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PROJECT REPORT ON

MICRO CONTROLLER BASED TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER

Under the guidance of

Sri. M. CHAKRAVARTHY,
Associate Professor in Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


BACHUPALLY, HYDERABAD 500 090 (Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University) 2010 2011

PROJECT REPORT ON

MICRO CONTROLLER BASED TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER

SUBMITTED BY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B. PRASHANTH KUMAR B. KARTHIK J. BHEEMARAY M. SRINIVAS D. VAMSI KRISHNA

08245A0214 08245A0207 08245A0206 08245A0203 07241A0255

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


BACHUPALLY, HYDERABAD 500 090 (Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University) 2010 2011

PROJECT REPORT ON

MICRO CONTROLLER BASED TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER


CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this mini project report entitled MICRO CONTROLLER BASED TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER is the bonafied work of the following students carried out the project under my supervision.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B. PRASHANTH KUMAR B. KARTHIK J. BHEEMARAY M. SRINIVAS D. VAMSI KRISHNA

08245A0214 08245A0207 08245A0206 08245A0203 07241A0255

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Bachelor Of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Guide:

Sri M. CHAKRAVARTHY
Associate Professor Department of Electrical & Electronics GRIET, Bachupally Hyderabad 500 090.

Prof P. M. SHARMA
Head of Department Department of Electrical & Electronics GRIET, Bachupally Hyderabad 500 090.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We have great pleasure to convey our gratitude to Prof. Jandhyala N Murthy, Principal, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering & Technology for permitting to do the mini project. We express our heartiest gratitude and respectful regards to Prof. P. M. Sharma, Head of the Department of EEE, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology for his support and encouragement while doing the mini project. We express our profound sense of gratitude to our internal guide Sri. M. CHAKRAVARTHY, Associate Professor of EEE department for his valuable guidance, constructive criticism and consistent enthusiastic interest during the course of investigation and writing of manuscript that led this work to its successful completion. We regard our sincere thanks to the technical staff that helped us during the project and made our project successful. Last but not the least our special thanks to our Parents and friends for their support and constant encouragement during the project work

B. Prashanth Kumar B. Karthik J. Bheemaray D. Vamsi Krishna M. Srinivas

Project Report on Microcontroller Based Traffic Light Controller

CONTENTS
1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. FLOW CHART 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND EXPLANATION 5. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 6. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY MICROCONTROLLER UNIT LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) DISPLAY 7. SOFTWARE 8. DATA SHEETS 9. COMPONENTS REQUIRED 10. FUTURE SCOPE 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. ABSTRACT
Vehicular traffic at intersecting streets is typically controlled by traffic control lights. The function of traffic lights requires sophisticated control and coordination to ensure that traffic moves as smoothly and safely as possible.

In recent days electro-mechanical controllers are replaced by electronic circuits. The accuracy & fault tolerant drive towards electronic circuits.

This project is developed to meet the requirements of solid state traffic light controller by adopting microcontroller as the main controlling element, and leds as the indication of light. A micro controller is interfaced to leds provide for centralized control of the traffic signals. Microcontroller is programmed in such a way to adjust their timing and phasing to meet changing traffic conditions. The circuit besides being reliable and compact is also cost effective.

2. INTRODUCTION
Traffic congestion is a severe problem in many modern cities around the world. Traffic congestion has been causing many critical problems and challenges in the major and most populated cities. To travel to different places within the city is becoming more difficult for the travelers in traffic. Due to these congestion problems, people lose time, miss opportunities, and get frustrated. Traffic congestion directly impacts the companies. Due to traffic congestions there is a loss in productivity from workers, trade opportunities are lost, delivery gets delayed, and thereby the costs goes on increasing. To solve these congestion problems, we have to build new facilities & infrastructure but at the same time make it smart. The only disadvantage of making new roads on facilities is that it makes the surroundings more congested. So for that reason we need to change the system rather than making new infrastructure twice. Therefore many countries are working to manage their existing transportation systems to improve mobility, safety and traffic flows in order to reduce the demand of vehicle use. The project uses simple Electronic components such as LED as TRAFFIC LIGHT indicator and a MICROCONTROLLER for auto change of signal after a pre-specified time interval. Microcontroller AT89c51 is the brain of the project which initiates the traffic signal at a junction. The leds are automatically on and off by making the corresponding port pin of the micro controller high. A seven segment display also connected to display the timing of each signal. At a particular instant only one green light holds and other lights hold at red. During transition from green to red, the present group yellow led and succeeding group yellow led glows and then succeeding group led changes to green. This process continues as a cycle.

3. FLOWCHART

Start

Initialize Time0 as Timer

Move next signalling data onto the port pins & start the timer

Load Delay Value in Timer

Update the 7-segment display for every minute

Yes

Is the delay completed?

No

4. BLOCK DIAGRAM

MICRO CONTROLLER (AT89C51)

7 SEGMENT DISPLAY

TRAFFIC LIGHTS

+5V UNIT
POWER SUPPLY

5. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

6. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
(a) POWER SUPPLY:

Transformer

Rectifier

Filter

Regulator

Almost all electronic circuits required Dc power supply. Dc power supply is a circuit which converts the Ac wave form of power lines to direct voltage of constant amplitude. An ideal regulated power supply is designed to provide a pre- determined Dc voltage which is independent of the current drawn from the source. These circuits are special class of feedback amplifiers. All the benefits of 'ICs' are thus obtained: excellent performance, small size, ease of use, low cost, high and reliability. An unregulated power supply has many disadvantages due to which it is not sufficient for many applications

Poor regulation Dc out put voltage varies with the ac in put Dc out put voltage variation varies with temperature because of semi conductors used To over come the above disadvantages we depend up on regulated power supply. Regulated power supplies have internal short circuit protection, thermal shut down and safe operation of output transistor.

TRANSFORMER A transformer is a device which step-up (or) step-down the electrical quantities according to the need. It adjusts the Ac level so that the appropriate Dc amplitude is achieved. Its load handling capacity must be sufficient to supply the load and account for the losses in the rectifier, filter and regulator. The turns ratio is determined by the output level required relative to the ac input amplitude.

BRIDGE RECTIFIER The circuit consists of four diodes (1N4007) in which at a time only two diodes conduct. Each diode has only transformer secondary voltage across it on the inverse cycle. This circuit model allows us to have the dc current to flow for the both cycles of Ac input. The bridge circuit is thus suitable for high voltage application. FILTERS The use of Filters is to smoothen the waveform by eliminating the ac components from the rectifier circuits basically capacitors are being connected in shunt. The action of the system occurs as the capacitor stores energy during the conduction period and delivers this energy to the load during non conducting period .In this way, the time during which the current passes through the load is prolonged and the ripple is considerably decreased .

The ripple voltage is defined as the deviation of the load voltage from its average Dc value. Input capacitor is required to cancel inductive effects associated with long power distribution leads out put capacitors improve the transient response. REGULATOR They maintain a constant voltage level independent of load condition or variation in the amplitude of the Ac supply .An example of regulator is LM78xx series It is the three terminal device with input (1) , ground(2), output(3) as its terminals. The voltage required for micro controller is 5V. Hence LM7805 voltage regulator is used. These devices require no adjustments and have an output preset by manufactures to industry standard voltages of 5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 18, 24V. Zener regulator is incorporated for maintaining 12v regulated output used for sensing probes and Electromagnetic relay.

(b) MICRO-CONTROLLER UNIT:

Micro-controller unit is constructed with ATMEL 89C51 Micro-controller chip. The ATMEL AT89C51 is a low power, higher performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). Its highdensity non-volatile memory compatible with standard MCS-51 instruction set makes it a powerful controller that provides highly flexible and cost effective solution to control applications. Micro-controller works according to the program written in it. The program is written in such a way, so that this controller energizes or de-energizes the relays according to the information received by the pushbuttons and the sensing probe. The 8051 series of microcontrollers are highly integrated single Chip microcomputers with an 8-bit CPU, memory, interrupt controller, timers, Serial I/O and digital I/O on a single piece of silicon. The 8051 is an 8-bit Machine. Its memory is organized in bytes and practically all its instruction deal with byte quantities. It uses an Accumulator as the primary register for instruction Results. Other operands can be accessed using one of the four different addressing modes available: register implicit, direct, indirect or immediate. Operands reside in one of the five memory spaces of the 8051. The five memory spaces of the 8051 are: Program Memory, External Data Memory, Internal Data Memory, Special Function Registers and Bit Memory.

The Program Memory space contains all the instructions, immediate data and constant tables and strings. It is principally addressed by the 16-bit Program Counter (PC), but it can also be accessed by a few instructions using the 16-bit Data Pointer (DPTR). The maximum size of the Program Memory space is 64K bytes. Several 8051 family members integrate on-chip some amount of either masked programmed ROM or EPROM as part of this memory.

The External Data Memory space contains all the variables, buffers and data structures that can't fit on-chip. It is principally addressed by the 16-bit Data Pointer (DPTR), although the first two general purpose register (R0, R1) of the currently selected register bank can access a 256-byte bank of External Data memory. The maximum size of the External Data Memory space is 64Kbytes. External data memory can only be accessed using the indirect addressing mode with the DPTR, R0 or R1. The Internal Data Memory space is functionally the most important data memory space. It resides up to four banks of general purpose registers, the program stack, 128 bits of the 256-bit memory, and all the variables and data structures that are operated on directly by the program. The maximum size of the Internal Data Memory space is 256-bytes. However, different 8051 family members integrate different amounts of this memory space on chip. The register implicit, indirect and direct addressing modes can be used in different parts of the Internal Data Memory space.

The Special Function Register space contains all the on-chip peripheral I/O registers as well as particular registers that need program access. These registers include the Stack Pointer, the PSW and the Accumulator. The maximum number of Special Function Registers (SFRs) is 128, though the actual number on a particular 8051 family member depends on the number and type of peripheral functions integrated on-chip. The SFRs all have addresses greater than 127 and overlap the address space of the upper 128 bytes of the Internal Data Memory space. The two memory spaces are differentiated by addressing mode. The SFRs can only be accessed using the Direct addressing mode while the upper 128 bytes of the Internal Data Memory (if integrated on-chip) can only be accessed using the Indirect addressing mode.

(c) Light Emitting Diode (LED):


A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. The color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. PRINCIPLE: When a light-emitting diode is forward biased electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence. Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. The wavelength of the light emitted, and thus its color depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or near-ultraviolet light.

CONSTRUCTION: LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also use sapphire substrate. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. Light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production.

(d) DISPLAY:
A seven-segment display, is a electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals. A seven segment display is composed of seven elements. Individually on or off, they can be combined to produce simplified representations of the Arabic numerals.

The set values and the selected time intervals are shown on the display and the other is common cathode type display.

7-

segment display. There are two types of displays available. One is common anode type

In common cathode type display all the cathodes of the segments are tied together and connected to ground. The supply will be given to the required segment from the decoder or driver.

In common anode type display the anodes of all the segments are tied together and connected to supply and the required segments will be connected to ground from the decoder or driver.

In this project common anode type display (H101A) is used. Port 1 is used for the seven segment data. The seven segments are arranged as a rectangle of two vertical segments on each side with one horizontal segment on the top, middle, and bottom. Additionally, the seventh segment bisects the rectangle horizontally. In a simple LED package, typically all of the cathodes (negative terminals) or all of the anodes (positive terminals) of the segment LEDs are connected together and brought out to a common pin; this is referred to as a "common cathode" or "common anode" device. Hence a 7 segment plus decimal point package will only require nine pins. A single byte can encode the full state of a 7segment-display. The most popular bit encodings are and abcdefg - both usually assume 0 is off and 1 is This table gives the hexadecimal encodings for displaying the digits 0 to 9: gfedcba on.

Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

gfedcba 0x3F 0x06 0x5B 0x4F 0x66 0x6D 0x7D 0x07 0x7F 0x6F

abcdefg 0x7E 0x30 0x6D 0x79 0x33 0x5B 0x5F 0x70 0x7F 0x7B

a on off on on off on on on on on

b on on on on on off off on on on

c on on off on on on on on on on

d on off on on off on on off on on

e on off on off off off on off on off

f on off off off on on on off on on

g off off on on on on on off on on

In this project seven segment display is connected to pins of Port 1. Common Anode Connection is suitable for this application. The timer of microcontroller is interfaced with seven segment display to display the delay of light. The decoder enhances the capability of accommodation for more number of seven segment displays with the same number of port pins. The current limiting resistor associated with each segment limits the current at the cost of illumination. The drop across each segment will be 2v approximately. The maximum current that the segment can handle is 10mA. Care must be taken to limit the current to less than 10mA by proper selection of resistor. Current drawn by segment = = (Supply voltage Drop across segment) / Resistance (5v - 2v)/1k = 3mA.

7. SOFTWARE
#include<reg51.h> void timer() { TF0=0; TMOD=0X01; TH0=0X3C; TL0=0X60; TR0=1; while(TF0==0); TF0=0; }

void delay(unsigned int sec) { unsigned int i,j; for(i=0;i<=sec;i++) for(j=0;j<=10;j++) { timer(); }

void disp(unsigned int a) { int j; unsigned int i[]={0XC0,0XF9,0XA4,0XB0,0X99,0X92,0X82,0XF8,0X80,0X98}; for(j=a;j>=0;j--) { P1=i[j]; delay(1); } }

void main() { while(1) { P2=0x87; P3=0xFF; disp(9); P3=0x30; disp(2);

P2=0x4b; P3=0xFF; disp(9); P3=0x90; disp(2); P2=0x2D; P3=0xFF; disp(9); P3=0xC0; disp(2); P2=0x1E; P3=0xFF; disp(9); P3=0x60; disp(2); } }

8. DATASHEETS

9. COMPONENTS REQUIRED

1. Micro Controller 2. Crystal Oscillator 3. Light Emitting Diodes

89c51 12 MHz Red Orange Green

1 No 1 No 4 Nos 4 Nos 4 Nos 4 Nos 4 Nos 4 Nos 10 Nos 2 Nos

4. Resistors

1 k 460 100 120

5. Capacitors

33pF

6. Miscellaneous Components:

Regulated Power Supply of 5V Circuit Connecting Board Connecting Wires

10. FUTURE SCOPE


This project can be enhanced in such away as to control automatically the signals depending on the traffic density on the roads using sensors like IR detector/receiver module extended with automatic turn off when no vehicles are running on any side of the road which helps in power consumption saving. This proximity detector using an infrared detector shown in fig.1 can be used in various equipment like automatic door openers and burglar alarms. The circuit primarily consists of an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. The transmitter section consists of a 555 timer IC functioning in astable mode. It is wired as shown in the fig. 2. The output from astable is fed to an infrared LED via resistor R4, which limits its operating current. This circuit provides a frequency output of 38 kHz at 50 per cent duty cycle, which is required for the infrared detector/receiver module.

The receiver section comprises an infrared receiver module, a 555 monostable multivibrator, and an LED indicator. Upon reception of infrared signals, 555 timer (mono) turns on and remains on as long as infrared signals are received. When the signals are interrupted, the mono goes off after a few

seconds (period=1.1 R7xC6) depending upon the value of R7-C6 combination. Thus if R7=470 kilo-ohms and C6=4.7F, the mono period will be around 2.5 seconds. Both the transmitter and the receiver parts can be mounted on a single breadboard or PCB. The infrared receiver must be placed behind the infrared LED to avoid false indication due to infrared leakage. An object moving nearby actually reflects the infrared rays emitted by the infrared LED. The infrared receiver has sensitivity angle (lobe) of 0-60 degrees, hence when the reflected IR ray is sensed, the mono in the receiver part is triggered. The output from the mono may be used in any desired fashion. For example, it can be used to turn on a light when a person comes nearby by energizing a relay. The light would automatically turn off after some time as the person moves away and the mono pulse period is over. The sensitivity of the detector depends on current-limiting resistor R4 in series with the infrared LED. Range is approximately 40 cm. For 20-ohm value of R4 the object at 25 cm can be sensed, while for 30-ohm value of R4 the sensing range reduces by 22.5 cm.

IR RECEIVER CIRCUIT

TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL MODULE USING SENSORS

11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. The 8051 Micro controller and Embedded Systems - Muhammad Ali Mazidi & Janice Gillispie Mazidi

2. Micro controllers Theory and Applications - Ajay V. Deshmukh

3. www.wikipedia.org 4. www.8051.com 5. www.8052.com 6. www.microcontroller.com

TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER HARDWARE KIT