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Travel and Tourism

Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction

[HIGHER]
Genevieve McCabe

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The Scottish Qualifications Authority regularly reviews the arrangements for National Qualifications. Users of all NQ support materials, whether published by LT Scotland or others, are reminded that it is their responsibility to check that the support materials correspond to the requirements of the current arrangements.

Acknowledgement Learning and Teaching Scotland gratefully acknowledge this contribution to the National Qualifications support programme for Travel and Tourism. This resource is based on the document Travel and Tourism: Introduction to Travel and Tourism at Intermediate 2, product code 5642, which was published by the Higher Still Development Unit in August 1999. Learning and Teaching Scotland acknowledges with grateful thanks the commitment of the authors and other contributors in developing the original resource. First published 2005 Learning and Teaching Scotland 2005 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes by educational establishments in Scotland provided that no profit accrues at any stage. ISBN 1 84399 081 4

Copyright Learning and Teaching Scotland

CONTENTS

Section 1: Introduction Unit content Unit outcomes, performance criteria and assessment How to deliver the Unit The learning environment Opportunities for development of core skills Opportunities for integration with other units Visits and speakers Section 2: Lesson plans Lesson content Teaching and learning methods Section 3: Student guide Appendices Appendix 1: Education and industry links Appendix 2: Using industry visits Appendix 3: Coordinating organisations

4 6 8 18 19 19 20 21

145

150 155 160

MARKETING IN TR AVEL AND TOURISM: AN INTRODUCTION (HIGHER) Copyright Learning and Teaching Scotland

INTRODUCTION

SECTION 1

Unit content
This Unit is one of the two mandatory Units which, along with one optional Unit make up the Travel and Tourism (Higher) Course. The Unit is designed to develop a practical knowledge of the application of marketing concepts and techniques in the travel and tourism industry. While the content outlined below is fairly wide ranging, tutors should bear in mind that this is an introductory Unit and that, at this level, overall understanding of day-to-day marketing operations and the practical application of marketing techniques are more important than a detailed theoretical knowledge. The main elements of the Unit include: the role and importance of marketing in a travel and tourism business environment : definitions of marketing, comparisons with other product marketing strategies, the intangible and variable nature of the tourism product and the implications for marketing. market orientation: comparison with product or sales orientation, the possible advantages of a market-led approach; e.g. business growth and market share. Examples should be drawn from a range of tourism businesses such as: museums, gardens, events organisers, festival organisers, hotels, specialist restaurants, wildlife and nature centres, tour operators, travel agencies, airlines, visitor centres, managed countryside areas, guided tour companies, information services, transport operators, destination management companies, and entertainment organisers who stage special programmes for visitors. The above list is not exhaustive. market research techniques: a range of techniques applied to specific and general research objectives; primary and secondary research; qualitative and quantitative research; visitor surveys, interviews, questionnaires, suggestion boxes; observation; use of data available through Tourist Boards, local government, trade associations and internal records.

MARKETING IN TR AVEL AND TOURISM: AN INTRODUCTION (HIGHER) Copyright Learning and Teaching Scotland

INTRODUCTION

pricing strategies (not covered in depth): market trends in the local area, related to the target market; seasonal and demand factors; pricing policies of competitors; internal influences, overheads, and profit margins; life cycle of the product/service. promotional techniques (including advertising, special offers and other incentives, print, display, PR, sales promotions, exhibitions): media and materials; their application and effectiveness, the target market, marketing objectives, image, message, design, costeffectiveness, shelf life; distribution of promotional material and information through a range of outlets and mechanisms including tourist boards and tourist information centres (TICs); visitor facilities and operators, e.g. accommodation providers, distribution agencies, computer information services. the role of customer service in the marketing chain, the role of the individual in marketing the organisation and the local area, robust customer service strategies contrasted with the negative effects of poor customer service. Examples of quality customer service initiatives such as Investors in People, Welcome Host and Scotlands Best and their impact on promoting excellent standards of customer service within tourism businesses. monitoring mechanisms: customer surveys, mystery shopper, observation, suggestion boxes, staff meetings. the marketing function in practice. How travel and tourism businesses organise themselves to carry out the marketing function: structure of the organisation, marketing department-led, wholeorganisation approach. The marketing mix in practice; description of the product, price, place, promotion and the markets of a particular travel and tourism business. SWOT analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats. Importance of a SWOT analysis. setting aims within tourism businesses; SMART objectives. evaluation mechanisms, including improvement/lack of improvement in staff relations, increase/decrease in positive/negative feedback, increase/decrease in revenue.

MARKETING IN TR AVEL AND TOURISM: AN INTRODUCTION (HIGHER) Copyright Learning and Teaching Scotland

INTRODUCTION

Unit outcomes, performance criteria and assessment


General competence for the Unit Developing a practical knowledge of the application of marketing concepts and techniques in a travel and tourism business.

Outcome 1 Explain the role of marketing and its application in travel and tourism.

Performance criteria (a) Explain the concept and importance of marketing and market orientation. (b) Describe methods and purposes of market research techniques. (c) Describe the component elements of the marketing mix.

Outcome 2 Explain the role of customer service as a marketing tool in travel and tourism organisations.

Performance criteria (a) Explain the principles of customer service. (b) Describe the business benefits of good customer service. (c) Explain how quality customer service contributes to competitive advantage in a travel and tourism organisation.

Outcome 3 Evaluate the marketing function in a travel and tourism business or organisation.

Performance criteria (a) Identify the aims and objectives of the travel and tourism business or organisation. (b) Produce a SWOT analysis for the business or organisation selected. (c) Analyse the marketing mix for the business or organisation selected.

MARKETING IN TR AVEL AND TOURISM: AN INTRODUCTION (HIGHER) Copyright Learning and Teaching Scotland

INTRODUCTION

Assessment Guidance on assessment is provided in the National Assessment Bank item for this Unit, where the recommended format for Outcomes 1, 2 and 3 is: A report , based on coursework, which provides an analysis of the marketing function in a travel and tourism business or organisation and covers all outcomes and performance criteria. Recommended entry While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally be expected to have attained some of the following: Standard Grade English at grade 2 or above Course or units in Travel and Tourism (Intermediate 2). Progression This is a mandatory unit in the Higher Tourism course. Successful students may wish to progress to Advanced Higher, and specifically to: Marketing in Travel and Tourism (AH). Credit value: 1 credit at Higher (6 SCQF level 6).

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INTRODUCTION

How to deliver the Unit


Timing in the context of the course If the student group has not previously completed Travel and Tourism (Intermediate 2) units or the course, this unit should be delivered either after, or concurrently with, the other mandatory unit in the Higher course, the Structure of the Travel and Tourism Industry. The sequence of delivery is important because an awareness of the organisations and structures involved in the tourism industry is necessary for the successful completion of the Unit. in terms of learning and teaching Outcomes 1, 2 and 3 should be covered in approximately 14, 6 and 10 hours respectively. (Total 30 hours.) The remainder of the Unit time should be allocated to research and write-up of the Report. The maximum time allowed for research activity is 6.5 hours, though additional time will arise naturally from coursework. The final write-up, under controlled conditions, is allocated a maximum of 1.5 hours. (Total 8 hours.) All course delivery timings are approximate and will depend on the particular student groups and on centres own circumstances. The assessment timings however are mandatory. Unit Plan The Unit Planner which follows is provided for guidance only; it indicates a possible delivery approach. In particular it should be remembered that it is recommended that part of the additional 40 hours allocated for Higher courses is used for visits and/or visiting speakers. Two visits, scheduled to take place within the additional time allocation, are therefore included in the Unit Planner. The Unit Plan and the Lesson Plans which follow in Section 2 are divided into 2-hour slots. Where local timetabling arrangements dictate longer or shorter periods, adjustments can be made accordingly.

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Unit Plan Where time for two visits is allocated from the additional 40 hours course time
Hours 1+2 Outcome All O1 Key content Unit induction Introduction to concepts Possible specific content and teaching approach Unit descriptor; delivery and assessment arrangements. Brainstorming what is marketing, marketing vs. selling, definitions of marketing, market orientation vs. product orientation; the intangible and variable nature of the tourism product and the implications for marketing. Preparation for visit. Marketing department-led, wholeorganisation approach. Inseparability of tourism product/service. Visit to travel and tourism organisation including/or speaker on the role of marketing within the organisation. Structure of the organisation, market research techniques, marketing mix and customer service strategies. See note* Feedback from visit Discussion of findings Re-cap lessons 1 & 2 Advantages of a market-led approach Components of the marketing mix application to known travel and tourism organisations. SWOT analysis. Application of SWOT analysis . Issue of seasonality. Importance of MR. Finding out about your target market. Customer surveys. Field research. Primary and secondary research. Qualitative and quantitative data, uses of data obtained from Tourist Boards, local councils, trade associations and internal records. Factors which affect pricing; length and intensity of visit, unique selling point, the range of services provided,

Market orientation

Extra hours

All

Application of marketing in travel and tourism organisations

3+4

5+6

O1 O3 O1 O3

The marketing mix Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Market research

7+8

9 + 10

O1 O3

11 + 12

O1

Pricing and promotion

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13 + 14

O1

Promotional techniques contd.

costs, competition, seasonal variations, target markets, product life cycle, image, what the market will bear. Effectiveness of promotional techniques including printed and electronic messages (www). Advertising, exhibitions, public relations and special promotions. Selected organisations checked against a list of criteria for suitability. Strategy discussed for collecting data for the Report. Case Studies organisations marketing strategies exemplifying content of Outcome 1. List of criteria, based on content of all outcomes, examined to familiarise group with the requirements of the selected travel and tourism organisation. Group work on individual case studies to apply marketing principles. Question and answer. Discussion on choice of travel and tourism organisations. Options discussed. Principal marketing campaign techniques used in travel and tourism.

Final decision on travel and tourism organisation for individual students and research activity

15 + 16

O2

17 + 18

O2

19 + 20

O2

Promotion techniques cont. Consolidation/ extension exercise. Marketing support organisations. Consolidation/ extension exercise. Principles of customer service. Current industry initiatives. Definition of customer service.

Who can help in the marketing effort?

The importance of customer service to the tourism industry. Welcome Host, IiP, Scotlands Best. Benefits of good customer service to the employee, the organisation, the local community and the tourism industry in general in Scotland. Critical analysis of customer service practice in chosen tourism

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Extra hours

All

21 + 22

O3

23 + 24 25 + 26

O3 O3

27 + 28

O3

Application of marketing in travel and tourism businesses. Good and bad service. Application of customer service principles and practice to chosen tourism business or organisation. Meeting customer needs. Business aims and objectives. Monitoring and evaluation. Feedback from visit 2. Project planner. SWOT analysis contd. Setting aims and business objectives. Monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

business or organisation. Competitive advantage of providing quality customer service. Review of strategy for collecting data about the chosen organisation. Addressing issues likely to affect compilation of the student reports. Visit 2.

Factors affecting the level of service. SAQs.

Specific needs of travel and tourism customers. Mission statement or equivalent. Why have corporate aims and objectives? SMART objectives. Setting appropriate objectives for a tourism business or organisation. Discussion about findings from visit 2.

Visitor surveys, mystery shoppers, observation, suggestion boxes, staff meetings, daily work checklists and procedures, quantitative methods, e.g. monitoring phone calls answered or lost, waiting times. Study of the different evaluation and monitoring methods used by a variety of tourism businesses and organisations for, e.g. better staff relations, improvements in: timekeeping, retention, morale, motivation, absence; uptake of

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INTRODUCTION

29 + 30

O3

31 + 32

All

33 + 34

All

35 + 36 37 + 38 39 + 40

All All All

training; increase/decrease in positive/ negative feedback, increase/decrease in sales revenue, merchandise, ancillary products and services: increase/decrease in visitor numbers, increase/decrease in bookings, improvement/lack of improvement in appearance of premises. Commence Analysis of chosen business or work on Report organisation in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Work on Review of strategy for collection of projects. data. Data collection. Amendments to strategy. Review of data collected to date. Addressing issues likely to affect the compilation of the student Report. Advice on organisation of data. Report guidelines. Work on Organisation of data. projects. Preparation for assessment. Data collection Assessment Remediation Remediation and resulting reassessment

* Timing of first visit: The intention behind scheduling a visit at the beginning of the Unit is to enable students to benefit from the learning experience of the visit when considering the main components of marketing in Outcome 1, i.e. to provide them with a hook on which to hang marketing ideas and concepts.

In this way classroom teaching can be related to actual practice to facilitate learning it is much easier to understand and apply the marketing mix and SWOT analysis, for example, if the student can think of these in terms of a known travel and tourism organisation. Similarly, a talk during the visit may provide an insight into market research methods, pricing policies, etc., and will have the added benefit of reducing the amount of classroom teaching required. Some teachers may however prefer to cover a little more theory first before the visit; in which case, the visit can be scheduled later in the outcome, possibly after hours 5 and 6.

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Approaches to learning and teaching As in all vocational tourism Units, maximum use should be made of authentic materials and access to industry specialists and site visits as appropriate and feasible, within the limits of time and other centre resources. Although two visits have been included in the preceding Unit Planner, it is recommended that part of the additional 40 hours course time is used for this purpose, and where this can be accommodated, additional time is freed up from the Unit plan to devote to class-based activities and teaching. Where industry visits are not feasible, case studies backed up with authentic materials, video or multimedia packages may be used. In all aspects of the Unit, a practical rather than a theoretical approach is required. Emphasis throughout should be placed on actual business practice, and centre-devised case studies, examples, promotional materials, etc., should be gathered from a wide range of providers in the field. Maximum benefit will be achieved through such a practical approach and by taking advantage of opportunities for visits to, and talks from, practitioners in tourism businesses and organisations, and from field trips to promotional events. Student-centred activities should be used to encourage the learner to participate in the collection, discovery, evaluation and organisation of the materials required for write-up of the final Report. Group work incorporating discussions and diagnosis should be encouraged throughout the delivery of the Unit. Visits to tourist servicing organisations, e.g. a TIC, local tour operator, travel agency or similar where students will be able to observe best practice in customer service, market research and promotional methods, are recommended as an appropriate teaching/learning method. After initial consultation with the tutor and during the Report preparation stages, the approach should be to allow the student a large degree of autonomy in the research and collection of data with ongoing tutorial support provided as appropriate. Both desk research and fieldwork may be necessary. While the subject area is applicable to any tourism business or organisation, centres may find it most suitable to concentrate on tourism activity in the local area, i.e. within an approximate 30-mile radius of where the student lives or works.

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INTRODUCTION

Examples of appropriate teaching/learning approaches include: teacher exposition/lecture discussion question and answer case studies visits and speakers accessing the internet independently and in group sessions media watch for PR approaches, advertising, etc. desk research analysing trends and forecasting group/pair work on investigations and other activities direct sourcing of materials by students for use in compiling the final Report.

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Frameworks for induction The section which follows relates to Unit induction.
Hours 1+2 Outcome All Key content *Unit induction Possible specific content and teaching approach Unit descriptor content; delivery and assessment arrangements; OHP, H/O Q&A/PowerPoint/VLE. Brainstorming what is marketing, marketing vs. selling, definitions of marketing, market orientation vs. product orientation; the intangible and variable nature of the tourism product and the implications for marketing.

O1

Introduction to concepts

* A framework for Unit induction might include:


Introduction to what is to be learned why it is relevant how it will be taught where learning will take place Information about what is expected of students homework progress monitoring, assessment, and remediation practicalities materials needed where to get help levels of prior knowledge Communication to allow students to ask questions to reassure and promote confidence and interest Method teacher input Unit descriptor student guide

teacher input Unit descriptor student guide

brainstorming/activity discussion and questions student activity

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INTRODUCTION

Student guide The student guide will vary from centre to centre, but may contain some common components such as: Unit descriptor or simplified version Guide to assessment (contained in National Assessment Bank items) Work and assessment schedule for the Unit Visits schedule Where to get help.

A sample student guide is contained in Section 3. Materials for the staff induction pack are incorporated in the lesson plans in Section 2. Sample resources
Visits/Speakers Visits to and/or speakers from local tourism businesses and organisations. Field trip to a promotional event, e.g. Scotlands Travel Fair (usually April). Research visits made independently by individual students. Texts/Media* WWW.scotexchange.net www.visitscotland.com Materials Individual company and consortia advertising materials Whats On/events guides Marketing in Travel and Tourism Middleton (Heinemann) Travel brochures NTS/HS tickets, brochures Tourism Marketing Holloway and Robinson (Longman) Leisure and Tourism Kemp and Pearson (Longman) Tourism in Action: Ten Case Studies Warnes (Stanley Thornes) Market Research in Travel and Tourism (Butterworth-Heinemann) Examples of special promotions, e.g. competitions, 2-for-1 tickets Adverts Special events publicity Press releases Sample visitor surveys VisitScotland Marketing and development guides

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Successful Marketing Davies, Institute of Management (Hodder & Stoughton)

ASVA marketing guide ATB member newsletters Travel trade guides

Welcome Host Xtra (Contact: Scottish Enterprise) Students own files Travel and Tourism Teaching (subscription magazine including photocopiable classroom materials) Contact: Authentically English 0171 244 7301 Posters

* These texts are as suggested by teachers and lecturers currently delivering this and related marketing Units. They are not recommended as set texts, but as reference sources, mainly for staff use.

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INTRODUCTION

The learning environment


Within centres Students will benefit from an attractive and professionally presented learning environment. Rationale an attractive and practical classroom layout makes learning easier and more enjoyable for both teacher and student. It will help to motivate the students to allow open access during class time to the wide range of tourism materials to which students must have access, and avoid the necessity of having to transport large amounts of materials and equipment between classrooms continuity of classroom accommodation is particularly desirable in this Unit because of the need for ease of storage, and access to tourism materials, required for the Reports access to IT resources such as PCs with CD-ROM and internet connection are necessary for data collection resources can be used and maintained by all students following various tourism courses in the centre. Outwith centres Because of the nature of the Unit, the learning environment in this case is not confined to the classroom and may include visits to tourism businesses and organisations. It may also include field trips to travel/ holiday fairs or other promotional events. Many schools and colleges have staff with experience in establishing business links who will view the task of setting up visits and speakers as an extension to an already existing framework. For those with less experience, more guidance on how to get the most out of visits and speakers is given in Section 2 and in Appendix 2. In addition to recognising the learning opportunities offered by such visits, students should be made aware of the responsibilities which participation in field trips entails. In particular, it should be made clear that continued support from industry will depend to a great extent on their conduct, enthusiasm and commitment to the tasks set. Schools and colleges may have existing guidelines to ensure that student groups make the most favourable impression when in contact with cooperative businesses.

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Opportunities for development of core skills


It is likely that attainment of this Unit would lead to the automatic award of: Critical Thinking at Higher Planning and Organising at Higher.

Opportunities for integration with other units


In terms of specific learning and teaching approaches, there is scope for some integration of activities with: The Structure of the Travel and Tourism Industry Introduction to the Scottish Tourism Product. This may be achieved chiefly through the suggested approach of using industry visits and speakers to promote learning, and specific advice as to how this may be managed is provided in Appendix 2.

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INTRODUCTION

Visits and speakers


Two out-of-school/college visits are recommended to support students learning in this Unit: 1. To/by an organisation which demonstrates a customer-oriented approach and whose marketing activities will provide a good source of reference/case study material on which to base learning activities. To/by an information provider such as a TIC or travel agency or another organisation where a large amount of tourist information is collected and analysed and where there is evidence of recognition of marketing mix variables and the marketing function is well established.

2.

Appendix 1 contains further information on education and industry links. Appendix 2 contains notes and visit record sheets to assist with pre-visit planning along with an illustration of the possible format of a visit to an organisation. Information obtained during these visits may be relevant to other travel and tourism subjects. Appendix 3 provides information on coordinating organisations who can help with education and industry links, including a full list of all education business partnerships in Scotland.

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LESSON PLANS

SECTION 2

Lesson plans
Contents: Background reading Lesson plan proforma Detailed lesson plans and materials. The outline lesson plans that follow are exemplars for guidance. Teachers may use these as they are presented or may wish to adapt them to incorporate their own tried and tested approaches. A template is provided which can be photocopied and used to make up alternative lesson plans. Each outline lesson plan is accompanied, where appropriate, by: 1. 2. 3. overheads/PowerPoints student activities information sheets.

Teachers may wish to use all or only some of these and supplement them with their own materials. As teaching and learning styles differ, the activities are left open and can be used in different ways according to teacher preferences and the particular student group. They can, for example, be used as: individual exercises pair/small group work with whole group feedback sessions a stimulus for debate/discussion homework. Specifically, some tasks are designed to be set as preparatory work for subsequent classes and, where this is the case, this is indicated as Work Out on the relevant lesson plan.

OHTs/PowerPoint pages are designed so that they can also be used as handouts. Where there is no corresponding student activity the OHTs/ PowerPoints are intended for use during lectures. More and more teachers are using PowerPoint as an effective way of presenting information. It is straightforward to obtain handout material from a PowerPoint presentation.

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LESSON PLANS

Background reading It is unlikely that students will require to do extensive background reading, because of the availability of up-to-date information via the world wide web(www). However, students should be made aware of the availability of textbooks on the subject, particularly of specialist texts dealing with marketing in travel and tourism. There is no requirement envisaged for copies of text to be made for circulation to the learner. This applies to full-time, part-time and e-learning situations.

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LESSON PLANS

Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lesson No.:

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome and PC Objectives: Detail of what is to be covered/achieved in the lesson

Resources Essential resources are listed. You may also wish to add your own.

Admin Left blank for teachers own use

Work In: Work to be handed in by students Out: Work to be handed back to students/Work to be issued to students Left blank for teacher use

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LESSON PLANS

Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lesson No.:

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic : Objectives :

Resources

Admin

Work In: Out:

Left blank for teacher use

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Key points

Teaching/learning method

Materials

Time

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LESSON PLANS

Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lesson No.:

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Unit Induction
Outcome 1 PC a: Introduction to concepts

Objectives :
1. Unit Induction Understand the aims of the Unit Understand teaching/learning approaches Understand homework, progress and assessment arrangements Establish levels of prior knowledge 2. Explore marketing ideas and concepts (overview) what is marketing? market orientation vs. product orientation marketing vs. selling tourism marketing special features 3. Prepare for visit/speaker

Resources
OHTs Student guide Activity Sheets Visit Sheets

Admin Work In: Out: Visit Sheets


For Lesson 4/5: Task (a). Use the internet to find information for any tourismrelated organisation. Obtain some literature about the organisation and comment on the user-friendly nature of the web information. Task (b). Go to a local tourist information office, hotel, travel agency or attraction and pick up a couple of leaflets or brochures. Study the materials and decide whether you think they are effective advertising documents and if not why not. Be prepared to share your thoughts in class. (Divide tasks (a) and (b) among the group.)

Left blank for teacher use

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Teachers Notes
Unit Induction should only take a short time, the bulk of this session being spent on a general introduction/overview of marketing what it means, what it is, what it isnt, and why tourism, or services, marketing, although based on the same principles and concepts, differs from the marketing of more tangible consumer goods. The session should draw on the students own experiences as consumers, and users of services. Students may find it easier to complete the Brainstorming Activity with prompting by the teacher, and this can therefore be used as a small-group or whole-group activity. A teachers prompt sheet is included for this purpose. A visit (or visiting speaker) is planned in the early stages of the Unit to enable students to relate marketing theory and concepts to actual practice which they will be able to refer to when considering issues, ideas and working on marketing activities throughout the Unit. It is important therefore that they understand the objectives of the visit and what they are expected to learn from it. Teachers should go through the visit sheet with students to clarify unfamiliar terms, e.g. target markets, monitoring, etc. and to ensure that students are comfortable with the objectives of the visit. Explain briefly what a SWOT analysis is at this stage students should be able to enter comments under strengths and weaknesses based on their observations during the visit, but opportunities and threats can be left until the next classroom session. Students should bring this visit sheet to every class so that it can be referred to in relation to the rest of the course content and used as case study material. A suggested outline Teaching/Learning approach is provided on the next sheet.

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Key points
Induction Aims of the Unit Teaching/ learning approaches

Teaching/learning method
Issue student guide Talk through Unit descriptor Teacher input on types of classroom activity, visits, practical content, scope for independent study, etc.

Materials
Student Guide OHT/ PowerPoint

Time

Homework, Teacher input: progress and Types of homework tasks, e.g. assessment worksheets, sourcing and gathering of materials, examples of promotional literature and other techniques. Students encouraged to media watch for examples of ads, PR coverage, special promotions, etc. Progress checks how and when. Timing and nature of assessment and reassessment arrangements. Links between internal Unit assessment and external course assessment. Question and Answer What is Marketing? Student Activity small group. Whole-group feedback, leading to definition of marketing and list of what marketing involves. Teacher summing up and input. Teacher input.

Student Guide OHT/ PowerPoint

Student Activity Sheet OHT/ PowerPoint

Market vs. Product Orientation Marketing and Selling

Student Activity OHT/ PowerPoint Student Activity OHT/ PowerPoint

Student Activity. Teacher summing up and input. (Alternatively the activity can be given as homework after the teacher input.) Student Activity and Feedback. Teacher input and summing up.

Marketing Tourism

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Visit Preparation

Teacher input relate aims of the Unit to visit, i.e. why it is relevant. Talk through Visit Sheet, Visit Objectives and administrative arrangements (and timing, transport, dress code, etc.)

Visit Objectives Visit Sheet Info on place to be visited (e.g. leaflet)

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LESSON PLANS

OHT/Handout

Induction

Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Aims of the Unit: To develop knowledge and understanding of marketing concepts and practice in a travel and tourism context. To enable you to apply marketing techniques and resources in a travel and tourism business or organisation. To place an emphasis on actual business practice and the need to become familiar with the external and internal working activities of travel and tourism organisations in presenting a positive company image.

Outcome 1 Explain the role of marketing and its application in travel and tourism.

Outcome 2 Explain the role of customer service as a marketing tool in travel and tourism organisations.

Outcome 3 Evaluate the marketing function in a travel and tourism business or organisation.

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LESSON PLANS

OHT/Handout

Induction

Teaching and learning: Visits/speakers marketing in practice Case studies from actual businesses look at Scottish Thistle Awards at www.scotexchange.net Application of principles to authentic workplace situations Individual research and information gathering (data collection) Observing and assessing marketing techniques, visitor service, market research, advertising, pricing strategies, promotional techniques Ongoing internet access Individual and small-group activities Lectures

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OHT/Handout

Induction

Homework Specific tasks, e.g. finding out about prices charged to different categories of customers Follow-up on, or preparation for classwork Media Watch Individual work on projects Internet searches

Monitoring your progress Progress checks Quizzes Teacher feedback

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LESSON PLANS

OHT/Handout

Induction

Assessment Open-book report, covering all outcomes and performance criteria.

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LESSON PLANS

OHT/Handout

Lessons 1 & 2 Outcome 1

Definitions of marketing Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably. (Chartered Institute of Marketing definition) Marketing is about finding out what your customers need or want, and providing it while making a profit. It is a process which underpins all of a companys activities.

Marketing is not ... Marketing is not the same as selling, nor is it just about advertising. Advertising and selling are both important elements in the marketing process, but they are not the only elements involved.

Marketing is important Marketing is an essential core business cost, not an optional activity. It is not a luxury, to be afforded when your budget runs to it and discarded when it does not. When things are tough, thats usually the time to increase your marketing activities.(ASVA Visitor Attractions Marketing Guide)

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LESSON PLANS

OHT/Handout

Lessons 1 & 2 Outcome 1

What marketing involves: 1. Taking stock of your business and analysing its strengths and weaknesses in the context of the business environment in which your business operates. Finding out about your customers actual and potential and about their needs, wants, attitudes and expectations. Responding to these, if necessary by changing or adapting what you provide or how you operate. Setting realistic business objectives. Promoting the business making sure the right messages get to the right people at the right time. Continually monitoring and evaluating what and how well you are providing for your customers, and the effectiveness of your marketing strategy in relation to your business objectives.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

Remember Marketing is an ongoing process, not a one-off activity. It underpins all the activities of the business.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 1 & 2 Outcome 1

Product orientation vs. market orientation Product orientation: Is essentially inward looking. Its focus is on the needs and operations of the business. Product-oriented companies may place most emphasis on sales and advertising to persuade consumers that they need a product.

Market orientation: Is essentially outward looking. Its focus is on the needs and expectations of the marketplace, i.e. the customer. Market-oriented companies may place more emphasis on market research and may produce or adapt products in line with what the customer wants. They will still use advertising and selling, but as tools to inform and persuade customers about a product which is tailored to their needs. The marketing concept: Puts the customer at the centre of the companys activities.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 1 & 2 Outcome 1

Marketing tourism vs. marketing consumer goods Buying a holiday You cant see what youre buying except in a brochure/you buy on the basis of what the travel agent tells you, i.e. on trust. Variations in weather, services, etc. mean its not always possible to guarantee standardisation of product. You cant try before you buy. You pay for the purchase before you receive the holiday. You cant take it back and get a replacement if it didnt work for you! Highly perishable once the plane has gone the chance of selling the holiday has gone. Highly seasonal. Buying a CD player You can inspect it, play it, establish that it is just what you want before you buy. Quality-control systems mean all players should be identical. You can test the sound quality. You pay when satisfied that the player is suitable for your needs. If it doesnt work you can take it back.

Long shelf-life. Year-round supply and demand but relatively easy-to-manage fluctuations.

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Student Activity

Lessons 1 & 2 Outcome 1

Brainstorming! What is marketing all about? In your group, discuss what you think marketing involves. Elect a spokesperson to feed back your groups ideas. Write a definition of marketing. Marketing involves: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Definition of marketing:

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Teacher Notes on Student Activity

Lessons 1 & 2 Outcome 1

Brainstorming! What is marketing all about? Sample teacher prompts: Have you ever been stopped in the street and asked your opinions about anything? How do you find out whats on at the cinema? How does your local supermarket get you to try new products? What do people dislike most about buying a new car? You decide to go for a day out with friends/family. You have a choice of two similar attractions, both easy to get to. What might make you choose one rather than the other? How many ways of buying a holiday can you think of? What influences you to: go back to a restaurant more than once/use the same tour operator or travel agency when booking your holidays/change your bank? Marketing involves: Student responses may include answers which amount to the identification of such marketing components as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Market research Advertising Special promotions, e.g. introductory offers Pricing Product development Selling Publicity Distribution Customer awareness and service Providing goods and services that the customer wants

Definitions of marketing: There are a variety of definitions around, some more complicated than others. Try to keep it simple, e.g. Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably (Chartered Institute of Marketing definition) Marketing is about finding out what your customers need or want, and providing it while making a profit. It is a process which underpins all of a companys activities. It is also a good idea to point out what marketing is not, i.e. marketing is not the same as selling, marketing is not just about advertising.

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Student Activity Marketing and selling

Homework

Outcome 1

Case Study 1 Your parents buy a new front door after a company calls them on a Sunday night and persuades them to have an adviser call round the next day as they are doing a special promotion in your area. There was nothing wrong with the old front door, but the adviser was very persuasive and your folks end up buying from the company. [It probably wasnt their first choice of colour but the special promotion ended that day so they had to buy it in order to get it at the promotional price.] Case Study 2 Your neighbours have a young family and enjoy taking the children on outings, when they usually travel by car. They are pretty safety conscious and after seeing an advert on TV for a new model with additional safety features which protect rear-seat passengers, they go along to the showroom for a look. The salesman offers them a good trade-in for their existing car and they decide to buy the new model. Case Study 3 You receive a telephone call telling you that you have won a free holiday all you have to do to claim your prize is to attend a holiday presentation on a specified date. You agree. On the day, you and about 30 others listen to a presentation about a holiday property ownership scheme which you can buy into for a special promotional price of 5,000 and which seems to have amazing benefits and the company can arrange loans to help you finance it. The only snag is that this price is only offered on the day and you have to sign up before you leave. There is a lot of pressure on people to sign up there and then, but you decide against it, and ask instead for the free holiday, which was the main reason you came. The presenters attitude changes from best mate to Ive just wasted three hours of my time on you and now I wont get my commission! The free holiday turns out to have so many conditions attached to it that in the end you put it and all the forms in the bin and put the whole episode down to experience. Working in groups of three, discuss whether what was happening in these three case studies involved marketing or selling and whether there is any difference between the two.

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Information Marketing and selling

Lessons 1 & 2 Outcome 1

Marketing is not the same as selling, nor is it just about advertising. Advertising and selling are both important elements in the marketing process, but are not the only elements involved. Marketing orientation [Extract from Marketing for Tourism , Holloway and Plant] As Theodore Levitt expresses it, while selling focuses on the needs of the seller, marketing focuses on the needs of the buyer. Marketing is about finding out what the customer wants first, and then producing the product to fit those needs (a marketing-oriented approach) as opposed to producing the product or service and then seeing to whom it can be sold (a product-oriented approach). Clearly, a marketing-oriented company is one in which the philosophy of marketing is understood and practised throughout the entire organisation. If decisions at board level are production-oriented, or the chief executive is unsympathetic to the marketing philosophy, the marketing managers task becomes impossible. Equally, marketing cannot function effectively if other departments are inefficient. If the companys costs are too high, or inadequate control over product quality results in poor value for money, no amount of marketing will make the company a success. The customers needs will remain unsatisfied, however well advertised, or hard sold, the product is.

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Student Activity Visit to: Date:

Outcome 1

Objectives: to learn how marketing is put into practice in/by travel and tourism businesses and organisations to find out about the range of customers of the travel and tourism organisation to find out how the business conducts market research to find out who works with the organisation in terms of its marketing activities to find out about the importance of customer service in travel and tourism businesses and organisations. Preparation: You will benefit most from the visit by finding out as much as you can about the organisation beforehand. This will help you to focus on the main objectives of the visit and enable you to identify any questions that you might want to ask. Find out about: the location of the travel and tourism organisation how accessible it is to customers travelling by car or by public transport the aims and objectives of the organisation its prices historical/architectural importance (if relevant) you might also try to find some information via a web address about the organisation. This travel and tourism organisation has kindly agreed to allow us to visit as a tourism education initiative. Your responsibility is to demonstrate your enthusiasm by preparing well for the visit, and by showing interest and courtesy to the staff and management of the facility who are welcoming you to their workplace. This is part of a Scotland-wide collaboration between industry and education to raise awareness of how the tourism industry works. The continued cooperation of businesses such as the one we are going to visit will largely depend on the conduct and commitment of the students who participate. In the future you might even apply for a job here, so remember you never get a second chance to make a first impression!

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Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) All Outcomes Visit to: Type of Facility: Business Profile Operated by: Opening: Rates/prices: Date: Location:

Main business:

Main markets:

Examples of product development:

Marketing activity, e.g. research, promotion, monitoring

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Visitor Service Initiatives, e.g. Welcome Host, Scotlands Best, Mystery Shopper:

Membership of Quality Assurance Schemes, Trade Associations, ATB, etc:

Visitor Services scored 15, where 5 = Excellent Signposting Parking Interpretation

Foreign languages

Child friendly

Provision for disabled

Catering

Retail

Overall value for money

Customer service skills Occupational skills Appearance of staff

SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lesson: Visit/Speaker

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: All outcomes Objectives :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Learn how marketing concepts are applied in/by the travel and tourism business or organisation. Identify the aims and objectives of the business. Describe the customers of the business. Find out how the business carries out market research. Find evidence of product development/market orientation. Identify examples of promotional techniques used by the business. Identify the pricing strategies used by the business.

Resources
Visit activity sheets

Admin

Work In: Out: Task is to complete visit sheet including simple SWOT analysis.

Left blank for teacher use

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Teachers Notes

All Outcomes

The success of the visit will depend to a great extent on the teachers liaison with the organisation concerned. The travel and tourism organisation must be thoroughly briefed on the objectives of the visit and on the level of understanding of the students involved so that they can tailor their talk and visit to the needs and experience of the group. Specific guidance on planning for visits is given in Section 1 of this pack.

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 3 & 4 All Outcomes

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic : Outcome 1 elements of PC a, b, and c
Outcome 3 elements of PC a, b, and c

Objectives :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Feedback from visit/speaker. Identify evidence of market orientation in a travel and tourism organisation. Explain the elements of the marketing mix in terms of a known travel and tourism organisation. Complete a SWOT analysis for a travel and tourism organisation. Explain how travel and tourism organisations use market research. Identify organisations which could provide research information that would be useful for travel and tourism organisations. Conduct an initial evaluation of the marketing mix and market research techniques of the travel and tourism organisation.

Resources
Handouts OHTs Student Activity Sheets

Admin

Work In: Out: Task for Lesson 5: Find out the price of one product or service
from another travel and tourism organisation, which is in the same area, but which offers a very different product or service to that offered by the organisation you visited.

Left blank for teacher use

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Teachers Notes

Visit Feedback

Lessons 3 & 4

All Outcomes

The activities in this lesson should draw on the visit just completed and/or other travel and tourism organisations known well by the students, which they may have visited in connection with other Units or as part of a programme of visits covering their whole course. 1. Feedback may be carried out by going through the visits sheets orally, ensuring that key topics/information have been picked up and understood. The Customer Service section can be covered quickly at this stage as students will return to it later in the Unit. Teacher input on market/product orientation may be followed by examples of market orientation from the visit, e.g. product development in response to market trends, customer surveys, etc., and then in terms of other businesses. The visit can be used as the focus for student activities on the marketing mix, SWOT analysis, and market research. Learning may then be consolidated by applying these functions to another tourism business or organisation.

2.

3.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 3 & 4

Outcome 1

Advantages of a market-led approach Money is spent on developing products and services that people want rather than on sales promotions to persuade them to buy something that doesnt necessarily match their needs. Greater customer satisfaction leading to repeat business, higher turnover and more profit. By adopting an outward-looking approach businesses can respond quickly and appropriately to changes in the business environment and market trends.

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Student Activity

Homework

Outcome 1

Customer orientation or product orientation? From your own experience, give two examples of a customer-oriented business and two examples of a product-oriented business, giving the reasons why you think they fall into these categories. Try to think of at least one tourism-related example. Customer Oriented Business: Reason: Product Oriented Business: Reason:

Business: Reason:

Business: Reason:

In this space describe which companies are marketing oriented and give your reasons.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 5 & 6

Outcome 1

The marketing mix Components Product Price Promotion Place (People)

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Lessons 5 & 6 Examples of the marketing mix of different travel and tourism businesses:
Product Designed characteristics/ packaging Hotel Location/building/ size/grounds/design/ room size/facilities/ furnishings/decor/ catering styles Staff numbers/ uniforms/attitudes, e.g. Holiday Inn, Savoy, Meridien Scheduled Airline Routes/service frequency Aircraft type/size Seat size/space Decor, meals, style Staff numbers/ uniforms/attitudes e.g. American, British Airways, Virgin e.g. reliable, exotic food, badly managed First class/ business/tourist fares APEX Standby Charter Consolidated fares Museum Building size/ design/facilities Types of collection Size of collection Interior display/ interpretation Staff numbers/ uniforms/attitudes e.g. Tate Gallery, (London) Metropolitan Museum (New York) e.g. dull, exciting, modern

Service component Branding

Image/ reputation/ positioning Price Normal or regular Promotional (for each product offered)

e.g. upmarket, downmarket

Rack rates Corporate rates Privileged user rates Tour operator discount rate

(Assuming charge made) Adult rate, senior citizen rate Group/party rates Children rate Friends of the museum rate

Promotion (solo or collaborative) Advertising Examples not provided since these are generally self-evident (TV/radio/ and specific to individual organisations. press/journals) Sales promotion/ merchandising PR brochure production and distribution Place Channels of distribution including reservation systems Computerised Computerised Other museums reservation systems reservation systems Tourist information Other hotels in City offices offices group Airport desks Hotel desks Travel agents Travel agents Schools/colleges Tour operators Other airlines Airlines 800 telephone lines 800 telephone lines Source: Marketing in Travel and Tourism, Middleton

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Information/Handout

Lessons 5 & 6

Outcome 1

The marketing mix The four Ps: the focus of marketing management decisions Product Product covers the shape or form of what is offered to prospective customers; in other words, the characteristics of the product as designed by management decisions. Product components include its basic design, such as the size and facilities of a hotel; presentation, which for service products is mainly a function of the atmosphere and environment created on the producers premises; the service element including numbers, training, attitudes and appearance of staff; branding, which identifies a particular product with a unique name; and image, which is a synthesis of all the product elements as well as the focus of promotional activity. In a modern marketing context, products in travel and tourism are designed for, and continuously adapted to match, target segments needs, expectations, and ability to pay. Price Price denotes the published or negotiated terms of the exchange transaction for a product, between a producer aiming to achieve predetermined sales volume and revenue objectives, and prospective customers seeking to maximise their perceptions of value for money in the choices they make between alternative products. Almost invariably in travel and tourism there is a regular or standard price for a product, and one or more discounted or promotional prices reflecting the needs of particular segments of buyers, or particular market conditions such as seasonality. Promotion The most visible of the four Ps, promotion includes advertising, sales promotion, merchandising, sales force activities, brochure production and PR (public relations) activity. Promotional techniques are used to make prospective customers aware of products, whet their appetites, and stimulate demand. They also provide information to help customers decide, and generally provide incentives to purchase, either direct from a producer or through a distribution channel. The range of promotional techniques is so wide that the term promotional mix is frequently used in practice.

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It is important to appreciate the relationship between this P and the other three Ps to which it is integrally linked in the marketing process. However important and visible it is, promotion is still only one of the levers used to manage demand. It cannot be fully effective unless it is coordinated with the other three. Place For marketing purposes, place doesnt just mean the location of a tourist organisation or facility, but the location of all the points of sale which provide prospective customers with access to tourist products. For example, place for Disney World is not only Orlando, Florida, but also the numerous travel agents inside and outside the USA selling products which include Disney World admission. As a result of marketing decisions, prospective visitors to Florida can obtain promotional information and buy a range of products, which either include Disney World admission, or make such visits probable in terms of vacation locations and motivation. Travel agents are, of course, only one of the ways in which place or access is created for Disney World customers, or indeed for most other products in travel and tourism.
Source: Marketing in Travel and Tourism , Middleton

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Student Activity Understanding the marketing mix

Homework

Outcome 1

Using the organisation examples you have already researched/visited or discussed in class, as a guide, describe the marketing mix of two travel and tourism organisations.
Name of organisation: Name of organisation:

Which sector of the industry?

Which sector of the industry?

Product

Price

Promotion

Place

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(Information included here is for background reference post-visit, although this topic is dealt with again in lessons 25 & 26) OHT/Handout SWOT analysis Purpose: To take stock of what you provide to customers. To identify what you do well and what aspects of your business are your strong points. To identify what you do less well and what aspects of your business are your weak points. To identify what opportunities or challenges you face in terms of the external business environment in which you operate. To help you to formulate a marketing plan based on a realistic assessment of your business. Lessons 7 & 8 (25 & 26) Outcomes 1 & 3

Using the internet site www.scotexchange.net Access the link, at this website, to information about the most recent Scottish Thistle Awards. Select one of the award categories and obtain information about the winning business or one of the runners up. Identify what the judges thought were the strengths of the business. Try to come up with any opportunities for this business, that might help it increase its market share. Working in pairs, try to identify what threats might exist now, or in the future, for this business and whether you can detect any weaknesses that might affect the business now, or in the future.

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Teacher Information/Handout

Lessons 7 & 8 (25 & 26) Outcomes 1 & 3

SWOT Analysis Taking Stock In marketing terms, the goods and services you provide (your products) should match the needs and aspirations of your target markets. A mismatch will be reflected in poor sales revenue, lack of competitiveness, with perhaps a constant struggle for survival. A positive match of product/service to customers should lead to a healthier balance sheet. Having undertaken market research to obtain the views and opinions of your existing customers, and having identified a range of potential target markets, it is time to review whether or not your products are suitable for the range of customers you wish to attract. First of all, then, have a fresh look at your present products. Try and see them from the customers standpoint. Be honest, do they provide what you would look for if you were paying the price you are asking? Measure every aspect of what you offer against what competing businesses in the area (and on the internet/TV) are providing. Look at the findings of your customer research. Talk to your staff. Get first-hand feedback from your clients. If children are an important part of your ideal audience, why not get a group of children to give their ideas on how your products and services could be improved, perhaps as a class project for a local school? Give the school a cash donation for school funds. For many kinds of travel and tourism organisations, you cannot change the basic product very much. But you can often change things like design layout and interpretation. Are your display captions written in technical jargon or in language that your visitors will readily understand? Ancillary services can also be important. Catering doesnt always make a lot of money, but a bright attractive cafe serving well prepared food and drink helps to keep your customers on site. Insurance services and travel money exchange can offer substantial revenue within a travel agency shop. Things like a good childrens play area in a hotel are vital if you are going for the family market. Are your shop displays, and your goods, up to modern high street standards of appeal? One way of getting more business is to provide added value. For example, some historic houses successfully operate candidate dinners and evenings as an adjunct to their main business. There is a spin-off from one to the other. However, perhaps of greatest importance to any tourism business is the quality of its staff. Think of the emphasis which an organisation such as the Disney Corporation places on the interpersonal skills of its staff. Do your employees create an atmosphere where the visitor is a welcome guest? Are your customers not just satisfied, but delighted with their experience. Do a SWOT Analysis Write down a few Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats for one of the organisations you have been studying in this Unit. On the next page are some of the questions you might ask yourself.

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Add other SWOT questions you think may be relevant to the travel and tourism organisation you have chosen. Strengths How good is the location? What does the organisation do particularly well? What customer types does it satisfy more than others? Does it cater for a niche market? Weaknesses Does the business have locational disadvantages? What shortcomings have become evident from customer reactions/ complaints? Have the products/services been unchanged for a long time? Is the business failing to secure repeat customers? Does the business have carrying-capacity limitations? Threats Are significant numbers of the target market drawn away to other travel and tourism products/services? Will new tourist developments in my area draw business away? Is the market for my particular type of product/service in decline generally? What factors (e.g. change of destination demand for foreign holidays, international events) might impact on my future level of business?

Opportunities Can the business offer customers anything new which would directly appeal to them? Will any planned new developments open up new marketing opportunities? What has the business learned from the experience of competitors? Have I learned anything from my own experience, e.g. while on holiday? What local or national events are coming up from which the business can benefit?

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Student Activity

Homework

Lessons 7 & 8 (29 & 30) Outcomes 1 & 3

SWOT analysis of

In the boxes below, write down what you consider to be the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats which apply to a travel or tourism business you have visited or from which you have purchased a product or service. Strengths Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

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Information

Lessons 9 & 10

Outcome 1

Market research finding out about your target market Good marketing is based on sound information about: (a) (b) your current customers those potential customers who at present do not come into your organisation.

Gathering such information can be done in a number of ways, including: desk research, using published information talking to people who have the sort of information you want conducting surveys, on- or off-site, into the backgrounds and opinions of existing or potential customers. Before thinking about how to collect this information, you must be clear about how you are going to use it. The main uses are in the following areas: marketing strategy: targeting existing and potential customers most effectively can only be done if you know as much about them as possible pricing: keeping track of reactions to the perceived value for money that you provide is an important element in pricing decisions investment planning: making sure you provide appropriate facilities for your potential customers is crucial to attracting them to your organisation.
Source: ASVA Guide to Visitor Attractions Marketing

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Information/Handout

Lessons 9 & 10

Outcome 1

Market research finding out about your target market Your potential customers You need to have a clear view of the broad target market for your product/service. There are two factors involved: (a) (b) What kinds of people are available to you? What kinds of people do you want to attract?

Regarding the first group (those available to you), you should ask a number of questions. Below you are given some examples of situations where it is necessary to obtain information about customers in order to maintain and grow the business. 1. An inbound tour operator, based in central Scotland, might aim to attract between 0.5 per cent and 1.5 per cent of the population (aged 35+) living between the Scottish Borders and the North of England.

Questions How many people in the correct age range live in this geographical area? What is the preferred form of transport among members of this target market? 2. Many travel and tourism businesses, especially those in more remote areas, rely on tourists for sales and profit, as much as, or more than, local people.

Questions What type of people generally visit the area (e.g. foreign tourists, families with young children, the elderly)? Are there any niche markets for whom you can naturally cater? What tourist accommodation is there in the area (location, type, number of bed spaces)? How long, on average, do people stay in the various types of accommodation? What entertainment do visitors choose when they come to the area?

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How many tour groups pass through the area (companies, point of departure, types of tour parties)? 3. Once the tour operator has identified the market, he/she must analyse what the visitors would most like to do and see while in the area.

Questions Would shopping be popular? Do they want to visit historic sights? Is it better to offer a variety of things to see and do? Would they like to participate in energetic activities? What do you, or can you, offer which might appeal to specialist groups (e.g. enthusiasts or hobbyists, clubs or associations)? 4. What is the (likely) market appeal of your travel and tourism business?

Questions How are similar organisations doing in terms of business volume and value? Why are people not coming to your organisation? 5. Future trends

Questions What statistics are available that might indicate future trends (e.g. visitor numbers or destination choices)? What events might influence the market in the short and longer term? If you have completed the above research, you will have identified those potential customers who are available to you. Now, review your list to identify those groups which you specifically wish to target (i.e. your target markets). Here you may wish to apply a number of criteria with a view to identifying what we would call your primary target audience (i.e. those you most wish to attract to your business). The criteria include: what types of customers are most likely to further your business aims? which will provide you with the greatest overall income potential (taking into account all aspects of the tourism product or service)?

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which are likely to grow over the next few years, giving you the greatest income security? which would require the greatest (or least) capital development to your business and what are the potential cost benefits/savings? In considering this issue, there is one important piece of advice for you to take on board: Do not try to be all things to all people. Here are some examples of primary target markets identified by specific organisations: travel agency which has a specific section for dealing with businessonly travel a farm park in a holiday area decides specifically to target families with young children on holiday a historic house close to a main tourist route targets adult motorists on short visits to the area an educative attraction has school groups as its primary market a small museum seeks to attract mainly those within sixty minutes drive time and those holidaying in the area a visitor centre in a historic city is catering primarily for incoming tourists a historic house with a prized art collection targets art lovers and charges an above-average entrance fee to compensate for the restricted audience. Gather as much information as you can about the primary target audience for your chosen tourism business or organisation, including, for example, details such as their socio-economic characteristics. Note Look again at the questions above. Would you know where to find answers for them? Make a note of any that you are not sure about and raise them in class with your teacher and other class members:

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Information

Lessons 9 & 10

Market research finding out about your existing customers Customer surveys Conducting customer surveys is the most effective method of getting hard statistical data on your present customers, i.e. their characteristics and their opinions; but before you go to the time and trouble of conducting a survey, make sure that you are going to use the results to inform your marketing/development strategy. In a travel agency it is very easy to obtain information about your actual and potential customers. Each time a customer makes an enquiry even if they dont follow through and book a holiday/flight etc, it is usual practice to ask for a name, address, contact number and how much the person would like to spend, thus creating a rich database. Here is a list of the sort of information you should seek from a customer survey: what kind of people are coming into your organisation (age, background, etc.) where they come from whether they are on holiday, day visitors or locals why they are coming which member of the party most wanted to come how they heard about you whether they have been before how long they stayed how much money they spent or would like to spend how satisfied they were best/worst aspects of the customer exchange whether they are likely to return whether they would recommend the organisation to others what other travel and tourism organisations they have visited in the area

At www.scotexchange.net there is a link to a page entitled know your market. Spend some time studying the information at this site and make notes in the space below about how tourism businesses are encouraged to find out more about the people they are hoping to attract.

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OHT/Handout Market research Purpose To

Lessons 9 & 10

Outcome 1

find out about: your product/service and customer attitudes to it your customers themselves market trends your competitors how effective your marketing is.

Types: quantitative provides statistical information in response to Who, What, Where, When, How type questions; e.g. numbers of customers, revenue generated from different ancillary products/services, the proportion of customers with children, the numbers of people who live outside the immediate area as distinct from local residents, how far customers travel to buy your product. provides information about attitudes and opinions about your product in response to Why type questions, e.g. reasons/motivation for visiting a particular place or purchasing a particular product, opinions on value for money, likes and dislikes direct from the marketplace, e.g. by customer survey, customer comments forms, observation, staff feedback secondary sources, e.g. internal records, research carried out for/by other organisations, e.g. ABTA, Travel Trade National and Area Tourist Offices. WWW.

qualitative

primary secondary

Methods: customer surveys and self-completion questionnaires visitors books and customer comments forms observation feedback from frontline staff focus groups mystery shopper desk research.

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Student Activity Market research: Visitor surveys Congratulations!

Homework

Outcome 1

You have been appointed as Marketing Assistant at a local historic house. Now for the bad news Your boss tells you that although visitor numbers to the local area have risen over the last two years, the figures for the house have shown a slight decrease. You decide to carry out some market research to find out what you can do to reverse this trend. Your job is to draw up a questionnaire of not more than 12 questions to find out about your customers and the effectiveness of your current marketing strategy. Work with a partner and be prepared to explain why you think that the responses you get to these questions will provide you with information which will be helpful to the attraction.

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 11 & 12

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 1 Pricing and promotion Objectives :
1. Compare the admission or product/service prices of two travel and tourism organisations, and identify factors which would determine how the prices are set. Identify rates other than the normal admission/product/service rate/price, which might apply. Identify and evaluate a selection of promotional techniques used by the same two organisations.

2. 3.

This exercise should be done in conjunction with the homework sheet on Pricing Stage 2.

Resources
Handouts OHTs Student activity sheets Leaflets/ads to supplement students own materials

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Teachers Notes

Lessons 11 & 12

Outcome 1

Students will have done initial work in finding out prices charged by travel and tourism organisations, or they may be given the whole task to do prior to the class scheduled to cover the topic of Pricing. This would be the preferred approach, in order to leave the maximum amount of time to be spent on Promotion, which is weightier in terms of content. Price can then be completed fairly quickly with student feedback concentrating on the factors determining the setting of admission prices followed by brief teacher input and summing up. Promotion will draw on materials collected by the students themselves, and on promotional techniques identified from visits, speakers, case studies and background reading, some of which can be issued in advance. The activities can be tackled in a number of ways Q & A, in groups, as homework, brainstorming, etc.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 11 & 12 Outcome 1

Pricing Factors affecting pricing: type of product, e.g. holiday the USP (Unique Selling Point) services provided overheads what competitors charge what the market will bear seasonal variations the target market, i.e. different prices for different customer categories life cycle of the product/service, i.e. is it new, established, out of fashion, etc. Note Setting the price too low can be just as damaging as making it too high. You may give out the wrong message about the quality of the product/service. People tend to be suspicious of products which seem too cheap.

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Student Activity Pricing Stage 2:

Homework

Outcome 1

Compare the prices of the two travel and tourism organisations/ products or services you and others have found. 1. Are the prices similar for similar types of products or services? Explain why they are, or are not, around the same price level.

2.

Is the price higher where there are more staff available to deal with customers?

3.

Is there a range of prices offered by the travel and tourism organisations, and if so how are the prices set?

Some factors determining pricing strategies: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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Information

Homework

Pricing When is a child not a child?! Using the information you have already collected about various travel and tourism organisations, note in the space below any special price considerations that are given to children. Make a note of the upper/lower age limits for children, set by the organisations, which affect the price paid. Are there any similarities between organisations, which allow you to draw conclusions about who should be considered a child? Or does each organisation have its own policies about the definition of children by age? Would you say that companies who operate differently from others in terms of childrens prices are marketing oriented? If so, why?

If not, why not?

Comments on ages and prices charged for children:

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 13 & 14

Outcome 1

Promotion Purposes: to inform to raise awareness to remind to aid decision making to stimulate demand.

Types Print Advertising e.g. leaflets, posters, brochures trade and consumer brochures and guide books press TV & radio articles, press releases not paid for by the company direct mail, e.g. competitions, events, open days, special entry offers, e.g. 2 for 1

Exhibitions

Public Relations Special Promotions

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 13 & 14

Outcome 1

Promotion Assessing the effectiveness of promotional leaflets: Length Visual impact Clarity do you know immediately what it is about? is it easy to find the information you need, e.g. about location, opening times, etc? Does it sell the benefits of visiting/using the service to the target audience? Is there an obvious Unique Selling Point? Is the style user friendly? Will it attract create promote generate Attention Interest Desire Action?

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 13 & 14

Outcome 1

Promotion PR Public Relations Types of PR activity used in travel and tourism Press releases To draw attention to favourable news events (real or created for publicity purposes), or to combat unfavourable publicity arising from unexpected events such as food poisoning on cruise ships. To announce new products, changes or developments; also used for annual reports. To influence and lobby targeted guests with particular messages about opportunities or problems perceived by an organisation. To draw general attention to a product or an organisations name. For example ghost weekends at historic hotels, or mock battles by costumed soldiers at historic sites; these can be used to create media interest. Arranged for TV and radio holiday programmes and travel journalists, especially to promote editorial comment.
Source: Marketing in Travel and Tourism , Middleton

Press launches

Receptions

Personality appearances Staged events

Product visits

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Student Activity Promotion Stage 1

Homework

Outcome 1

Find at least two examples of promotional literature leaflets, flyers, posters, etc. or advertisements for any tourism-related facility or activity. In your selection, there should be at least one ad or piece of print which you think is particularly effective, and one which you think could be improved. Be prepared to explain why!

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Student Activity

Lessons 15 & 16

Outcome 1

Promotion: Effectiveness of print and advertising Stage 2 Group Activity In your group, discuss the effectiveness or otherwise of the materials you have selected. In doing this, you will need to consider things such as: the purpose of the print/ad its impact, e.g. length, clarity, attractiveness, message, information, visual appeal the target market the distribution channels used. Appoint a spokesperson who will present your groups assessment of the main points to consider when producing promotional literature or placing advertising, using the examples you have brought to illustrate your findings. Print Materials Reasons why effective Reasons why not effective

Ads Reasons why effective Reasons why not effective

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Student Activity Promotion: Advertising

Lessons 15 & 16 Outcome 1

The travel and tourism organisation that you work for has given you a budget for advertising. Working in pairs, identify what factors you would need to take into account when deciding where to place the advertising messages. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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LESSON PLANS

Student Activity Promotion: Special Promotions

Homework

Outcome 1

Advertising is probably what springs to mind first when you think about promotion. But just as promotion is only one part of the marketing mix, so advertising is only one part of the promotional mix and there are many other techniques involved. Other than by advertising or distributing an annual leaflet, consider how you might tackle the following: Objective Ensure that more people visiting nearby travel and tourism businesses also visit yours Possible technique

Promote a special event

Launch a new development in your organisation

Attract more local residents

Attract more holiday visitors

Increase the number of repeat visits

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Information

Lessons 15 & 16

Outcome 1

Promotion: Marketing groups and consortia An effective means of promoting a travel and tourism business may be through joining, or taking the initiative to set up, a specialist marketing group. Case Studies Student Activity Access the VisitScotland website at visitscotland.com Try and find examples of companies that have got together in order to maximise sales and provide a quality service for a range of customer groups. Or, You may wish to find out about the developments within the travel trade, e.g. tour operator mergers, travel agents linking with other companies to provide a one-stop shop for customers. Record your findings in the space below:

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LESSON PLANS

Information Promotion: Special promotions

Homework

Outcome 1

Discount vouchers offering say 15 per cent off prices, or preferably a money-equivalent coupon, such as off, are commonly used by travel and tourism businesses in conjunction with one full-price adult fare, but only at off-peak times or when the company is developing the season. Discounts and season tickets can also be useful incentives in attracting local residents to make repeat visits. As well as getting the money they spend each time on items, this technique can promote valuable goodwill in the community. Discount schemes can also operate as part of a joint campaign with other travel and tourism organisations. List here other types of special promotions that you can think of:

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OHT/Handout Promotion

Lessons 15 & 16

Outcome 1

The principal marketing campaign techniques used in travel and tourism Paid-for media advertising Includes TV, press, radio, www internet and outdoor. Also includes tourist office and other travel-related guides, books and brochures which accept advertising. Including general sales literature or print items specifically designed for the purpose. All media exposure achieved as editorial matter, not paid for as advertising space. Also influence over target groups. An alternative form of media for specific target groups. Important alternative forms of distribution and display for reaching retail, wholesale and consumer target groups. Via meetings, telephone contact, workshops. Primarily aimed at distributors and intermediaries purchasing for groups of consumers. Especially promotional brochures and other print used in a servicing role. Short-term incentives offered as inducements to purchase, including temporary product augmentation. Covers sales force and distribution network as well as consumers. A common form of sales promotion; includes extra commissions and bonuses for retailers.

Direct mail/door-todoor distribution Public relations (PR)

Sponsorship

Exhibitions, shows or workshops

Personal selling

Sales literature

Sales promotion

Price discounting

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Point-of-sale displays and merchandising

Posters, window dressing, displays of brochures and other materials both of a regular and temporary incentive kind. Ways to motivate and facilitate distributor networks through product sampling. Also used to reach and influence journalists.

Familiarisation and educational trips

Distribution networks Organised systems or channels through which and commission prospective customers achieve access to products; includes computerised links between principals and distributors.
Source: Marketing in Travel and Tourism, Middleton

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 15 & 16

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 1 and 3 consolidation/extension Objectives :
1. Apply knowledge of promotional techniques to a business situation (continued from last lesson). Apply marketing knowledge to a case study (where appropriate). Explore marketing issues and approaches used by a range of tourism businesses.

2. 3.

Resources
www.scotexchange.net Scottish Thistle Awards

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Teachers Notes Consolidation

Lessons 15 & 16

Outcome 1

Consolidation and/or extension exercises involve the application of marketing principles, using exemplars of marketing practice from www.scotexchange.net at the Scottish Thistle Awards link page. This website will have been accessed while dealing with other topics during the course and the students are advised to select another business from the one(s) they have previously studied.

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Student Activity

Consolidation/Homework

Outcome 1

Promotion: Planning a promotional strategy Working with a partner, draft an appropriate promotional strategy for one of the following. In addition to identifying appropriate promotional techniques, explain briefly how the business might benefit from joining the local Area Tourist Office and identify at least one other organisation it might be helpful to contact. the launch of a new health-and-fitness centre in an upmarket city centre hotel which will offer private and corporate membership the new season at a historic house which, in addition to the normal tours of the house, is available as a venue for private functions, small meetings and conferences, receptions, etc. a woollen mill which has decided to target domestic coach tour operators day trippers holidaymakers staying in and around the local area local residents

a country house hotel which specialises in short breaks in autumn and spring and festive breaks at New Year a brand new attraction aimed at families rides, nature trails, etc. and close to many other attractions which, though different, cater for the same market a multi-activity centre which also has some self-catering accommodation any other new development in your area.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 17 & 18

All Outcomes

Marketing support Who can help? VisitScotland ATOs ASVA LECs Market research companies Advertising agencies Marketing consultants Designers/printers

How can they help? advice publications representation marketing opportunities and initiatives referrals (e.g. through TICs) training professional expertise, e.g. marketing planning, print design and distribution, etc.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 17 & 18

Consolidation

Marketing support Example VisitScotland marketing support: promotion through VisitScotland publications and campaigns and websites mainstream seasonal campaigns, e.g. Autumn Gold, Festive & Winter Breaks, Spring into Summer promotion through STB/Scotexchange.co.uk website access to mailing lists opportunity to exhibit at UK and overseas trade and consumer exhibitions organised by Visitscotland access to research, marketing and business development advice possibility of inclusion in press/trade visits programmes Signpost newsletter to keep up to date with national tourism issues opportunity for membership of appropriate STB Quality Assurance Scheme For further information on specific marketing activity see VisitScotlands guides: Marketing Opportunities Opportunity Scotland (Overseas)

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Teacher Information Marketing support Example

Lessons 17 & 18

All Outcomes

Some typical benefits of Area Tourist Office membership: Note At the time of writing, the structure and organisation of membership is under review and teachers are advised to check current details at: visitscotland/scotexchange.net website and the appropriate link pages. promotion through ATO publications promotion through TICs direct to visitors via staff through leaflet/poster display by taking display space representation at trade/public exhibitions opportunity to participate in specific marketing initiatives bulk purchase/negotiated discounts for members access to research, marketing and business development advice possibility of inclusion in press/trade educational visits programmes regular newsletters to keep up to date with tourism issues in the area and ATO activities and opportunities contact with other members from all sectors of the industry e.g. annual gathering of members to meet with representatives from VisitScotland to ask questions and share experiences within the industry. Try to find out what membership benefits your local Area Tourist Office offers. This information may be available in school/college, or you may nominate one person to contact the ATO for the information.

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Student Activity

Homework

Outcomes 1 & 3

Consolidation/Extension work Read the attached short extract, and using the concept of the marketing mix, identify how individual components of the mix might have been altered in order to reverse the downturn in business which the attraction had lately experienced. In addition to the ideas put forward in the extract, suggest some of your own ideas about possible changes. Maddington Hall: Manipulating the marketing mix to revitalise a product Marketing is about selecting strategies which are either designed to counteract threats, or to take advantage of opportunities in the marketplace. If you remember the four Ps of marketing, you will realise that the action a firm can take is limited to one of four areas: it can alter the product, the price, the promotional campaign, or the place (where and how the product can be bought). Maddington Hall Maddington Hall is an English stately home open to the public between Easter and the end of October each year. It is not a major visitor attraction, but has the appeal of a smaller home which has been in the hands of the present family for over three hundred years. It has historical connections with the English Civil War, and prior to that was the home of a leading member of Queen Elizabeth Is court. There are also links with the USA through the settling of some members of the family at the beginning of the eighteenth century in New Jersey. The house has attracted over 20,000 visitors a year, but in recent years the pattern has shown a steady decline: Entrants to Maddington Hall, 198394 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 27 27 26 20 21 22 300 (peak year) 120 580 084 312 033 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 22 18 18 18 18 18 441 256 002 334 457 448

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The decline in 1986, and the sharp downturn in 1990 and 1991 were attributed to the fall-off in American visitors in those years. The combination of recession, the Gulf War and poor spring weather in Britain held domestic visits down in 1991. Moreover, there was no compensating increase in visitors from EU countries, especially Germany, in spite of a steady increase in European visitors to Britain, nor did the house benefit from the general increase in domestic summer visitors to visitor attractions following a good summer. More worrying, however, has been the relatively static market that the attraction had experienced in the previous three years: the house is clearly not recovering in spite of a slow but persistent recovery in the economy as a whole. This failure to pick up in the mid-1990s is of particular concern. Source: Marketing for Tourism, Holloway and Robinson Management faces the following choices. It can spend more money on advertising; but income from the house is barely enough to pay for upkeep and running costs, and the budget for promotion is very low. Because of the diversity of the market, it would be unrealistic to try to advertise directly to overseas visitors, and much of the budget is spent on publishing a leaflet which is left in hotels and other places frequented by visitors. Attempts to interest coach operators and tour operators to include the house in packages have been unsuccessful, as the hall is not seen by the trade as sufficiently interesting in itself to attract a market. It could lower the entry price, but it is believed that this would result in a fall in revenue as the increase in numbers attracted would be insufficient to make up for lost revenue. It could even increase the price, if it is believed that the added revenue will more than offset the fall in visitors. It could also consider ways in which the product could be made more attractive to a wider market. For example, it could seek additional revenue by becoming more commercial adding tearooms, souvenir shops or other revenue-producing facilities, or staging events such as the re-enactment of Civil War battles or jousting tournaments to attract larger crowds on specific days of the year. If willing, the owner could arrange to preside over candle-lit dinners for exclusive groups of visitors who would be willing to pay for the privilege of meeting him and his family (particularly if titled). Some of these activities would need considerable capital expenditure, requiring a bank loan or other means of raising funds. Management would have to consider seriously whether this expense would result in a big enough increase in attendance to ensure profitability.

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Finally, ways could be considered of improving the distribution, for example, by identifying specialist tour operators abroad who could be interested in marketing the attraction, or by joining a consortium of other attractions in the region, or a group of stately homes who would produce a joint leaflet reaching a wider audience. Whatever decision is made, it needs to be seriously thought through and researched. Each choice would need to be considered on its own merits.
Source: Marketing for Tourism , Holloway and Robinson

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LESSON PLANS

Student Activity Consolidation

Homework

Outcomes 1 & 3

Marketing approaches used by tourism businesses in Scotland The Camera Obscura: Read the managers SWOT analysis. What do you think his priorities will be? How would you approach the weaknesses highlighted in italics? Nearby attractions are listed as both opportunities and threats why do you think this is? How might the manager take advantage of the opportunities he identified?

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SWOT Analysis of the Camera Obscura Homework/Consolidation


Strengths a unique and original product live show can adapt to the needs of different audiences e.g. old and young 40 minutes visit time see the whole city without walking anywhere great location near Edinburgh Castle 1m people passing the door well known and well established historic building brilliant rooftop views of the city free use of good telescopes good interpretative panels on rooftop old photographs interesting to many visitors great shop spacious, good variety, good value, good quality, something for everyone at a wide range of price points knowledgeable staff good staff retention, recruitment and training resulting in good customer service variety of product mix means the centre appeals to a reasonably wide market foreign language translations + visual product = attractive to overseas visitors

Reference for Outcome 3 All Outcomes


Weaknesses weather dependency many potential visitors are turned away camera presentation is in English only, although a lot of our visitors are foreign exhibitions look rather amateurish good holograms not displayed or presented to best advantage too many for the space, and interpretation is poor name Camera Obscura is confusing many visitors dont know what we are very hard to describe the visitor experience to potential visitors many are put off by the explanation poor signage and inadequate descriptions of Camera Obscura and its purpose logo and signage lacking in style and uniformity price perceived as high by many visitors, especially after they have just spent lots of money at the Castle scruffy building, old-fashioned decor, lighting and poor carpets in some areas, shop fittings old, layout inflexible due to age of building entrance is old fashioned no toilets no lift many people put off, especially the elderly no disabled access limited capacity groups can dominate resulting in loss of higher-price ticket sales as individual visitors not willing to wait cars and delivery vehicles make life difficult for pedestrians dependence on passing trade

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SWOT Analysis of the Camera Obscura Homework/Consolidation


Opportunities additional space in adjacent buildings location is on the busiest tourist route in the city top of Royal Mile, next to the Castle Scottish Parliament nearby other attractions nearby, e.g. St Giles Cathedral, National Galleries of Scotland Edinburgh Festival Centre in Tolbooth Kirk is adjacent city information guides, walking tours, tour buses always in the vicinity ATO initiatives, e.g. Hogmanay, efforts to bring in more yearround leisure visitors

Reference for Outcome 3 All Outcomes


Threats local planning regulations restrict signage possibilities worldwide threat of recession affecting tourism as a whole continuing strength of the pound will affect overseas visitors weather competition from recently opened attractions: Britannia, new Museum of Scotland, Dynamic Earth, Edinburgh Festival Centre in Tolbooth Kirk, the Scottish Parliament, continuing development of the Castle other competition: walking tours, bus tours, nearby attractions, London, e.g. the London Eye

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Camera Obscura proposed changes to marketing mix Consolidation/Extension Outcome 1

Here are some of the Managers ideas to capitalise on strengths and eliminate or minimise some of the weaknesses he identified: Product improve signage improve foyer area to create a better first impression more up to date, spacious, welcoming and bright. Possibly wide-screen TV in foyer giving a taster of what can be seen in the Camera and rooftop areas shop change layout toilets upgrade for use by members of the public who ask for them alternative show/entertainment for days of poor visibility more interactive and dynamic exhibitions staff in costume more focus on the history of the building and the Camera Obscura Price No price increase in 2005 Offer a half-price ticket for the Outlook Tower only as a means of increasing visitor numbers, and to cater for visitors on a budget and with limited time Promotion coordinate all posters/ads/signs/notepaper use local radio to promote Camera Obscura on fine days personal selling promote Outlook Tower experience in the shop special promotions half-price tickets to local corporate market for employees off season advertising in local free newspapers to residents off season seek sponsorship internet advertising opportunities travel trade own database for direct mail, Scotland Groups Guide, etc. maintain existing promotions mix, e.g. Camera Obscura leaflet ATO membership and inclusion in main brochure, Essential Guide to Edinburgh, voucher scheme, website, short breaks brochure Landmark Press Welcome to Edinburgh/Scotland leaflets, Edinburgh and Glasgow bedroom folders, Schools folder. Place promotional materials in places and at times when frequented by visitors TICs, accommodation providers, other attractions, etc.

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Information Support Organisations:

All Outcomes

Association of Scottish Visitor Attractions (ASVA) The Association of Scottish Visitor Attractions is a trade organisation established by visitor attractions themselves in 1988. Its aims are to encourage members through cooperation to raise standards and improve the viability of their operations. As a key activity towards achieving these aims, ASVA introduced an inspection scheme for attractions, which looked at everything from signposting, car parking and the state of the toilets to interpretation and customer service. The scheme played an important development and marketing role, giving operators the opportunity to benefit from an objective appraisal of their attraction and to receive advice and guidance following the inspection. This scheme has now been taken over by VisitScotland but ASVA is still active in providing advice to attractions operators. The organisation currently employs an Administrator and a Development Officer who can be contacted by members for practical help and advice on a wide range of issues, produces self-help publications for members on topics such as retailing, interpretation, catering and marketing, and organises seminars focusing on issues of importance to members. Past seminars have focused on customer service, marketing, foreign languages, interpretation, etc. Area Tourist Offices (ATOs) ATOs are a vital support organisation for travel and tourism businesses in the particular area served by the board. In addition to their role and efforts in marketing the area as a whole, ATOs can offer specific marketing support to their members. Membership benefits may include: inclusion in ATO publications joint mailing opportunities representation or joint attendance at holiday and travel fairs source of marketing advice and research data promotion through TICs promotion through ATO bedroom browser packs supplied to accommodation in the area opportunities for inclusion in PR visits subsidised staff training opportunities bulk purchase agreements. Contact your local ATO for information on further membership benefits.

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VisitScotland Although not a membership-based organisation, VisitScotland can offer similar help and advice to travel and tourism businesses on a national scale. Marketing advice and participation in joint marketing activities such as exhibitions and inclusion in publications are typical opportunities. Local Enterprise Companies (LECs) Training advice and opportunities, e.g. Welcome Host, IiP (Investors in People), Scotlands Best. Advice on funding for new developments and financial assistance in some cases.

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LESSON PLANS

Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Examination Preparation

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: All Outcomes Objectives :
1. 2. Recall Quiz covering key elements of the Outcomes 1 and 3. Question and answer review of learning and preparation for work on final Report.

Resources
Quiz Report guidelines

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Teachers Notes

Consolidation

Examination Preparation

The quiz can be done orally with the class group divided into teams, allowing immediate clarification/expansion of points as required.

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Student Activity Consolidation Quiz Oral

All Outcomes

The quiz is used to prepare students for compiling the report covering all outcomes. The class can be divided into small teams of 3 or 4. Each team may be asked to devise a number of questions to put to the other groups. These can be supplemented by the teacher using the following and similar questions covering the outcome. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Give a definition of marketing. What are the Four Ps? Explain the Four Ps with reference to a given travel and tourism organisation. What is meant by market or customer orientation? What is the difference between marketing and selling? SWOT what is it? What basic factor usually distinguishes strengths and weaknesses from opportunities and threats? Name three sources of marketing support for travel and tourism organisations. What opportunities do they offer the business? What is ASVA and what is its role? Describe three ways that marketing tourism products differs from marketing consumer goods. Name three possible market segments that a travel and tourism organisation might target. Explain three factors that might affect the level at which prices are set. List as many promotional techniques as you can. Give four reasons why spending on advertising can be money down the drain. What is the purpose of market research? Name three ways tourism businesses carry out research. What is PR and give an example? What is a USP?

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 19 & 20

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 2 PCs a, b and c Customer Service Pricing and promotion Objectives :
1. 2. Introduction to Outcome 2 objectives Customer service: feedback from visits/Welcome Host recall (if appropriate) Customer service case study Preparation for visit objectives tasks arrangements

3. 4.

Resources
Students own customer service notes from first visit Case studies + student activity sheet Handout Visit worksheets and instructions

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Teachers Notes

Lessons 19 & 20

Outcome 2

Discussion on customer service draws on the first visit and students should provide feedback on the customer service elements highlighted on the visits sheets. A visit to a travel and tourism provider (preferably a TIC or a travel agency) should take place during the delivery of this outcome and the information gained during the visit should be analysed. This will allow students to practise analysing information in a way that will assist in the final assessment. They should pay particular attention to the various customer groups who visit the organisation. Once again, it is important that they understand the objectives of the visit and what they are expected to learn from it. Teachers should go through the visit sheet with students to explain how it should be used and to ensure that students are comfortable with the objectives of the visit.

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 19 & 20

Outcome 2

Customer Service Aims: delighting not merely satisfying

Benefits: customer service is key to keeping ahead in an increasingly competitive marketplace where the products can be very similar lower staff turnover higher morale and loyalty lower absenteeism more satisfied customers = repeat business and recommendations

Initiatives to raise standards of customer service: Welcome Host Scotlands Best

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 19 & 20

Outcome 2

WELCOME HOST Quality of service must be provided at all levels in the industry to keep ahead of the competition and to reap the benefits which tourism produces for Scotlands economy. Benefits For organisations: higher standards of service both for visitors to the area and for local residents increased customer satisfaction leading to the opportunity for repeat business and increased profits a reduced level of complaints lower staff turnover low-cost/high-impact training programme for frontline staff For employees: an opportunity to acquire new customer-service, communication and interpersonal skills increased knowledge of local facilities and services for visitors enhanced confidence in dealing with visitors increased job satisfaction For the tourism industry in Scotland and for local communities: higher standards of service for both visitors and residents favourable word-of-mouth recommendations from satisfied customers and an increase in repeat business increased spending by visitors longer stay in the community
Source: (Welcome Host)

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 19 & 20

Outcome 2

SCOTLANDS BEST A quality service programme aimed at staff, supervisors and management. Benefits Scotlands Best is designed to: improve overall standards of performance improve recruitment and retention of good staff motivate both management and staff to practise and sustain excellent standards of customer service create an atmosphere of professionalism throughout the organisation increase sales from improved personal selling
Source: Scotlands Best Management Programme

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Student Activity Customer Service

Homework

Outcome 2

Individually or in groups, consider the questions below, prior to discussion in class. Questions 1. With reference to one of the Thistle Award-winning businesses,* you have studied, explain how investment in staff training in customer service can directly affect business success. Identify the training initiatives mentioned which are directly linked to customer service. In what way is staff training in customer service a marketing issue? What are the likely results of poor standards of customer service to tourism businesses? Describe two specific examples of good customer service which have impressed you, and any which have not, in your own experience as a customer. Include places visited as part of coursework if you have participated in any out-of-school/college visits to tourism facilities.

2.

3.

4.

5.

* Case study from: VisitScotland Scottish Thistle Award Winners

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What is customer service?

Handout

Lesson 21 & 22

We begin by considering what customer service is all about. After reading this section you should be able to: define what is meant by the term customer service explain why customer service is important to travel and tourism businesses explain what is involved in providing customer service state who benefits from the provision of customer service. Its very likely that you will have heard the term customer service many times before, but just exactly what do we mean by it?

Take a few minutes to think about customer service and what it means to you. Jot your ideas down in the space below. Next try to come up with a definition of customer service and insert it below.

Ideas on customer service:

Definition of customer service:

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So, what did you come up with? Is customer service all about smiling at the customer and saying have a nice day? Or do you think its more than this? Well, certainly, it is important to smile and generally be pleasant to the customer. As customers ourselves we appreciate friendly, polite staff. We should remember this when we are on the other side of the counter! (Have a nice day may not be your phrase of choice you can substitute something more to your taste as required!) However, if the room is dirty, the room service didnt arrive and the bill is wrong, will smiling make up for it and make the customer feel valued? Probably not. There is no one definition of customer service, but listed below are some of the things which you may have included in your definition: Customer service is: all the activities involved in providing a high level of service consistently to our customers about meeting customer expectations part of an organisational philosophy a means of product differentiation a marketing tool. Lets take a look at each of these in turn: Customer service is all the activities involved in providing a high level of service consistently to our customers. This definition highlights that there are many elements involved in providing customer service. It is important that we get each of them right in order to provide a good service for our customers. It is the combination of attention to detail in everything that we do for the customers that will result in customer service. A key word in this definition is consistently. Good customer service is not about delivering excellent service once. It is about providing such service on a regular basis, as a matter of course.

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Customer service is about meeting customer expectations. In order to be able to meet our customers expectations, we must first of all know what they are. Only with this information will we be able to attempt to meet them. We will look at the expectations of the customer in the travel and tourism context later in this pack. Customer service is part of an organisational philosophy. What this means is that everyone within an organisation has a part to play in delivering customer service. Its not just the frontline staff and its certainly not just the Customer Service department. Everyone must do their part in order to deliver a high quality of service to the customer, or in other words, it must be part of the overall attitude or philosophy of the organisation. Well look at this in more detail when we look at the concept of the internal customer. Customer service is a means of product differentiation. Competition within the tourism industry is fierce. In order to attract customers to come to your business rather than go to another business, it is necessary to make your product stand out in some way (i.e. to differentiate your product from the others in the marketplace). There are many ways of doing this; you could, for instance, offer much lower prices than anyone else. Another way of differentiating your product is to provide superior customer service so that the quality of your service stands out from the competition. Customer service is a marketing tool. This refers back to an earlier point. A product which is differentiated from the competition should be much easier to market and achieve a high level of sales (and also possibly a higher price and increased profitability).

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Outcome 2

Handout

Lessons 21 & 22

Think of examples of good service from your own experience. Then go on to think of what it was that made the service good. Do the same for bad service and excellent service. Use the sheet on the next page to write down your examples.

Good service: The factors which made it good

Bad service: The factors which made it bad

Excellent service: The factors which made it excellent

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Did you find it easier to come up with examples of good/excellent service or bad service? Many people seem to find it easier to remember the bad experiences! Im not sure exactly what this proves maybe we just like to moan a lot but it certainly shows how important it is for tourism to make sure that the customer isnt given the opportunity to find something to moan about, because theyre not likely to forget! Take a look at the examples you have given, and particularly look at the factors that went to make up good or excellent service. What kinds of things were these? Were they very difficult things for the businesses concerned to provide for you, the customer, or were they relatively simple things? Often its the small things that count, the attention to detail like remembering what you usually order to drink or offering toys or crayons to amuse the children. Customer service doesnt always have to involve doing really difficult things. And yet so many organisations fail to get it right. In this second outcome of the Unit, well look at the kind of things we can do to make each customer experience at least a good one and hopefully an excellent one. Why is customer service important in travel and tourism?

Take a few minutes to think about this question. Why do you think that customer service is particularly important within the travel and tourism industry? Write your thoughts in the space below.

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One reason that customer service is particularly important in travel and tourism is that this industry is service based; so the service element makes up a large part of the product on offer. This makes it vitally important to provide excellent customer service which will result in a high quality of service and product. Also, tourism is vitally important to the economy of the region in which its based. This is certainly the case in Scotland.


1. 2.

Test your knowledge of the importance of tourism to Scotland by answering the questions below.

How many domestic tourist trips are made in Scotland each year?

How much do these domestic tourists spend in total each year?

3.

How many overseas visitors come to Scotland each year?

4.

How much do these overseas visitors spend in total each year?

5.

What is the total revenue earned from tourism in Scotland each year?

6.

How many people are employed in Scottish tourism businesses?

If you had difficulty answering these questions, then refer to VisitScotlands latest statistics card. If you dont have a copy of the card, you can obtain it at www.scotexchange.net A look at the latest figures should convince you that tourism is vitally important to the Scottish economy. It provides jobs for local people and brings revenue and foreign currency into the economy. We cannot afford to lose this injection of money into our economy, so it is vital that we ensure the future of the industry. One important way of

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achieving the continued success of the industry is to provide a high level of service to customers to ensure that they will return and spend more money and will tell friends to come too. Its also important to remember that as consumers we are ever more demanding. This is certainly true of tourists who have had excellent experiences in other countries of the world, perhaps the USA, and are therefore not prepared to accept lower standards of service. We must be able to compete with the best. The provision of high levels of customer service will help ensure that this is the case. Who benefits from good customer service?

Take a few minutes to think about who it is that benefits from the provision of good customer service. Write your answers below.

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The most obvious answer to this question is, of course, the customer. Customers are able to relax, enjoy the experience provided and generally have a good time. But they are not the only beneficiaries. Did you include benefits to staff on your list? Working in an organisation that prides itself on high levels of customer service is far more likely to provide staff with both job satisfaction and job security. The staff get satisfaction from a job well done and at the same time ensure that their job is more secure because visitors are likely to continue to come as a result of the good reputation of the business. The business itself will therefore benefit as well. Satisfied customers mean fewer complaints to deal with, a wider range of word-of-mouth recommendations and an enhanced reputation. All of these factors lead to more sustained business success. The travel and tourism industry, as we know, is vital to the local and national economy. The provision of high-quality levels of service will therefore lead to the continuing success of this sector and ensure continuing revenue injections at both local and national levels. It makes good sense to focus on customer service, for all the reasons outlined above. Thats why national customer service campaigns have been launched by agencies around the world. In Scotland, we have Welcome Host and Scotlands Best which aim to improve the level of customer service provided to visitors to Scotland.

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Self-assessment questions 1. What is customer service?

2.

Why is customer service important?

3.

How much revenue does tourism bring into Scotland each year?

4.

Who benefits from good customer service?

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Outcome 2 Meeting customer needs

Handout

Lessons 23 & 24

We have been looking at what customer service means and why it is important to meet our customers needs and fulfil their expectations. It is important to know, therefore, what the needs of the travel and tourism customer are.

List below the things that customers in travel and tourism need, want and expect. Start with tangible things like transport, etc. and then move on to elements of service. Think of what it is you need and expect from travel and tourism organisations when you are on holiday.

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Tourists need a variety of things including: a means of getting to their destination (transport) somewhere to stay (accommodation) somewhere to eat and drink (restaurants, bars, cafes, etc.) something to do (attractions, festivals, shops, etc.) information.

These are the basic requirements for our customers in travel and tourism. Businesses within the industry provide for these needs. Within the context of these businesses, customers expect: to be treated with courtesy to be made to feel welcome not to be kept waiting suitable levels of hygiene and safety the provision of accurate information.

It is imperative that staff in travel and tourism businesses at least meet customer expectations and preferably exceed them. Customers today expect more than they did in the past. We must always strive to continually improve levels of service to keep up with customer expectations.

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What do you think the level of customer service currently is within travel and tourism organisations, in the UK? Is it poor? Is it quite good? Is it improving? Is it getting worse? Give examples to back up your answers.

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Where do you anticipate levels of customer service will be in five years time? Will it be much improved? Worse?!

Give reasons for your answers.

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Hopefully, you dont believe that levels of customer service are too bad in the UK at the moment. It may be safe to say that we have made great strides in this country in the past decade or so. As mentioned previously, there are national initiatives designed to improve the levels of service we provide for our customers, and I believe that this, coupled with classification and registration schemes run by national tourist boards and others, has resulted in a general improvement in standards of service within this country. Also the various different customer charter schemes operated by rail companies, the public utility companies, etc., have made us more aware of our right to expect a certain level of service as consumers. The general climate, I would suggest, supports improvement in the area of customer service. If you dont agree, feel free to discuss your own experiences of customer service quality with your teacher. Of course, there is always room for improvement even when a business thinks it is offering the very highest levels of customer service. The challenge for the business then becomes maintaining the high standard at all times. As an industry, we must constantly strive to improve our standards of service to meet the changing demands of the marketplace. So, with the continuation of initiatives like Welcome Host, Scotlands Best, etc., and the introduction of new initiatives, levels of customer service should continue to improve over the years. But we cant afford to be complacent.

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Types of customers in travel and tourism

List below all the different types of customers that travel and tourism businesses must cater for. Start by looking at different types of domestic tourist, e.g. young families, those on touring holidays, etc.

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Different types of customers in travel and tourism include: leisure tourists business tourists those visiting friends and relatives international tourists domestic tourists day trippers conference organisers special interest groups (e.g. golfers, rugby supporters, etc.) young people families old people disabled people.

We can see from the above list (which is not exhaustive) that there are many different types of tourist that we must cater for. It is important for each travel and tourism business to build up a profile of its customers and their needs. Without this basic information it is impossible to provide a service to meet these needs.

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Handout Who are your customers? 1.

Lessons 23 & 24

Outcome 2

A Tourist Information Centre Goods in: Supplies of brochures and pamphlets, souvenirs and foreign currency

Information assistants

Souvenir shop staff

Bureau de Change staff

General public/ visitors

2.

A Theme Park Personnel/ Training Dept Supplier Finance Dept Supplier

Customer Shop Assistants Supplier

Customer Catering Dept Supplier

Customer Maintenance Dept Supplier

Visitors to the Park

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Handout

Lessons 23 & 24

Outcome 2

These examples demonstrate how goods or services are supplied to other departments, who, to all intents and purposes, are the customers of the suppliers of those goods or services. Departments are likely to be both suppliers and customers, internal customers. In the Theme Park example we see how the Personnel Department has several internal customers. It is just as important to meet the needs of the internal customer as it is to meet the needs of the external customer, since each is part of the customer service chain. If one link is weak, this will have a knock-on effect on the level of service delivered to the external customer. The link between quality customer service and marketing You should recognise the importance of treating customers well in travel and tourism. Members of staff are technically part of the travel and tourism product or service and therefore can make the difference when it comes to choosing products/services. The way a customer is treated will encourage him/her to talk about it to others and so provide free advertising. (This can be very damaging if the message is negative.) Staff will derive much job satisfaction from helping customers to enjoy themselves. Awkward customers Dealing with awkward or rude customers is one of the biggest challenges facing staff who work in travel and tourism businesses. You should receive training in this subject, and do not be afraid to ask for help from a more experienced member of staff. Do not be tempted ever to speak back to customers rudely or to make fun of them. There will be company guidelines for dealing with awkward customers and you will become a true professional if you can remain detached from rudeness. Do not take their rudeness personally and remain polite but firm throughout such a situation.

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Student Activity Visit 2 Visit to:

All Outcomes

Date:

Aims: to understand the aims and objectives of the travel and tourism organisation Outcome 3 to find out how customer service contributes to the achievement of the objectives of the organisation Outcome 2 to investigate evaluation and monitoring systems used within a travel and tourism organisation. All outcomes Specific Objectives: to discover aims and objectives of a travel and tourism business to observe best practice of customer service in the workplace to establish a link between the quality of customer service and the achievement of organisational aims and objectives to evaluate different methods of collecting information about customers needs and wants to identify examples of secondary data used in the industry for adapting products and services to customers needs and wants. Preparation: read through the visit sheet so that you know what you are looking for on arrival prepare any questions that you wish to ask. This facility has kindly agreed to allow us to visit as a tourism education initiative. Your responsibility is to demonstrate your enthusiasm by preparing well for the visit, and by showing interest and courtesy to the staff and management of the facility who are welcoming you to their workplace. This is part of a Scotland-wide collaboration between industry and education to raise awareness of how the tourism industry works. The continued cooperation of businesses such as the one we are going to visit will largely depend on the conduct and commitment of the students who participate. In the future you might even apply for a job here, so remember you never get a second chance to make a first impression!

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Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction Visit 2 Visit to: Type of facility: Objectives Organisation: Date: Location:

All Outcomes

Customer:

Services provided:

Market research Function Methods

Storage

Primary

Secondary

Communication

New product development

Frequency

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Customer Services 15, where 5 = Excellent Signposting Parking Foreign Languages Availability of Information Customer Service Skills Visitor Service Initiatives Child Friendly Waiting Time

Interpretation Provision for Disabled Range of Services

Occupational Skills

Appearance of Staff

e.g. Welcome Host, Scotlands Best, Mystery Shopper:

Other Notes

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 25 & 26 All Outcomes

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic : a Customer service b Organisational aims and objectives

Objectives :
1. 2. 3. Feedback from visit. Discussion and analysis of findings. Start to collate information collected.

Resources
Visit sheets Notes

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OHT/Handout

Lessons 25 & 26

Outcome 3

Suggested travel and tourism sectors/products/ services to be researched for completing the assessment report: TRANSPORT OPERATORS TOUR OPERATORS FOOD & DRINK OUTLETS (those particularly visited by tourists) LEISURE FACILITIES ACCOMMODATION PROVIDERS (all types should be considered, e.g. camping/caravanning, hotels, hostels, chalets) CITY BREAKS IN SCOTLAND (inbound tour operators) TOUR COMPANIES SHOPPING (speciality shopping) SCOTLAND FOR KIDS (companies which specialise in providing facilities for children) ACTIVITY HOLIDAY COMPANIES (e.g. golfing holidays) GENEALOGY (companies which specialise in this type of holiday) These or other themes may be selected by teachers as appropriate to local resources and available materials

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 25 & 26

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 3 Project brief Objectives :
1. 2. 3. 4. Understand the project brief. Discuss approaches to handling the project/report. Aims and objectives. Monitoring and evaluating.

Resources
OHTs/handouts Student activities Assessment instrument project report

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Student Activity

Lessons 25 & 26

Outcome 3

The SWOT analysis introduced earlier in the pack should be discussed in detail during these lessons. O3 Project Planner To organise your work, it may help to lay out a time plan of all the stages of the project, starting with the date when you will write up the project report and working back from there. This will help you to think through not only how to approach the detail of the project but also to check your progress as you go along. A planning sheet is attached for this purpose. You might include stages such as: Desk Research (being specific about what research you need to carry out, e.g. practical support available from trade/public sector organisations) (being specific about the objectives of fieldwork, e.g. observation for SWOT analysis, establishing product mix, etc.) (being specific about the objectives)

Fieldwork

Meetings Tutorials, etc.

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Project Planner Activity Write up report Complete Actual on/by (date) completion

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Information/Handout Setting Objectives

Lessons 27 & 28

Outcome 3

All businesses have aims and objectives. Sometimes these are written down in a business plan and sometimes they exist in the owners head! It is always a good idea to write them down! Only by defining your objectives can you put together a coherent mix of the marketing variables: price, place, promotion and products after all, if you dont know what you are aiming for, how can you implement an appropriate and relevant course of action? Aims and objectives are often mentioned in the same breath, but they are slightly different. Aims are more general and all embracing, e.g. the aim of a visitor centre in an area of natural beauty might be: to provide a facility which will inform and educate visitors about conservation of the natural environment. The main aim of a historic attraction might be: to conserve a historic building and its contents. Objectives are more specific and work towards the achievement of these aims, e.g. increase use of the facility by educational groups finance conservation and other essential maintenance projects by opening the building to paying visitors attract 20,000 paying visitors in year 1 increase the number of tour companies visiting the site increase sales in the gift shop by 15 per cent over the next 2 years develop use of the facility as a venue for meetings and receptions. Having taken stock of your current position in terms of where your business is at, who your customers are and what they think of the services you offer, why people dont come, potential markets and business opportunities as well as any constraints, you should be in a position to list some objectives that you can work towards. Your objectives must be SMART, i.e.: specific measurable achievable relevant time-based.

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Monitoring and evaluation We have considered ways of monitoring and evaluating the level of customer service offered within a travel and tourism organisation, but we must also look at ways of monitoring our aims and objectives. It is easier to measure individual SMART objectives than to make a judgement about whether we have achieved our overall aim. We have to assume that, in achieving objectives, the aims will also be achieved. Measuring the achievement of objectives Let us return to an example of a SMART business objective, discussed earlier in the course. To increase revenue by 5 per cent during the season 2004-2005 At first this looks easy enough to measure, i.e. we wait until the end of the season, count everything and calculate whether we did increase revenue. However it is not that simple because we have to identify the sources of revenue, and ensure that an 8 per cent increase in one area is not masking a decline in revenue in another area. We must therefore find ways of monitoring all the activities included in generating revenue and devise a way of monitoring each of these activities. For example: Promotional activity Advertising in a local newspaper is intended to increase awareness and sales of a particular travel product. The company must devise a way of analysing customer demand during the period following the advertisement, to see how effective the advertisement was.

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Special offer What mechanisms would let us know if the special offer had the desired effect of increasing sales? The company must put these measures in place at the same time as the special offer takes place in order to discover if the money was well spent. Customer satisfaction We have discussed the importance of quality customer service and we know how important this is in travel and tourism organisations, but how do we measure customer satisfaction? Many companies use some or all of the following methods: customer satisfaction forms suggestion boxes mystery shopper complaints analysis.

But there are other less formal ways of measuring performance and the achievement of objectives. Working in pairs, try to identify ways in which a company might be able to tell that business is good, staff are happy and getting job satisfaction, and that the company is well thought of throughout the travel and tourism sector. (Or the reverse.) Overleaf you will find some suggestions.

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Less formal ways of monitoring performance and the achievement of objectives. Lack of staff absences and lateness Staff generating new ideas Morale and motivation in the workplace Lack of staff turnover Involvement of staff in decision making Hearing good things about the company outside the workplace

In the space below note the ways in which the organisation you visited, monitored how it achieved performance levels and objectives.

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Information/student activity

Lessons 27 & 28

Outcome 3

Camera Obscura Aims and objectives Company aims The main aim of the parent company is to set up and operate commercially viable visitor attractions.* These attractions should be interesting and enjoyable places to visit that maintain high standards of service in all departments and provide a pleasant and rewarding environment in which to work. As part of the company, Camera Obscuras aim is to meet or exceed our profit target by being one of the most enjoyable and interesting visitor attractions in Scotland, for all ages, working towards business excellence in all areas. * Camera Obscura is one of three attractions owned by Landmark the other two are the Landmark Centre at Carrbridge, and Inveraray Jail. Some Specific Objectives for 2005/2006 might be: Admissions 10 per cent rise in monthly admissions. 13 per cent increase in income. Shop Increase shop sales by 8 per cent. Markets Increase visitor numbers from current markets and target new markets. Customer service Offer top-quality service to all our customers, making all visitors feel genuinely welcome. Staffing Recruit and retain high-quality staff and follow best practice in facilitating their development to meet the needs of the business. Task: Look again at the Objectives above. Could you make any of these more specific? Remember that the company will eventually want to measure their performance against these objectives.

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Information/Handout Student Activity

Outcome 3 Lessons 27 & 28

Select a travel and tourism business known to you. Suggest what its main aim(s) might be.

In order to increase levels of business and income, suggest what some of its specific objectives might be:

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 29 & 30

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 3 Project Objectives :
1. 2. Agree project theme with teacher/tutor. Plan the work to be carried out to complete the project.

Resources
Project planning sheets

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 31 & 32

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 3 Project Objectives :
1. Independent work on project with tutor support.

Resources

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 33 & 34

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 3 Project Objectives :
1. 2. Independent work on project with tutor support. Individual tutorials to monitor progress and provide guidance.

Resources

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 35 & 36

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 3 Project Objectives :
1. Independent work on project with tutor support.

Resources

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 37 & 38

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic: Outcome 3 Project Objectives :
1. Assessment Report writing

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Lesson plan Course: Tourism (Higher) Lessons 39 & 40

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) Topic : Outcome 3 Project Analyse the marketing function in a travel and tourism business or organisation. Objectives :
1. 2. 3. Remediation of assessment if required. Feedback and discussion. Exam preparation marketing quiz group activity just for fun (time permitting).

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SECTION 3

Student guide
Unit Title: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher) What is the Unit about? The Unit is all about learning what marketing is about and how marketing ideas are used in a tourism context. It looks both at the external marketing of facilities and services and at the role of internal working practices in presenting a positive company image. At the end of the Unit you will have evaluated the marketing function of a travel and tourism organisation using the principles, and applying the concepts you learned during your study of the first two outcomes. Your teacher/tutor will tell you more about the detail of the Unit. How will my work be assessed? You will be assessed by your teacher/tutor on the Unit outcomes on the next page. In this Unit there is one assessment, covering all the outcomes and all of the performance criteria. The assessment activity reflects the vocational nature of the Unit and you are required to apply marketing concepts and techniques in the context of tourism businesses. The assessment is a written Report, which includes the evaluation of the marketing function of a travel and tourism business. Your performance in the internal Unit assessment may also be used by your teacher/tutor to: (a) (b) estimate the grade you might be expected to achieve in the external course assessment make an appeal on your behalf if you fail the external assessment.

Help! Always make sure that you understand what is required in the coursework and assessment before you undertake the task. If you are not sure, ask your teacher/tutor.

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STUDENT GUIDE

Unit: Marketing in Travel and Tourism: An Introduction (Higher)

Outcome 1 Explain the role of marketing and its application in travel and tourism.

Performance criteria (a) (b) (c) Explain the concept and importance of marketing and market orientation. Describe methods and purposes of market research techniques. Describe the component elements of the marketing mix.

Outcome 2 Explain the role of customer service as a marketing tool in travel and tourism organisations.

Performance criteria (a) (b) (c) Explain the principles of customer service. Describe the business benefits of good customer service. Explain how quality customer service contributes to competitive advantage in a travel and tourism organisation.

Outcome 3 Evaluate the marketing function in a travel and tourism business or organisation.

Performance criteria (a) (b) (c) Identify the aims and objectives of the travel and tourism business or organisation. Produce a SWOT analysis for the business or organisation selected. Analyse the marketing mix for the business or organisation selected.

Details of the assessment are provided on the next page.

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Unit outcomes Outcome 1 Explain the role of marketing and its application in travel and tourism. Outcome 2 Explain the role of customer service as a marketing tool in travel and tourism organisations. Outcome 3 Evaluate the marketing function in a travel and tourism business or organisation. Reassessment

Assessment details Report covering all outcomes and performance criteria

If you do not pass the assessment task first time, you will be able to resit. You will be asked to redo or resubmit the specific section which was not satisfactory. Before any reassessment your teacher or tutor will discuss with you the areas which you were unsure about.

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Outline schedule of work and assessments (Can be adapted to suit centres own arrangements) This Unit lasts for 40 hours. The schedule below is for guidance only and times spent on particular topics may vary. Hours 114 Outcome Outcome 1 Key content Unit Induction. Introduction to concepts. Application of marketing concepts and principles to travel and tourism businesses visit to tourist organisation or speaker to discover information about the marketing function including customer services (O2). Components of the marketing mix application to known travel and tourism organisations. Types and purposes of market research. Factors determining pricing strategies; promotional techniques range, objectives, examples, effectiveness. Case Studies travel and tourism businesses marketing strategies exemplifying the content of Outcome. Group work on individual case studies to apply marketing principles. Consolidation exercises.

1521

Outcome 2 Customer service implications for business success. Outcome 3 Project brief and discussion on approaches. Agree the selection of the study organisation individually with teacher/tutor. Project planning. Independent work on projects with tutor support. Field/desk research. Individual tutorials to monitor progress, provide guidance. Assessment: writing up reports.

2240

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Industry visits and speakers Visits to tourism businesses are a valuable way of linking what you are learning in the classroom to actual practice in the industry. We are fortunate to have contacts who are willing to share their expertise with you, and our visits to them, or their talks to you, will concentrate on aspects of their work which is directly relevant to this unit. This year our visits/speakers are: (insert attraction/services/speaker) 1. 2. on on (date)

Details of the specific objectives and tasks associated with the visit will be issued and discussed in class. Note These businesses have kindly agreed to cooperate with us as a tourism education initiative. Your responsibility is to demonstrate your enthusiasm by preparing well for the visits, and by showing interest and courtesy to speakers and to the staff and management of the travel and tourism organisation who are welcoming you to their workplace. This is part of a Scotland-wide collaboration between industry and education to raise awareness of how the tourism industry works. The continued cooperation of businesses such as those we are going to visit or who are coming here to speak to you will largely depend on the conduct and commitment of the students who participate. In the future you might even apply for a job with one of these businesses, so remember you never get a second chance to make a first impression!

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APPENDICES

APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Education and industry links


1. The benefits of industry links

relevant to all areas of study in tourism courses, but in terms of marketing skills and knowledge in particular: can be introduced during a visit with either a pre- or post-visit talk or question-and-answer session. The latter is a good way of building in a visit during a class-based study of marketing techniques. It gives students a chance to demonstrate their knowledge and to learn how the theory is put in to practice. extends the range of learning and teaching approaches promotes skills and confidence in planning interacting with others teamwork communication demonstrates the application in the workplace of skills and knowledge developed in the classroom promotes greater understanding of interaction between industry sectors provides an insight into day-to-day operations of tourism businesses reinforces the value of the course content consolidates learning makes classroom-based work easier when students can relate concepts to actual experience allows integration across course Units

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allows integration across course levels promotes greater awareness of tourism as a first-choice career provides learning opportunities that cannot be replicated in the classroom can help students prepare for external assessment makes learning fun!

2.

Making industry links

In recommending the use of industry links to plan out-of-school/college visits, it is recognised that opportunities differ according to geographical location or in terms of centres resources. Remoteness of destinations influences the number and type of accessible tourist facilities. But using industry links can make learning more relevant and effective, and does mean activities , other than taking students out of the classroom. For example, if you cant get out to industry then try inviting industry to come to you! Experience has shown that tourism professionals are often prepared to travel to centres to share their expertise with students of tourism. Tourism Training Scotland, Education Business Partnerships and Springboard Scotland are as keen on educationindustry links as schools and colleges are on benefiting from them. Forging links with education is seen as a way of achieving important objectives in training for the industry. Many businesses already have formal or informal links with colleges, e.g. as providers of work placement opportunities, or of visiting speakers, by hosting educational visits and as users of colleges for their own training. Not every tourism business is able to respond to approaches for support like this of course, but often if you target your request at a sensible time of year, if you plan far enough ahead for diaries, if you are specific about what you want and dont ask for too much all at once, you can end up with a good contact that may become a regular source of support for your course.

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Making industry links will in general: give you access to information for use in investigations, case studies, projects and assignments, and class-based exercises give you access to site visits, including guiding give you access to speakers from industry enable you to give your students the types of experience of tourism which cannot be replicated in the classroom. Using visits and speakers specifically can: reinforce classroom-based activities lend professional credibility to school or college-based study demonstrate that knowledge of the subject has utility outside the school or college environment enable the school or college to market the courses and students to the trade. In addition, bringing the students into direct contact with industry practitioners gives their studies an added dimension they are able to hook their class-based activities onto something which is real and happening. Consequently they find the assimilation of theoretical material, e.g. marketing principles, nature and structure of the tourist industry much easier as a result of having seen it in action. Overall, good contacts with industry should result in meaningful and stimulating learning experiences for the student and provide access to up-to-date developments and practice. They also provide the teacher with staff development opportunities updating knowledge and learning about new areas of business. Exposure to actual industry practice is an approach that has worked well in the past. It has had the approval of tourism practitioners, teaching staff and students in terms of its appropriateness and effectiveness in tourism courses and units in general, and is applicable to many units within the national Travel and Tourism curriculum.

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3.

Using industry links

There are many ways of using industry links to your advantage. Some cost money, while others are free. Please check about admission prices prior to going on a visit. The information on prices may be available on the website but because there are often a wide range of prices offered many businesses wait until an enquiry is made before quoting a price. 3.1 Making contact

Membership of Area Tourist Offices (See earlier note about the current review of membership of the Area Tourist Offices.) Benefits include: Newsletters, access to speakers, TIC visits, family trips for staff, attendance at tourism events, AGM, etc. Some ATOs make no charge to schools and colleges for information and materials, while others have an annual educational membership. Check locally. Membership of ASVA Special educational membership is available. Check for current price of this membership. Benefits include: The opportunity to participate in ASVA Members Conferences and seminars. Previous events include A Taste of Excellence Learning from Others, Getting the Best out of Your ATO, Visitor Attraction Marketing. Signpost Visitscotlands free quarterly newsletter, Signpost, is useful for keeping up to date with developments and new initiatives Educational memberships/opportunities National Trust for Scotland, Historic Scotland Benefits include: Memberships, education packs and free educational visits.

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Education Business Partnerships Ask about teacher placements/secondments to industry. See Appendix 4 for local contacts. The Extending Hospitality Initiative aims to guide businesses into successful and mutually beneficial partnerships with schools and colleges. Springboard Scotland Promoting tourism as a first-choice career, Springboard is a good first point of contact for information on anything to do with working with the Scottish tourism industry. Local contacts Get to know whos who locally hoteliers, TIC manager, a friendly travel agent, visitor attraction operator, etc. 3.2 Industry links in course/unit management and planning:

Advisory groups Invite practitioners to be involved with your course as an adviser. Induction find out if there are any special events on, e.g. careers or holiday fairs; organise a local sightseeing tour; visit a local attraction and the TIC; get someone from the local ATO/travel agency to come in and talk about his/her job half an hour is all it takes to get your students motivated! Incorporating into teaching/learning activities Look at the course and unit content to decide how students learning can be made more effective through exposure to actual practice. Case studies Use a visit as the basis for a marketing case study; use a local tourism businesss customer service policy as the basis for work in this area. Speakers Bring in a speaker to talk about their sector. Use as an alternative to visits if you cant get out of school/college. Visits Best of all get your students out in the field to see tourism in action.

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Appendix 2 Using industry visits


Example Visit Type: Historic House Visit Organisation: Students can be involved in planning and arranging the visit. The amount of student involvement will depend on time available, the objectives of the activity and the level of skill of the student, but it could be anything from simply selecting a suitable travel and tourism business to making all the arrangements in which case their participation should be supervised. Such an approach has the potential to promote the development of oral communication, and to provide the opportunity for direct contact with industry practitioners in a business context. Even where students are not directly in contact with the travel and tourism organisation to book the visit, it can be used to develop awareness of factors specific to arranging group visits, e.g. group rates, maximum group sizes, time planning, etc. Teacher/tutor preparation: Brief to the travel and tourism organisation to inform of visit objectives and agree format Internal admin Student guidance Preparation of student worksheets pro forma It is very important that the travel and tourism organisation is properly briefed a site visit is a good idea if you can manage it beforehand.

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Student preparation: Informal research into the visit venue type of organisation, location, directions, historic/architectural background, facilities, etc. Promotes development of oral communication of information obtained by individual reading. Prepares students to then be able to relate visit to research and to gain maximum benefit from the visit itself. Visit Activity: Guided tour Pre/post-tour talk Post-tour talk could be by Administrator/Marketing Manager. Much of the information provided will be useful for the other Units of the Tourism Higher. Through careful management of the pre-visit contact with the travel and tourism organisation, the talk can be tailor-made to suit any specific aspect of the higher courses. The end result is a much more rounded view of the overall operations of the travel and tourism organisation whether it is a visitor attraction, a conference incentive or meeting venue, special events, venues, tour operator, etc. Classroom follow-up: tailored to the Units being studied, e.g.: apply the marketing and product development principles adopted by Historic House A to another travel and tourism organisation apply the Marketing Mix or draw up a SWOT analysis based on the visit to another organisation evaluate customer service at the Historic House, for example, to another property discuss the ways in which the organisation generates income apart from through admission charges evaluate the suitability of the organisation for families with small children, disabled visitors or primary-school groups. These post-visit activities can be used to consolidate learning and to promote transferability of knowledge in different contexts.

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Pre-visit planning checklist Establish objectives.

Select suitable visit.

Initial contact to agree rates, dates, times, objectives.

Written confirmation and brief including student worksheets and group profile, i.e. age, level.

Organise transport if necessary.

Complete institution procedures for field trips.

Prepare worksheets.

Brief students.

Issue pre-visit tasks.

Discussion of issues such as dress, visitor behaviour, industry standards.

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Visit contact sheet UNIT: Visit to: Address: Class group: Tel: Fax: Date of booking: Contact name: Date of visit: Duration of visit: Visit objectives: Department: Time of arrival: Estimated numbers:

Requirements: Tour Activity Talk Other: Guided Details: Theme: Free

Cost

Materials requested

How to get there:

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Participant list Visit to: Meet at: How to get there: Date: at

Details of visit:

Participants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

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Appendix 3 Coordinating organisations


Tourism Training Scotland Tourism Training Scotland (TTS) was set up in 1992 under the auspices of the Scottish Tourism Coordinating Group. It is a joint industry/ public-sector forum whose activities are coordinated by Scottish Enterprise, and was established to lead a new effort to promote effective training and career development in the tourism industry. There was growing recognition at that time that the development of skills at all levels in the industry would be critical to its future performance. Industry support for the various TTS programmes has been substantial, especially the Welcome Host and Scotlands Best visitor awareness/ customer care courses, and the issues of skills and careers are now much higher up the industrys agenda than was the case when TTS was first established. TTSs vision of tourism in Scotland is one of a world-class industry, offering first-choice careers. Among its key objectives are: Improved links with education at all levels to promote a higher level of awareness of the tourism industry and the employment opportunities within it. To address this objective, and consolidate existing support, TTS intends to implement the following actions among others, which are included in its 1998/1999 Action Plan: Identify the scope for developing improved links between the industry and the further and higher education sectors. Work in partnership with Springboard Scotland to implement a programme of initiatives to promote careers in tourism and improve the image of the industry as an employer. This will involve industry, education, educationbusiness partnerships and careers partnerships and is likely to include: establishment of national and local awareness campaigns aimed at prospective employees including school leavers, college students, people returning to work, and the unemployed

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tourism careers information packs and familiarisation programmes aimed at careers advisers, guidance teachers and prospective employees working with the education sector to improve links with schools through: Welcome Host for schools; the recently launched CDROMs Talkabout Scotland and Welcome Host Xtra: and the Extending Hospitality pack for employers investigating the potential of a graduate placement programme for tourism businesses national and local PR activity to promote success stories and industry best practice in the area of tourism careers.

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Springboard Scotland Springboard Scotland was launched on 30 June 1998 with the remit of promoting hospitality and tourism as a first-choice career. The organisation has three main target audiences: all potential new recruits to the industry including school and college students key influencers teachers, careers officers, parents and many others employers in the industry. Springboard aim to ensure that teachers and careers advisers have the most up-to-date information at their disposal and its major campaign, Lets Make It First Choice, will feature a series of participative activities including: the Springboard Experience activities for teachers and their students in and around the Springboard centres, including a discovery trail; an interactive software package Springteractive videos, and the Springboard website industry speakers in schools, colleges and universities major events presentations and activities to reflect the diversity of the industry and its rewarding career opportunities appealing, informative and relevant materials about sponsor employers, the industry, career opportunities, entry routes, training initiatives, college programmes, and the skills and aptitudes required to excel in the industry work experience, teacher placements and taster days in sponsor organisations educational and fun curriculum projects recruitment fairs covering all levels of jobs from New Deal to Skillseekers, Modern Apprenticeships, graduates, etc. To find out more, you can either call at the Springboard Scotland Centre in Glasgow and have a look at the range of reference materials on offer, or call them on the number below. Springboard Scotland 53-55 King Street Glasgow G1 5RA Tel: 0141 552 5554 Fax: 0141 552 9991 Website: www.springboarduk.org.uk Email: info.scotland@springboarduk.org.uk

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Scottish Education Business Partnership Network Young people need to be more aware of the world of work. By involving business, they get a clearer understanding of business practices and enterprise. Introducing them to people in work, through projects, develops their own skills and confidence. Their school work has greater relevance, their motivation increases and their aspirations rise. Opportunities are also made available for school and college staff to develop new skills and broaden their understanding of local industry. Business will ultimately benefit from a better motivated, educated and enterprising workforce. Through developing links they get a better understanding of schools which in turn can improve their recruitment process and give them the opportunity to influence the development of the curriculum. Involvement also improves a companys image through their contribution to the local community. Many companies now also see links with education as a unique development opportunity for their own staff. (EBP Network statement) Education Business Partnerships (EBPs) were set up with support from business and education. They offer the opportunity to draw together employers, educationalists and other key players with shared aims to meet the demands of the local economy. The government, in supporting the establishment of EBPs, recognised that they would build on existing achievements and also improve coordination, coherence and quality in the range of activities already taking place. Local Enterprise Companies and the Education Services of Local Authorities both have a commitment to secure strong and effective links between education and business. Their overall objectives are to: promote, encourage and develop links between education and business raise awareness and understanding of the needs of business and education improve the motivation, self-confidence, and ultimately the levels of achievement of young people increase enterprise awareness and associated skills in young people.

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The Scottish Education Business Partnership Network allows a sharing of good practice across the country as well as allowing EBPs to address national issues. The Network also ensures the EBPs in Scotland have a national and international voice. Partnership Activities Across Scotland, EBPs support a range of projects that are associated with the hospitality and tourism industry. These have included: Welcome Host courses for students and teachers Travel and Tourism careers conventions Seasonal Hospitality Employment Programme promotion of national initiatives such as Natural Cook, Scotlands Best, etc.

Local Education Business Partnerships identify local needs, and specific projects and activities are developed to address these needs with support from all parties. Opportunities are also made available for school and college staff to develop new skills and broaden their understanding of local industry. Contact Should you wish to develop links with local companies, or if you would like further information about travel and tourism related projects and activities in your area please contact your local EBP manager.

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Scottish EBP NETWORK SEN area contacts


Angus EBP Angus Council Education Development Service Bruce House Wellgate Arbroath DD11 3TE Ayrshire EBP 16 Nelson Street Kilmarnock KA1 2AA Scottish Borders Enterprise Bridge Street Galashiels TD1 1SW Dumfries and Galloway EBP Lochside Education Centre Lochside Road Dumfries DG2 OEL Dundee Education Industry Partnership Education Development Service Gardyne Road Dundee DD5 1NY Dunbartonshire EBP Dunbartonshire Enterprise 4 South Crosshill Road Bishopbriggs Glasgow G64 2NN Contact: EIL Projects Officer: Tel: 01241 435022 Fax: 01241 435034 E-mail: eilangus@sol.co.uk

Manager:

Tel: 01563 545150 Fax: 01563 572577 E-mail:

Contact:

Tel: 01896 758991 Fax: 01896 758625 E-mail:

Manager:

Tel: 01387 720774 Fax: 01387 721276 E-mail: dumfriesandgall@ campus.bt.com

Contact:

Tel: 01382 462857 Fax: 01382 462862 E-mail: adviser@educationaldevelopment-service. dundeecity.sch.uk

Contact:

Tel: 0141 772 5099 Fax: 0141 772 5684 E-mail: ebp@dlcsp.org.uk

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Fife Enterprise Fast Trac Kingdom House Saltire Centre Glenrothes Fife KY6 2AQ Forth Valley EBP Rooms 45 & 46 Haypark Business Centre Marchmont Avenue Polmont FK2 0NZ

Contact:

Tel: 01592 623152 Fax: 01592 623199 E-mail:

Manager:

Tel: 01324 718414 Fax: 01324 715686 E-mail: FVEBP@post.almac.co.uk Website: www.heartofscotland.co.uk Webucation Tel: 0141 954 1999 Fax: 0141 950 2117 E-mail: info@gebp.co.uk

Glasgow EBP Partnership Centre 67 Abbey Drive Jordanhill Glasgow G14 9JW Grampian EBP 27 Albyn Place Aberdeen AB10 1DB Lanarkshire EBP Resource Centre Caldervale High School Airdrie ML6 8PJ Lothian EBP Career Development Edinburgh and Lothians Atholl House 2 Canning Street Edinburgh EH3 8EG

Chief Executive:

Manager:

Tel: 01224 575100 or 01224 252048 Fax: 01224 213417 E-mail: Tel: 01236 762485 Fax: 01236 767250 E-mail:

Manager:

Manager:

Tel: 0131 228 7537 Fax: 0131 228 3146 E-mail:

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Renfrewshire EBP 12a Silk Street Paisley PA1 1HG Perth and Kinross EBP Highland House St Catherines Road Perth PH1 5RY

Manager:

Tel: 0141 849 0942 Fax: 0141 849 0943 E-mail:

Manager:

Tel: 01738 629457 Fax: 01738 445138

LEC representative (SE)


Scottish Enterprise 120 Bothwell Street Glasgow G2 7JP Contact: Tel: 0141 248 2700 Fax: 0141 248 2319

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Scottish EBP NETWORK HIE area contacts


Argyll & Bute EBP Drummore Council Education Development Centre Soroba Road Oban Argyll A34 4SN Caithness & Sutherland EBP Scapa House Castlegreen Road Thurso Caithness KW14 7LS Inverness & Nairn, Badenoch & Strathspey EBP Central Primary School Kenneth Street Inverness IV3 5DW Lochaber EBP Lochaber Opportunities Centre An Aird Fort William PH33 6AN Moray EBP Moray Park Findhorn Road Forres Moray IV36 0TP Orkney EBP Orkney Opportunities Centre The Brig 2 Albert Street Kirkwall Orkney KW15 1HP Manager: Tel: 01631 566726 Fax: 01631 564615 E-mail: ebp.aie@hient.co.uk

Manager:

Tel: 01847 896115 Fax: 01847 893383

Manager:

Tel: 01463 225449 Fax: 01463 663809 E-mail:

Contact:

Tel: 01397 701170 Fax: 01397 701886

Manager:

Tel: 01309 672793 Fax: 01309 671272

Manager:

Tel: 01856 872460 Fax: 01856 875515

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Ross & Cromarty EBP Ross & Cromarty Enterprise 62 High Street Invergordon Ross-shire IV18 0DH Skye & Lochalsh EBP Morloch Waterstein Glendale Isle of Skye IV55 8WT Shetland EBP Shetland Enterprise Toll Clock Shopping Centre 20 North Road Lerwick Shetland ZE1 OPE

Manager:

Tel: 01349 853666 Fax: 01349 853833

Manager:

Tel: 01470 511294 Fax: as above, please telephone first

Manager:

Tel: 01595 693177 Fax: 01595 693208

LEC representative (SE)


HIE Highlands and Islands Enterprise Bridge House 20 Bridge Street Inverness IV1 1QR Contact: Tel: 01463 244389 Fax: 014663 244338

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