17 luminosa,1
al sol. 14
29

causa1 de tanto temor.5

El numerolv de cometas es inmenso. 1 Keplero decia cometas bay en el cielo 34 que peces38 en el mar. 36

Mis
tal

Sin87 embargo,37 son pocos38 los que se 39 conocen, 39 de40

modo40 que pueda41 anunciarse41 con exactitud 1 su


se alejan42 a distantoias1 inconcebibles1 Bistema planetario, 1 y es probable que atraidos43

reaparici6n.

Mucbos
1

de nuestro 2 por astros


44

de pertenecer perteneciehtes a otro sistema, dejen 1 nuestro, convirtiendose en planetas de otro sol. 14
2
star
;

44

45

al

3 surprising ; 4 awaked ; 5 fear ; 6 people=nations ; 7 mirar, to 8 anger ; 9 science ; 10 succeeded 11 availing ourselves ; 12 mover, 14 sun ; 15 long 16 narrow ; 17 cloud ; 18 rodear, to to" move ; 13 round encircle ; 19 towards ; 20 side ; 21 tail ; 22 beard 23 hair 24=in traversing ; 26=are ; 26 distant 27 near ; 28 want ; 29 heat ; 30 they approacB" ; 31 turns to gas ; 32 surface ; 33 thin ; 34 sky ; 36 fish ; 36 sea ; 37 nevertheless ; 38 few ; 39 are known ; 40 in such a way ; 41 may be foretold 42 alejar, to move away ; 43 attracted ; 44 pertenecer, to belong j 46 dejar} to cease.
look on
;
; ; ; ; ; ; ;

51

Los cometas son los linicos46 cuerpos47 celestes1 que la 1 1 48 mayoria de los astronomos no creen que esten habitados, 49 1 49 2 1 concibe existan no se en habitantes astros que porque 1 1 50 1 29 que pasan por tan bruscas transiciones de calor y f rio, 1 1 y que estan sujetos a una variacion completa de todos sue
elementos. 1
46 only
;

47 body

48 majority

49

it is

imagined

50 cold.

El Marinero y su Amigo.

Un marinero iba a einbarcarse1 en un navio 2 proximo a darse


3

4 y un amigo suyo que trataba de di5 6 suadirle de un viaje tan largo y tan peligroso, le pregunto : 7 donde murio tu padre ? Dime, En un nauf ragio,8 respondio el marinero.

la vela
1

para

las Indias,

<j

Y tu abuelo

dia yendo a la pesca 10 se levanto 11 una tempestad 1 tan 1 12 12 13 1 furiosa, que la barca se fue a pique, y el se ahogo. 14 un hizo a ? En tu bisabuelo viaje que America, el 1

Un

navio* choco 15 contra unas penas, 16 y se hundio. 17 18 19 1 que te atreves a embarcarte, i como eres tan temerario

9 eabiendo que tu padre, tu abuelo y tu bisabuelo 14 han muerto en el mar20 ? Es posible, respondi6 el marinero ; pero dime,7 $ donde murio tu padre ? Muy tranquilamente1 en su cama. 21 9 14 ? ; Y tu abuelo ? d y tu bisabuelo De la misma manera1 muy dulcemente 22 en sus lechos. 23
v

(?

Y como pues, repuso el marinero, eres tan temerario,18 que

te atreves 19 a meterte24

en la cama21 todos los dias, sabiendo que tu bisabuelo han muerto todos en ella ? tu padre, tu abuelo y
; ; ;

3 near to give itself to the sail=about to set sail ; 4 tratar, to 2 ship ; try 5 long ; 6 perilous 7 tell me ; 8 shipWreck 9 grandfather 10 fishing ; 12 irse d pique, to founder ; 13 ahogar, to drown ; 11 levantar, to raise ; 16 rock 17 hundir, to sink ; 14 great grandfather ; 15 chocar, to strike 18 rash ; 19 atreverse, to dare j 20 sea ; 21 bed j 22 quietly ; 23 couch ;
;
;

24 put thy self=go.

52
Fontenelle y los Esp&rragos. Fontenelle gustaba2 mucho de los esparragog, 1 sobre todo 4 3 arreglados con aceite; 5 El abate Terrasson, a 6 quien tamFie'n le gugtaban,6 -pero con nianteca, 7 vino un dia a pedirle8 de comer,8 y le suplico 1 9 10 que le hicie'ra un gran favor dandole la mitad de los 1 11 11 en su tenia mando se esparragos que plato, y pusiese que 7 10 esta mitad con manteca. Poco antes de sentarse 12 a la mesa13 el abate5 empezo 14 a

ponerse

15

mal, y

16 le al 16 fin

Fontenelle, que

tal 18 vio> se

dio una fuerte 17 apoplejia. 1 levanta 19 de 20 subito 20 y corre 21


: \

1 precipitadamente a

la

cocina22 gritando 23

Todos con

aceite,

todos con aceite

fond 5 a bb6 6=who also liked them 4 oil 3=prepared 9 would do 10 half 7 Gutter .7$ ask him to dine ll=should be put 12 sentarse, to sit down 13 table 14 began ; 15=become 16 at length 19 levantarse, to get up ; 20 suddenly ; 21 runs 17 strong 18 as much 22 kitchen ; 23 calling out.

2=was
;

*,

; ;

El amigo que no presta,2 y el cuchlllo 3 que no corta,4 Cuando se 5 pierden 5 poco importa. 6
2 prestar, to lend
;

3 knife

4 cor/ar, to cut

5 they are lost

it

matters.

2 caravana1 de cuatrocientos gallegos pasaba de Madrid 3 de Santiago,4 y a 5 de fiestas la celebracion las a Galicia para 7 6 6 5 docena8 de robar media tantosse de ser por dejaron pesar 1 12 11 10 10 9 Al Ilegar a la villa inmediata se dirigieron 12 gitanos. 15 14 18 2 los gallegos a ver al alcalde, que se extran6 de lo ocurrido.

Una

<;

C6mo puede
1

explicarse que cuatrocientos

hombres per-

1 17 16 jnitan a seis pilletes que les roben hasta el ultimo 18 20 me 1 daria el ser tan cobarde. 19 centimo ? Vergiienza 21 22 Id cual respondi6 uno de ellos, el mas cuerdo, por 24 23 23 22 ? solos ibamos S. Y. que i Pero no ve supuesto

3 festival 2 Galician 8 dozen robbed ; 7 half


; ;
;

6 in spite ; 6 let themselves be 4 St. James ; 10 on arriving ; 11 town ; 12=weiit ; 9 gipsy 13 mayor ; 14 extranarse, to be astonished ; 15 occurrence ; 16 scoundrel ; 17 up to ; 18 "be(ing) 19 cowardly ; 20 shame ; 21 discreet ; 22s=doubtless ; 23 worship (senoria) ; 24 alone.
; ;
;

your

53

La
Durante
el sitio
3
4

falsa Alerta^

de Gibraltar, 1 en el momento en que los 1 1 ingleses esperaban de un instante a otro un ataque general, un centinela 1 que habian colocado 5 de noche a la entrada6 de frente 7 de la torre 8 del Diablo,9 estaba al extreme 10 de la 13 11 12 14 1 inuralla, silbando y fijando sus miradas sobre las lineas 1 15 16 mas que fuego, bombas, minas, 1 espanolas, no sonando brecha 1 y fuego de fila. 17 Al lado18 de su garita19 tenia un 20 21 donde habia ocultado su comida,22 que consistia puchero 1 23 en un potaje de habichuelas.

Una mona muy grande, (sabido es que la cima de esta roca1 esta siempre cubierta26 de estos animales) alentada27 por el silencio 1 del centinela,1 y llevada28 del olfato,29 se acerco 30
24
25

al

puchero
;

20

inetio 31 su cabeza para regalarse 1


satisfizo 1

con

lo

que
el

contenia1

pero despues que

su necesidad,* cuando

32 1 83 33 quiso escaparse, no pudo sacar la cabeza, y se llevo 36 33 20 34 con marchando las traseras. gorro, patas puchero por

Esta terrible 1 aparicion 1 apenas 37 se presento a los ojos del 38 con cuanto 39 encontraba,40 convirtio 1 centinela, tropezando al pobre mono 24 en un granadero 1 espanol1 ensangrentado,41 1 42 Ya exaltada1 su imaginacion1 con y herido mortalmente. 43 esta idea, y lleno de miedo, disparo 44 su fusil45 gritando 46 con todas.sus fuerzas47 que el enemigo 1 habia escalado 48 la muralla.

La gran guardia1 tom6


aviso,
49
50

al
51

momento
52

el tambor resono por minutos estuvo toda la guarnicion 53 formada para

armas1 con este todas partes, 52 y en diez


las

la batalla. 1

not to be translated 1 the same, or nearly the same, as in English. 2 alarm 3 siege 4 esperar, to expect ; 5 placed 6 entrance 7 front ; 12 silbar, to whistle 8 tower 9 devil 10 end ; 11 rampart ISfijar, to 15 sonar, to dream ; 16 fire 18 side fix ; 14 glance 17 file 19 sentry23 bean 24 monkey 22 meal box ; 20 pot 21 hidden 25 summit 29 smell 27 encouraged 28 attracted 30 acercarse, to ap26. covered proach 31 meter, to put 32 draw out 33 carried away 34 night-cap 35 hind 36 paws, legs 37 hardly 38*"stumbling 39=whatever 40 it met ; 41 bloodstained 42-wounded 43 fear 44 disparar, to discharge 45 gun ; 46 calling out 47 force(s) 48 scaled 49 information ; 50 drum ; 51 resonart to resound ; 52=everywhere 53 garrison.
;
;
;'

64
El supuesto 54 granadero, 1 a quien incomodaba1 nmcho el 55 56 sombrero, y que estaba casi ciego con el peso del piichero, no estuvo niucho tiempo sin ser descubierto, y su prision 57 1 1 1 restablecip la tranquilidad en el campo que se habia creido
sorprendido.
58

54 supposed

55 blind

56 weight

57 capture

58 surprised.

3 2 Destapa un anio de casa un cantaro de vino delicado,* 4 5 4 conservaba cuidadosamente lacrada6 y sellada 7 cuya vasija 8 9 8 Como encontr6 que faltaba11 la mitad10 del hacia tiempo. 1 1 1 vino, empezo a investigar las causas de aquel fenomeno, hallando en la parte inferior 12 del cantaro 3 un pequeno 13 14 1 agujero tapado con cera. ^ 16 En vista de esto llama a la criada, y le dice i Quien te ha mandado 17 beber el vino que aqui falta 11 ? Por donde quiere 18 Vd. que lo haya 19 sacado 19 ? Por este agujero13 que has hecho. Yo & Pero, seiior, aunque20 hubiera21 hecho el agujero,15 1 no ve Yd. que por donde falta11 el vino es por22 encima22 y el
: !

agujero

13

esta por 23 debajo 23 ?


; ;

2 destdpar, to uncx>ver=open 3 pitcher 4 which vessel ; 5 conservar, to preserve 6 waxed 7 Sealed ; 8=for a long time ; 9 he found ; 10 half ; 13 hole ; 14 tapar, to 11 altar, to be wanting or missing ; 12=lower ;
; ;

stop up ; 15 wax 20 although, even

if

16 view ; 17 ordered ; 18=suppose ; 19 have drawn out ; 21 I (should) have ; 22 at the top ; 23 at the bottom.
;

Una mujer rica calzada2 por un zapatero4 a 3 la moda^nota1 8 5 que el mismo dia que estrenaba unos zapatos estaban rotos
a7
cuatro horas.^ Hace 8 llamar al zapatero, 8 y le inani9 1 ties ta su estraneza por aquel resultado.
las7
1

El industrial coje 10 el zapato roto, 6 lo examina atentamente,1 1 1 y despues de reflexionar sobre las causas de aquel accidente, 12 12 15 1 11 11 Ya caigo exclama de pronto ^ Ha salido Vd. a 13 pie con ellos ?
:
j
!

2 shod 6 broken
to pick

j ;

3 fashionable

7=in
;

up

4 shoemaker 5 eslrenar, to use for the the shoemaker sent for ; 9 surprise suddenly ; 12=1 have it ; 13 on foot; ;
;

first
;

time ;
eager*

8=she has

JO

55
1

Ciego

y su

Iiinero.

Sabidas son las precauciones 1 que toman los ciegos2 para


poseia quinientos francos, no considerandolos seguros en el miserable cuarto que habitaba,i 6 1 5 bajo una noche al corral de la casa y los enterro al pie de un arbol. 7 Un vecino de la misma casa que por casual idad8
ocultar 8 el dinero.

Uno que

habia bajado 5 al patio, 9 noto 1 la accion 1 del ciego, y al 10 retirarse este, 10 desenterro 1 el dinero y se lo apropio. 1

Cuando,el ciego fue a visitar su tesoro, 11 no lo hallo, como 13 13 12 ; pero lejos de quejarse y desesperarse, disi1 15 15 1 14 inulq su dolor y se puso a reflexionar. Informose de la 16 gente que vivia en la casa y supo que habia en e.lla un vecino 19 18 17 No necesito saber desocupado, chismoso y malgastador. mas el ciego para sospechar 20 que el tal 21 vecino era el Iadr6n,22 1 23 y con aire risueno fue buscarle y le dijo
era natural
:

Vecino, se

que

sois

hombre

discreto 1

y amigo de hacer un

favor ; vengo a consultaros sobre un punto 24 muy importante 4 36 para mi. Poseo mil francos, de los cuales tengo escondidos
26 25 quinientos en paraje seguro. Tengo intencion de esconder tambien la otra mitad27 y desearia que me dijeseis28 si debo ocultarlos3 en el inismo sitio 26 6 en otro diferente, para no

29 perderlo todo en caso de hurto.


30 1 31 32 Alegrdse el vecino con la culpable esperanza de pillar toda la eantidad, 33 e insto 34 al ciego a que los depositara 1 en

el

mismo

escondrijo.

35

Prometiolo 36 asi el robado, 37 y el ladron 22 se 3 ? apresuro 38 a volver 39 a poner 39 los quinientos francos al pie del arbol,7 40 41 Pero aquella misma noche fue para coger luego los mil.
4 poseer, to possess ; 5 bajar, to descend ; 6 ; 3 ocultar^ to conceal 7 tree ; 8 chance ; 9 courtyard ; 10 on the latter's retiring ; 11 treasure ; 12 far ; 13 complaining) and despair(iDg) ; 14 grief ; 15=began ; 16 people; 17 unoccupied ; 18 slander repeating 19 extravagant ; 20 suspect ; 21= said ; 22 thief ; 23 smiling ; 24 point ; 25 esconder, to hide ; 26 place ; 27 half ; 28 you (should) tell ; 29 theft ; 30 alegrarse, to rejoice 31 hope ; 32 plundering) ; 33 quantity ; 34 urged ; 35 hiding-place ; 36 prometer, to promise ; 37 robbed ; 38 hastened ; 39 put again ; 40=get j 41 afterwards.
;

2 blind
;

yard

56
2 ciego al paraje ? donde enterro sn dineroy y babiendo hallado sus quinientos francos, se los metio42 en el bolsillo43 44 42 y puso en su lugar un papel con estas palabras : Bien decia yo que era Vd. hombre amigo de bacer un favor ; mil gracias por baberm6 ayudado45 a recobrar 46 mi dinero.

el

42 put

43 pocket

44 place, stead

45 helped

46 recover

Vendiase en publica1 subasta2

un

aficionado inteligente. cuadrito 5 que representaba

de cuadros. de Al presentar el subastador4 un un burro,6 y que tenia un


4
7

la coleccion 1

empezaron a pujarlo dos pintores, pero un ricacho que se 10 la daba de 10 inteligente 1 lo subio 11 en un momento a cuatro mil reales. Uno de los pintores8 se dirije 12 al rico, y le dice cortesmente 18 Cuando tanto interes 1 demuestrk 14 Vd., presumo 5 1 que sera un fetrato* de familia, y me retiro para 'no 1 a Vd. perjudicar
merito 1
real,
9
1
:

2 auction 3 amateur 4 on the auctioneer's presenting 5 small picture ; 6 donkey 7 outbid (for) it 8 painter 9 very rich man 10=boasted of being 11 subir, to raise 12 addresses t 13 politely 14 manifest 15 portrait.
; ; ;

;*

Para dar
ocultar 3 en

Maboma1 mas
un pozo 5
el

seco 4 a

credito 1 a sus imposturas1 hizo uno de sus compaiieros,2 con


1
:

orden 1 de gritar 6 cuando de Dios.

pasara

Mahoma

es el enviado 7

Hizolo asi 8 el escondido, 9 quedaudo 11 todo 10 el mundo 10 1 admirado 12 de aquella maravilla13 pero el falso apostol, 1 14 14 15 temiendp que se descubriera su artificio, ordeno inmediatamente 1 a los fanaticos 1 que le seguian 16 que cegaran 17 el 19 18 20 5 pozo para evitar que f uera profanado en el porvenir,
;

5 well 6 call out 2 companion ; 3 hide ; 4 dry 7=messenger ; 10 all the world=everybody 11 remaining ; 8 .thus ; 9 hidden (person) 15 ordered 14 would be discovered 12 astonished ; 13 marvel 16 se17 they should blind=stop up ; 18 avoid 19 it should guir, to follow ;
; ; ; ; ; ;
; ;

be

20 future.

57 El Perro h&bil.

Es

corriente 2 entre los cazadores 3 hablar de los extraordi-

narios sucesos^curridos 1 en su diversion 1 f avorita1 y ponderar5 las excelencias1 de sus perros. En el descanso 6 de una partida7

de caza, 7 a la que asistia8 Alejandro Dumas, se hablaba de lo 9 de siempre 9 de perros. Dumas oyo referir 10 maravillas 11 de 1 1 1 Cuando le inteligencia realizadas por estos animalitos. 1 5 su de su perro. la tambien llego turno, pondero inteligencia
: 1

Oh

decia,

mi perro
12

tiene
el

una

inteligencia superior.

"On

dia que yo almorzaba

en

jardin con

un amigo, Fanor

que

14 asi se 13 llamaba13 mi perro sumiso15 que, esperaba como de costumbre,9 le arrojara 16 los restos17 de mi almuerzo. 18 Mas19 viendo que no me acordaba20 deel, se21 fue 21 al fondo 22 del jardin y vino hacia23 mi, trayendo en la boca24 una rama25

de NO26
dition

ME
;

OLVIDES. 26
;
; ; ;

2=usual 3 hunter 4 incident 5 exaggerate 6 halting 7 hunting expe8 was present 9=as usual 10 related 11 marvel J2 was break13 llamarse, to be called 15 submissively 16 14 was waiting fasting
;
;

member

I(should) fling ; 1 7 remains ; 21 irse, to go away ;

1
;

8 breakfast
;

22 bottom

20 acordarse de to re23 towards ; 24 mouth ; 25 sprig ;


;

9 but

26 forget

me

not.

Enrique VIII., rey de Inglaterra, y Carlos V., rey de Espaiia, eran dos principes de un caracter 1 muy vivo 2 el primero resolvi6 enviar un mensajero 3 al segundo, y nombr6 4 al 5 efecto 5 a sir Tomas More, su canciller. 6 Este al recibir sus instrucciones1 hizo 7 presente 7 a Enrique el temor 8 que tenia de encar9 10 11 a garse de semejante mensage que podia costarle la vida lo cual respondio el rey, que si Carlos atentaba12 a sus dias, 12 haria13 degollar 18 a todos los espanoles que hubiese 24 en sus
: :

Agradezco mucho a vuestra majestad, dijo el 17 el honor que hace a mi persona,, pero dudo, canciller, * seiior, que ninguna de las cabezas de esos caballeros pueda colocarse 19 sobre mis hombros. 20
16
1

estados. 15

3 messenger 4 appointed ; 5=for the purpose ; 6 chancellor ; 7 8 fear ; 9 taking charge ; 10 (a)like ; 11 life ; 12 attempted his days=life ; 13=he would have... beheaded ; 14 were ; 15 dominions ; IGagradecer, to be grateful ; 17 dudar to doubt ; 18 can ; 19 be put ; 20 shoulders.

2 hasty

represented

58
El Asedio de Amteres.
Mientras2 los Espaiioles mantenian1 en 1580 el tenaz*asedio* de Amber es,5 sucedio 6 una cosa de poca importancia1 que acarreo 7 un grande acontecimiento. 8 Estaba enferma una senora de la ciudad, y necesitaba para su cura1 tomar leche9 de burras. 10 Como no era posible hallarlas en la plaza, 11 un 18 14 14 12 joven se ofrecio a ir por una a los arrabales, no obstante en efecto ya traia16 una, hallarse en poder 15 del enemigo 1 cuando f ue apresado, 17 y conducido al duque1 de Parma* Este general trato 18 con bondad 19 al joven 12 alabo 20 su 23 la burra10 de 24 22 1 21 e hizo cargar honradez, perdices, capones 26 27 26 a un de cuanto util ordenando ser enfermo, y pudiese 28 28 que todo se lo llevase a la senora, y dieiendo al ayuntamiento 29 y pueblo de Amberes5 que el les deseaba toda suerte 30 de prosperidades. 1 Esta generosidad1 inesperada31 del duque produjo 1 una revolucion general en su favor, sugeriendose 32 enviarle a 35 nombre33 del publico 1 dulces34 y vinos de la ciudad. Los 1 1 1 1 espiritus se calmaron con estas mutuas atenciones, y 35 empezando a pensar que los Espaiioles no eran tan fieros
;

como
que

se creia, esta opinion evito 36

muchos

males,

37

e hizo 22

se rindiese 38 la plaza. 11

Este suceso 39 causo tanta alegria 40 a Felipe 1 II., que habiendole llegado la noticia41 a media42 noche,42 a43 pesar43 de lo misterioso 1 y austero 1 que era, fue al cuarto de su hija 44 45 Amberes5 es Isabel, dando golpes a la puerta,y gritando
:

nuestro,

Amberes

es nuestro

Quien nacio 46 para ahorcado 47 no morira48 ahogado. 49


ried=led to
3 tenacious 4 siege ; 5 Antwerp ; 6 suceder, to happen ; 7 car8 event ; 9 milk ; 10 ass 11 place 12 youth ; 13 suburb ; ; 14 notwithstanding ; 15 power 16 he was bringing ; 17 captured ; 18 to 19 22= tratar, treat; kindness; 20 alabar, to praise ; 21 gallantry
;
; ; ; ; ;

2 while

caused ; 23 to (be) load(ed) 27 useful ;,28 should be taken


;

24 partridge ; 25=whatever 26 might 29 coloration ; 30 kind 31 unexpected ; 32==it being suggested ; 33=in the name ; 34 sweetmeats 35 cruel 36 avoided==prevented 37 evil ; 38 surrendered (rendir) ; 39 event ; 40 41 news 42 43 44 in blow joy ; 45 calling out j midnight ; spite ; ; 46 was born ; 47=hangiDg ; 48 morir, to die ;, 49 ahogar^ to drown.
; ;
;

59
El Negro fingido. 2 4 3 cerrajeros de oficio, se embarca5 1 ron hace sesenta anos para la Jamaica. Luego que llegaron buscaron alguna ocupacion, 1 pero no la hallaron en su oficio,4 1 porque necesitaban algiin dinero para establecerse. Viendose sin auxilio? alguno, apelaron 7 a un recurso* bastante 9 extra10 ordinario, y fue el siguiente. Uno de ellos, que tenia los cabellos 11 nmy crespos,13 se disfrazo 13 de negro, 1 se tiiio 14 el rostro 15 y todo el cuerpo, 16 y fue conducido 1 por su hermano a la casa de un banquero,* a

Dos jovenes hermanos,

17 le prestase 18 cincuenta doblones1 sobre la quien suplico venta 19 de aquel negro. Como este era f uerte20 y vigoroso,1 21 22 el el hermano Iogr6 prestamo que deseaba. Recibido el 1 2 23 dinero, se escapo el fingido negro de casa del prestamista, 24 volvi6 a casa de su hermano, y se lavo de pies a cabeza.

ofrecieron los periodicos recompensas al 25 que le 26 presentase, pues era imposible hallarle.

En vano 1

Los dos hermanos f ormaron 1 su establecimiento 1 de cerra-\ 3 27 jeros con los cincuenta doblones, ganaron mucho dinero y
volvieron a su pais28 ricos pero es de advertir, 29 que antes de ausentarse 30 de la Jamaica, restituyeron 1 el prestamo22 con los intereses1 al banquero, y le dieron las gracias recordan;

dole 31 la anecdofa del negro.


2.fingir, to pretend'; 3

recourse

8=expedient
;

disguised
;

14 tefur, to
;

4 trade 5=ago 6 help 7 they had 9=rather 10 following 11 hair 12 curly ; 13 17 he requested 18 he 16 body 15 face dye

locksmith
;.

22 loan 23 lender 24 19 sale ; 20 strong ; 21 obtained (would) lend washed 25 to the (one) 26 (might) present 27 gained 28 country ; 29 to 30 absent(ing) themselves 31=reminding him of. (be) observe(d)
; ;
; ; ; ;

Deciaun andaluz 2 Conoci a un hombre tan alto, tan grueso,3 4 y que pesaba tanto, que cuando se murio tuvieron los sepul:

1 tureros 5 que hacer dos viajes para llevarlo al cementerio.

UN KICO. Es tarde y voy a dejar UN POBRE.^ Cuanto ?


2 Andalusiau
;

a Vd.

3 corpulent

4 weighed

5 grave-diggers

6 leave.

60

El Eoo singular, 2 gracioso con un caballero muy men8 4 tiroso que regresaba de un largo 5 viaje, este le referia6 los ecos1 maravillosos7 que habia oido en .varios paises, particularmente1 ,en las ruinas 1 de un templo* antiguo 1 que repetia1 ia

Hablando

tin dia

un

misma palabra siete veces. Ba ba eso no tiene nadade admirable, 8 responde nuestro bufon 1 acjui en este pais, sin ir mas lejos,9 hay un eco... un eco en el castillo* de un sefior cerca del pero que eco
1

lago

11

Killarney, donde
: :

me ha^sucedido 12 muy frecuentemerite


13
;

gritar

responderme 2 witty man


7
;

Buenos dias, senor eco y nunca ha dejado Buenos dias, caballerito, como esta Vd,
;

de

?
j

3 mendacious 8 extraordinary wonderful 13 left=omitted.

4 was returning ; 5 long ; 6 was relating 9 far ; 10 castle ; 11 lake ; 12 happened


.

La Nuez. Dos muchachos que jugaban2 al pie de un nogal, 8 hallaron en el suelo4 una nuez 5 que se habia caido del arbol. 6 Es mia, dijo uno de ellos, pues yo he sido el xjue la he visto
el

primero.
el otro
;

No, respondio he recogido7 del

es mia^

porque yo he sido

el

que

la

suelo. 4

8 8 1 1 pudiendo ponerse de acuerdo respecto al legitimo 5 dueno de la nuez, ya estaban dispuestos10 a disputarsela1 a 1 11 12 13 golpes, cuando un joven que pasaba, habiendose enterado 1 14 1 15 de la la del motivo nuez, la partio, y querella, cogio 16 poniendose en medio de los muchachos, les dijo : Yo voy a poneros de 17 acuerdo.17 La mitad18 de la cascara19 20 21 18 21 pertenece al que la vio el primero, y la otra mitad al que 9

No

la recogi6 7 del suelo.4 Respecto a la pepita, 22 yo la en pago 24 de la decisi6n 1 que he dado. Este es, 1 26 27 riendo, el resultado usual de todos los pleitos.

me

guardo anadio 25

23

2 jugar, to play ; 3 walnut-tree 4 ground 5 nut 6 tree 7 recoger, to pick 8==to agree ; 9 owner 10 disposed 11 blow 12 young (man) 13 acquainted ; 14 took hold of 15 divided=oracked 16 middle ; 17 in accord 18 haii j 19.ghell ; 20 pertenecer, to belong 21 to the (one) 22 kernel ; 23 guardar, to keep ; 24 payment j 25 be added ; 26 laughing ; 27 lawsuit
; ; j
;

up

61

El Retrato mal pagado. Mand'6se 2 retratar 2 un caballero, y contrat6 1 con el pintor8 1 que le pagaria^generosamente, si le sacaba5 el retrato6 pare*cido. 7 El pintor 3 lo hizo muy semejante 8 al original 1 pero el retratado 9 cometio 1 la indignidad 1 de no querer pagarle, 1 imaginando con esta malicia1 sacar 10 baratisimo 11 el retrato,6
;

que

el

3 pintor para nada podia aprovechar. 1 *

Mas diestro el artista, le dijo que, supuesto no queria 15 15 16 pagarle, se quedaria con el hasta que tuviese 16 por con17 18 18 veniente cumplir lo contratado.
13
1

14

de todo 21 el hecho el pin1 23 a pagar tor, y como todos le vituperaban, se vi'6 precisado al artista cuanto 24 quiso para sacar 10 el retrato de sus manos.
2=ordered his portrait to be painted ; 3 painter ; 4 pagar, to pay ; 5 turned out 6 portrait ; 7=like (him) 8 resembling ; 9 (person) painted ; 10 to draw out=get 11 very cheap ; 12=make use of 13 skilful 14 sup18 what posing 15 it should remain ; 16=until he found it ; 17 to fulfil was contracted ; 19=had a frame put ; 20 debt ; 2J=everybody ; 22 jest, trick ; 23 compelled ; 24 as much as.
;

El pintor hizo 19 poner un marco 19 al ret-rato, 6 al publico 1 sobre la puerta de su casa con esta * Aqui estoy por no pagar mis deudas. 20 El original del retrato, -'que fue conocido mundo, 21 supo al instante la burla22 que le habia
'

lo

expuso
1

inscripcifa

Uno que estaba preso 2 en JParls por deudas, envio a buscar a su acreedor,3 diciendo que tenia algo4 que comunicarle. Presentose al acreedor, 3 y le dice i Pues, senor, pensando en la vida5 que paso 1 aqui tan triste 6 -yf astidiosa, 7 he creido conveniente decirle a Vd. que estoy con pena8 por el gasto 9 que le 1 11 10 11 estoy ocasionando diariamente, y no se cuando se acabara. 1 12 13 12 en esta de Escuche Vd. Hagame salir de lugar prision, y los dos francos1 que le cuesto en ella, m'e dara, estando libre, 14 16 1 16 la mitad,15 y ^ resto lo iremos descontando de la deuda.
5 life ; 6 dull ; 7 tedious ; 2 imprisoned ; 3 creditor ; 4 something 9 expense 11 it will end 8 trouble 12=release me ; 13 10 daily 15 half ; 16cwe will gradually deduct. place i 14 re
;
;

62
Las tres Freguntas. Federico 1 el Grande tenia costumbre, 1 siempre ,<pf obser* vaba1 en su guardia1 un nuevo soldado, de preguntarle estas Desde 3 cuando* sirves4 ? tres cosas Que edad2 tienes ? 5 1 I Recibes con regular! dad tu sueldo y tus raciones ? 6 no hablar Un joven Frances, que podia siquiera una palabra en aleman, 7 f ue admitido 1 en este cuerpo 8 de guardia. 1 El
:
<?
{.

tres dias despues, y le Mcieron rey debia pasar revista 1 aprender tres respuestas correspondientes a las preguntas 11 hacer en el solia mismo el orden. y rey que 10 Llegado el dia de la revista, Federico observ6 estesoldado, y no dejo 12 de hacerle dichas13 preguntas, pero empezo por la

10

segunda.
<i

Desde 3 cuando 3

sirves4 ?

Como

<j

veinte

y un anos

Veinte y un anos, senor. 2 ? que edad tienes, pues


<j

Tres

dias, seiior.

uno de los dos habra perdido el entendiPrecisamente 1 los dos, dijo el joven, que tomaba estas palabras por la tercera pregunta. 1B me 1 Como dijo el rey, esta es la primera vez que se 16 15 trata de loco. El Frances, que ya habia apurado 17 todo lo que sabia de aleman,7guardaba un silencio absoluto. Pero el capitan^e apresuro 18 a explicar el en igma al rey, que celebro 19 mucho la chanza. 20
Ah,
dijo el rey^

miento. 14

5 pay ; 6 even ; 3 since when=how long ; 4 dost thou serve 11 was in the habit of ; 10 review 12= 8 body ; 9 had to 14 understanding ; 15=1 have been called ; 16 mad ; omitted; 13 said amused with 20 joke. 17 exhausted ; 18 made haste ; 19=was ;

2 age

German

Se habia dado orden terminante 2 a un suizo 3 de que no 1 4 Se le dejara entrar a nadie en el jardin de las Tullerias.
presenta
3

se permite 1 la entrada, 6 dijo el suizo. Pero yo no quiero entrar, dijo el otro, solo 7 quiero 8 salir de Pont-Royal. Ah, replied el suizo, eso ya es otra 1 cosa ; si se9 trata9 de salir8 ya puede Yd. pasar.
1

un ciudadano. 5

No

2= definite,
7 only
;

strict

8 (to) go put

8 Swiss 4 he (should) allow 9 it i&a. question.


;

5 citizen

6 entry

63
El Gird2 del Sol. Hallabase un caballero, muy rudo, 3 en cierta tertulia4 donde 5 6 1 se hablaba del sol y del modo como gira alrededor de la tierra, 8 7 1 mezclarse en la conbola. de una la tiene Quiso figura que
versacion 1 para sostener 1 que aquello era imposible, 1 supuesto 9 1 10 11 9 que los mismos ojos convencian de que la tierra era liana. 12 razones de diversas Dieronle para desenganarle aquel
error,

y entre
15

Ya

ve Vd. como

otras cosas le dijeron : el sol sale 13 diariamente 14

en un mismo
al Oriente, 19

paraje,

se 16

pone

16

al opuesto. 17

Como

es pues posible,

18 16 16 que vuelva del Occidente, donde se pone, donde sale, 13 si no pasa por20 debajo 20 ?

Bonita21 pregunta de noche.


1

22 1 replied el porfiado ignorante

viene

23

round

; 3=stupid ; 4 assembly ; 6 it rerolves ; 6 8 (to) mix ; 9=because ; 10=very, even ; 11 flat ; 12 disabuse him ; 13=rises ; 14 daily ; 15 place ; 16=sets ; 17 opposite 18 west ; 19 east ; 20 underneath 21 pretty (ironically used)=silly ; 22 obstinate ; 23=at.

2 turning round=revolution
;

7 ball

materia1 de testamentos,2 no heinos visto otro mas notable 1 que el que otorg6 3 en 1793 un caballero4 de inHelo5 aqui5 : dustria4 de Paris.

En

Nada

tengo, debo
;

mucho, dejo
;

lo

demas6 a
;

los pobres.
;

2 will

3 executed=left
2

4 swindler

5 here

it is

rest.

4 pero muy envanecido de 6 su merito, tuvo un dia la honra de hablar con cierto 6 7 8 soberano, el cual reparando que llevaba unaa malisimas 9 2 le si : era el miisico de medias, pregunt6 quien le habian hablado con tanto elogio 10 ? No lo se, senor, respondi6, 11 12 pero puedo vanagloriarme de tener una voz que hago de 13 ella cuanto Pues si asi es, dijo el rey, te aconsejo 14 quiero. 15 9 te un de medias, porque las necesitas mucho. hagas que par De esta manera 1 se16 burlo 16 el soberano6 de la ridicula1 vanidad 1 del musico. 2

Un

miisico,
1

diestro

en su

arte,

<|

2 musician ; 3 skilful ; 4= vain 6 honor 6 sovereign ; 8 llevar, to 9 stocking ; 10 eulogy, praise 11 boast ; ; 13 whatever ; 14 aconsejar, to advise 15 pair ; 16 made fun.

wr

7 noticing 12 I make

El Cochero aturdidp,*

buen humor 1 tomo una noche con algunos de su humor un coche de 3 alquiler, 3 y mando mismo amigos al cochero 4 les condujese 5 detras6 de6 una casa donde habian
caballero de
1

Un

de llamar a7 otro 8 sujeto. 8


9 10 11 todos, y despues, dando Llegaron, fingieron subir vuelta 11 al coche, 1 empezaron a entrar por una portezuela 12 4 13 y salir por la. otra, sin que lo notase el cochero, por 14

manera14 que veia entrar mucha gente15 y no

alcarizaba 16

como podian ya

caber tantas personas alia 18 dentro, 19 hasta20 20 1 21 22 el que pobre diablo, lleno de admiracion, abandbno el coche y se fue a la taberna1 inmediata, 23 donde declaro 1 que

17

conducia24 una legion1 de demonios, pues habia contado 25 ya


J

diez

y ocho, y no sabia donde


;

se metian. 26
;

6 behind ; 7=for ; 3 on hire ; 4 coachman ; 5 to drive 9 pretended ; 'lO to ascend; 11 going round 12 little ; door ; 13 noticed ; 14=so ; 15 people ; 16=understood 17 be contained ; 18 there ; 19 within 20 until 21=fellow 22 astonishment ; 23 adjoining ;

2 confused

8=some one

else

;,

24 he was driving

25 counted

26 meter, to put.

Decia un mal pin tor 2 que iba a blanquear 3 su casa para 5 4 Pintala primero, le dijo otro pintor, y pintarla despues. 6 6 7 la enseguida. blanqueen que
1

Portero1

<?

Que manda8 Vd.

<j

No

vive aqui

un

caballero que hace9 pocos dias se ha muerto ? 10 10 Gracias. No, senor, en la casa de al lado.
2 painter
it
;

3 whitewash 4 paint 7 directly after ; 8 order=want


; ;

it
;

5 afterwards ; 6 let them whitewash 9 ago ; 10=next door (lado, side).


;

3 1 2 PeroVd. es particular solicito una importante plaza. 4 ; Vd. desea pues rennnbibliotecario, le dijo su protector, 7 7 manera. de ciar 5 este empleo 6 ? Entonces, ninguna Oh, no, 8 el otro desen su con Vd. como obligacion <: cumplir

Un

tino,

podra 10 que reclamara todo su tiempo ? Con la mayor facili1 1 dad del mundo, puesto11 que11 nunca voy a mi biblioteca. ^
9

2
at

all

not certain person ; 3 place 4 librarian ; 5 give up ; 6 employment ; 7 10 will demand; ll=because ; 12 library. j Siulfil ; 9 situation ;
;

SPANISH
CONVERSATION
SIMPLIFIED
A
collection of frequently occurring

CONVERSATIONAL

PHRASES

INTRODUCING ALL THE

IMPORTANT IDIOMS

PHILADELPHIA

DAVID McKAY,

Publisher

604-8 S. Washington Square

/USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL" SENTENCES.

fcased chiefly

CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES, u
on the Rules
in

gradually introducing the most

SPANISH SIMPLIFIED," and IMPORTANT IDIOMS


dias, sefior (or

Good day
sir.

(or

Good morning),
(or

Buenos
Buenas

caba*

Hero).

Good afternoon
evening), miss.

Good

tardes, senorita.

Good night (or Good evening)? madam. !How are you? and Very well, thank you you ?
;

Buenas noches, senora.


i

Como

esta

Vd.

?
;

Muy

bien, gracias

y Vd.

very well now, but I have been ill. What was the matter with
I

am

Estoy muy bien khora, pero he estado enfermo. i Que tenia Vd. ?
i

you

What

is

the matter with her ?

Que

tiene ella ?

Nothing is the matter with me. What do you say ? What do you mean ?

No
i i i

tengo nada.
decir ?
esto

What
;How
I
is

is
?

this

called

in

Que dice Vd. ? Que quiere Vd. C6mo se llama


panol
?

en

es-

Spanish

have heard not do it.


Italian
?

that said in English ? that he will

<;

C6mo se dice eso en ingles ? He oido decir que no quiere


hacerlo.

Can you speak Spanish


1

or,

Sabe Vd. hablar espanol 6


italiano ?

very sorry for it. iThey were not very sorry, Are you not sorry for it ?

am

Lo

siento

No

lo sintieron

mucho. mucho.
<f

What do you want ?


I

[Vd. ^NolosienteVd. ? ? Que desea I Que quiere Vd.

am glad

to see you.
(till

Me

alegro de verle.

Good-bye Good-bye

to-morrow).

Haste manana.
Hasfeyel Miercoles.

(till

Wednesday).

Good-bye(till I see you again). Good-bye (farewell, adieu).

Hasta la
Adios.

vista.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

I beg your

pardon.
to
;

Dispenseme Vd.

They were not very glad


hear that.
at

No

se alegraron oir eso.

mucho de

We are very glad


home.
Please give

to find

you

Nos alegramos mucho de encontrarle (a Vd.) en casa.

me

your hat and

your gloves.

Sirvase darme su sombrero sus guantes.

Here they

are.

it will rain before the evening ? It is certain that they have

Many thanks. Do you think

Aqui los tiene Vd. Muchas gracias.


I

Cree Vd. que llovera antes que anochezca ?


cierto

Es

que

no

se

nan

not jnade a mistake. We cannot do anything in this matter.


I

equivocado. No podemos hacej nada sobre este asunto.

am

hungry.

Ten go hambre.
i

Are you not thirsty ? They were very hungry. Will not the child be hungry? He would be very thirsty. What will you do with this
letter ?

No tiene Vd. sed ? Tenian mucha hambre.

No tendra hambre el nino ? Tendria mucha sed. I Que hara Vd. con esta carta ?
<;

send it by post. Although I have not done my work, I will go with you now. With the greatest pleasure. When did the carriage come back ?
I shall

La enviare por el
t

correo.
tra-

Aunque no he hecho mi
bajo, ire ahora

con Vd.
?

,;

Con muchisiniQ gusto. Cuando volvio el coche

soon than too late. There are several mistakes in


It is better to arrive too
*

Vale mas llegar un poco ternprano, que demasiadotarde. Hay varias faltas en este tema.
^

Why
Who
That

this exercise. will you not

come
?

to

Por que no quiere Vd. venir

the theatre to-morrow


told
girl

manana
of

al teatro ?

you so
is

very fond

her brother.

Speak louder.

Vd. ? I Quien Esa muchacha quiere mucha a su hermano. Hable Vd. mas alto.

se lo dijo a

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

The post has not come

in yet.

El corr eo no ha llegado todavia.

Do

not speak Wait a little


;

(jplur.) so low. I have several

No

hablen Vds. tan bajo, Aguarde, Vd. un poco tengo


;

things to
I

tell

you.

varias cosas

que

clecirle.

Do
I

cannot do it now. us the favor to direct us to the railway station,

No puedo hacerlo ahora. Haganos el favor de dirigirnos


a la estacion del f errocarril.

must do something else. Listen to me a moment.


Please take a seat.
1 believe not.

Debo hacer

otra cosa.

Escucheme un momento. Sirvase tomar asiento.


Creo que no. Decimos que
si.

We say it is so.
He was
afraid not. I hope -so. Don't you think so I say it is not. I expect not.
?

TemiaTque no. Espero que si.


I

No

cree

Vdrque

si ?

Certainly not. What are you looking for ? are you looking for

Digo que no. Espero que no. Ciertamente que no.


i ? I
I

Que busca Vd.

Whom

A quien busca Vd. ?

Do you know where

Seiior

Martinez lives ? Will you take anything ? Many thanks ; I am not hungry, but I should very much like a glass of wine.
I

<j

Sabe Vd. donde vive el seiior Martinez ? Quiere Vd. tomar algo ? Mil gracias no tengo hambre, pero de buenagana beberia un vaso de vino.*
;

am rather

tired^.

.When did your mother

re-

turn home ? I do not know why he has not sent the answer. How old is your uncle ?

Estoy algo cansado, volvio a casa su I Cuando madre (de Vd.) ? No se por que no ha enviado
la respues,ta.
<;

Cuantos anos tiene su

tio ?

am twenty-eight years He is more than thirty.


I

old.

Tengo veintiocho anos. Tiene mas de treinta anos.

I do not

know what

to

do

No

about this matter. You cannot make 9, mistake.

se que asunto.

hacer en

este

Vd. no puede equivocarse.,

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

You must do it some other way.


I

want

to consult

you about

Vd. debe hacerlo de otro modo* Deseo consultarle sobre esta


carta.

this letter.

They

will

doubtless

come

Sin

next week. Could you not hear him ? Yes but we could not understand what he meant. Do you know what time it is ? I don't know the exact time my watch does not go well. His watch always goes badly.
; ;

duda vendran que viene.


;

la

semana

.<?

,;

podian. Yds. oirle ? pero no podiamos comprender lo que queria decir. Sabe Vd. que hora es ? No se la hora exacta ; mi
Si
reloj

No

no va

bien.

It is a little fast.
It is generally

very slow.

va siempre mal. Esta un poco adelantado. Va generalmente muy atrareloj

Su

[to ten. It is exactly twenty minutes It is about one o'clock.


It is not late yet.

sado.

[punto.

Son las diez menos veinte en Es cerca de la una.

No
Mi
up I have home.
;

es tarde. todavia.
reloj

My
I

watch

is

not going.
it

no anda.

cannot wind
left
is

No puedo

the key at
of

This
It

no importance.

darle cuerda ; he dejado la Have en casa. Esto no es de ninguna importancia.

does not matter. What does it matter

No
?
I
;

importa.
le

Where were you going when we met you yesterday ?


I

Que importa ? Adonde iba Vd. cuando

am

going to read this newsis

encontramos ayer ? Voy a leer este peri<5dico.


i

paper.

What

the news
is

Que hay de nuevo

or

Que

se dice de tfuevo ?

Nothing

more

certain.
!

Nada
I

quiet directly These children will not be


silent.
[first.

Be

es mas seguro. Callese Vd. al instante

Please tell

me who saw

it

Estos nifios no quieren callarse. [visto primero. Sirvase decirme quien lo ha


i

Come

in

Entre Vd.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

Can you
foreign

change

me

this

<?

Puede Vd. cambiarme

este

money

Walk
Is

way. your master at home ? No, madam he is out, and


;

this

dinero extranjero ? Pase Vd. adelante. i Esta su amo en casa

No, senora

esta f uera,

y no

will not return before

the

volvera antes de la noche.

evening.

What a
to see

pity

should like
?

Que lastima

desearia verle.

him.

Will you give

me your name

<i

You
I

are right..

QuiereVd.darmesunombre? Vd. tiene razon.

am

not right.

No

tengo razon.
x

We are right this time.


I

Tenemos razon
razon.

esta vez.

am sure

they are wrong.

Estoy seguro de que no tienen

His friend was^ wrong. Who is this gentleman who is coming towards us ?

Su amigo no
<?

tenia razon.
este

Quien

senor que viene hacia nosotros ?


es

He is a friend
Can you
Street ?

of

my cousin's,
"

but I do not know his name.


direct

me

to

Es un amigo de mi primo, pero no se su nombre. I Puede Vd. dirigirme a la ? calle de

With much pleasure. You must take this road. Go straight on.
Take the second street on the
right. The street
first

Con mucho

gusto.
este camino.'

Vd. debe tomar

Vaya.Vd. derecho. Tome Vd. la segunda


laderecha.

calle

you want on the left

is

the

La

calle que Vd. quiere es la primera* a la izquierda.

Ask

again,

when you

get to

the market.

You

Tvill see the station in front of you.


ar,e

Pregunte de nuevo, cuando llegue al mercado. Vd. vera la estacion en


frente.

Whom
I

you writing

to ?
;

am
I

writing to my brother

have several things to say to him. A11 that they told you is true. L

I quien escribe Vd. ? Escribo a mi hermano ; tengo varias cosas que decirle.

[verdad.

Todo

lo

que

le

han dicho^es

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

The windows

ai e

not shut.
?

Las veritanas
rradaa.

no es&n

ce-

Shall I shut the door

Please give

me some
?

bread

[puerta ? i Quiere Vd. que (yo) cierre la Hagame el favor de darme

and cheese.

What
I
if

will

you drink
is

should like a glass of beer,


there

un poco de pan y queso. Que quiere Vd. beber ? Quisiera. un vaso de cerveza,
<;

any.

si la

hay.

You
I

cannot do better.

Where

am

are you going ? going home will you come with me ?


;

No, thank you here, because


;

I
I

must stay have a


I

great deal to do.


I

Vd. no puede hacer cosa mejor i Adonde va Vd. ? Voy a casa quiere Vd. venir conmigo ? debo quedarme No, gracias aqui, porque tengo mucho que hacer.
; <;

am
do

very sorry, but


it.

cannot

Lo
I

puedo

siento mucho, pero hacerlo.

no

Is 'any body at

home

?
?

Hay

alguien en casa

What hour
It is

that striking just striking eleven.


is

Thehourisjustabouttostrike. Hasitstruck half past five yet? but I think it will Not yet
;

Que hora esta dando ? Estan dando las once. La hora va a dar [media ? Han dado ya las cinco y Todavia no pero creo que
I
<;

strike soon.
It

It

has just struck one. had just struck eight.

It is a beautiful day. It is fine (weather). It is very bad weather.


It

daran pronto. La una acaba de dar. Las ocho acababan de dar. Hace un dia hermoso.
Haxje

buen tiempo.

Hace
<;

muy mal

tiempo.

was not

fine.
it

No hacia buen
will be fine

Do you
It is

think
?

to-morrow

Cree Vd. tiempo maiiana ?


nevarido.

tiempo. que hara buen

not snowing.

No esta
from

I believe it will rain soon.

I expect a letter sister in Paris.

my

Creo que llovera pronto. Espero una carta de mi herrnana que esta en Paris.
Esta
cartas

These

letters are

not dated.

no tienen fecha.

trSEFXTL

CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

What is the date ? The first, second, third,

etc.

A cuantos estamos hoy ? A primero, a dos, a tres,


<;

etc.

Will you take this letter to the post ? We are going to send them the answer to-morrow. How much do you ask for this ?

Quiere Vd. llevar esta carta


al correo ?

Vamos a
ta

enviarles la respues-

How

do you
price

sell

these

At the

which you see

manana. d Cuanto pide Vd. por esto ? A como vende Vd. estos ? Al precio que ve Vd. marcado,
<;

marked.
Is this the lowest price ?

Yes we mark our prices as low as possible, and we cannot reduce them. These goods are sold at three
;

mas bajo ? marcamos nuestros precios lo mas bajo posible, y no podemos reducirlos. Estos generos pe venden a
d

Es
;

este el precio

Si

shillings each.

a very cheap article. It appears to me too much. How much will you take ? Do you think it will be
is

This

tres chelines cada uno. Este es un articulomuy barato.

Me
I

parece dernasiado.
?

Cuanto tomara Vd. ? Cree Vd. que sera bastante

enough ? was not satisfied with the


material I bought here the other day.

No

estaba satisfecho con el material que compre aqui


el otro dia.

was inclined
to you.

to

send

it

back

Estaba dispuesto a devolverselo (a Vd.).

We

are very sorry that


so.
all

you

did not do

We always do
can
to

we possibly
our
cus-

Sentimos mucho que Vd. no lo haya hecho. Hacemos siempre todo lo que
satisfacer a nuestros parroquianos. Puedo mostrarle a Vd. alguna otra cosa ?

satisfy

podemos para

tomers.

Can
I

show you anything


take
those
;

else ?

will

please

Tomare

send them to my house. Where do you wish them to be sent ? To No. 17, Prince's Street,

esos ; sirvase darlos a mi casa.

man-

<jAd6nde quiere Vd. que se inanden ? A la calle del Principe, No. 17.

10

tJSEFTTL

CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

Is there a letter for

me

Hay

carta para

mi

They were obliged to go away.


go out to-night, if it not too cold. He asked us why we had come, but we did not
is

We shall

Tuvieron que irse. Saldremos esta noche, hace demasiado frio.

si

no

Nos pregunto por que habiamos venido, pero no le


contestants.

answer him.

Open the

door, and shut all


?

Abra Vd.
<?

the windows.
Is the door locked

la puerta, y cierre todas las ventanas/

Esta

cerrada con Have


?

la

Do
I

not come too

late.

beg your pardon. There is no occasion for itThere was no occasion for it. There would not be an}need for it/
It is better not to say anything, than to speak too much.

No venga Vd. demasiado tarde. Dispenseme Vd ,0rPerdone Vd. No hay de que. No habia de que. No habria de que.
Vale mas no decir nada, que hablar demasiado. Mas valdria no, decir nada mas. Cuando hayamos acabado

puerta

would be better not to say anything more. When we have finished our work, we shall go out. Where are you going ? We are going to hear a very
It
'

Adonde Vamos
I

nuestro trabajo, saldremos. Iran Vds. ? oir a un orador a-

celebrated speaker.

may
at
<?

celebre.

Did you enjoy yourselves


the theatre yesterday
;

Se divlrtieron Vds. ayer en


el teatro ?
;

Thank you we enjoyed ourselves very

Gracias

nos
f

divertimos

much.
have something

mucho.
;

Follow me
for you.

Sigame tengo algo para Vd.

Have you anything to Can you stay here for a


while
I I shall
?

[me ? show
little

[me?
<;

must go away
eight exactly.

at once.

be here at a quarter to

TieneVd.algo que mostrarVd. quedarse aqui un Puede l poco? Debo irme al instante. Estare aqui 4 las ocho meaos cuarto en punto.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

11

We

are very glad that oiir come home father has

Nos

again.

alegramos nuestro vuelto a casa.

mucho de
padre haya

que

Do you want an
a stick
I
?

umbrella or

<?

Quiere Vd. un paraguas 6

unbaston
either.

do not want

Do you want anything else ? You must tell him as soon as


he
arrives.

quiero ni uno ni otro. Quiere Vd. otra cosa ? Vd. debe decirselo en cuanto
<j

No

llegue.

As you

please.

Como Vd.
esto.

guste.
baje,

When you

go downstairs, take this with you. A week ago he was in the country, but he came back
last night.

Cuando Vd.

llevese

Hace
en
i

una
el

semana

estaba

x campo, pero volvi6

anocho.

How many
been here

days have you


?

Have you been here long ?

We
I

have

been

here

ten

Cuantos dias hace que esta Vd. aqui? [aqui? I Hace mucho que esta Vd. Hace diez minutos que esta-

minutes.

mos

aqui.

have been learning Spanish

Hace un ano que aprendo


espanol.

for a year. Let us talk a little. What have you to tell me We must not catch cold.

The
I

children will catch cold.

Conversemos un poco. i Que tiene Vd. que decirme No debemos resfriarnos. Los nifios se resfriaran.
Estoy resf riado.

have a cold. She has not got a cold. They all had colds. I am afraid he will catch cold. This bread is new (=fresh)
;

No

esta resfriada.

Estaban todos resfriados.

Temo que

se resfrie.
;

Este pan esta fresco


frio todavia.

no

esta

it is

The The

not cold yet. [hot. coffee and the tea are not
iron

[lientes.

was too

hot.
?

El cafe y el te no estan caEl hierro estaba demasiado


caliente.
I

At what time do you dine


It is already five o'clock.

A que hora comen Vds.


las cinco.

Ya son

12

USEFUL
half past six.

Ws snail dine at
I

Comeremos a las seis y media.


Vi a
la

saw the people coming out


of church.

gente

salir

de

la

iglesia.

thought I should receive

more money for my horses. With your permission, I will


read this
letter.

mas dinero por mis caballos. Con permiso de Vd., leere


Crei que recibiria
esta carta.

You
I

are greatly mistaken.

Esta Vd.

muy

equivocado.
el

have come by coach, not

He

venido en coche, no en
la respuesta

by train. Send.him the answer by post.

tren.

Enviele Vd.
correo.

por

The

town consists of hundred houses.

five

La ciudad

se

compone de

This lady appears to be than her mother.

taller

We

Do you know that lady ? have known her for some


time.

quinientas casas. Esta senorita parcce ser alta que su madre.


I

mas

Conoce Vd. a esa senora ?


la

J have seen her, but I know her.


I

do not

algiin tiempo que conocemos. La he visto, pero no

Hace

la

conozco.

know

We know
What
I

her by sight. her by name.


called
?
it

La conozco de vista. La conocemos de n ombre.


is

is this

do not remember what


called.

Como se llama esto ? " No me acuerdo como


i

se
?

llama.
?
<i

What

are these things called

Como
Como

se

llaman estas cosas


se llaman.

We do not know what they are No


called.

sabemos como

What is your friend's name ? My name is George. We shall come back at the
end of the month.

se llama su amigo ? llamo Jorge. Volveremos a fines del mes.


i

Me

Knock at that door. Somebody is knocking


door.
It is a gentleman,

at -the

Llame Vd. a esa puerta. Alguien llama a la puerta.


Es un caballero, pero no se su nombre.

but I do not

know

his

name.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

13

Go and see who


I

it is.
<;

Whom did he ask for ?


am ashamed.
to

Vd. a/ver quien es. For quien ha preguntado


vergiienza.

Tengo
<?

Are you not ashamed ? He ought to be ashamed


say that.
I

No

Debia tener

tienen Vds. vergiienza ? vergiienza de decir eso.

afraid he cannot wait any longer. Were you not very much
:

am

Temp que no pueda aguardar


mas.
<;

No

tenia Vd.

mucho miedo?
salir

afraid?

He

will be afraid to go out

Tendra miedo de
noche.

esta

this evening.

I did not hear the question.

No

oi la pregunta.
si

Ask

whether they have printed the books yet.


to

Pregunte Vd.

han impreso

los libros ya.

They brought a message


>say

she had died last week. I do not always hear all the words.
I

Trajeron un parte diciendo que habia muerto la sema-

na pasada.

No

oigo

sLempre

todas las

palabras.

am

very

.hot.

Are you not warm

We shall be too hot We are not cold.

here.

Tengo mucho calor. No^iene Vd. calor ? [calor. Tendremos aqui demasiado
<?

No tenemos
i

frio.

Are you -cold ? She was very cold. You would be too cold in
room.

Tienen Vds.

frio ?

this

Ella tenia tfiucho frio. Vd. tendria deinasiado frio en


este cuarto.

These rooms are very cold. The water was not cold. We have not found what we were looking for.
I shall not go out to-day, or to-morrow either.

Estos cuartos son muy frios. El agua no estaba fria.

No hemos
No

halladoloque buscabamos.

They

arrived in time, but unf ortunatelyiie was not there.

saldre hoy, ni manana tampoco. Llegaron a tiempo, pero por

desgracia el

no estaba

alii.

Those who are idle are seldom


happy.

Los que son holgazanes sou raramente felices.

14
Is this

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


house for sale
;

Se vende esta casa


;

No,

madam

it is

to be let.

Have you any rooms


I

to let ?

No, senora se alquila. <;Tiene Vd. cuartos para


quilar
?

al-

want

to take lodgings near


.

my friend's house. How many rooms do you wan


I

t?

should like three rooms on the second or third floor.

For how long do you want

Deseo alquilar un alojamiento junto a la casa de mi ainigo. I Cuantos cuartos desea Vd. ? Quisiera tres cuartos en el segundo 6 tercer piso. Por cuanto tiempo los quiere
<;

them?
For three or four months. How much have I to pay a
<;

Vd.?
Por tres 6 cuatro rneses. Cuanto tengo que pagar por
sernana ? El precio es ocho duros al mes (or por mes). Creo que es demasiado. Estas botas no me vienenbien.

week ? The price


mojith.
I

is

eight dollars a

think

it is

too

much.
suit

These boots do not

me.

They They
Did

are too narrow.

Son demasiado

estrechas.

are not broad enough. not the gloves fit him


suit you.

No son bastante anchas. le vinieron bien I No


guantes
?

los

well?

Your hat does not


It is too tight.

Su sombrero no le viene bien. Es demasiado estrecho.


Esta sortija

This ring fits me better. His coats suit him very well. This coat is very uncomfortable.

me

ajusta mejor.

Sus levitas le vienen inu y bien. levita me incomoda Esta

mucho.

He called me by my name, but I don't know who he was.


They appear to be a long way from here, but they are not.
I shall finish

Me

llamo por mi nombre, pero no se quien era. Parecen estar muy lejos de
aqui, pero

no

lo estan.

the list this very

Acabare

la lista

hoy mismo.
hagamos

day.

not necessary that we should keep them waiting. I shall see him next Sunday.
It is

No

es preciso que les esperar.

Le vere el Domingo que viene.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

15

Do

not keep us waiting any

No

nos haga Vd. esperar mas.

longer. Send for a cab.


I

Mande Vd. por un


finish
it.

have merely come to ask

coche. Solo he venido para preguntarle

when you <jan


Take

cuando puede

aca?

barlo Vd.

Who has taken away my cup ?


this

<:

Quien se ha llevado mi taza


.sigo.

umbrella with you.

Lleve Vd. este paraguas con,;

Will you take the children

home

Are you wearing boots or shoes ? In summer I generally wear shoes, and in winter boots.
generally wear a jacket or a morning coat ? friend used to wear his clothes too tight. This phrase is not correct ; it is better to write it in

<i

Quiere Vd. llevar los niiios a casa ? Lleva Vd. botas 6 zapatos ? En verano uso (or llevo) generalmente zapatos, y
botas en invierno.
Usa. Vd. generalmente casaca

Do you

<?

6 levita

My

Mi amigo usaba(0r llevaba)su


vestido demasiado estrecho. Esta f rase no es correcta ;
vale

mas

escribirla

de este

this

way.
without

modo.
Se fueron sin hablar a nadie.
las promesas que hace. Este vino es tal cual lo podiamos desear. Los viveres no eran tales cuales los podiamos desear. Procuro cuanto puedo.

They went away

speaking to anybody. He always forgets the promises he makes. This wine is all that we could
wish.

Olvida siempre

The

provisions were not all that we could have wished.

I try as

much

as I can.

We are doing what we can. We will do all we can.


It
is the least they can do for her.
it

Hacemos cuanto podemos. Haremos cuanto podamos. Es lo menos que pueden


hacer por
<;

ella.

Will you do

There are

me ? Quiere Vd. many men who Hay muchos


for

hacerlo por

mi

hombres que no

can neither read nor write.

saben ni leer ni escribir.

TJSEFtfL

CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.
Sientese Vd.

Sit

down.
;

Thank you
I

cannot stay. took advantage of his silence


I

Gracias

Me

to explain

what you had

told me.

no puedo quedarme. aproveche de su silencio para explicar lo que Vd. me habia dicho.
;

We
He

shall take advantage of

Nos aprovecharemos de su
ausencia.

their absence.

has gone away without waiting for the answer. Both these books are ours.

Se

ha ido sin aguardar

respuesta.

Both the

shops

are

that

Ambos libros son nuestros. Ambas tiendas son de. aquel


comerciante.
t

merchant's. Which of the two


prefer
hours.
?

do you

Cual de los dos prefiere Vd. ?


detenido
casi

They detained me nearly two

Me han
horas. horas.

dos
diez

He

slept for

more than ten


fifty

Ha dormido mas
*en el puerto.

de

hours.

There are more than

Hay mas de cincuenta buques


Recibo mas de veinte cartas por correo cada dia. No puedo aprobar su conducta.

ships in the harbour. I receive more than twenty letters a day by post.
I

cannot approve of his conduct.


likes to

Nobody
I

be deceived.

thought you wanted to mislead me. We have hardly had time to read the answer.

Nadie quiere ser enganado. Crei que Vd. deseaba enganarme. Apenas hemos tenido tiempo
para leer la contestation. Ayer fui a'ver su escuela.
I

went

to see his school yes-

terday.

Have you been


;

to see your bed-room ? it is convenient, but it Yes

Ha
;

ido Vd. a ver su alcoba


es

Si

comoda, pero no es

not very big, It is on the ground floor. Mine is on the third fioor.
is

grande. Esta en el cuarto bajo.

muy

La mia

esta

en

el tercer piso.

I prefer the

first floor.

Prefiero el primer piso.

USEFUL COZTVERSATIOlfAL SENTENCES.


take the letters do not forget to
?

17
las cartas

When you

Cuando
al

lleve

Vd.

to the post,

correo,

no olvide

de

pay the postage.

Have you aated them


them.
I

<;

pagar el porte. Les ha puesto Vd. la fecha?

Yes, but I have not signed

Si,

pero no

las

he firmado.

am

very fond

of

music

Me
No

gusta la musica.

(=music

pleases me).

We do not likexdancing. Does she like this picture


Do you
I
I

nos gusta bailar.

<;

like the pictures in


?

<;

Le gusta este cuadro ? Le gustan a Vd. los cuadros,


de
la

the exhibition

do not like* them much. do not like this.


all like country^life;

No me

exposicion ? gustan mucho.

Esto no

me

gusta.

They

A todos ellos les gusta la vida


campestre.
i

Used they

to like this

wine ?

Les gustaba Cual de los Vds. mas ?

este vino ?
el otro.

We like the other


Which
I

better'.

Nos gusta mas


you
I

of the three do like best ?

tres les gusta

am very fond of apples. I prefer pears. "We like oranges best.


So do I. So do we. Everybody knows it.
;

Me gustan muchb las manzanas.


Prefiero las peras. Nos^ gustan mas las naranjas.
.

Yotambien. Nosotrostambien.

Todo
ido.

el

mundo

lo sabe.

not yet known where they have gone. I assure you that I did not do it. While he was speaking, I wrote the letter, While they were waiting, he
It
is

Aiin no se sabe adonde han

Le aseguro que yo no lo hice. Mientras el hablaba, yo escribia la carta.

Mientras aguardaban, salio.


\

went
Indeed

out.
!

De

veras

When wa

that done ?

Cuando
comer

se hizo eso ?

Is this frifat

good

to eat ?
it"

<jEs esta iruta


?

buena para
est6

We do yeV

not think

is ripe

No creemos que
todavia.

madura

18

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

They bought it the day before


yesterday. I will send it to

Lo compraron

anteayer.

them the day

Se lo enviare pasado manana,

after to-morrow.

He

does not generally before seven o'clock.

come

They
end
It is

will come back at the of a month.

Generalmente no viene antes de las siete. Volveran al cabo de un mes.

No

not true. such thing.


at all.

Not

No es verdad. No hay tal cosa. De ningun modo.


you been
Cuanto tiempo hace que vive Vd. aqui ? Desde el mes pasado.
c

How
If I

long

have
?

living here

Since last month.

pay you now, will you

Si le

a receipt ? He would not pay the account without getting a receipt. How far is it from here to
give

me

pago ahora, Vd. recibo ?


sin

<;

me

dara

No
<;

queria pagar la tomar recibo

cuenta

London ? About two hundred

miles.

How many
Madrid
I

miles

is it

from

to Paris ?

He was

did not think it was so far. not showing much


of the

distancia hay de aqui a Londres ? Cerca de doscientas millas. desde t Cuantas millas Jiay Madrid a Paris ? No creia que fuese tan lejos.

Que

No

mostraba mucha destreza.

dexterity. I live in the west

Vivo en

town, but formerly I lived


in the east.

el oeste de la ciudad, pero antes vivia en el este.

We

and our
north.

shall live in the south, relatives in f- the

Nosotros vivir6mos en el sud, y nuestros parientes en el


norte.

They used

to live opposite

Vivian f rente

al

mSrcado.

the market.

Can you walk more quickly ? Do not walk so quickly. He always used to walk too
quickly.

<;

Puede Vd. andar mas aprisa ?


Vds. tan aprisa.

No anden
aprisa.

Andaba siempre demasiado

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


Let

19

me

copy

it

for you.

Djeme

He began

copjarlo por Yd,

to run, but I easily


I

caught him. It is not so late as


It is

thought.

correr, pero le alcance facilmente. No es tan tarde como yo


creia.

Empez6 a

much

later

than they

They

thought. are stronger than

we

Es mucho mas tarde de lo que creian. Son mas fuert.es de lo que


esperabamos.

expected. You are walking

more slowly
from here ? on the

than I

like.

Vd. anda mas despacio de que quiero.


<?

lo

Is the station far

Esta Iejosdeaquilaestaci6n
la

Take the second


right.

street

Tome Vd.
<;

segunda

calle a

la derecha.
tell
is ?

Can you
Hotel

me where the...

Puede Vd. decirme doixde


esta el hotel... ?

You must take the third turning on the left. The house you passed by this morning is my grandfather 's.
I

la tercera calle a la izquierda. La casa por la cual Vd.. ha

Vd. debe tomar

pasado esta manana es de<

mi

abuelo.
esta:

want you
lock.

to
to

repair

this

Deseo que Vd. repare


cerradura.

You ought
key.

have a

new

Vd. debiera tener una Have


nueva.
<?

At what time do you breakfast ? They breakfasted with me


yesterday morning. I often breakfast with him. We shall breakfast with them

A que hora almuerza Vd. ?


la)

Alinorzaron conmigo ayer (por

manana.

to-morrow at half past seven.


It is rather early for us.

Almuerzo arnenudo con el. Almorzaremos con ellos majaana a las siete y media. Es algo temprano para nosotros.

They were informed of it. I shall not be informed of


that.

Tenian noticia de

ello.

No
i

tendre noticia de eso.


viene esta carta
?

Where does from?

this letter

come

De d6nde

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

She owes her

life to

him.

Le debe
Pronto
i

la vida.

We
it

shall soon

know whether

sabremos

si

puede

can be done.. Why do you not get up ? I am going to get jip now, but I went to bed rather
late last night.
X I shall

hacerse.

For que no
anoche
tarde.

Voy

se levanta Vd. ? a levantarme'ahora, pero

me

acoste

un poco

even

go to see them tb-day, if the weather is bad.


is

Ire a verlos hoy,

mal tiempo.

aunque baga

Breakfast
is

ready.

El almuerzo esta servido.

not ready. Supper Will you stop to supper ? We are going to take tea. Why do you not begin ? You have not told us what we

La cena no

esta servida.

t Quieren Vds.

Vamos

quedarse a cenar ? a tomar el te.

ought
well.

to do.

We remember\his street very


Don't you gong ?
I
\

I Por que no empieza Vd. ? Yd. no nos ha dicho lo que debiamos hacer. Nos acordamos de esta calle

muy
remember
this

bien.

that

remember

song,
;

but not
'

not that one. Bo not be angry

de aquella cancion ? Me acuerdo de esta cancion, pero no de esa.


i

No se acuerda Vd.

it is

No

se enoje

Vd.

no

es culpa

my fault.
He
often gets angry without
cause.

mia.

Se enoja amenudo sin causa.


<;

Will you come for a walk with me ? I will come for a walk with you with much pleasure. It cannot go any farther; I am very tired. At what time do your chil-, dren get up ? Generally about seven o'clock. Mine does not get up before
eight.

Quiere Vd. dar un

paseo

conmigo ? Con mucho gusto dare un


paseo con Vd.

No puedo

andar mas

estoy

A qu6 hora se
hijos (de Vd.)

muy

cansado.

levantan sus
?

Generalmente cerca de las siete. El mio no se levanta antes de


las ocho.

They never

take enoueh care.

Nunca tienen bastante cu idado.

TTSEFTTL
I

have just written him a


letter,

Acabo
carta.

de

escribirle
al

una

have not sent


yet. sister

it

to the post

No

la

he mandado

correo

todavia.

had just gone out. had They just told him when you arrived. Do you not remember it ? There is nothing better than a good memory. 'What is your opinion ? Ouropinion is that it is not true.

My

Mi hermana acababa de salir. Acababan de decirselo cuando Vd. llego. No lo recuerda Vd. ? No hay nada mejor que un-a buena memoria.
<; <;

Cual es su parecer

Nos parece que no

es verdad.

Whom is that child like ?


I'm sure I don't know. I do not know whom he is like.
I

am

It

very like my mother. seems to me that we have enough.

t A quiense parece aquelnino ? Estoy seguro-de que no lo se. No se a quien se parece. Meparezcomuchoami madre. Me parece que tenemos bas-

tante.
<;

Did you not tell us that nothing was the matter with her ?

No

nos dijeron Yds.

que
res-

(ella)

no tenia nada
esta

On

the contrary, she has got a very bad cold.

Al

contrario, friada.

muy

-His
If

answer made me laugh. you say that, you will

Su respuesta me hizo
Si dice

reir.

Vd.

eso,

hara reir a su
ffcera, leere el

make your teacher laugh. While he is out, I .will read


the newspaper. I am going to Paris this year, to see the exhibition.

profesor.

Mientras esta
diario.

Yoy a

So

am

I.

So

is

my

brother.

It is

necessary that you should

Paris este ano, para ver la exposici6n. Yo ^tambien. Mi hermano tambien. Es menester que Vd. vaya

go with him.

So must you. So must she. He has never been in France, I cannot believe him. Neither can we. Neither can his master.

con el. Vd. tambien. Ella tambien. Nunca ha estado en Francia.

No puedo

creerle.

Nosotros tampoco. Su aino tampoco.

22

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


of

Have you seen the key grammar ?


It is better

my

Ha

visto

Vd.
?

la clave

de mi

gramatica
clave.
<j

always to work without a key.


the

Es mejor trabajar siempre sin


Se acuerda Vd. del nombre de esta flor ?
quisiera

Do you remember
of this flower
I
?

name
like a

should very

much

De buena gana
reloj

un

watch like yours. [left. We shall have enough meat I have only one shilling left. They only had ten shillings
left.

como

el

de Vd.

Nos quedara bastante carne. Solo me queda un chelin.


Solo
les

quedaban

diez

chelines.
<;

What

My
He

is your income ? income is two hundred

Tengo doscientas
renta.

Cuanto tiene Vd. de renta ? libraa de

pounds. asked your permission before taking the knife. I cannot promise to bring
the things to-night.

Le pidi6 permiso antes de


tomar
el cuchillo.

No puedo prometer que traere


las cosas esta noche. Procurare persuadirle de que venga. I Hay algo en esta pagina que Vd. no pueda comprender ? Como se llama el puente que
<:

I will try to

persuade him

to

come.
Is there

anything on this page which you cannot understand?


bridge

What
It is

name of the are going over ? dangerous to cross the


is

the

we

cruzamos ? Es peligroso cruzar


;

la calle.

street.

What
I

are

you going to do
?

this

afternoon

must first and then

finish work, I shall see how

my

much time I have left. do not agree with you. When is this newspaper pubI

.Vd. a hacer esta tarde? Debo acabar mi trabajo prientonces vere mero, y cuanto tiempo me queda. No convengo con Vd.
se publica este peri6dico ? Sale dos veces por semana. Salen una vez por mes.

Que va

^Cuando

lished
It coaxes

out twice a week.


.

They

are publifthed_pnce a

month.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

What did you do during your


holidays
?

<;Que hizo Vd. durante BUS vacaciones ?

Everyone broken

denies
it.

having

Todo
<j

el

mundo niega

haberlo
?

roto.

Have you .any change about you ? The man who served me forgot to give

Tiene Vd. cambio encima

me

the change.

You should

not have come away without it. Bo you like Madrid ? He is now employed in a

El tendero que me ha servido haolvidado darme el cambio. Vd. no debia (or debiera) fiaber
salido sin el (or sin recibirlo).
I

Le gusta a Vd. Madrid ^

foreign firm. Please answer me

when

ask

Esta ahora colocado en una casa extranjera. SIrvase contestarme cuandd


le

you.

pregunto.

At what time
your
office ?

<lo

you leave
did
that

que hora

sale

Vd. de su
hace
que^
el

oficina ?
<;

How

long

ago

Cuanto

tiempo
?

happen ? Do you find Spanish difficult?


No, I think
language,
practice,
else.
it is

sucedio eso
<;

Encuentra
espaiiol ?

Vd.

dif icil

a very easy
it

but
like

wants

everything

He

cannot prove what he

said just

now.

Will you translate this sentence for


I

me

do not know how is pronounced.

this word

No, creo que es mr idioma muy facil, pero se necesita practica, como en todo lo demas. No puede probar lo que acaba de decir <;Quiere Vd. tradueir esta frase por mi ? No se como se pronuncia esta

We are going
you ready
?

to begin

are

Vamos

palabra. &

empezar

estan

Vds.
the

listos ?

I shall be ready in half an hour.

Estare listo en media hora.


I

Do you know
his house
?

number
?

of

Sabe Vd.
casa
?

el

niimero de WL

What
I

is

the news

,;

Que hay de nuevo ?


se

do not know any news.

No

nada de nuevo.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


I

We shall come
I

cannot agree with you. back sgpn. do not want tjiem to accom-

No puedo convenir con Vd. Volveremos pronto.

No

pany me this tkne. They were talking among


themselves.

quiero que

me acompanen
si.

esta vez.

Hablaban entre

Do He

it

again.

Vuelva Vd. a hacerlo.

does notfwant to eopy the


it

No

quiere volver a copiar las

letters again.

cartas.

Look for

carefully.

Biisquelo cuidadosamente.

I tried to find it, but I could not see it anywhere. He has gone to dress himself. They cannot be long in arriving. Do not be long before coming back. Do not believe it. T have let him keep all the

Procure hallarlo, pero no pude. verlo en ninguna parte.

Ha ido a vestirse.
No pueden tardar en llegar. No tarde Vd. en volver.
No
lo crea

Vd.
.

Le he dejado guardar todos


<?

documents. Will you allow


his

me

to read

los documentos. Quiere Vd. dejarme leer su

answer

-This house is the one I like


best.

respuesta ? Esta casa es la que mas.

me

gusta

Tell

me what

they are going

Digame

lo

que van a hacer.


llevar todos con nosotros.

to do.

We

shall not be abl

all

to take these parcels with us.

No podremos
estos paquetes
<;

Which paragraph do mean f

you

Cual
decir

parraf o
?

quiere
!

Vd.

How difficult, this is How carefully he is


v
!

doing
!

the svork

How lovely these, flowers are They are a present from my


cousin.

cuidadosamente estar haciendo el trabajo Que hermosas son estas flores Son regalo de mi primo.
! j

Que Que

dif icil es esto

We shall have a fine day to-day.


The
country weather.

need*

fine

Tendremos hoy un buen dia. El campo necesita buen


tiempo.

USEFUL COtfVfiBSATIOHAL
Is it

going to rain think not.


sure
it is.

?.

We are

They are never punctual. Be as punctual as you possibly can.


Such a beautiful thing
is

I Esta para Hover ? Creo que no. Estamos leguros de que si. Nunca son puntuales. Sea Vd. tan puntual como

le

not

sea posible. Una cosa tan

hermosa no se

for nothing. He would n ot dare to deny that.

made

How
so?

do you dare

to speak

hace de balde (or por nada). No se atreveria a negar eeo. Como se atreve Vd. a hablar
<;

asi?

asked my permission before going out. They arrived an hour later. Why did you call us for such a trifling thing ? We have never seen this kind of machine. He let us do what we liked.

He

Me

pidio permiso antes de

salir.

Llegaron una hora* despues. i Por que nos llamo Vd. para

una cosa tan

frivola

No hemos
clase

visto

nunca

esta

de maquina. Nos dejo hacerlo que quisimos.


I

Why

do you not take your hat ?


gone away,
I

off

Por que no se quita Vd. sombrero ?


vi

el

When* I saw

the others had

Cuando

went

too.

We shall
At

be there within half

habian ido, yo me fui tambien. Estaremos alii dentro de media hora.

que

los otros se

an. hour.
first sight, it

seemed
it

to be

primera

vista, parecia ser

impossible.

imposible.
to

We
Is

must not show

them

No debemos
davia.
I

mostrarselo to-

yet.
it true that you have bought another bicycle ?

Es verdad que ha comprado Vd. otra bicicleta ?


las joyas.

They wanted more money buy the jewels.

to

Necesitaban mas dinero para

He
Sit

spoke in a whisper, but I heard all that he said.

comprar Hablo en

voz

baja,
dijo.

pero

down by my

side..

que Sientese Vd. a mi

oi todo lo

lado.

26

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


diffi-

There will not be much

No

culty in finding out his address.

habra mucha dificultad hallar sus senas.

en

To

tell the truth, I forgot to ask for the bill.

En
<j

verdad, olvide pedir la

cuenta,

Which of these bookshave you


read? This one, or that one?

Take care what you are doing. Take care, or you will fall. I would do it for you with pleasure, if I had time. We want to ask you something.

Cual de estos libros ha leido Yd. ? este 6 ese ? Tenga cuidado con lo que hace.

Tenga cuidado, 6 se caera. Lo haria por Vd. con gusto.


si

tuviera tiempo.
algo.
?

Deseamos preguntarle
I

Did' you see what they were

Ha
No

visto

Vd.

lo

que hacian

doing

Did you not say I was to copy and send off the letters ?
good for you, nor for me. He acted under my advice. She died the next morning. Look on the next page.
It is neither

dijo Vd. que yo debiai copiar y mandar las cartas ? No es bueno para Vd., ni para mi.

El obro bajo mi consejo.

He

refused to help me, although I asked him to. Did you not tell me that you were satisfied ?
I^advise you not to say anything about it.

Murio a la maiiana siguiente.' Mire Vd. la pagina siguiente. Rehuso ayudarme, aunque se
lo pedi.

dicho Vds. que estaban satisfechos ? Le aconsejo a Vd. que no diga


<;

No me han
nada de

ello.

The house
us.

is

too small for

La

casa es demasiado para nosotros.

pequena

The greater part of the houses in this town are built of


wood.
I shall

La mayor
de esta madera.

parte de las casas

ciudad

son

de

not wait, as they did not say when they would be back.
shall come, unless weather is^very bad.

No

esperare, pues no dijeron cuando volverian.

the

Vendre, a menol que haga

muy m$l

tiempo.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL

SENTElCCIg".

27

Do

not go

away until

it

leaves
is

No

off raining.

See whether my umbrella behind the door.


the table. child has thrown under the table.

Put the wine and the fruit on

The

its

toys

Throw it out of window. Go on with your work there


;

is still

a great deal to be

so vaya Vd. hasta que cese de Hover. Mire Vd. si mi paraguas esta d'etras de la puerta. Ponga Vd, el vino y la fruta encima de la mesa. El nino ha tirado sus juguetes ciebajo de la mesa, Tirelo Vd. por la ventana. Siga Vd. con su trabajo;

todavia
hacer.

done. Jt rained a great deal here yesterday.

hay mucho

qu*

Ayer

llovio

mucho

aqui.

The weather

will soon get

Pronto hara mas calor.

warmer. That is not the way to do it. "We shall come as soon as we have put our papers
straight.
L

Ese no es el modo de hacerlo. Vendremos luego que hayamos arreglado nuestros

The

servant has disarranged

La

papeles. criada los

ha desarreglado.

them. He has hardly done anything. It is not worth my while to buy another one.
I

hope

to see you again morrow morning.

to-

You do

not look well^


?

Apenas ha hecho algo No vale la pena de que' compre otro. Espero volverle a ver manana por la manana. Vd. no tiene buena cara.
,

Are you in a hurry I am not very busy

We

gave him

all

to-day. that we

We

we could to persuade them. Nothing we could say to him convinced him. This room is twenty feet long, and ten broad.

had. did what

Tiene Vd. prisa ? No estoy muy ocupado hoy. Le dimos todo lo qiie teniamos. Hicimos cuanto pudimos para^

persuadirles.

Nada de

lo

que podiamos de-

cirle le convencia.

Este cuario tiene veinte pies de largo, y diez de ancho.

28

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


high
is

How
I

this

house

Que

altura tiene estacasa ?

am

How

tired of listening to him. do you generally go to


?

your office

Estoy cansado de escucharle. I Como va Vd. generalmente a su oficina ?

Sometimes by rail, and some" times by omnibus.

A veces por
<;

el ferro-carril,

y
?

Which
There

He

the quickest way ? not much difference. does not know how the
is

a veces por el omnibus. Cual es el caminomas corto


diferencia.

is

No hay mucha No sabe como


palabra.
<?

se deletrea la

word

is spelt.

When are you


I

going to take

Cuando

your holidays ? shall leave England in a

tendra vacaciones ?

Vd.

sus

few

days.

What do you think of the weather we have had dur1 cannot

ing the last fortnight ? promise to lend you both songs,


called

Dentro de algunos diassaldre de Inglaterra. I Que piensa Vd. del tiempo que tenemos desde hace quince dias r No puedo prometer prestarle

ambas canciones.
El caballero que vino aqut queria saber por que no! habia Vd. enviado los articulos que pidio.

The gentleman who


he ordered.

here wanted to know why you had not sent the things

They used

to live

here some

years ago. Let us go on the other side of the street.

Vivian an os.
calle.
i

aqui

hace algunos
lado de la

Vamos por
Cual es
para
el

el otro

Which

is

(to go) to
if

the nearest the river ?

way

camino mas corto


si

ir al rio ?

They would not be

satisfied.

No
I

estarian satisfechos,

hi-

we did what they ask. What are the four seasons


:

of

cieramos lo que piden. Como se llaman en espariol


las cuatro estaciones del afio? las

the year called in Spanish ? They are as follow Spring,

Son

siguientes:
.

Primae

Summer,
he wanted

Autumn,
it,

and
if

vera,

Winter. He could not do


to.

Verano, Invierno.

Otoiio,

even

No

podria fiacerlo, aunque

quisiera.

.USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

29

I have not had

much opportunity of speaking Spanish I since came back to


England.

No

he tenido mucha oportunidad de hablar espanol desde que volvi a


Inglaterra.

How long were


I

you in South

America ? was there nearly six months.


Spanish
fairly well.

You ought to speak


Excuse

Cuanto tiempo estuvo Vd. en Sud America ? Estuve alii casi seis meses. Vd. debe hablar espanol bas<j

tante bien.

for keeping waiting so long.

me

you

Dispenseme Vd. que le haya hecho aguardar tan to tiempo.


Se
I

without asking leave. Have you heard what happened last night ? As you were not there, we

They went home

fueron a casa sin pedir

licencia.

went away at

once.

Would you

advise

me

to

oido Vd. lo que paso anoche ? Como Vd. no estaba ^lli, nos f uimos al instante. Me aconsejaria Vd. qne
*

Ha

<?

accept the money ? Write and tell them not to come.

acepte el

dinero

Escribales para decirles que

He
I
I

came

after

I-

Jiad

no vengan. Vino despues que yo habia

started.

am

glad you are better.

Me
<;

partido. alegro de

que Vd. 6e halle

wonder (=who knows) what they Tvill bring. Did anybody call to see me while I was out ?
,A

mejor. Quien sabe lo que traeran ?

Vino alguien a verme mientras estaba f uera ?

gentleman

enquired for
tell

Un

caballero

pregunt6 por

you, but he woqid not

me

his

name.

no quiso decirme su nombre.


Vd., pero

Tell me what you want, and I will give it to you if I can.

I was very

when you

told

much surprised me that.

Digame lo que necesita Vd., y se lo dare si puedo. Me sorprendi mucho cuando


Vd.

me

dijo eso.
lo

never pays what he owes Give me some more apples,


if

He

Nunca paga
las hay.

que debe.
manzaiias,
sj

Deme Vd. mas

there are any.

30
I

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

slept nearly all day.


tired.

Dormi

casi

todo

el dia,

You must have been very


not go out at the same time as the other clerk. Do not sell it for Jess than twelve shillings and six-

Vd. debe haber estado


cansado.

muy

Do

No
No

saiga
lo

Vd

a la misma hora

que
de

depend iente. venda Vd. por menos


doce
chelines

el otro

seis

pence.
I

peniques.

very much doubt whether they will give me so much

Dudo mucho que me den


tan to por esta sortija.
[todavia.

for this ring. The fire has not gone out yet. This word is not spelt correctly.

El fuego no se ha apagado Esta palabra no esta bien


deletreada.
I

Whose
It

turn

is it ?

A quien le toca ?
tocaba a mi.
?

was not my turn. They have just reached home. Whom has he married ? She is going to marry her
cousin.
It is

No me

Acaban de llegar a casa. I Con quien se ha casado


Ella
se

va a casar con su

primo.
thsftTf

not worth more

No
I

vale

mas de

cinco pesetas.

five pesetas.

How much
this?
I will

have you paid for


as soon as I

Cuanto ha pagado Vd. por


esto?

pay you

possibly can. "Jake it upstairs at once.

Le pagare a Vd. tan pronto como me sea posible.


Llevelo arriba al instante. i Fue Vd. alii a caballo ?

Did you go thereon horseback? No we all went on foot.


;

They have gone by coach. Everyone said ati the time that it was impossible.

No Han
;

todos f uimos a pie.


ido en coche.
el

Todo

mundo

dijo entonces

Now
When

it

appears to be

easy

que era imposible. Ahora parece ser bastante


facil.

enough.
will the performance take place ?
t

Cuando
cion
?

se celebrara la f un-

You should

try

to

speak

Vd. debia
espaiiol

Spanish oftener.

mas amenudo.

procurar

hablar

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

31
si.

They could not


themselves.

agree

among

No podian
i

convenir entre

long has your brother been in Spain ? Where is he going to next ? He is going to Italy, but he

How

Cuanto tiempo hace que su hermano esta en Espana ? Adonde va luego ? Va a Italia, pero no se que,;

Read the

will not stay there long. letter to me again.


find

dara

alii

mucho

tiempo.

were very sorry not to them at home. It may be so, but I very much doubt it. It was raining very hard when we went out. It thundered a great deal last
night.

We

Vuelva Vd. a leerme la carta. Sentimos mucho no hallarlos en casa. Puede ser que si, pero lo dudo mucho.
Llovia

muy

fuerte

c'uando

salimos.

Anoche trono mucho.


Relampagueo ayer ? Quizas nevara ibanana. mucho I Ha granizado
I

Did

it lighten yesterday ? Perhaps it will snow to-morrow.

Did it hail morning ?


I

much
thaw

this

esta

manana
to-

It is freezing hard.

think

it

will

Esta helando muchisimo. Creo que deshelara manana.

morrow.

We do not
I

believe what she has just told us. have not enough paper to
finish

No No

creemos lo que acaba de

decirnos.

my

lesson

tengo.bastante papel para acabar mi leccion,


lo

Unfortunately,

you did not

know it
It is

in time.

Por desgracia, Vd. no a tiempo.

supo

not very long since it happened. How long did you stay in
Parte
?

No
i

hace

mucho tiempo que


se

sucedio.

Cuanto tiempo en Paris ?

quedo Vd.
;

This bridge is very old ; it is hardly safe. There will not be any difficulty in finding another one.
Tell

Este puente es muy viejo apenas esta seguro*

No

habra ninguna en hallar otro.


si

dificultad

me

if I

may keep

it.

Digame

puedo guardarlo.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

Do

not trouble yourself about

No
i

se moleste

Vd. por

eso.

that.

How
I
*

soon shall
?

we

arrive at

En cuautotiempollegaremos
a
la casa ?

the house

would not pay so


but you were

much

No

queria pagar

tanto por

for that picture. I called on you yesterday,


out.
;

ese cuadro.

Fui a verle ayer, pero Vd.


estaba f uera.

Drink out of this cup is no other.

there

Beba de
otra.
I

esta taza

no 'hay

Whose
Is

umbrella borrow ?
this

did

you

dog yours, or your


?

quien hapedido Vd. presel paraguas ? Es este perro suyo, 6 de su


tado

brother's

Did you go to town on No, we went by rail.

foot

hermano ? Fue Vd. a pie a


;

la

ciudad

No
Mi

f uimos

por

el f errocarril.

My
i

-train

is

nearly always

late.

tren esta retrasado.

casi

siempre

thought the weather would change.


cold
it is

Crei que cambiaria el tiempo.


i

How

to-day

Que

frio

hace hoy

She has got a head-ache. This child had the tooth-ache last week.

Ella tiene dolor de cabeza. Este nino tenia dolor de

Do
I

not

fail to

come by

half

past seven.

have sent for a porter.


fetch

Go and

me

a cab.

I shall leave

here to-morrow

morning. very dusty. There was not much mud.


It is

muelas la semana pasada. deje Vd. de venir a eso de las siete y media. He enviado por un mozo. Vaya a buscarme un coche. Saldre de aqui manana por la manana.

No

Hay mucho polvo. No habia mucho barro.


i

Can you speak any foreign


language ? This word is
as
it is

Sabe Vd. hablar idioma extranjero ?

algun

not.

pronounced

spelt.

Esta palabra no se pronuncia corao se deletrea.


i

How much
come
to
?

does the account

A cuanto

llega la coenta

COKYBRSATIONAL SENTENCE!.
I hare not seen

him

for six

Hace

seis

meses que no

le

he

months.

visto.

He is going tocall on his lawyer.


You do
There
not visit us very frequently.
isn't

Va a
Vd.

room for

so

many

ver a su abogado. no nos visita muy frecuentemente. No cabe tanta gente en este
cuarto.
I

people in this room. Why did you let him go away before having done all the

For que

le

irse antes

ha dejado Vd. de haber hecho

work

He was
to?

carrying) the box on his head.


this

todo el trabajo ? Llevaba la caja sobre la cabeza.


<;

Where does

road lead

Adonde va (or conduce) este


camiiio
?

You ought to
Is this all

take more care. the wine there is

left?
I

hope you are not making a


mistake.

Vd. debieratenermascuidado. t Es este todo el vino que queda ? Espero que Vd. no se equivoca.
<;

When were these houses built? Show the man your ticket as
you go
in.

Cuando

[casas ? se edificaron estas


al

Muestre Vd.

hombre su

billete al entrar.

We lost our train, although it


was ten minutes late. The weather was very
Afterwards
deal.
it

fine

when the children went out.


rained a great

Perdimos nuestro tren, aunque iba diez minutos retrasado. Hacia muy buen tiempo cuando salieron los ninos. Despues llovio mucho.
Quisiera hablarle a Vd. antes de irme.

I should like to speak to

you

before I go away. I never feel well in cold weather. Why do you not sit down ?

Nunca me

siento

bien

en

We are in a great hurry.


It is

impossible for me to leave business earlier.

tiempo frio. For que no se sientan Vds. ? Estamos muy deprisa. Me es imposible salir de los
negocios

mas temprano.

My father's business compels


him to travel a great deal.

Lasocupacionesdemi padre le obligan a viajar muchisimo.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

He was

in London at the of last month.


it

end

Estuvo en Londres a fines del

"When you came back,


very
late.

was

mes pasado. Cuando Vd. volvio, era


tarde.
I

muy

How

is this phrase translated into Spanish ? I am afraid it will rain during

Como

se traduce esta frase

en espanol ? Temo que llueva durante el


dia.
I

the day.
'

Have you
I

at last

been able
?

to

Ha podido
aleman.

Vd.

al fin hallar

find his address

su direccion

(or sus senas) ?

thought you

knew French

and German.
I can read books written in

Orel que Vd. sabia frances

Puedo

leer libros escritos

en

Spanish and Italian. He cannot speak either of the


languages.

espanol e italiano. No sabe hablar ninguna de

ambas lenguas.
tomaran nuestro consejo.

We do not know whether they No sabernos si


will take our advice.

I cannot understand why it is not here. It is a pity you cannot Stay

No puedo comprender por que


no esta aqui. Es una lastima que Vd. no pueda quedar^e mas tiempo.
Cual es el motivo de eso ? Esta regla tiene varias excepI

any longer.

What

is

the reason of that

This rule has several exceptions.

ciones.

opinion, this chain is $ie cheapest. They will pay me the balance

In

my

En mi
es la

opinion, esta cadena

mas

barata.
el saldo .el

Me

pagaran

mes

next month.

'

The boys would not be quie^ although I told them to. Tell them again, and we will
see

whether they obey you.


is

What

the price of a return


[to travel
class are
?

ticket ?

By what

you going

I generally travel third class.

que vjene. Los ninos no querian callarse, aunque se lo mande. Vuelva Vd. a mandarselo, y veremos si le obedecen. Cual es el precio del billete de ida y vuelta ? En que clase" va Vd. a viajar ? Por lo general, viajo en ter<; <j

cera clase.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

35

It is cheaper,

and the carriages are very comfortable.


like

Es mas
son

barato,

los coches

We should
for us.

muy comodos.
que Vd.
6

you

to wait

Quisieramos
esperase.

nos
se

Be

careful, or else

you

will
sur-

Tenga Vd. cuidado,


lastimara.

hurt yourself. He seemed very

much

Parecio sorprenderse
al verle aqui. Dejeme que lo lleve

mucho

prised at seeing you here. Let me carry it for you. If you move a little this way, there will be room for

Si

por Vd. Vd. se corre un poco hacia


lugar

everybody. iThe servant stole this

habra aqui, todos.

para

money

from his master. Those bottles are full of wine. Put the glass here, near this
one.

Are there any friends of yours


here this evening
?

of the climate of tnis country ? Sit round the fire. Have you ever been in Spain ?

What do you think

El criado robo este dinero a su amo. [vino. Esas botellas estan llenas de Ponga Vd. el vaso aqui, cerca de este. esta noche algunos 4 Hay aqui amigos de Vd. ? I Que piensa Vd. del clima de
este pais ? [f uego. Sientense Vds. al rededor del Ha estado Vd. alguna vez en

,;

I should very much like to spend a few weeks there. Tell the man to come in.
That
is

Me gustaria mucho

Espana?

pasar al-

the house

we

used

gunas semanas alii. Diga Vd. al hombre que entre. Esa es la casa en que yiviamos.
<j

to live in.

What is it they are making ? This is the smallest watch I have seen.

Este es el reloj

Que es lo que estan hacienda ? mas pequeno


corndias.

Show me the clock you bought


a few days ago. It only cost me thirty shillings. Do- not tell them so on any account.

que he visto. Muestreme el reloj que


pro Vd. hace algunos

Solo me costo treinta chelines.

No No

se lo diga Vd. de ningun modto.

He knew nothing about

it.

sabia

nada de

tllo.

3G

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


Ella

She has gone to the shop herof the self, on account


mistake in the
bill.
;

misma ha ido a la tienda,


del
error en la

causa cuenta.

Come nearer the table I should like to show you something. I usually work an hour a day
at

Acerquense Vds. mas a la mesa;


quisiera mostrarles algo.

home.
That way.

[price.

They have gone to enquire the


This way.

Which way ?

You

Acostumbro a trabajar una hora en casa cada dia. [cio. Han ido a inf ormarse del prePor aqui. For alii. i For donde ? [cansados;
Vds. parecen estar todos

all

seem very tired.


is

muy
esta
?

My companion
Will you
If

tired too.

Mi companero tambien
cunsado.
<?

[tea? take another cup of


this piece of paper,

[de te

we

you lose

Quiere Vd. tomar otra taza Si pierde Vd. este pedazo de


papel, le

My

you another. brother has obtained a


[to
?,

will give

daremos

otro.

Mi herniano ha
I ^

logrado una
?

good situation.

buena colocacion.

Where is the coachman going Where do you come from ? We saw him last Sunday
morning.
.[week.

Adonde

.va -el

De donde
por
la

cochero viene Vd. ?

Le vimos

el'

Domingo pasado

manana.

She will come next Tuesday I do not suppose they will be


back until next month.

Vendra del martes en ocho dias.

No supongo que vuelvan hasta


el

mes que
concierto

viene.
se

The

concert will take place to-morrow evening. Did you hear from your father

El

celebrara

'manana por

la noche..

yesterday morning ? He will go home again early

de su padre ayer por la manana ? Volvera a casa a primeros de


(jRecibio Vd.noticias
la

next week.

semana que viene.


estaban susprimos de
la

Where were your cousins week ?

last

<;

Donde
Vd.

semana pasada

He

never comes before the end of the month.


is

Nunca viene
mes.
I

hasta fines del

Who

there

It is I.

It is not he.

Is it

It is you. Is it not

they ? your uncle?

Quien esta ahl ? Soy yo. No es el. ^ Son ellos ? Es Vd. i No es su tio de Vd. ?

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

Do

Ask what

not put on your gloves. the messenger wants.


,

No se ponga Vd. los guantes. Pregunte Vd. lo que quiere el


mensajero.

Ask whether you may .keep it.


It is

Pregunte
guardar.

si

*lo

puede

Vd.

not time to leave

Tell the

boy

to

make

off yet. haste.

No

es tiempo de cesar aiin. Diga Vd. al chico que se

apresure.

He would

not make haste. It hardly ever snows here, even in the severest winters.
?

No

queria apresurarse.
aqui, aiin
?

Apenas nieva
inviernos
i

en los

mas

crudos.

Are you sleepy


I

Tiene Vd. sueiio


hace
sol.

very sleepy. The sun is not shining:

am

Tengo mucho

sueiio.

No
last

The moon was shining


night.
It is

Hacia luna anoche.

not daylight.
is

It is night.

No
El

es

de
?

dia.

Es de noche.
<;

The sun

moon
Nothing

Is the getting rising ? [drawer.


is

sol

se

pone.

Sale

la

luna

missing from this

Nada
<;

How much a yard is this silk ?


[walk ? Are you disposed to go for a They haye gone to dress
themselves,

falta de este cajon. Cuanto vale una yarda de

esta seda
;

[paseo

Tiene Vd. ganas de dar uu Han ido a vestirse.

He

will change his opinion

Al saber
opinion.

eso,

cambiara de

when he hears that. I am very much obliged to you. On returning home, I found
the letter.
[certain.

Le estoy muy agradecido. Al volver a casa, encontre


carta.

la

He Do

told

me

he

knew

it

for

not pay any attention to


necessary to pay attention what the teacher says.

Me dijo que lo sabia de cierto. No haga Vd. caso de eso.


Es necesario prestar atencion a lo que dice el maestro. Los niiios no se atreverian a entrar en el jardin Bin
permisO.

that.
It is

to

The children would not dare


to go into the garden with* out permission.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


I
I

beg you will show


at once.

it

to us

Le ruego que nos


al instante.

lo

muestre

cannot pronounce very well


yet.

No puedo
Temo

[takes.

pronunciar bien todavia.


equivocarme.

muy

I am afraid of making misHe will probably reply by

He is

re turn, of post. in the habit of

coming

once a week. I used to be in the habit of meeting him every day. Come upstairs. Come downstairs.

Probablemente contestara a vuelta de correo. Acostumbra a venir una vez por semana. Acostumbraba a encontrarle
cada
dia.

Suba

Vd.Baje

V4.
[del lado.

Please

walk
fail

Mr.

upstairs. lives next door.

Sirvase Vd. subir.

El Senor
at

Do
I

not noon.

to be to

there

No

vive en la casa falte Vd. alii al mediodia.

seldom used
this

go to bed
the en-

Rara vez

me acostaba antes de

before midnight.

Ask

man where
is.

trance

media noche. Pregunte Vd. a este hombre donde esta la entrada.

We

could not find the out for some time. To-morrow is a holiday.

way

No pudimos
Manana
i

hallar la salida

por algiin tiempo.


es fiesta.

you enjoy yourself during your holidays ? You must not stay where you are. [umbrella ? Don't you know your own I am not quite sure whether it is mine, or not. Have you given anything to
the waiter
?

Did

Se divirtio Vd. durante.sus


vacaciones
esta.
?.

Vd. no debe quedarse donde


[raguas
?

No conoce Vd. supropio paNo estoy bien seguro si ed


i

mio, 6 no.
I

Ha

dado Vdr algo

al

mozo

I suppose that the will soon be over.


I

concert

Supongo que pronto acabara


el concierto.

suppose so too. Whose turn is it to pay to-day ?


It is yours.

Tambien
<;

Mine, I think.

A quien le toca pagar hoy ? Le toca a Vd. A mi me parece.


f

lo stipongo yo.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.


It is

39

not your brother's turn.

Nole

toca a su hermano.

We

are greatly obliged to for this visit.

you

Le agradecemos a Yd* mucho


esta visita.

Let
It

me know

as soon as

you

can.
I assure

[trouble.

caused us a great deal of

you

it is

impossible.

Hagamelo Vd. saber tan pronto como pueida. Nos molesto mucho. Le aseguro a Yd. que es imposible.

I shall fall asleep directly I

Me

dormire en cuanto

me

down. You had better go


lie

acueste.
to

bed

soon.

Tell the children not to go away yet. [the river. We walked along the bank of Your coat is hanging behind the door.

Es mejor que se vaya Vd. a la cama pronto. Diga Yd. a los ninos que no se
vayan
aiin.

Andabamos a lo largo del rio. Su levita esta colgada detras


de
la puerta.

Go on with your work.


It is not a question of

Siga Yd. con su trabajo (or Continue Yd. su trabajo).

money,

No es cuestion de dinero,

sino

but of time.

There must be some better

way
There

of arranging
is

it.

de tiempo. Debe haber algiin otro modo mejor de arreglarlo.

no doubt about that. these words after the Repeat


teacher.
[vice.

No hay duda alguna sobre eso.


Repita Yd. estas palabrafl despues del maestro. No queria seguir mi consejo. Todo el mundo preguntaba' por Yd. El niiio se ha dormido, a pesar del ruido.
I

He would
you.

not follow

my

ad-

Everybody was asking

after

The child has fallen


spite of the noise.

asleep, in

Have you

He

cut your finger ? only writes to us once a


that

Se ha cortado Yd.

el

dedo

month*

What did she say about when she last wrote ?


Please pass

Solo nos escribe una vez al mes. <;Quedijo ella sobre eso cuando escribio la ultima vez ?
Sirvase Yd. pasarme u^i placo limpio.

me

a clean plate.

40
It is

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

no use

to say that.

No

sirve de
si

nada decir

eso.

See whether you can borrow another copy of the book. We have sent him to borrow a dictionary.

Vea Vd.

puede tomar.preb-

tado otro ejemplar del libro.

There
I

is

no need
haste.

to

make

so

much

Le hemos mandado a pedir prestado un diccionario. No hay razon para darse tanta
prisa.

was very much surprised that you did not come. They were looking attentively
at each other. After all, it does not matter. I cannot see the necessity for doing it again. Will you change this cheque

Extrane mucho que Vd. no


viniese.

Se miraban atentamente unos a otros.

Al

No puedo
<:

no importa. ver la necesidad de hacerlo de nuevo.


fin

al cabo,

for

me

Quiere Vd. cambiarme este

cheque

I will take half in gold, and the other half in silver. Thank you. Don't mention it.
It is

Tomare

la

mitad en oro, y la

otra mitad en plata. No hay de que. Gracias.

some time since he wrote


not long ago.
?

Hace algun tiempo que


escribio.

me

to me.

[tiempo.

We saw them
What
There
is
is

there to eat

nothing ready now.

We are in a great hurry. We shall arrive about 2 o'clock.


He
the same age as his cousin. [house. I saw him as he passed by the
is

Los vimos no hace mucho Que hay para comer ? No hay nada listo ahora. Estamos muy de prisa.
(i

Llegaremos a eso de la dos. Tiene la misma edad que su


primo.

Lo

However difficult it may seem, you must try to do it. The more I give him, the more he wants.

vi cuando paso por la casa. Por dificil que parezca, Vd, debe probar a hacerlo. Cuanto mas le doy, mas
quiere.

The

English, as well as the foreign letters* have been posted. How much is the postage of a
letter

Tanto las cartas inglesas como


las

extranjeras

se

nan.

<i

from here

to Spain ?

echado al correo. Cuanto vale el f ranqueo de una carta de aqui a Espana ?

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

41

With regard

to the assertion

he made, we must see whether it can be proved.


I tied the

Respecto a
hizo,

la

asercion que

hemos de ver si puede

probarse.

parcel tightly, so that the things should not

Ate

come

el paquete fuertemente, para que las cosas no se

out.
this,

saliesen.

Notwithstanding
string broke.

the

A pesar

de

esto, el

bramante
[dabamos.

[gave him.

se rompio.

He

You

always spent what we shall be served in five minutes. [ing so fast. There is no pleasure in walkThe table is almost in the middle of the room.

Siempre gastaba lo que le Seran Vds. servidos dentro de


cinco minutos.
[deprisa.

placer en andar tan La mesa esta casi en el centro del cuarto. [mio.

No hay

The boy deserves


There
\

are

many

which would

a prize. reasons take a long

El muchacho merece un pre-

Hay

muchas razones

que

serian

muy

largas de ex-

time to explain.

They explained everything to


me, so that what I had
I

Me

plicar. lo explicaron

todo, a fin

might know

to say.

de que pudiese saber lo que tenia que decir.


Tal vez partiran
durante la

Perhaps they will start during the week. [accident. According to him, it was an Can I do anything else for

semana.
el, f ue una desgracia. Puedo hacer algo mas por Vd.? Lo hizo por Vd. Mis negocios me impediran venir muy amenudo. El resultado no se conoce

Segiin

<?

you?

He did it for [instead

of] you. prevent me from coming very often. The result is not generally

My business will
known
I hope
yet.

[soon.

bien todavia.

you

will

come again
street

The numbers

in this

from twenty upwards are on the opposite side. We expect her every moment.

Espero que volvera Vd. pronto. Los niimeros de esta calle del veinte para arriba estan en
el otro lado.

La esperamos de un momento
a otro.

They must be somewhere.

Deben

estar

en alguna

parte.

USEFUL CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES.

There

is a great deal of difference between the meanings of the words.

Hay mucha
los

diferencia entre

are very polite to everybody, [he went out. Tt is not five minutes since

They

de las significados palabras. Son muy corteses con todo


el

mundo.

[salio.

No

hace cinco minutos que

These cups and saucers are


partly
dirty.
,It

Estas tazas
sucios.

clean,

land

partly

y platillos estaii medio limpios y medio


[mala.

a very bad habit of mine. You ought lo learn this list of


is

Es una costumbre mia

muy

words by
days.

heart.

I generally see

him on

Satur-

Deberia Vd. aprender de memoria esta lista de palabras. veo los Generalmente le
Sabados.

[Sundays.
I

[Domingos.

only wears this coat on Can you count from one to a hundred without looking
at the

He

olo lleva esta chaqueta' loa

Puede Vd. contar de uno a


ciento sin mirar el libro
?

Put it The mistake


serious.

book ? somewhere
is

else.

really very

Pongalo Vd. en otra parte. El error es en verdad muy


serio.

was here hot long ago. It often happens that no one comes the whole day. Did you stay k>ng in South America? I was there for three years.
It is

-[tiempo.

good practice to read aloud every day. I do not understand Spanish well enough to do it.

Estuvo aqui no hace mucho Sucede amenudo que nadie .viene en todo el dia. mucho tiempo en I Estuvo Vd. la America del Sur ? Estuve alii durante tres anos. Es buona practica leer en alta voz todos los dias.

No comprendo
samientos

Try

to express your thoughts in the simplest way.

el espanol bastante bien para hacerlo. Trate Vd. de expresar sus pen-

de

la

manera

[phrases.

Avoid long and -complicated Choose sentences which can be translated into Spanish
for word.

massencilla. [complicadas. Evite Vd. las f rases largas y Escoja Vd sentencias que puedan traducirse al es-

panol palabra por palabra.

USEFUL COMMERCIAL SENTENCES.

43

SPANISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE.


The Date at the head
*

of letters

is

written thus

LondreSj 12 (de) Abril de 1912.


(See The date is followed letter is addressed.

Madrid, 1* (de) Agosto de 1911, SPANISH SIMPLIFIED," paragraph 90.)

etc.

by the name of the person

or firm to

whom
is

the

In the full address on the envelope, the number of the house after the name of the street, thus -^Calle de Quevedo, (num.y 15.

put
:

The following are the ordinary methods


SIK,

of

DEAR

commencing letters

SIR

GENTLEMEN, DEAR SIRS

MADAM, DEAR MAD AM

Muy sefior mio Muy seftores mios Muy sefiora mia


Excelentmmo senor (abbreviated to Exmo. Sr.)
llustrisimo seworfabbrevd.to lllmo.

[The three foregoing are the ordinary business forms of address.]


Sir (writing to a person of title or distinction) Sir (to a superior holding a high official position) Madam, Dear Madam (to a friend) Dear Henry, Peter, etc. Dear Sister

My My Dear Friends
sively polite,

Senor) ; QiMuy ilustre sefior Apreciable 8enor(it )a Querido Enrique, Pedro, etc. Querida hermana mia Queridos amigos mios

There are various forms for concluding letters, all of them effuand so long and cumbrous that the initial letter only of many of the words is employed. The following ending, which is equivalent to

"YOUBS TBULY" or "YOUBS FAITHFULLY," in ordinary business correspondence,

is

the

best

to

employ

Soy de Yd.

atto S. S.

Q. B. S.

M.

(This is an abbreviation of Soy de Vd. atento seguro servidor, que " I am 2>esa sus manoe : literally, your attentive faithful servant, who kisses your hands." Soy and atto. must be changed to somos and attos., and yd. to Vds., when necessary.
If aflmo. (abbreviation of afectisimo, most loving) is substituted for atento, or y afectisimo inserted after atento, in the preceding phrase, it becomes somewhat less formal, and corresponds to "YOUBS SINCEBELY."

The equivalent
In
writing

SEBVANT " would commonly be employed, the usual ending (written in literally, God preserve your full) is Dios guarde a Vd. muchos anos is S. S. worship many years. In writing to a friend, the usual endifag y amigo (your servant su servidor *nd friend). For an ordinary letter,
:

" is " to YOTTBS BESPECTFULLY Su respetuoso servidor (written in full) Q. B. S. M. to a superior, when in English "YOUB OBEDIENT
:

not strictly a formal business one, to a person with whom the writer has a slight acquaintance only, su atento tervidor is sufficient.

44

USEFUL COMMERCIAL SENTENCES.

COMMERCIAL PHRASES.
I

am

in receipt of your letter of the 14th inst. of the


;

Obra en mi poder su carta del


14 del corriente del 1 del proximo pasado (p.p do ).
;

1st ult.

Referring to your favor of the 9th ult, In reply, I have the pleasure
. . .

Respecto

su

apreciable

(apble.) del 9 del mes pasado.

to inform

En contestation tengo el gusto


de manifestable Algunos de los articulos
.

you ...
were

Some

of the things rather damaged.


all

es-

Nearly

the goods suffered


transit,

serious

damage in

[return of post.

Send
I

it

to

me without fail by

taban algo deteriorados. Casi todos los generos sufrieron gran averia en su transporte. [de correo. Enviemelo Vd. sinfaltaa vuelta

hope

to receive it by the 7th of next month, at the

Espero recibirlo para el *7 del mes que viene, a mas


tardar.

latest.

am

greatly in want of the first three items on the

Me hacen mucha falta los tres


primeros articulos
lista.

de

la

list.

The delay
In your mised

in sending off the goods causes me consider-

El retraso en el despacho de las mercancias meperjudica

able inconvenience.
last letter,

mucho.
su ultima, prometio Vd. concedernos un descuento de 5 por ciento. Solo nos ha descontado Vd. un dos y medio por ciento. Nuestros precios se entienden
fiiempre estrictamentenetos.

you pro-

En

to allow us a discount of 5 per cent.


off

You have only taken


per cent.

2^

Our
Your

prices are in all cases

strictly nett.

consignment

arrived

Su consignation
sin novedad.

llego

ayer

safely ^yesterday. I will send you a cheque as "soon as I receive the goods.

obliged by your remitting the balance. Kindly send us your price


list,

We shall be

Leremitirea Vd. un cheque en cuanto reciba los generos. Le agradeceremos nos remita
el

importe del saldo.

Sirvase

Vd.mandarnossu lista

conditions, etc.

de

precios. condiciones, etc.

USEFUL COMMERCIAL SENTENCES.


Please let me know your lowest terms for cash on on receipt of the delivery
;

Sirvase

Vd.

indicarme

condiciones

mas

BUB favorables
;

goods.

How much
Do your

will the packing,

al para pago al contado recibo de los generos. cuanto subiran los gastos

carriage, and amount to ?

customs duty

best to see that the cost of carriage is as low as


possible.

de embalaje, transporte, y derechos de aduana ? Haga Vd. lo posible para que los gastos de transporte sean lo mas reducido posible.

By. book post by parcel post in a registered letter. You may draw on us at three

Como

months.

The bill

is

payable at sight.

Kindly send us a cheque at your earliest convenience


for the

impresos en paquete en carta certificada. Puede Vd. girar a nuestro cargo a tres ipeses. La letra es pagadera a la *vfsta. Tengan Vds. la bondad de repostal

mitirnos

lo

antes posible

amount due.
[overdue.

This account is six months We cannot wait any longer be .good enough therefore to forward the amount without further delay. We shall be greatly obliged by your sending us a remittance by an early post. I have several large accounts to meet next week.
;

la cantidad vencida. [meses. Esta cuenta vencio hace seis

un cheque por

JJo

lo tanto le

podemos esperar mas por suplicamos que


;

nos remita el importe cuanto


antes.
Le*

agradeceremos infinito nos remita el importe por uno de los primeros correos.

Tengo que

satisfacer algunas cuentas de consideration la

The
I

bill

[dishonored. has been returned

semana proxirna. [acogida. La letra ha sido devuelta mal

have already applied to you


several times for a settle-

Ya me he

dirigido a Vd. en dif erentes ocasiones para la


la ley
*

I shall

ment. have to take legal pro-

liquidation.

Tendre que recurrir a


,

ceedings to recover the amount due. YTe think it right to inform you
at once.

para la satisfaction de la deuda.

Creemos cpnvenientecomunicarselo a Vd. al inoment/o.

46

USEFUL COMMERCIAL SENTENCES.

Herewith we send you sampler of both qualities. Your esteemed order is duly to hand.

Con

la presente le

enviamos

Your instructions shall receive


our best attention.

muestras de ambas calidades* Su estimado pedido ha llegado debidamente a nuestro poder. Sus instrucciones seran obde nuestra mayor jeto
atencion.

No

invoice was enclosed with the goods.


all

No acompanaba a
rotas,

los

generos
estaban

The boxes were nearly

f actura alguna. Casi todas las cajas

broken, and their contents

y sus contenidos

muy

much damaged by water. The goods -were very carelessly packed.

averiados por el agua. Las mercancias se embalaron, con muy poco cuidado.

charge two per cent, to cover the cost of packing. "There is always great delay in the execution of these
orders. [prompt reply Awaiting the favor of? a Belying on your promise, I undertook to deliver the goods by Monday next. [should pay the duty,
. . .

We

Cargamos dos por ciento para cubrir los gastos de embalaje* Siempre hay gran retraso en la ejecucion de estos pedidos.

[pronta contestacion.

Esperando verme honrado con, Confiando en su promesa, me comprometi a entregar los


lunes. el generos para proximo. [los derechos. Se convino que Vd. pagaria

It

was
first

arranged
to

that
off

you

You promised
week
Let
ago.

part of

the the order a

send

Hace una semana, prometio


Vd. despachar
la

primera

parte del pedido.

me know at once when I may depend on receiving


.

Indiqueme Ycl al momenta cuando puedo coniar con el


resto del pedido.

Mr.

the remainder of the order. has kindly . .* of Cadiz, favored me with your address.

El

..., de Cadiz, ha tenidobondad de favorecerme con sus senas de Vd.

Sr.

la

For references you can apply


to the firm of ...
If

you take a gross at a time we will allow you an extra


2^ per cent, discbunt.

Para informes pueden Vds* . dirigirse a la casa de Si toma Vd. una gruesa de una vcz, le concederemos un descuento extra de^^porciwito.
.

USEFUL CGlffMERCIiL SENTENCES.

47

The terms quoted do not

in-

En

las

condiciones indicadas

clude carriage. Our agent informs us that the firm has been established

no

se incluye el transports

many

years.

It is reported that the

bank

has suspended payment. If the tea finds a ready sale, I shall give you larger orders afterwards.

Nuestro agente nos informa que la casa cuenta ya inuchos anos de existencia. Se dice que el banco ha suspendido pagos. Si el te halla buena salida, en lo futuro les hare pedidoa de mayor consideration.

There

is

no demand for such


market.

No hay salida para

tales arti-

articles in this

have recently opened a branch in Barcelona. This is only a trial order. I have been appointed sole
agent for the sale of this

We

culos en este mercado. Acabamos de abrir una sucursal en Barcelona. [ensayo.

machine in Spain.

You had
ward

better carry

it

for-

to the

new

account.

We are quite
count,
if

willing to open a monthly or quarterly ac-

Este pedido no es mas que un, He sido nombrado agente exclusivo para la venta de esta maquina en Espana* Seria mas conveniente que lo pasara Vd. a cuenta nueva. Estamos dispuestos a abrir una cuenta mensual 6
trimestral, si asi lo prefiere [fdctursu Hubo un error en la ultima.

you prefer

it.

[last invoice.

Vd.

There was a mistake in the

The bill of lading has not yet come to hand. The cheque was payable to
bearer, not to order.

El conocimiento no se ha re*
cibido todavia.

El cheque era pagadero


portador,

al

no a

la orden.

cannot make any reduction in the quoted prices, except the usual discount for cash at a month. I unfortunately have none of the common sorts in stock
I

No puedoconcederninguna reduction en los precios cotizados, excepto el descuentocorriente por pago mensual.

at the present time.

For desgracia, hoy no tengo en deposito ninguna de las calidades comunes.


Solo

We

only supply the

and
ness.

do

no

retail

trade, busi-

surtimos

al

y no efectuamos ninguna.
transaction al por menor.

comercio f

48

USEFUL COMMERCIAL SENTENCES.

have debited you with the balance. Kindly credit me with the value of the returned goods.

We

Le hemos adeudado en cuenta


el saldo.

Sirvase Vd. abonarme en eta. el valor de los generos de vueltos.

We

send you a draft payable one month after date, in settlement of last month's
it,

Le remitimos una

letra pagadera a treinta dias fecha, para liquidar la cuenta del

account.

Please endorse
it

and honor
1

on maturity.

mes pasado. Sirvase Vd. endosarla, y acogerla a su vencimiento.

Ship the bales by the next


steamer.

Embarque Vd.
el

Do

rail,

not send the boxes by but by steamer the


;

No

las balas por proximo vapor. mande Vd. las cajas por

latter

means

of

transit

f erro-carril, sino por vapor ; este medio de transporte

comes cheaper.
In accordance with your request, I ericlose a duplicate invoice.

resulta

mas

barato.

De

conf ormidad con su deseo. adjunto una factura dupli-

cada.

I trust

you will excuse the


deliver free
?

Espero se servira Vd. dispensar el retraso.


<j

delay.

Do you
in

on board

Hace Vd.

London

la entrega franco a bordo en Londres ?

We are thinking of chartering


an entire steamer, and must
calculate how much cheaper the expenses of freight

would be than if we shipped


in small consignments.

Estamos pensando en fletar un vapor completo y hemos de calcular cuanto mas economico nos tesultaria el precio del flete que cuando embarcamos por pequenas
partidas

The

shares of this company are not to be recommended


just

Las acciones de esta compania no son muy recomendables


ahora.
'Seria

now.

It

would be wise to wait until


the publication of the yearly balance sheet.

prudenteaguardar hasta que publiquen el balance


anual.

Our commission
cent., if

5 per you put the necesis

sary

sums

at

our disposal.

Nuestra comision es de 5 % si Vds. ponen a nuestra disposicion las sumas necesurias.

KEY
TO THE

SPANISH GRAMMAR
SIMPLIFIED

PHILADELPHIA

DAVID McKAY,

Publisher

604-8 S. Washington Square

SPECIAL NOTICE
To simplify Grammar
52

the

the Irregular Verbs, we have omitted from the Tenses which need not be learnt if our

rules (pars.

been mastered.
right,

on the formation of Tenses have rules, which are original and copyenable the Student to form any other Tense correctly.
117)

and

These

[Key
EXERCISE L
?

to Lesson

I.
;

1. they (MASC.) have 2. have I ? 3. have she has not 5. have we (MASC.) ? 6. you (SING.) have not 7. have they (FEM.) not ? 8. have you (PLUR.) ? 9. we (MASC.) have not. 10. ella tiene 12. tiene Vd. ? 11/7 no tienen ellos ? 13. yo no tengo 14. Yds. no tienen ; no tengo yo ? 15. 16. nosotros tenemos ; 17. no tienen Yds. ? 18. ella no tiene.

not

4.

<?

<;

<;

EXERCISE
senores
9.
;

II.
;

1.

padres
6.

;
;

2. libros
7.

3.
;

nueces
8.

4,
;

5.

lapices
;

plumas
;

ciudades
;

hombres

luces

10. tias

11. iglesias
1.

12. leyes
;

13.

sombreros.
;

EXERCISE
3.
;

III.
;

un hermano
;
;

2.

una hermana
;

unos hermanos 4. unas hermanas 5. el hermano 6. los hermanos 7. la hermana 8. las hermanas ; 9. las casas 5 10. el agua 11. un ala 12. lo hermoso 13. un padre ;
;

14. los libros 18.

15.
;

unos lapices

una pluma 19. una aldea.

16. el lapiz

17. la tinta

EXERCISE
pens,?
3.

IV.

We

1. I have not a book. 2. Has he. the have a house. 4. You (PLUR.) have some

pens
5.
7.

we.

have some books.


6.
<?

Vd. tiene un hermano. Vds. no tienen los libros. 8.


tiene dos casas.
10.
11.

El pajaro tiene doa


tiene el la tinta
?

alas,
9.

No

La

madre

Yo no
<;

amigo tiene unas plumas.

tengo una pluma, pero Tiene el la carta ?,

mi

Key
EXERCISE
iglesia
;

to Lesson II.
;

I.

1.

del

hombre
;

2.
;

un hombre
; ;

3.
6.

4.
;

del agua del pantano

madres

las a las piedras 8. 12. a una 11. de unos pajaros 10. a unos libros 15. de los hermanos 14. de la tinta ; 13. al libro ; casa ; 17. el libro del muchacho ; 16. de las alas de los pajaros 19. los caballos del soldado. 18. el caballo de un soldado
7.
;

a un libro de unas cartas 9. de


5.
;

de la de las alas de
;

un pajaro

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
unas cartas.

1.

(Nosotros)

homos
I

escrito

.2.JVd.jio_ha visto las casas.

No

tenemos

(nosotros) los sombreros


5.

? 4. & Tiene la iglesia un altar ? de la iglesia. 6. Los reyes tienen los 7 Quien ha tornado la tinta ? 8. El hombre cal^allos. Ha dado 10. tiene un haeha. 9. El buque tiene un ancla.

(Yo) he visto
<j

el altar

el criado una silla al caballero ? 11. Yo* no tengo un sobre, pero mi hermano tiene unos sobres. 12. Que han hecho Vds. ? Ha visto Vd. los jardines del rey ? 14. Los 13.

hombres tienen unos


Vd.
17.
<;

caballos.

15.

las cartas?

16.

Un hombre

Por que no ha eserito ha hablado con el criado.

No tenemos (nosotros) un libro para la mujer ? 18. Si, tenemos un libro y dos plumas. 19. (Nosotros). no hemos visto la casa del hombre. 20. Las inuchachas no han tornado las plumas. 22. Vd. no tiene los 21. Vd. tiene unas cartas. 23. El hermano de la muchacha no ha escritb libros.
carta al caballero.
*

This yo, being emphasized, cannot be omitted

EXERCISE
4.
8.

I.

Key to Lesson III. mi jardin 2. su


,

tinta

3.
;

su tinta
7.

;
;

su tinta

5.

nuestro vaso
,

6.

nuestra aldea
;

mi
;

tia

su gato 10. sus gatds 11. nuestros guantes ; 15. su 14. sus hermanas 12: sus zapatos 13. sus hermanas dinero 17. nuestras manos 18. sus ojos ; 16. mi criado 19. su deseo 21. sus nombres 22. su pluma 20. su deseo 23. su libro (de Vd.) 24. su casa (de Vds.) 25. (de VoLf) 27. No ha roto sus manos (de Vd.) 26. sus manos (de Vds;) Han tornado los ninos los guantes de Vd. ? BU pipa. 28. Ha tornado Vd. su dinero ? 29.
tias
;

mis

9.

>,

<;

EXERCISE
4.
8.

II.
5.

-1.

she

is

not

are

we are we not ?
;

2.

6. I

they are not am not ;

3.
7.

am

I ?
?

are

you

you (PLUR.) are


9, i

not.

es ella
i

10. el

son

13.

no

es

Vd.

16. (yo) soy ; 17. ella ; f In a complete sentence, the de Vd.,

no son ellas ? 12. Vds. 11. no es somos nosotros ? 15. no soy yo ? no es 18. (yo) no soy.
?

14.

<;

<j

de Vds., is seldom

required.

5
'

EXERCISE
;

III.
5.

1. 1

am
?

not
6.

2. is

he
7.

3.

are

we
;

not ?
are.

4.

you are not


8.

are they
<;

are
?

you
10.
<;

estamos
?

9.

no

esta
;

Vd.

you (PLUR.) ellas no estan


?
;

11.

Vds. estan 13. no. esta el esta 15. ; estamos nosotros ? 16. Vd. no esta 18. i esta Yd. ?
i

estoy yo
;

12.

14. ella

no
;

17.

no estoy

EXERCISE
3.

IV.

1.

No somos obreros.
4.
<;

2.

<?

Esta Vd.

listo ?

Es Vd. soldado ? 5. No estoy escuchancio. 6. Quien esta en la calle ? 7. Es muy laborioso,. 8. Soy inglesa. 9. No soy italiano. 10. Estamos hablando con su primo. ll.<jNo son (ellos) principes ? 12. Somos marineros. 13. (El) no esta escribiendo. 14. Es cartero* 15. No estamos fumando. 16. Es Vd. espaiiol ? 17. Son mis tios. 18. Mi tia no esta aqui. 19. (Ella) no esta en casa. 20. Estamos aguardando. 21. Es profesor.
(Ellas) estin aqui.
<;

<j

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!.
jardin, buscando sus perros.
3.
2.
<?

Niiestros amigos estan en el

No, senor, no soy su


la calle,

tio,

Es Vd. el soy su padre.


<;

en

fumando un
?

cigarro. 5.
7,

de mi amigo ? Mi amigo esta Quien esta alii ? 6. Que


tio
4.
<;

Estoy escribiendo una carta a su padre (de Vd.). 8. Sus hijos (de Vd.) estan creciendo mucho. 9. El hermanq de mi amigo no es laborioso. 10. Tiene Vd. un criado ? 11. Nuestra hermana es habil. 12. Su madre (de Vd.) esta en el jardin. 13. Mis zapatos estan en el suelo, cerca 15. Mi libro'esta en de la silla14. Vds. no son soldados. 17. A el cajon. 16. Esta fumando su herniano de Vd. ? quien ha escrito Vd. una carta ? 18. No estamos estudiando
estan Vds. buscando
<;

<;

<;

nuestras lecciones.

Key
EXERCISE
SING.),
I.

to Lesson IV.

(MASC. SING.), buena (FEM. 2. buenos (MASC. PLUR.), buenas (FEM. PLUR.)
1.

bueno

caro (M. S.), cara (F. s.), caros (M. P.), caras (F. P.) ; 3. capaz, 4. aplicado*, aplicada, aplicados, capaz, capaces, capace?
,

aplicadas

or

laborioso, laboriosa,

laboriosos, laboriosas

$
5.

franees, francesa, franceses, f rancesas


;

6. facil, facil, faciles.

8. seco, seca, ; valiente, valiente, valientes, valientes ; 10. frio, fria, frios, f rias ; 11. calido, calida, calidos, calidas ; 12. aleman, alemana, alemanes, alemaaas ; 13. dificil, dificil,

faciles

* 7.

barato, barata, baratos,


9.

batatas

secos, secas

dificiles ; 14. ingles, inglesa, ingleses, inglesas ; 15. pesado, pesada, pesados, pesadas ; 16. persa, persa, persas, persas ; 17. un buen caballo ; 18. buenos caballos ; 19. tina
dificiles,

mala pluma
22.*

20.

malas plumas

21.

una leccion

dificil

lecciones dificiles.

lientes.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. 1. Sus amigos no son va2. La modista francesa ha vendido un sombrero
3.

barato.

Nuestras lecciones son


?

Vd. un' buen criado


buenos.
6.

5.

muy faciles. 4. Tiene No, senor, mis criados no son


<?
<;

He visto a un soldado valiente. 7. Tengo came 9. For que no estan Somos marineros ingleses. Vds. estudiando sus lecciones ? 10. Las muchachas alemanas
fria.
8.

11. i A quien ha dado Vd. sus libros ? 12. He son f elices. dado mis libros espanoles al primo de mi amigo. 13. Nues14. ^ Como esta Vd. ? 15. Muy tra leccion es muy dificil. 16. Su (or la) bien, gracias; pero he estado enfermo. hermana de Vd. no esta enferma. 17. Sus tias (de Vds.) son 18. Sus hermanos estan enfermos. 19. Su muy habiles.

21.

amiga (de Vd.) es italiana. Qu6 ha hecho Vd. con mi


<j

20.

No
?

libro

es italiana, es espafiola. 22. Est4 sobre la mesa.

Key
EXERCISE
;

to Lesson V.

compro; 2. Vd. compra; 3. (el) 6. 5. Vds. (ellos) compran compramos compra 10. (ellas) 9. hallo hallamos 8. 7. toma ; ^ (el) compran toman; 11. Vd. halla;' 12. Vds. toman; 13. fuma; 14. 18. Vds. 17. enviamos 16. llevo fuman 15. Vd. lleva
I.

1.

4.

envian.

EXERCISE
4, babenios;

II.
5.

1.

bebo;

2. 6.

Vds. beben;

Vd. bebe; 3. (el) bebe; 7. cree; (ellos) beban;

creemos
creen
4.
;

9.

comen
;

10.

como
;
;

13.

aprende
III.

14.
1.

poseo

15.
2.

EXERCISE
;

recibo

Vd. aprende ; 12. Vds. poseen Vd. recibe 3. (el) recibe


11.
;

recibimos ; 5. Vds. reciben 8. escribimos 9. Vd. surte dividimos 13. Vds. escriben
;

6. (ellos)

reciben
;

7.

escribe
;

10. surto

11. divide

12.

14. surtimos.

EXERCISE IV. -1. Vd. halla, Vd. no halla; 2. i hall a Vd, ? 4 no halla Vd. ? 3. los hombres beben, los hombres no beben 4. % beben los hombres ? no beben los hombres ? 5. descubrimos, no descubrimos 6. descubrimos (nosono descubrimos (nosotros) ? 7. recibo, no recibo tros)? 8. i recibo (yo) ? no recibo (yo) ? 9. la muchacha debe, la
;
<;

<j

<;

muchacha no debe 10. & debe la muchacha ? no debe la muchacha ? COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. <;Debe Vd. digero a mi
;
<;

? 2. No debo dinero a su amigo. 3. El criado espafiol llama a BU perro. 4. No fumamos cigarros. 5. El discipulo Que desea aplicado aprende facilmente sus lecciones. 6. BU madre (de Vd.) ? 7. i No trabajan (ellas) bien ? 8. <jQuiea vive en la casa de su tia ? 9. Mis primes viven alii, pero mi tio esta en Madrid. 10. El oficial bebe un vino delicioso. 11. Recibimos cartas de los tios de Vd. (or sus tios) cada dia 12. No deseo un (better; todos los dias '=' all the days.')

amigo

<;

13. Creemos que sus baston, porque tengo un paraguas. Cuanto dinero debemos ? 14. 'muestras estan en la tienda. 15. Creo que debemos cuatro chelines al tendero, y tres

17. al criado. 16. Tal vez no fuma. Quien dinero a amenudo Yo dinero a mi 18. ? presto presta amigo su amigo. 19. que hora sale el tren para Londres ? 20. Mi tren no sale todavia. 21. No temo el castigo no es muy 23. Vd. no 22. Los muchachos no tiran piedras. grande.

(chelines)

<;

<;

bebe cerveza.

24.

<:

Comprendo
(ellos)

las

lecciones

No comprende Vd. muy bien.

la leccion ?

25.

26.

<(

Comprenden

Vd.)

aS.Jtfi

su explicaci6n ? 27. 4 D6nde viven sus primos (de prima vive en Madrid, y yo (vivo) en Londi-ea,

Key
EXERCISE
mujeres
;

to Lesson VI.
or

I.

1.

ese

aquel

muchacho

2.

estas

esos or aquellos sobres ; 4. esta mesa ; 5. esa or aquella iglesia ; 6. esas or aquellas calles ; 7. estos caballos ; 8. esta tinta ; 9. este gato ; 10* esos or aquellos cuadros ; 11.
3.

ese or aquel
flenora
;

15.

pan 12. esta ciudad j 13. estos niimeros 14. esa no estamos seguros de eso ; 16. no creo esto.
; ;

II. 1. 2. debiendo, fumando, fumado; 4. preguntando, preguntado ; viviendo, vivido 6. no ha tenido Vd. ? 7. no estoy 5. leyendo, leido ; teniendo ; 8. siendo soldados ; 9. estando en el cuarto (or la

EXERCISE
;

debido

3.

<?

habitacion) ; 10. no habiendo escrito la carta ; 11. 12. Jtf o hemos sido marineros. estado Vd. en Espaiia ?
(Ella)
<j

Ha
13.

no

esta leyendo.

14.

<z

Que

Donde ha estado el hombre ? No esta hablando esta sefiora (or 17. eoldados ingleses ? no esta esta senora hablando*) ? 18. Mi tio no ha llegado.
<?

esta (el) bebiendo ? 15. 16. i No son valientes los

2.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. 1. No ha leido Vd. esa carta ? Por que no esta ese muchacho estudiando sus lecciones ?* 3. Esos criados han bebido una botella de buen vino, y cinco (botellas) de cerveza alemana. 4. Estan fumando cigarros ? 5. Habiendo leido el librp, lo enviare a mi hermano. 6. Cuanto dinero ha enviado 7. Cuanda sale el buque ?
<;

(j

<

<i

<J

el

comerciante a su banquero

8.

<?

No han

aprendido los

discipulos estas lecciones ? 9. Estos sobres blancos son de mi 11. El profesor tio. 10. Esas senoras son mis sobrinas.

espanol esta hablando ahora, 12. Estoy leyendo un periodico 14. Estas botellae frances. 13. Hemos estado en el campo. no estan llenas. 15. He sido carpintero. 16. Ha tenido Vd.
<?

tiempo para leer esta carta


*

17.

Ha olvifiado Vd. esto

18.

As pointed out in par. 32 of the Grammar, the construction in such sentences is usually optional, and is merely a question* of taste and euphony. To avoid needless repetition, only one way is given in this Key ; but such
constructions as

^Por qu6 no esta estudiando sus lecciones ese

jnuchaclio

are quite permissible.,

<?

Estan esae seftorae buscando un coche


?

cso

20.

No comprendo
v^ndere.

esto.

21.

No

? 10. Oreo Yi cstando satisfecho


?

con

el libro, lo

22.

No

es f eo aquel perro

Key
EXERCISE
lleros
? ?

to Lesson VII.
?

I.
<;

1.

<;

cual caballero
4.
?
j
<;

2.

<;

cuales caba?

3. 6.
<;

cual

silla ?

cuales calles
<?

5.

<;

nombre
ruido
12.
<<

9.

cual zapato cual tren ? 10.


<;

que hombres ? 11. que niebla que


7.
! j

8.

que que
!

lastirna

cual

mujer
?
<;

13.
\

<;

cuales dias

?
!

14.

<?

cuales lamparas

15. <;cual taza

16.

que sombreros
20.
!

17
?

cuchillo

18.

De quien

es esta tinta
<;

19. ^

amigas estas
<;

seiioras ?

De quien
\

es

De quien es este De quien son esto ? 21. Que


;

muchachos tan holgazanes


Cual es
el

22. 24.

Que

error tan grande


el

23.

precio de esto

<;

Cual es
;

numero
<;

ban comprado II. 1. ha comprado 2. no he comprado 4. no ha comprado Yd. ? 5. ha 7. G. la muchacha ha hablado ^ han hablado (ellas) ? 9. i no escrito el medico ? 8. el comerciante no ha vendido no ha 11. han llcgado los buques ? 10. no he comido enviado el tendero ? 12. Td. ha escrito 13. Yds. han visto 14. no han hallado (ellos) ?
(ellos) ?
3.
;
<;

EXERCISE

<;

1. Hemos III. visto a un general muy Han hallado Yds. a sus amigos ? 3. Tiene el hermanos ? 4. He visto a aquel seiior en Madrid. 5. Espera Yd. a sus sobrinas hoy ? 6. No esperamos cartas. 7. Estamos

EXERCISE
2.

celebre.

<;

,;

eobrino

buscando nuestras llaves. ? 9. No he visto hoy


2. jardin ? quien es ese caballo ?
?

8.

<;

Esta .Yd. buscando a su

al rey.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!.
hermano en
<?

el

De

Ha hallado Yd. a mi Cual libro ha tenido Yd. ? 4. Que hombre no ama a BU"
<:
<:

madre

5.

<;

De quien

es este paraguas
7.
;

6.

,:

Han

visto

Yds. a los viajeros ingleses ? comprado Yd. esta manana ?

8.

tan barato ha El dependieute ha recibido

Que

reloj

10
ese dinero.
9. t

Quien

esta fumando

en

este cuarto ? 10.

ha enviado
;

los generos a tiempo. 11. j Que leociones tan faciles tiene Vd. ! 12. Para quien son estas cartas ? 13.

ha prestado Vd. su cuchillo ? 14. Quienes son hombres ? 15. Que gente hay en la casa ? 16. No ha llamado Vd. a la criada ? Cuales tazas ha roto (ella) ? 17. 18. i En cual cuarto ha hallado Vd. la tinta roja ? 19. Que 20. Cnales desea Vd. ? 21. Cual pluma tan mala es esta es el camino a la estacion ? 22. Cual es la causa de su
<;

A quien

estos

<:

<;

<:

<;

silencio ?

23.

<j

Cuales son sus planes

24.

Que

es eso

Key
EXERCISE
I.

to Lesson VIII.
<j

Este baston no es mio. 2. Es esa casa de* 41* ? 3. Estas cartas son nuestras. 4. Sus discipulos (de Vd.) son aplicadop, y los mios son holgazanes. 5. Estos lapices son de* ella*. 6. Nuestra amiga esta aqui, pero la de* ella* no ha llegado todavia. 7. Esa Have es mia. 8. Nuestras leccibnes son diticiles, pero las de* ellos* son muy faciles.
1.

EXEECISE II. 1. mis mesas de roble y (las de) caoba 2. 3. una tia querida madre mia (simpler y mi querida madre) ; suya (clearer y una tia de el) 4. mis deseos, los suyos, y los de ellos ; 5. Este es un trabajo suyo. 6. Es un dependiente mio. 7. Es de Vds. este jardin ? 8. Esas Haves no son de Vd., sou mias. 10. Son anngoa 9. i Es de Vd. este periodico ? nuestros (or nuestros amigos). 11. Ese no es error mio ; es c
;
;
<;

ella.

12.

Ni su tienda ni
III.
1.

la

de su vecino estan abiertas.

EXERCISE
3.

we

shall
?

be
?

will

you (PLUR.) speak


;

4. 1 shall
7.

2. will he not have, ? 5. you not receive


;

they will write. 8. seran (ellos) t tomare (yo) ? 9. Vd. no tendra 10. 11. no estaremos ; 12. dividira 13. Vd. no habra vendido j tendr6 (yo) ? 14. fumaran 15. i habremos enviado ? 16.
6.

will not drink

will she find

<?

<j

Better than suya, suyos, suya. suyas. Such constructions as i &} SXlva esa casa ? are correct grammatically ; but the meaning is clearer li de 4l t de Vd., de ellos, etc, are employed*

ir

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. El
'mis temas, pero

profesor ha corregido
2.
<j

no

los

de Vd.

D6nde

estara

Vd.

manana
dinero.

3. 5.

Mi amigo

sera medico.

4.

No

tendre bastarito
<;

Hablaremos a su padre de Vd. 6. Ouanto 7. Mi amigo ha vendido su casa, y la de su 8. Comprare una mesa y seis hi jo vivira ahora en la ima. 10. Romperan aquella sillas. 9. Ese error sera muy grave. ventana. 11. No comprare esta casa. 12. Habre enviado sus pedidos y los de sus vecinos. 13. Su hermana ha hallado sus
recibira Vd.
;

sortijas de oro y (las de) plata. d6nde esta el de Vd. 1^. 15. a la suya, pero no a la de ella.
17. i

14.

Aqui

esta

mi

baston

Hemos
1-6.

visto a nuestra
el,

Sera falta de

madre, y no de Vd.
el

18.

For que ha traido Vd. su paraguas, y no Guardaremos este reloj, y venderemos el otro.

mio ?

Key to Lesson IX, EXERCISE L 1. El cafe esta mas frio que el te. 2. Ese hombre es mas fuerte que Vd. 3. Las manzanas no estan mas maduras que las peras. 4. Esta agua no esta (or es, according to meaning) mas fria que la ptra. 5. Londres es mas No es la ciudad de Madrid mas 6. grande que Paris.
<;

Esta cerveza es muy buena, pero el Yino es mejor. 8. No recibire menos de cinco chelines.. 9. Esta casa es mas barata de lo que Vd. cree.
pequeiia que Paris
?

7.

EXERCISE II. 1. 1 Es el mas holgazan de sus criados de 3. Ese cuadro es el mas hermoso Vd. 2. Es muy dificil. 5. Estas 4. Esta agua es la mas clara. de la coleccion. ventanas son las mas pequeiias. 6. El error mas pequeno 7. Nuestra casa es tiene a veces consecuencias muy graves. la mas convenient^

EXERCISE III. 1. Ha recibido Vd. tanto dinero hoy como ayer ? 2. Su hi jo de Vd. es tan habil como laborioso. 3. Estas sillas son tan baratas como esas. 4. i Tiene Vd. tantas pluma's como yo ? 5, Esta senora no es tan alta como Vd.
<>

12
6.

Ha

traido tantos regalos

como

ella.

7.

No hemos

couuprado

tantos muebles

como Vd.

EXERCISE IV. 1. vendi; 2. ^compraron (ellos) ? 3. Yds. recibieron ; no llego (ella) ? 4. 5. no tuvieron ; 6. i estuvo (el) ? 7 temimos. (nosotros) ? 8. fume 9. no hallamos ; 10. Vd. no fue" envio Vd. ? 12. no hube 11. 13. escribimos 14. Vds. no hubieron aprendido (yo) ?
<; <;

<;

15,

No

estuvieron (elios) en el cuarto

EXERCISE

I.

1.

Key to Lesson X. La casa que Vds. ban comprado


<j

es

mas

Es este el capitan cuyo buque 2. conveniente que la mia. Vd. ha visto ? 3. El seiior que hablo con los niiios es su tio. 4. No estamos seguros cuales guardara. 5. El muchacho a esta enfermo. Ha visto 6. olvidado Vd, el liemos quien nombre del caballero (or senor) con quien vivo? 7. Ha
que recibi, lo que es una lastima. 8. El caballo he que comprado no es muy f uerte. 9. He traido seis libros, los cuales prestare esta tarde al hermano de Vd. 10. No, no es este senor quien esta fumando.
leido la carta

EXERCISE
your horse.
cigars.
5.

II.
3,

Do

Let us drink [some] water. 2. Sell not let us wait. 4. Do not buy these not let us keep these samples. 6. Do not
1.

Do
t

smoke (PLUR.) yet


this chair.

7.

Be

in time.

8.

Have

pity

9.

Take

10. Presto (Vd.)* suparaguasa miprimo. IL.Deje (Vd.)* hablar al muchacho. 12. Comamos ahora. 13. Que esperen 14. Que compre el vestido. 15. Este (Vd.)* alii (ellos). esta tarde. 16. Envie (or mande) Vd. los paquetes a mi casa.
17.

Tenga Vd.

la

bondad de aguardar un

poco,

jesta

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Tome Vd. el paraguas que en el rincon. 2. No rompa Vd. los platos que compre 3. No olviden Vds. de comprar te, cafe, y azucar, 4. ayer. No preste Vd. dinero a ese hombre. 5. Comamos esta fruta.
*
Optional always in Imperative, but better inserted.

Mire Vd. esas tiendas. 7. No rompa Vd. ese vaso. 8. No* hablemos a ese hombre. 9. La persona para qnien trabaja 10. Los oficiales a quienes ha hallado Vd. abajo esta aqui. estaran aqui manana. 11. El pan que Vd. comio es tan bueno como este. 12. No ban recibido los peri6dicos que envie, lo que es muy estrano. 13. Adivine Vd. cual de las mucbacbas 14. He ballado varies documentos importantes* es la^nejor. 15. No conteste Vd. a los cuales enviare a nuestro abogado.
6.

Son ellos quienes estan trabajando 16. esa pregunta. 17. No sea Vd. tan descortes.
<;

Key
'

to Lesson

XL
<?
<J

EXERCISE I. 1. Vd. tenia ; 2. noestaban fumando ?or 4. estaba comiendo ? or 3. no dividia no f umaban ? no habian Vds. 7. 6. no estabamos comia ? &. era 10. i habia tornado ? 8, no f umaba Vd. ? 9. no eramos
I
; ;
;
<j

<?

comido

1L

estaba escucbando, or escuchaba

12.
,

<j

leia

Vd. ? 13. estabamos tobajando, or trabajabamos 16. 15. Eran amigos mios. estabatf llamando ? nombre. su olvidado Habiamos 17. tiempo.

14. ^

no

No
;

tenia

',;

32. no hallaria II, J.^ recibirian ; 6. 5. no babria vendido ; Vd. ? 4. tendriamos 9. ? Vds. bablado babrian no 8. no estaria Vd. 7. i i seria ? 11. enviariamos ; 1^. 10. no escribiria romperiamos ? Vd. aprenderia

EXERCISE

<;

creeria

EXERCISE
el
9.
;

III.
;

-1.

para ellaT
;

2.

bacia nosotros
;

3.

4.

de Vd.
;

5.

sin ellas
,

6.

con Vds.
,
,

7.

en

el

8.

por a mi
;

a ella
;

10. de. ellos

11.

conmigo

12.

sin el
ella
;

14. contra

Vd.

15. entre si

16.

por nosotras 5 13. para ellos 17. con


;

18.

para

si.

el.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Estabamos trabajando con 3. La leche estaba en el jarro. 2. Estudiariamos espanol.
i

4,

Hablaria Vd.
lag

al

comercfante

5.

pro

plumas eran

muy

Duenas.

6,

El papel no era bueno, Han estado siempre

11

Quxen era el capitan de este buque ? 8. No en este cuarto ? No fu6 Vd. quien 9. ha traido este regalo para mi ? 10. Las cucharas no eran nuestras. 11. Fueron estos soldados* quieues ganaron la batalla. 12. No era temprano cuando llego ? 13. Compraria Vd. estos cuchillos y tenedorss ? 14. No guardaria ese vestido. 15. Hablaba siempre de si. 16. No viajabamos sin el. 17. t A qu6 bora comia Vd. ? 18. Lleve Vd. a sus
conmigo. teniamos
7. i
<j

siete sillas

<j

<j

ninos consigo.

<j

Key to Lesson Xlf. La tenemos 3. 2. Los ha tornado. Me comprende Vd. ? 4. Lo coniprare manana. 5, El
EXERCISE
I.

1.

tendero no nos cree.

6.

ha pagado Vd.
8.

la

cuenta
9.

Los hemos visto en habria Vd. vendido ?


7.

la calle.

No

los aguardaria. 11.

Lo
tio

10.

Mi amigo
12.

las guardara.

Su

(de Vd.) nos habia olvidado.

Le hablare

esta tarde.

EXERCISE II. 1. Me lo enviaban cada dia. 2. t Nos los 4. Su ha enviado ? 3. Le ha escrito a ella y a su madre. tia me ha hablado a mf, pero no a Vd. Se lo leyo ayer ? 5. 6. El banqnero se lo prestara a ellos r pero no a su abogado. 7 ^ Se lo ha explicado Vd. (a ellos) ? 8. No se lo he
<j

explicado todavia, pero se lo explicare esta noche.

9.

Les

vendemos a Vds., no a ellos. 10. Nos la vendera manana. 11. El dependiente no me las ha explicado.

EXERCISE III. 1. Leamelo Vd. 2. Leame Vd. la carta. Leanos Vd. esa carta. 4. No nos las lea Vd. 5. Vendales Vd. su reloj. 6. No le envie Vd. la carta. 7. C6mprenlo
3.

Vds. 8. i Estaba hablandole (or Le estaba hablando) a Vd,* 6 a su padre ? 9. Presteselo Vd. 10. No le preste Vd. dinero. 11. No es facil comprenderle. 12. Ensenenselo Vcb. 13. No se lo eneenen Vds. 14. Que me escuche.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Mirele Vd. a


2*

D6jerne Vd.

tenerlo.

3. i

For qu6

le

el, no a mi. ha vendido Vd. su

15
sortija ?
4.

No

los olvidara.

5.

<j

Nos

lo

deben

6.

Nole

7. No nos las ha traido. escuche Vd. 8. Le prestaba dinero a Vd., pero no a mi. 9. & Cuando lo compraran Vd& ? Cuanto dinero le debemos ? 10. 11. Quien lo ha hecho ? 13. Los tendra maiiana. 14. 12. Se los he prestado a ella, Vendanselos Vds. 15. No me lo envie Vd. 16. Nos lo Le espera Vd. hoy ? 17. Guardemoslo. 18. debe ?
<j

<j

<;

Key
EXERCISE
;
;

to Lesson XIII.
;

2. baratamente 3 seguramente 6. valiente5. habilmente pesadamente mente 7. alegremente 8. doblemente 9. purainente.


I. 1.
;

4.

frianiente
;

II. 1. Copie Vd. cuidadosamente los nom3. Ayer compre un reloj, Estan escuchando aiin ? y maiiana lo vendere. 4. Este hombre no trabaja siempre, 5. Apenas habia acabado mi trabajo, cuando mis bien. amigos llegaron. 6. Bebemos siempre te y cafe. 7. Maiiana

EXERCISE
2.

bres.

recibh*emos ocho libras.

EXERCISE III. 1. No tendre ninguna dificultad. 2. Ni mi esposo ni mi hijo estan arriba. 3. El criado no ha traido
ni cafe ni
-te.

4.
6.

Nadie
8.

en

el jardin.

5. No encontre a nadie esta abajo. 7. bastante grande. seria casa Ninguna

Nada

es

mas

seguro.

Este muchacho no comprende nada.

2.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Tengo aqui un vestido azul. 3. Tal vez recibire manana Apenas aguardo un minuto.
<;

unos regalos. 4. Ese parroquiano ya ha comprado la lampara. Les hablare de seguro esta noche. 6. No hallo Vd. aqui mi paraguas ? 7. Nadie esta escuchando. 8. Rehuso firmemente continuar. 9. A veces bebo cerveza, pero nunca bebo vino. 11. 10. Deseo principalmente hablarle a el, no a su socio. Hablo clara y energicamente. 12. Espera Vd. hoy una carta ? 13. No es de ninguna conftecuencia. 14. No cfee nada. 15*. No hallaron a nadie en casa. 16. Nunca he leidtf libro mejor
5.
<;

H.K.S.S..

m
Key EXERCISE
2.
I.

to

Lesson

1.

treinticinco (or tremta


3.
6.
9.

y cinco)

nifios

diecinueve dias; gchentiocho aiios


;

semanas un minuto
seis
;
;

4.
7.

doce meses*;

5.
8.

una semana
;

noventisiete libras
;

veintitres chelines

10.

dieciocho

11. cuarentidos duros 12. ciento siete libros ; peniques 13. quinientos setentitres chelines 14. mil trescientas cincuentiuna casas 15. cinco mil doce horas 16 dieciseis mil setecientas sesenticuatro millas 17. cien millones de
; ;
,

libras,;

18. cien

escuelas

19.

cinco millones doscientos

ochentiseis mil cuatrocientos quince habitantes.

EXERCISE
ticinco cuarto.
;

II.

3. las
;

diez
6.

una y cinco
las tres

8. ^ Es la menos diecinueve. COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Que hora es? 2. No se 3. Son las doce y media. 4. El tren sale a las ,que hora es. ocho y veintitres. 5. Ha viajado doscientas ochentiuna millas. 6. Tenemos en el banco mil novecientas cinouenticuatro libras diecisiete chelines y seis peniques. 7. Este pais
<?
!

1. las once ; 2. las ocho menos veiny media 4. las once menos cuarto 5. la 7. Son las nueve y las ocho menos diez una ? 9. No son las doce todavia. 10. Son
;
;

tiene cien millones de habitantes. 8. Les he prestado mil ochocientas cincuenta libras. 9. No hay cien buenos soldados en el regimiento. 10. Estara aqui a la una menos diez. 11. Son las doce menos cuarto. 12. Ese comerciante tiene quinientas mil libras. 13. Catorce mil ochocientos cincuenta

goldados pelearon en esa batalla. 14. No son las tres y cuarto todavia. 15. Han enviado noventidos paquetes ; no es

verdad
siete

16.

Cuantos dias hay en una semana


<j

17.

Hay

dias, 19.

ciento

minutos en una
dias
?

sesentiocho horas, 6 diez mil ochenta semana. 18. Cuales son los nombres de log

Lunes, Martes, Miercoles, Jueves, 20. Viernes, Sabado. Hay doce meses, 6 trescientos eesenticinco dias en un aiio. 21. Los meses son : Enero

Domingo,

Febrero, Marzo, Abril, Mayo, Junio, Julio, Agosto, Sep tiembre, Octubre, Noviembre, Diciembre,

n
Key
to Lesson

XV.

primeros habitantes ; 2. la octava 3. el decimo error 4. la quinta tienda 5. las parte 6. la septima calle a la derecha segundas clases 7. la ; tercera ventana a la izquierda ; 8. el quince (15) de Octubre ; 9. el primero (1) de Mayo 10. el veinticinco (25) de Agosto; 11. Pio nono ; 12. Isabel segunda 13. Carlos doce; 14. Paris, 18 de Junio 1907, or Junio 18 de 1907.
I.
;
;

EXERCISE

1.

los

he hallado nada. 2. Un hombre Lo miraban cada diez Vd. ? 5. No beba VcL toda el agua. 6. Ha comprado Vd. hoy algunos libros ? 7. Hay alguien arriba ? 8. Se lo vendimos (a ellos) el otro dia. 9. Vd. tiene demasiados perros.
II.
1.

EXERCISE

No

rico tiene siempre inuchos amigos. 3. minutos. 4. Cuantas libras le debo a


<; <?

<j

EXERCISE III. 1. un mal viaje 2. un gran ruido ; 4. un gran favor una chimenea grande 5. San Pablo ; 6. el tercer muchacho en la primera clase 7. Hay un poco de cafe, pero no tengo ni azucar ni leche. 8. Nunca gasta dinero aqui. 9. Tengo una mala pluma, pero buen papel.
;

3.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Alejandro primero murio el


primero de Diciembre de 1825.
tinteros
?

2.

Cuanta
el

tinta

hay en

los

3.

Este

es'

un buen muchacho, pero


4.

los otros

no

primero de su clase, la cual es muy grande. 5. Mis primas son casi siempre las 6. Quien primeras en la lista, y mi hermana es la ultima. fue el primer rey de Espaiia? 7. Copie Vd. cada cuarto 9. 8. Cuantas palabras han escrito Vds. ? renglon. Catalina segunda nacio el dos de Mayo de 1729, y murio el 10. Esta es la primera vez diecisiete de Noviembre de 1796. La segunda leccion es la he en casa. hallado a 11. que alguien
trabajo.
<;

han hecho ningun

Es

<j

mas
son

dificil.

12.

Al

muy

faciles,

y que

contrario, cred que las primeras lecciones 13. i No la octava es la mas dificil.

cree Vd. que los ultimos capitulos de este libro son muy 15. Este es el primer divertidos ? 14. Fue una gran reina.

18
16. He llenado este tintero, y ml error que he hecho hoy. hermano ha llenado todos los otros. 17. Cuantos hermanos
<?

tiene Vd.

Tengo solamente uno.

Key
I.

to Lesson XVI,

Prestele Vd. algunas herramientas. 2. EXERCISE Tenemos (un poco de) sal, pero no tenemos ni mostaza ni pimienta. 3. No ha encontrado Vd. a nadie ? 4. Ha traido 5. Mi esposa (or seiiora) ha comel mozo pan y queso ? 6. No ha visto Vd. hoy unas prado algunos muebles.
1.
<? <;

nmestras

Este discipulo no tiene tinta. 8. Esa criada 9. Me ha roto algunos platos, pero no ha roto ningun vaso.
?

7.

ha dado algunos regalos para mi

hija.
;

EXERCISE
3. 1
6.

II.

1. me Iavar6

no se han lavado ? no Be cansen Vds. ;

4.
7.

2. no nos estamos lavando ; 5. se felicitarfa ; Vd. se cansara se ha lastimado ? 8. no se han


;
<;

lastimado Vds. ? 9. se felicitan ; 10. lavense Vds. obreros se cansaban ; 12. nos f elicitaremos.

11. los

EXERCISE
3.
;

III.
<j

1.

no

se queje

por que equivocado ; se ha escapado el hombre ? 7. 6. se metian 8. me estoy cansando ; inmediatamente 11. alegremonos apeado todavia ? 10. nos levantariamos 12. apeese (or bajese) Vd. aqui ; 13. se han casado.
;
<?
]

se

Vd. mete Vd. ?

2.

mi amigo

4.

me metere
<:

ha no levantese Vd. no se ha 9.
se
5.
;

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Ese dependiente


descuidado, pero cree que

es

muy

nunca

se equivoca.

2.

Se apearon

a la puerta de la iglesia. 3. No me quejo de esto, sino 5. de eso. 4. Por que no se lava ese muchacho ? No me he equivocado esta vez. 6. Nos levantamos cada dia (BETTER, todos los dias) a las seis y media. 7. No nos meteremos en eso. 8. Los ninos se han comportado muy bien. 9. Su amigo de Vd. se felicito demasiado pronto. 10. No se cansen Vds. 12. 11. No deseamos cansarnos. un en veudieron 13. Me (a esta estacion. mi) poco Ape&nonos

'tto

buen tabaoo, y a el algunos cigarroi muy buenos. 14. Eete es un buen discipulo raramente se equivoca. 15. ^ A que bora se levantan ? 16. Nos apearemos a la puerta del hotel. 17. Se levanta siempre demasiado tarde. 18. No se meta Vd. en estos asuntos. 19. Cuando se casaran ? 20. Ya &e ban casado. 21. i For que no se levanta Vd. ?
;
<?

Key
EXERCISE
I,-

to Lesson

XVII.
;
<;

3.
6.

8.

2. no es Vd. temida ? fuimos llamados 4. es araada ? 5. los vasos seran rotos la ventana f ue rota por el criado 7. la reina es amada ; i no oy creido ? 9. no son amados.
1.
;
<;

no son creidos
;

II. -1. Se Gambia dinero extranjero en esa Se prestan estos libros para leer ? 3. Se cree que la reina esta muy enferma. 4. Se venden estas naranjas a seis peniques la docena. 5. Esos amos son respetados de sus criados. 6. Aqui se vende leche. 7. Aqui se venden 8. La caja fue hecha por este carpintero. 9. Se cigarros. teme que el accidente sera grave. 10. Se presta dinero. 11. Las cartas seran, escritas por el dependiente. 12. Se espera que llegara manana.

EXERCISE
2.
<;

tienda.

EXERCISE
recojamos I venzo ?
12.
;

III.

1.
;

creyeron;
5.

2.
;

4.

alcance
;

toquemos
;

paguemos; 3. no 6. que lo recoja ;


;

lo
7.
;

8.

leyo
;

9.

no
;

lei

10.

goce

11. toquelos

Vd.

13. no llegue Vd. demasiado tarde toquen Vds. 14. p&gueme Vd. 15. que pague 17. Venzamos 16. toque esta dificultad. 18. Recoja Vd. esa manzana, 19. Busquemos un coche. 20. Dirija Vd. las cartas. 21. No toque Vd. esos

no

los

libros.
1. Aqui se vendon periodicos. ventana no f u6 rota ayer.* Vd. al 3. Esta Pague carpintero. 5. Luego que le alcanc6, le Llegue el diez de Diciembre.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.

2.

4.

* =nobody broke it yesterday. Esta ventana etc.*s the window was not broken (when I saw it),

no estaba

rota,

20
r

Recoja Vd. esa piedra deseo examinarla. 7. Ore-' me habia equivocado. 8. Sin duda los paquetes seran hallados por el muchacho. 9. El parte fue enviado a los
fiable.
'6.
;

yeron que

capitanes.

10.

Cojamos
11.

esta barandilla
los

la escalera

no

esta

papeles, porque los 12. Se dirijio a su amigo, pero no recibio desarreglaremos. ninguna contestacion. 13. Se cree que ha naufragado un

muy

segura.

No toquemos

14. Una buena madre es amada de sus hijos. 16. Se duda si tendra Fueron heridos por los soldados. 17. Avance cuidadosamente hacia la bastante paciencia.

buque.
15.

18. Se creia que cabeza del caballo. 19. No se reciben equipajes aqui.

el parte

habia llegado.

Key

to Lesson XVIII.
;

EXERCISE
4.

I.

1.

cerremos
;

2.

no

cierre
?

Vd.

3.

cuesta

costaran
;

5.

no muevo

9. llueve ; perdemos no contaba Vd. ? 12.


<j

pierden ; 8. no no esta lloviendo ? 11. volvere ; 10. 14. no nos muestra el nino ? 13.
6.
<<

movemos

7.

<j

<j

17. no 16. piensa Vd. ? pensariamos Por 20. 19. sentemonos ; 18. muestreme Vd. lo niego manana ? Vd. helara Vd. ? 21. Cree no sienta se que que 22. Volvamos a casa pronto llovera. 23. Si le encuentro, le 25. Ahora no Volverian a las nueve y media. ^ablare. 24. truena. 26. Por que no vuelve su criado ? 27. Si lo niegan, no les creere. 28. No ha encendido el fuego todavia ?'

muestre Vd.
;

15.

<j

<?

<j

<j

aguardado 6. antes de
;

despues de haber 5. hijos 6 hijas ; 8. antes de prestarlo ; 7. sin beber ; salir ; 10. despues de haberme mostrado 9. herinanos y hermanas ; 12. diez u 11. en mostrarselos su musica e instrumentos once chelines 13. Cambie Vd. esta taza por la otra. 14. No 15. El buque no ha llegado hoy, es culpa mia, sino de el.

EXERCISE

II.

3.

plata

1. en trabajar; u oro ; 4. hijos e

2.

hijas

pero

tal

vez llegara manana.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Su amo no aprueba su


conducta.
2.

Antes de recomendar e\

libro, lo

examinare.

21
3. Lo compraron sin examinario. 4. Grei que lloverfa. 5. Despues de haberme sentado, conte los hechos e incidentes de mi viaje. 6. Es su cuarto de Vd. claro u obscure ? 7. No me mostro a mi su billete, sino a Vd. 8. Niega Vd. que los descubrimientos e invenciones de este siglo han sido muy 9. Empecemos ahora. \itiles ? 10. No empiece Vd. todavia no estoy listo. 11. No encienda Vd. el fuego en mi cuarto, pero cierre las ventanas. 12. Si vuelvo a tiempo, explicare todas mis opiniones e ideas. 13. Muestreme Vd. lo que tiene en la mano. 14. Tengo siete u ocho chelines en mi bolsillo.
<;
<

semana pasada.

vendio su sortija por sesenta duros. 16. Volvio la 17. No vuelva Vd. sin hablarle. 18. Calientese Vd. antes de salir. 19. Cuanto recibio Vd. por su reloj ? 21. Nos 20. Despues de haber hecho su trabajo, volveran.
15.
<?

Me

recomendo una gramatica, pero hemos oMdado el titulo. 22. Mi almuerzo me cuesta aproximadamente dos chelines cada dia. 23. El mio me cuesta mas.

Key
EXERCISE
;

to Lesson
2.

XIX,
;

3. i sabe Vd. ? 4. no ; no doy 7. supieron 8. vamos 9. no sabian ? 14. 13. 12. Vd. no daba 11. voy 10. yendo ee 17. no den damos no va ? 16. Vd. se 15. vayase Vd. esta Demosle Vds. 20. 19. 18. ] sepa Vd. Vds. vayanse leccion. una 22. dando esta El 21. profesor gramatica. 23. Denoslo Vd. Vayan Vds. a su casa pasado manana. No 25. 24. Se lo dimos a Vd. la semana pasada. pronto. Lo sabe Vd. ? 26. ira su primo de Vd. esta noche ? 27. No se quien ha ido a comprarlos.
I.

1.

di

no dare
;

fue
;

5.

sabran
;

6.

<;

<j

,;

<j

EXERCISE
diremos
diciendo
12.
?

II.

1.
;

veamos
6.
;

2.
7.

dijeron

3.

no veo
;

4.

no
esta

5.

dicen

veia

10. ? 9. Vd. vio viendo 13. i dijimos ? 16. Vaya a ver quien esta en el jardin. Vd. cansada. 18. No me ha dicho nada.
;

no vemos hemos dicho 14. no vea Vd.


; ;

8.

<;

que

11.
;
^

15.

no diga Vdno digo


;

17.

Digame

si

esta

22

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.
a los marineros.
2.

Me

1. El capitan no dio nada dijeron que su dependiente no tenia

ninguna

No

se si

carril.

3. Digamosles lo que pensamos. 4. experieixeia. van todos los dias (better than cada dia) por ferro5. Cuando voy al campo, los veo. 6. Veamos quien

ha ido a

casa.

7.

No comprende

lo

que estan diciendo.

8.

Voy a explicarselo. 9. Vamos a ver a nuestro tio. 10. Vaya Vd. a ver quien esta a la puerta. 11. Sabia varios idiomas, 12. Digame Vd. cuando volvera. pero los ha olvidado. 13. i Por que no nos dicen la verdad ? 14. Vaya Vd. a casa eu padre desea verle. 15. Si veo al hombre, le dire lo que Vd. 16. Fuiuios a Londres el aiio pasado. desea. 17. Iban amenudo al teatro. 18. Nunca vemos a nuestros amigos hasta la noche. 19. i Por que no le da Vd. una silla ? 20. ha le ? eso Le es dicho 21. verdad. I Quien digo que 22. Cuando le vi, iba a casa. 23. Lo sabre pronto. 24.. Nunca se lo doy. 25. Ire manana a la estacion, 26. No se lo d6 Vd. a el, sino a mi.
;
.

Key
EXERCISE
;

to Lesson

XX.
;

I.

pongan Vds. ; 5. 8. haremos 9. 13. 12. hacemos 16. i no valdria ?


;

<j

<j

pondria ; 2. no hago ; 3. hagamos ; 4. no valgo ? 6. no valen ; 7. Vd. ha puesto valdra ? 10. poniendo ; 11. no hicieron puso Vd. ? 14. no pongo ; 15. valgamos
1.
; :

haga Vd. todavia. aqui sus cartas ?


esta

18. No lo pondremos ? Pone 19. Pongalos Vd. en el rincon. 20. hecho Vd. ha 21. No los hacia. 22. Que

17.

<;

Donde

los

<;

<

manana ?

23.
II.

No
1.

estoy haciendo nada.

EXERCISE
3.
5.
<;

hace veinte anos


;

2.

valdria

mas;
;

no hay mnguna
<

dificultad

4. alii esta

6. No habia ninguna silla ; hacia calor ? tren ? 8. no valdra ? 9. hace una hora ;
<*

su sombrero habia un 7.
<j

10. alii estan

nuestros primos ; 11. ^ no es seguro ? 12. hari, viento ? 13. no habrd bastante pan ; 14. no hace calor hoy ; 15. no habia ningun error ; 16. hace f rio ? 17. no valia mas ? 18. hay
<:

<j

<i

28

agua

19. alii esta la estacioiy,

20.

hace

ecis

mtses

21.

Necesitaba dinero, pero no lo tenia.

EXERCISE
fatigada
?

III.

1.
;

son
3.

muy

estimados

2.
;

<?

esta

Vd.

no mucho 5. chacho muy malo


;

estoy tan satisfecho


8.

un mal muchacho 4. un muhace tanto viento como ayer ? 6. no 7. un pintor muy celebre como Vd.
; ;

Kara mucho

frio.

9.

Nc^hacia

mucho

calor

10.

muy aplaudido. 11. i Es muy amada la reina ? 12. tanto dinero. 13. Fue tan odiado como su padre.
<?

No fue No tengo

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE. 1. Haga(me) Vd. el favor de Vale este cuadro tanto como el otro ? 2. esperar un poco.
Habia varios niiios que estaban haciendo ruido. 4. Ponga 5. Espero que no hara taiito viento. Vd. vino sobre la mesa. 7. Estos hermosos 6. Lo hare manana, si tengo tiempo. muebles se hicieron cien anos ha. 8. Pondra .flores en la ventana. 9. El rey no es tan estimado como la reina. 10. Creo que manana hara mucho calor. 11. Los puse en la caja 12. No hay sitio para poner nuestros hace una semana. sombreros. 13. Lo ha puesto Vd. aqui ? 14. Alii esta el
3.
<;

foaston

habra bastante tiempo para 17, Habia un cuadro que fue muy admirado. 18. Esos son los cuadros que fueron tan 19* Los viajeros estaban cansados pero no admirados. mucho. 20. No he puesto nada en las cajas. 21. Que esta 22. for que no hace su poniendo dentro del cajon ?
;

deselo Vd.
16.

15.

No

hacerlo.

Nunca

lo hago.

<j

<?

trabajo

23.

Lapongo
Key
to

Lesson XXI.
;
;
,;

2. no quiero 3. pudo-? puede ? 6. no querran ? 7. quiso 10. pudiendo no 9. podriamos 11. no 13. 14. no ? 12. Vds. podra queremos podia quieren 17. Vd. no puede ; 18. 16. ^ podemos ? 15. i querria ? querian 19. i quiere Vd. ? 20^- no podria ? 21. no podemog ;

EXERCISE

I.

1.

queriendo
<;

no querremos Vd. ? 8. pudimos


4.
;

5.

<;

<?

<;

24
22.

Vd. no puede dudarlo.


24.

23.

No pude
25.

tiempo.

No

sabia hablar espanol.

llegar a (or en) No sabe leer el

nino

EXERCISE
nosotros.
2.
I

II.

1.

Los hemos convidado a comer con

Hover. 3. No puedo contegtar. 4. 5. Le escribi ayer, para Quiere Vd. darme su tarj eta ? decirle .que Vd. habia llegado. 6. Fuimos a ver a su tio (de Parece ser 8. No intento mirarlos. 7. ayer. imposible. Vd.) 9. Ha traido la carta a casa para leerla. 10. Ensenaba a nadar a mis niiios. 11. Hagame Vd. el favor de darme un vaso de agua. 12. Cesen Vds. de hablar.

Empezo a

1. Debemos ir a casa. 2. Vd. no .debiera Vd. tendra que aguardar hasta la tarde. 4. I Cuanto trabajo tiene Vd. que hacer (or ha de hacer Vd.) ? 5. Tenian (or Tuvieron) que salir sin comprar sus billetes. 6. Debe Vd. copiarlo ? 7. Tiene varias cosas que hacer. 8. No tendriamos que pagar tanto dinero como Vd. 9. No

EXERCISE

III.

hacer eso.

3.

>

<;

debieran f umar tanto.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.!. Los


decer
al oficial,

soldados debieran obe<j

pero no lo hacen siempre. '2. Por que no quiere Vd. mostrarmeel cuadro ? 3. No quiero ponerloaqui. 4. Quiere Vd. decirle su nombre ? 5. No puedo prestarle este libro no es mio. 6. No tenia nada que hacer. 7. Debo enseiiarle a hablar mas correctamente. 8. Pudimos 9. Podriamos acabarlo manana. acabarlo ayer. 10. No han
;

11. Lo hemos dicho para per13. Quisieron aprender a hablar espanol. 14. No podiarnos (or Corra Vd. a ver quien esta a la puerta. pudimos) aguardar para verle ; teniamos que irnos. 15. Queria guardar todo el dinero para. si. 16. No querra volver sin recibir una respuesta. 17. Vd. debiera darme mas tiempo.

podido hallarlos todavia.


12.

suadirle.

19. Esperamos recibir 18. & Pudo el abogado comprender ? una respuesta manana. 20. Me escribio para decir(me) que se

habia. equivocado.

21.

hoy

22.

Debemos preguntar ahora

Podria Vd. enviarnos los generos 'a nuestro amo. 23.

25

Toy a darselos, para demostrarle que no estoy ofendido. 24. Vd. no debe cantar tan alto^ No sabe hablar aleman 25. su amigo (de Vd.) ? 26. No deberia Vd. convidarlos a
<:
,;

comer
28.

27.

Cuando sabre dibujar tan bien como Vd.

No

se tocar el piano.

Key
EXERCISE
;

4.

3. i anduvieron ? Vd. no saldra 7. andabamos ; 9. viniendo 8. salido 10. i oimos ? 11. no salgamos ; 12. andando 13: no vengo 14. vienen Vds. ? 15. no 16. Vd. oira 17. oyendo ; 18. veniamos 19. oyeron oigamos 20. % no sale ? 21. venimos ? 22. vendria 23. no salgan Vds. ahora. 24. He venido a verle (a Vd.). 25. Me ha
I.

1.
;

XXII. no oigo venga Vd. 5. vendran 6. vine


;

to Lesson
2.

<;

27. Salgo a ver la oido hablar. 26. Anduvo muy deprisa. ciudad. 28. Vendremos la semana que viene. 29. Me oyo hable 30. ectamente, despacio. porque Vengo a explicarperf 31. Trate Vd. de oir lo que se dice. 32. ^No se selo a Vd. oye amenudo el ruido desde aqui.
1. jugamos no juega Vd. ? 3. esIT. 2. han abierto ? 5. no traemos ; 6. no traigan Vds. 7. cabe 8. no cabian (or cupieron) 9. no hemos impreso 12. esta cubierto 10. no caiga Vd. 11. Vd. no ha traido 15. no los no ha vuelto todavia ? 14. imprimamoslo 13. 19. Vd. 16. no cabra abro 17. he traido ; 18. no traigo 23. 22. caigo caera 20. no juegue Vd. 21. cubralos Vd. Todo el dinero cabe en esta caja. 24. Traigamelo Vd. ahora. 26. 25. Espero que caeran. Quiere Vd. abrir la ventana ? Ya esta abierta. 27. No quepo en este -coche. 28. Aqui se imprimen toda clase de libros extranjeros. 29. Traiganos 30. For que no se Vd. la contestaci6n lo antes posfble. cubre Vd. ?
;
<;

EXERCISE
;

cribia; 4. ^

<;

<;

EXERCISE
3.

III.

felicisimamente
;

honorables

7.

segurisimamente ; 2. felicisimo 6. muy 5. bonisimas 8. Mis perros son con muchisimo gusto
1.
;

4.

rarisimos

26
fidelisimos. 9. Estos nines son bonisimos. 10.

Su

contestaci6n

es utilisima.

11.

Es un

trabajo facilisimo.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE.--!. Traigamelos Vd. lo antes 2. Nunca viene muy temprano. 3. Debieramos posible. darselo. 4. Vd. debiera esperar un poco. 5. No volvera antes de las seis. 6. Volvieron el mes pasado. 7. Volveremos manana por la mafiana. 8. Tendremos que abrir todas las
los cajones. 10. Las cosas 12. Espero que volveran pronto. Debera (or Tendra que) traermelo manana por la manana. J.3. A que hora volverd el coche ? 14. Tengo que salir a varias Por cosas. 15. anda Vd. tan despacio ? comprar que 16. Espero que vendran a vernos la semana que viene. 17. Es 18. Los ninos estan jugando casi imposible oic el ruido. 19. El tren sale siempre a las ocho y media. 20. ati&jo.
9.

ventanas enseguida cabran en esta caja.

Abra Vd.

11.

Nunca

los trae bastante

temprano.
to

Key
4.
;

Lesson XXIII.
;
; <j

EXERCISE I. 1. Vd. pidio 2. no repetimos 3. reira ? no elijan Vds. 5. sonriendo 6. Vd. reia no rige 7. 9. No se sabe si puede impedirlo. 10. Vd. ? 8. seguimos ? ria 12. 11. No Vd. esta riendo Vd. Vd. Por Siganos que I
;
; ;

EXERCISE
sugirio Vd.
difiera
9.

? 4.
;

Vd.

3. i que consintio ? 2. no sugeri 1. II. no herimos 5. consentiran ta'mbien 6. No lo 7. Cual de los dos prefiere Vd. ? 8. No mentia ?
<;

Ahora
Vd.

se arrepiente (or se esta arrepintiendo).


el

10.

No

sintio

mucho.

13.

golpe Siento
III.
4.

11.

Arrepintamonos.
molestarle.
;

12.

Lo sentimos

much$

2. no se duerma Vd. ; 1. contradecira 6. mu5. no convinieron murieron 9. i no dormian Vds. ? riendo 1, dormi 8. Vd. moriria 12. Muri6 algo 10. i habia supuesto ? 11. no contrahagamos joven, 13. Duerme Vd. alguna vez por la tarde ? 14. No

EXERCISE
;

3.

dormimos
;

,;

<J

estan durmiendo los ninos

15.

Supongo que

si.

27

EXERCISE
I

IV.

1.
;

compra
6.
;

2.temed;
;

3.

hallas
;

4.

debeis
;

harias
12.
i

9.

no temes habeis venido


5.
13.<;

enviabais
1

7.
?

10.

estas lista
;

8. no romperas 11. no has puesto ?


,;

que tienes ? escuchando ? 16.


tuviste
;

fuisteis

14.
? ?

escribid

15.
;

<;

estais
18.
;

19
;

<;

quereis venir habiais esperado


?^

17.

20.

no tendreis muestramelo

no
21.

hacedlo

22.

<;

no eres ingles
V.
1.

23.

no

sois obreros.i

tomad; 2.-notomeis; 3. escribe-; 4. no idos v 7. hablame 8. no nos babies 9. no te canses 10. no os canseis 12.no 11. aprended; 14. No veridas este reloj. aprenduis. 13. Compra este reloj.
escribas
;

EXERCISE
5.

vete
;

6.

15.

Prestadme vuestro paraguas.

16.

No

leas la carta. 17. Leela.


2.

COLLECTIVE EXERCISE,!. Me
Se
los dare esta tarde.
3.

pidio cinco chelines.

Muestreme lo que Vd. h$i elegido. 4. Sirvase Vd. tomar asiento. 5. Cuando llegue, los ninos estaban durmiendo (or dormidos). 7. 6. Le pedire algo. 9. Nunca nos Qliiere Vd. seguirme ? Repitalo Vd. 8. corrige, cuando nos equivocamos. 10. Sirvanse Vds. esperar un 11. Uno de los dos ha mentido, pero no se cual. 12. poco. Lo encuentro dificilisimo. 13. Siente mucho que no podra venir esta noche. 14. Cuando murio ? 15. Sirvase (Vd.)
<j <;

decirme
sela)
18.
;

la

hora exacta.
reloj

16.

No puedo
Siento
;

mi

no anda.

17.

mucho

decirselo (or decirese accidente.

ainbos estan dormidos haga (Vd.) ningiin ruido (or durmiendo). 19. Supongo quellegaran pronto. 20. Repita 22, Se rieron io que Vd. ha dicho. 21. Consintio enseguida. cuando les dijimos eso. 23. Nos impidio de verlo.

No

3. no lucio 7. Vd. reconozca no i no cuezo ? 10. nacieron 9. traduzcamos 8. produjimos cocia Vd. ? 14. Cuando 11. i luzca Vd. 13. 12. dedujeron ? 16: Tra^uciran ertft cansado cio Vd. ? 15." Parezco estar
4

Key to Lesson XXIV. EXERCISE I.-l. crezco; 2. no crece?


cnecen
;

4.

5.

no conozco
;

6.

<

<;

/;

28

en media hora. 17. No conozco el precio, Vd. a este seiior ? 19. No le reconozco.

18.

<*

Conoce

1. II. distribuye Vd. ? 2. huyeron ; 3. no atribuyo 5. sigo 6. no seguimos 7. Vd. siguiendo destruira 8. no distinguirian Vds. ? 9. arguyo ; 10. Vd. no 11. Sirvase Vd. seguirlos (or seguirlas). distribuia ; 12. No destruya Vd. estos documentor
; %
;

EXERCISE
;

4.

EXERCISE III. 1. PRES. SUBJ. tenga, tengas, tenga ; IMPF. SUBJ. tuviese, tuvieses, tengamos, tengais, tengan. FUT. SUBJ. tuviese; tuviesemos, tuvieseis, tuviesen. tuviere, tuvieres, tuviere ; tuvieremos, tuviereis, tuvieren. CoND. SUBJ. tuviera, tuvieras, tuviera ; tuvieramos,
tuvierais, tuvieran.

haya, hayas, haya ; hayamos, hayais, hayan. hubiese, hubieses, hubiese ; hubiesemos, hubieseis, hubiesen. FUT. hubiere, hubieres, hubiere hubieremos, COND. hubiera, hubieras, hubiera ; hubiereis, hubieren.

2.

PRES.

IMPF.

hubieramos, hubierais, hubieran.


3.

PRES.
;

f ueses, f uese
f uere

fuera
4.

; seamos, seals, sean. IMPF. f uese, fuesemos, f ueseis, fuesen. FUT. f uere, f ueres, f ueremos, f uereis, f ueren. COND. f uera, f ueras, f ueramos, f uerais, f ueran.

sea, seas, sea


;

PRES.

este, estes, este

estemos, esteis, esten.

IMPF.:

estuviese, estuvieses, estuviese ; estuviesemos, estuvieseis, estuviesen. FUT. estuviere, estuvieres, estuviere ; estuvieremos, COND. estuviera, estuvieras, esestuviereis, estuvieren.

tuviera

estuvieramos, estuvierais, estuvieran.

5. PRES. tome, tomes, tome ; tomemos, tomeis, tomen. IMPF. tomasemos, tomaseis, tomase, tomases, tomase ; FUT, tomare, tomares, tomare; tomaremos, tomasen. COND. tomara, tomaras, tomara ; tomatomareis, tomaren.

ramos, tomarais, tomarao.

29

bebamos, bebais, bebanbebiese, bebieses, bebiese ; bebiesemos, bebieseie, FUT. bebiere, bebieres, bebiere ; bebieremoe, bebiesen. COND. bebiera, bebieras, bebiera ; bebiereis, bebieren.
6.

PRES. beba, bebas, beba

IMPF.

bebieramos, bebierais, bebieran.


7.

PRES.
; ;

-de, des,

de

demos,

dels, den.

iMPP.

diese,

FUT. diere, dieres, diesemos, dieseis, diesen. diere dieremos, diereis, dieren. COND. diera, dieras, diera dieramos, dierais, dieran.
dieses, diese
;

PRESENT.
8.

IMPERFECT.
viese, etc. viniese, etc.

FUTURE.
viere, etc. viniere, etc.

CONDIT.
viera, etc.

escriba, etc. escribiese, etc. escribiere, etc. escribiera, etc.

9* vea, etc.
10,.

venga, etc.

viniera, etc.

11.

pueda, etc, 12. vaya, etc.


13. diga, etc.

pudiese,

etc.

pudiere, etc.
fuere, etc.
dijere, etc.

pudiera, etc.
fuera, etc.
dijera, etc.

f uese, etc.

dijese, etc.

14.

muera,

etc.

muriese,

etc.

muriere,

etc.

muriera, etc.

Key
<j

to Lesson

XXV.

EXERCISE L 1. Desea que (ella) lo lea? 2. Desean 4. 3. No desearan que lo que Vd. acepte esto. ^guardemos. Desea que nos quedemos alii. 5. No deseamos que nos oigan. 6. Desea Vd. que cierre la puerta ? 7. Que desea (el) que haga ? 8. Desean que paguemos la cuenta enseguida.
<;

EXERCISE
2.

II.

1.

No

es necesario
al

Es necesario que saiga


4.
6.
<;

instante.

que nos pague mucho. 3. Es posible que el

dinero sea suyo. Teme que venga.

5. entimos que no nos haya hallado. Es necesario que les escribamos ? 7. 8. i Quiere (el) que ^ Quiere" 'Vd. que abra las ventanas ? lo pongamos aqui ?

EXERCISE III. 1. despuesque venga a vernos que no cueste demasiado; 3. antes que hagan el
4.

2.

para

trabajo.

Cuando reciba su

contestacion, se la en^enare (or mostrare).

80
5.

Le

esperare (a Vd.),amen6cJ que llueva.


7.

6.

Cuando

llegue,

Les enviaremos los generos cuando tengamos cuando este Vd. desocupado. 9. Espere Aviseme 8. tiempo. 10. Les pagaremos antes que lo Vd. hasta que esten listos. hayan terminado (or antes que lo terminen). 11. Pagaran su cuenta cuando tengan mas dinero. 12. Cuando viene a verme, nunca permanece (or se queda) mucho tiempo. 13. Cuando vuelvan, se lo explicare. 14. Siempre me habla cuando me ve.
le hablare.

EXERCISE
si

IV.

1.

No

creo que desee

salir.

2.

No

dijo'

4.

3. No creenaos que reciba ningiin premio. podi'ia hacerlo. i No es probable que puedan verlo ? 5. No espera Vd. que

su primo venga pasado manana ? 6. No esperamos que lo 7. No es necesario que copiemos las direcciones que traigan. nos did.

Key

to Lesson

XXVL

EXERCISE I. 1. No crei que hubiese venido. 2. De3. seariamos que no hubiesen empezado (or comenzado). Deseaba (el) que lo hiDesearia que no estuviese aqui. 4. ciese ? 5. No fue necesario que hablasen. 6. Hubiera negado que su hermano estuviese alii. 7. Quisiera tener mas dinero.
<j

EXERCISE

II.

1.

Le

ayudaria,

si

estuviese

menos

ocupado. 2. Lo copiaria, si tuviese mas tiempo. 3. Les 4. Si pagariamos enseguida, si tuviesemos bastante dinero. estuviese aqui, se los daria. 5. Trabajaria mejor, si tuviese mejores herramientas. 6. Pregiinteles Vd. si estaran en la 7. Sabe Vd. si vive en Madrid ahora ? estacion esta noche.
<*

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