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Edward J.

Lazzerini

adidism at the turn of the twentieth century : A view from within


In: Cahiers du monde russe et sovitique. Vol. 16 N2. pp. 245-277.

Citer ce document / Cite this document : Lazzerini Edward J. adidism at the turn of the twentieth century : A view from within. In: Cahiers du monde russe et sovitique. Vol. 16 N2. pp. 245-277. doi : 10.3406/cmr.1975.1239 http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/cmr_0008-0160_1975_num_16_2_1239

Rsum Edward J. Lazzerini, Le adidisme l'aube du XXe sicle : une vue de l'intrieur. Ismail Bey Gasprinskii, un des chefs du mouvement de rforme et de rnovation du mode de vie islamique des musulmans de Russie (adidism) crivit en 1901 un essai proposant de faire le bilan du vaste dveloppement culturel que l' Islam russe a connu entre 1880 et le tournant du XXe sicle. Cet essai dont la traduction a t donne ci-dessus retrace les progrs accomplis, vus de l'intrieur, et fournit l'historien une source concise et approprie pour comprendre ce que Gasprinskii, et en gnral les autres adidists considraient comme les faiblesses subsistantes du mode de vie islamique, faiblesses auxquelles il fallait porter remde. Enumeration des uvres qui, aux yeux des adidists, constituaient un ensemble de connaissances diffuser auprs du peuple musulman pour l'aider accomplir de nouveaux progrs, la bibliographie jointe cet essai par Gasprinskii est d'une importance capitale en elle-mme. Des notes et des commentaires abondants augmentent tant la valeur de l'essai que celle de la bibliographie. Abstract Edward J. Lazzerini, adidism at the turn of the twentieth century: a view from within. Ismail Bey Gasprinskii, one of the leaders of the movement for the reform and renovation of the Islamic way of life among Russian Muslims (adidism) , wrote an informative essay in 1901 that sought to survey the broad cultural advancement that had taken place in Russian Islam between 1880 and the turn of the twentieth century. The essay, translated here, provides an insider's view of the progress made and offers the historian a convenient and concise source for an understanding of what Gasprinskii, and by extension, other adidists understood to be the weaknesses in the Muslim way of life that required remedy. The bibliography that Gasprinskii appended to his essay is of paramount importance in its own right as a listing of those works which, from the adidist viewpoint, constituted a body of knowledge which should be imparted to the Muslim people as an aid to achieving further progress. Extensive notes and commentaries serve to increase the value of both the essay and the bibliography.

DOCUMENT et BIBLIOGRAPHIE

Problmes de nationalits en Russie et en URSS

EDWARD

J.

LAZZERINI*

GADIDISM1 AT THE

TURN

OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: A VIEW FROM WITHIN

most toward The significant civilizing following the pages essays, Russian contain Mebadi-yi Muslims), a translation temeddun-i published of one Islamiyan-i in of igoi.2 Ismail Rus Bey The Gasprinskii's (First reasonssteps for * The author would like to take this opportunity to thank Mme Dilek Desaive of Paris for her unselfish assistance during the early stages of translation when she perused my first drafts and offered corrections and suggestions. My thanks go also to Professors Walter Andrews and Robert J. Burch, both of the University of Washington: to the first for his advise concerning the final draft of the translation, and to the latter for his reading of the entire manuscript on more than one occasion and for his judicious criticisms. To the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, joint sponsors of the Foreign Area Fellow ship Program, I owe a debt of gratitude for providing me with the funds for one and one-half years of research both abroad and in the United States. This article is one product of that research. 1. Throughout this article I have generally retained the word gadid, and its derivatives gadidism and gadidist, rather than rendering them into English. The word has entered the Turkic languages from Arabic and bears the meaning "new" (as in usl-i gadid /"the new method"). But in the context of the Muslim revival in nineteenth and early twentieth-century Russia it came to connote the movement for reform and progress spearheaded by Ismail Bey Gasprinskii, and anything or anyone connected with it. Gasprinskii himself employed the word in this sense; to render the simple idea of "new" or "recent" he usually used the Turkic word yeni. For a succinct treatment of gadidism, see B. Spuler, "Djadid", Encyclopedia of Islam (New series), (London, 1965), II: 366. A much needed full-scale study of the gadidist phenomenon, however, awaits an ambitious scholar. 2. References to this work are rare both in contemporary sources and more recent studies. The Hungarian orientalist, Arminius Vambry, drew attention to the essay and provided translations of certain portions of it in at least two of his own works, principally the latter: Western culture in Eastern lands. A comparison of the methods adopted by England and Russia in the Middle East (London, 1906): 272, 361-362; and "Die Kulturbestrebungen der Tataren", Deutsche Rundschau, CXXXII (July-Sept., 1907): 74-76. One of the few "modern" references to this essay by Gasprinskii is in Gerhard von Mende's superb study Der nationale Kampf der Russlandtrken (Berlin, 1936): 61-62. Von Mende, however, cites Vambry 8 Cahiers du Monde russe et sovitique, XVI (2), avril-juin 1975, pp.

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undertaking such a translation are several. First, the essay was written by the man most often acknowledged as the leader and guiding force behind the initial concerted drive to improve the lot of Russian Muslims. In this respect, it amounts to an insider's view of what had been accomplished by the Islamic community between 1880 and 1901 in terms of broad cultural advancement. Secondly, the work provides a convenient and concise source for an understanding of what Gasprinskii and, by extension, later gadidists believed to be the weaknesses in the Muslim way of life that required remedy, and it reveals the steps taken to overcome those weaknesses. Thirdly, the bibliography that Gasprinskii has appended to his essay is of paramount importance in its own right. It is not simply a compilation of Muslim works published in Russia, but a partial listing of gadid books, essays, and treatises. For Gasprinskii, writing and publishing were fundamentally tools with which to propagandize ideas, and these works constituted a body of knowledge which he obviously felt should be imparted to the Muslim people as an aid to achieving progress. The availability of this list will provide scholars with one more source for defining the scope of Gasprinskii's activities and the gadidist movement. A movement for the reform and renovation of the Islamic way of life emerged among Russia's Muslim subjects beginning with the third quarter of the nineteenth century. This phenomenon was initiated by an extremely small section of the Muslim intelligentsia which had gained an acquaintance with "Western" life, made the almost inevitable comparison between the general progress and power of Western "Christian" nations and the decadent condition of Muslim life in Russia and elsewhere, and concluded that at least some borrowing from, and accommodation with, Western ideas and practices were necessary for the very survival of Dar-ul-Islam (the realm of Islam).3 In Russia the Muslim voices first raised in the early and mid-nineteenth century in favor of change were isolated ones. Their demands were generally limited to proposals which sought to break the grip of obscurantism on Islamic theology and introduce secular subjects into the rigidly scholastic curriculum of the Muslim schools. Such men as 'Abdulnasir al-Kursavi,4 ihabeddin al-Margani,6 and Huseyn Feizkhanov8 were all prominent during the early struggle for enlightenas his source. Vambry states in the first of the above works that Mebadi-yi temeddun-i Islamiyan-i Rus appeared in both Russian and Turkic. However, the only two copies which I have been able to turn up (one in the British Museum in London, and the other in the Bibliothque Nationale in Paris), have been in Turkic alone. I have worked from the copy found in the Bibliothque Nationale. 3. The intellectual trauma resulting from confrontation with the West was hardly peculiar to Russian Muslims. Many of their co-religionists in the Ottoman Empire (including Egypt), and in India had already begun to experience it some years before, and Muslims in Persia, Afghanistan, and elsewhere would shortly go through it as well. The significance of this phenomenon for the modern history of Islam has not escaped recent scholarship, and the result has been a growing body of literature dealing with the issue in both general and specific terms. Of this literature, the following are of particular value: R. N. Frye, d., Islam and the West (The Hague, 1956); G. E. von Griinebaum, Modern Islam: the search for cultural identity (Los Angeles, 1962); B. Lewis, The Middle East and the West (Bloomington, 1964); W. Smith, Islam in modern history (Princeton, 1957); B. Lewis, The emergence of modern Turkey (London, 1961); N. Berkes, The develop ment of secularism in Turkey (Montreal, 1964); A. Hourni, Arabic thought in the liberal age, 1798-1939 (London, 1962); and H. Sharabi, Arab intellectuals and the West: the formative years, 1875-1914 (Baltimore, 1970). 4. Born among the Volga Tatars, 'Abdulnasir al-Kursavi (1783-1814 according to one source, but 1776-1818 according to another) was educated in the classical Islamic tradition and became a young theologian and professor at a medresse (higher theological school) in Bukhara, a leading center of Muslim theology at the (Suite notes 4, 5 et 6 page suivante)

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time. While in Bukhara, he began to speak out against those who would transform Islamic theology from a living body of teachings into an abstract, scholastic system. For his "radical" ideas he made many enemies, including the Emir, and was ultimately sentenced to death for heresy. To avoid this fate, Kursavi fled the city and returned to the Volga region where he opened his own medresse in the village of Kursa (his home town). He subsequently achieved notoriety once again for his beliefs, and was accused of impiety by some other teachers. His case reached the Mufti of the Muslim Spiritual Assembly in Orenburg for adjudicat ion, but the outcome of the matter is not known. None of his writings have been published, but his religious views are said to be well expressed in a manuscript entitled "Irsad al-'Ibad" (A guide for servants of God). See M. Gainullin, Tatarskaia literatura i publitsistika nachala XX veka (Tatar literature and publicism at the beginning of the 20th century) (Kazan', 1966): 120. For a brief biographical note on Kursavi, consult Dzh. Validov, Ocherk istorii obrazovannosti i literatury Tatar do revoliutsii 1917 g. (An essay on the history of the enlightenment and literature of the Tatars up to the revolution of 191 y) (Moscow, 1923): 32-33. 5. ihabeddin al-Margani (1818-1889) was a noted theologian and historian from the Kazan' region. Until the age of twenty he studied in his own father's medresse, but then continued his education in the two major Central Asian religious centers, Bukhara and Samarkand. It was during his sojourn in Central Asia that Margani began to rebel against the doctrinaire teachings of the local imam and became involved in the theological controversies which would profoundly influence the course of his life. [See Dzh. Validov, op. cit. : 35-39, for a discussion of the major controversies which Margani used as a means to achieve two goals: the separation of theology and religion, and a return to a primitive Islam shorn of the complexities that had grown up around it over the centuries.] As a historian and biographer, he produced a number of significant works of lasting value. Brief analyses of Margani as a historian can be found in G. Gubaidullin, "Razvitie istoricheskoi literatury u tiurko-tatarskikh narodov" (The development of historical literature among the Turko-Tatar peoples), in Pervyi vsesoiuznyi tiurkologicheskii s"ezd (Baku, 1926): 40-42, and M. F. Togay, "Qazan Turk tarihine bakislar: miiverrih ehabettin Mercan" (Views on the history of the Kazan' Turks: the historian ehabettin Mercan), Turk Amaci, I (1942/43): 343-348. Of immense value for a study of Margani is S. Gubaidullin, d., ihabeddin al-Margani hazretlerini veladetlerine yuz ytl Mu (1233-1333) munasebetiyle neri etildi (On the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of ihabeddin al-Margani) (Kazan', I333/I9I4-I5)6. Hiiseyn Feizkhanov was born in 1826 in the village of Sabachai, Simbirsk Province. At first a student of Margani (see note 5), Feizkhanov subsequently attended courses in the Oriental Faculty at Kazan' University and later at St. Peters burg University, where he forged a close scholarly relationship with the Russian orientalist Vladimir Vel'iaminov-Zernov. At some point during his studies Feizkhanov developed an interest in the problems of Muslim education in Russia. This interest came to the fore in i860 when he raised the question of reform of the Tatar medresse in a project entitled "Islah-i Medaris" (Reform of the medresse). In his project, Feizkhanov envisioned a Tatar secondary school in Kazan' where Islamic and secular sciences, and the Russian language, would be taught according to European methods. On this same subject he carried on a correspondence with his former mentor Margani who was also interested in educational reform, but who found his erstwhile pupil's project too bold and likely to open the way to the russification of the Tatars. During Feizkhanov's lifetime (he died in 1865), nothing came of his ideas, but by the end of the nineteenth century a number of medresse had implemented similar reforms. On Feizkhanov's life and work one can consult Riza'eddin Fakhreddin, Asar (Monuments), 2 vols (Kazan' and Orenburg, 1900-1909), II: 432-443, and G. von Mende, op. cit. : 38-39. Some of the correspondence between Feizkhanov and Margani have been published in the original Tatar in Asar and in the review ura (The Council), 14-19 (July 15Oct. 1, 1916). On Feizkhanov's association with the Kazakh enlightener Chokan Valikhanov, khiisain Faizkhanov see . Kh. zhne Marghulan, onyng peterbordan "Shoqannyng zhazghan zhangadan khattary" ashylghan (A recently dosy unveiled friend of Chokan ValikhanovHiiseyn Feizkhanov and his Petersburg letters), Izvestiia AN Kaz. SSR, Seriia obshchestvennykh nauk, 3 (1965): 12-24.

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ment, but at no time was there any effort to form ties, on the basis of a broad reform program, among the various groups of Muslims in Russia.' For the elaboration of a well-defined program of action which sought to treat a wide range of Muslim societal problems on an all-Russia basis, we have to turn to the Crimean Tatar Ismail Bey Gasprinskii.8 Born in a small village in the Crimea in 1851, Gasprinskii carried on an unremitting attack against the ills of Russian Islam from the late 1870's until his death in 1914. At root an educator, he sought to raise the cultural and economic status of his co-religionists through a broad reform not only of the curriculum in the Muslim schools, but also of the method of instruction. His creation of a "new method" of education (usl-i gadid) became the cornerstone upon which he constructed his own multifaceted program,8 and through his journalistic activities Gasprinskii propagandized his ideas and gave birth to what became known as gadidism. Ismail Bey's primary instrument of propaganda was Terguman /Perevodchik (The Interpreter), a newspaper which he owned, edited, and published between 1883 and 1914.10 A dual-language publication,11 Tergiiman IPerevodchik was printed both in Russian and in a Turkic language based upon a simplified Ottoman Turkish, but sprinkled with tatarisms.12 One of the special features of this newspaper was the appearance from time to time of supplements, generally in the form of full-page inserts or small pamphlets. 7. Certainly the vast distances between the various Muslim communities in Russia and the concomitant low level of inter-community contact contributed to the absence of any unified action on the part of the early "enlighteners". But even more striking, and less explicable, was the apparent lack of cooperation on the intra-community level. Dzh. Validov (op. cit. : 42) cited one noteworthy example of this: "Nasyrov ['Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri (see note 17)] was a contempor ary of Margani [see note 5] and lived nearby him, but between them there was no internal moral bond nor any active contact. " 8. There exists a substantial literature concerning Gasprinskii, but most of it must be handled with extreme caution. Fortunately, much of what Gasprinskii himself wrote is extant outside of the Soviet Union, and this corpus of material provides us with a reasonably clear understanding of his life and work. For a full-scale study of Gasprinskii, with accompanying exhaustive bibliography, see my doctoral dissertation entitled "Ismail Bey Gasprinskii and Muslim modernism in Russia, 1878-1914", Seattle, University of Washington, 1973. 9. Gasprinskii's program, although never articulated fully in a single manifesto, very clearly comprised the following points: (a) reform of the Muslim educational system in order to bring it into conformity with "modern" pedagogy; (b) creation of a common Turkic literary language; (c) emancipation of women; (d) organization of cooperative and philanthropic societies; (e) strengthening of ties among Russia's Turco-Muslim peoples; and (f) cooperation with the Russian government and people. 10. Tergiiman/Perevodchik survived until February, 1918, when publication was suspended by order of the fledgling Bolshevik government. On this and other journalistic enterprises pursued by Ismail Bey, see A. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, La presse et le mouvement national chez les musulmans de Russie avant I20 (The Hague: Mouton, 1964): 37-42, 138-143, and E. Lazzerini, op. cit., especially ch. 11 and ni. 11. After the first few years of Terguman/ Perevodchik' s existence, the Turkic section was gradually expanded at the expense of the Russian section. Beginning in late 1905, except on rare occasions thereafter, articles were published in Turkic alone. 12. For an analysis of the language of Terguman, and by extension, a study of Gasprinskii's common Turkic literary language, see G. Burbiel, "Die Sprache Isma'il Bey Gaspyralys", doctoral dissertation, University of Hamburg, 195. and E. Lazzerini, op. cit., ch. vn. There are a number of criticisms of Burbiel's work, not the least of which was the use of only seven issues of Terguman for his analysis. Nevertheless, his basic conclusions as to the nature of the new literary language appear to be valid.

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As a supplement to issue forty (October 31, 1901), Gasprinskii offered his readers Mebadi-yi temeddun-i Islamiyan-i Rus. The pamphlet comprises an essay of seven and one-half pages outlining the course of Muslim advances in Russia during the previous quarter century, plus a bibliography of selected readings. The essay itself is straightforward enough not to require a lengthy explanatory introduction on my part. Gasprinskii's prose style will undoubtedly appear naive to present-day readers, but it should be kept in mind that much of his literary output was purposefully written in this manner. After all, his Muslim audience was not composed of worldly sophisticates, and much about which he wrote was novel and unfamiliar to his readers. Gasprinskii always tried to be instructive, and this led him to strive constantly for simplicity of expression. In my translation I have endeavored to remain faithful to the original text, and wherever possible the style of the Turkic has been preserved. For the sake of clarity and the English language, however, some parts have been freely recast. As for the bibliography, the original was very poorly done, at least by modern standards. In most cases Gasprinskii provided the author's name, the title of the work, and the place and date of publication. Wherever possible, in order to increase the list's future usefulness to scholars, I have liberally added information that is missing (e.g., the name of the publisher), corrected all incorrect data (the original is notoriously inaccurate so far as dates of publication are concerned), rearranged the works by author, provided complete titles where only abbreviated ones were given, supplied data on various editions of each work, and noted the libraries outside of the Soviet Union in which copies of many of the works have been located. The latter is provided for, at the end of each bibliographic entry, by the following set of abbreviations:18 BrM D EPHE H IUK LO NYPL TE TTK WL British Museum (London) Dar ul-Kutub (Cairo) Bibliothque du Centre d'tudes sur l'URSS et l'Europe tale, EPHE (Paris) Library of the University of Helsinki Istanbul niversitesi Kutiiphanesi Bibliothque de l'cole des Langues Orientales Vivantes (Paris) New York Public Library Tiirkiyat Enstitiisu Kutiiphanesi Tiirk Tarih Kurumu Kutiiphanesi Widener Library, Harvard University (Cambridge, setts)

To both the essay and the bibliography I have provided hopefully useful comment aries and additional information. New Orleans, 1975. E. L.

13. Knowledge of the library collections in Paris, Helsinki, Istanbul, and Ankara has resulted from this researcher's personal, on-the-spot perusal of their catalogues. As for holdings in other libraries, I have relied upon data gathered by Prof. A. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, and upon a recent publication of Prof. Edward Allworth entitled Nationalities of the Soviet East : publications and writing systems (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971) . The information on library holdings is not meant to be exhaustive, but should serve as a guide to the availability, outside of the Soviet Union, of the works in Gasprinskii's bibliography.

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FIRST STEPS TOWARD CIVILIZING THE RUSSIAN MUSLIMS uadid books Uadid mekteb Students Women The theater Charitable societies Publishing houses The titles of gadid books At the present time, despite the fact that the Muslim subjects of Russia lag far behind [other peoples], and that they share in so little of modern life, this great [Muslim] society is not all that incognizant [of what is happening around it]; and one cannot deny that within it a revival is taking place. Granted that this revival is not imposing; and so long as you do not pay close attention you will not even notice it. Yet it is enough for us that with some attention it can be observed, because it undoubtedly represents the beginning of progress and civilization. Twenty or twenty-five years ago, God be praised, although a consid erable number of [Muslim] religious works were published in Russia,14 only "three" items dealing with "science" and "literature" were written in our language.15 Of these, one was the Bilik published by the 14. As part of Empress Catherine II's (1762-1796) final attempt to create a successful state policy toward the Muslim subjects of the Russian Empire, all books used in Muslim schools after 1786 were to be printed and translated at government expense in dual-language editions: in Russian and Tatar. [A. W. Fisher, "Enlightened despotism and Islam under Catherine II", Slavic Review, XXVII, 4 (Dec, 1968): 549.] In 1800, at the request of certain Kazan' Tatars, a special Asiatic press was established at Kazan' University by imperial order for the printing of books in languages employing the Arabic script. Once in operation, this press eventually was turning out hundreds of thousands of copies of such works annually. On the activities of the Asiatic press and for a list of all works published by it between 1800 and 1896, see N. F. Katanov, Katalog knig, otpechatannykh v tipografii imperatorskago Kazanskago universiteta s 1800 po i8g6 god (A catalogue of books printed at the Imperial University of Kazan' from 1800 to i86) (Kazan': tip. Imperatorskago Universiteta, n. d.): 1-8 and 324-416. For other information on Muslim publishing activity in the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century, one may consult the following: V. D. Smirnov, "Musul'manskiia pechatnyia izdaniia v Rossii" (Muslim printed publications in Russia), Zapiski vostochnago otdeleniia imperatorskago russkago arkheologicheskago obshchestva, III (1888): 97-114; G. Gubaidullin, "Iz proshlogo Tatar" (From the Tatar past), Materily po izucheniiu Tatarstana, Part II (Kazan': izd. Akademicheskogo Tsentra TNKP, 1925): 103-105. 15. One of the fundamental aims of Gasprinskii's "program" was the creation of a common Turkic literary language that would serve as a means of uniting, at least culturally, all Muslim in Russia. Gasprinskii seems to have formulated such a language sometime during the 1880's, utilizing what amounted to a simplified Ottoman Turkish as a base to which were added certain Tatarisms. Terguman was gradually printed in this language and became a vehicle for its dissemination. Whether this is the language to which Gasprinskii is referring when he writes "our language", or whether he merely means one or the other of the various Turkic languages in which most works were being written, is difficult to determine. Gasprinskii was later to admit in his newspaper Millet (The Nation), (1906): i, that before 1905-1906 it was too risky in Russia to raise openly the subject of a

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orientalist Radlov,16 the second was Qayyum Efendi Nasiri's almanac,17 and the third comprised the comedies of Mirza Fatih 'Ali Akhundov.18 common Turkic literary language, and that he had had to resort to "implication, hints, and examples... [in order to] make those who read understand in some way..." Perhaps this is an example of Gasprinskii's indirect approach to the subject; much more plausible, however, may be the following explanation: given the extre mely low state of Muslim publishing activity, Gasprinskii was willing to accept gadid works written in any Turkic language used by Muslims. After all, one cannot be too discriminating when there are only several hundred such works from which to choose. 16. Vasilii Vasil'evich Radlov (1837-1918) was a well-known Russian orientalist, one-time inspector for the Tatar, Bashkir, and Kirgiz schools in the Kazan' School District, and a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. For a biographical sketch of Radlov, see the article by P. Ritter in Entsiklopedicheskii slovar' (The encyclopedic dictionary), 58 vols (7th d.; Moscow: izd. "Grant", 1910-1948), XXXV: 444-446. For biographical information and for a survey of his work, see O. Pritsak's introduction to the reprint of Radlov's Versuch eines Wrterbuches der Trk-Dialecte (4 vols; The Hague: Mouton, i960), I: v-xxvii. A complete list of Radlov's works can be found in Materily dlia bibliograficheskago slovaria deistvitel'nykh chlenov imperatorskoi akademii nauk (Material for a bibliographical dictionary of the members of the Imperial Academy of Sciences) (2 parts; Petrograd: tip. Imperatorskago Akademii Nauk, 1915-1917), Part II: 121-136. The Bilik mentioned above is a reference to Radlov's large study of the old Turkic literary monument Qutadgu Bilig, which he began in 1884 and later published as Das Kudatku Bilik des Jusuf Chass-Hudschib aus Blasagun (2 parts; St. Petersburg: izd. Imperatorskago Akademii Nauk, 1891-1910). 17. Many studies have been devoted to the erudite Tatar scholar 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri (1825-1902), particularly in Russian. For a biographical sketch and an extensive bibliography of Nasiri's own works and works about him, see Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, "Un rformateur tatar au xixe sicle: 'Abdul Qajjum al-Nasyri", CMRS, IV, 1-2 (1963): 117-142. Of similar import is S . agatay, "Abd-ul-Kayyum Nasiri", Ankara niversitesi DU ve Tarih-Cografya Fakltesi Dergisi, X, 3-4 (1952): 147-160. Between 1871 and 1897 (except for the years 1886, 1887, and 1895), Nasiri edited an annual almanac entitled Qazan Kalindan (Kazan' Almanac), which provided the reader with information on a variety of topics. Copies of the almanac for the following years are available outside of the Soviet Union: 1873, 66 p. [BrM]; 1874, 52 p. [BrM]; 1876, 60 p. [LO]; 1881, 80 p. [H]; 1885, 38 p. [LO]; 1897, 4 P- [. [Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, art. cit. : 135.] 18. Mirza Fatih fAli Akhundov (1812-1878) was a major figure in the general cultural development of nineteenth-century Azerbadjan. Educated both in a traditional Muslim and a Russian-sponsored school, Akhundov passed up a career as a theologian in favor of a position as oriental language translator in the Chancery of the Governor-General of the Caucasus, Baron Gregor von Rosen. He remained in the Russian state service until his retirement in 1876. Akhundov's great contribution to the Azeri people, however, lay in his activities and interests outside of his official duties. Spurred on by a desire to bring about change in the traditional life style of the Azeri Muslims, he turned to literature as a means of attacking old and propagandizing new ideas. After an early fascination with classical Islamic literature, Akhundov abandoned the elitist literary language and turned to writing in the Azeri vernacular which could be understood by even the semiliterate. He was a pioneer of the theater among the Turkic peoples, famous for the comedies to which Gasprinskii alludes above; and he was the first Azeri to write a novel in the vernacular. For the last twenty years of his life Akhundov worked diligently to reform the Azeri language either by simplifying the Arabic script or by proposing the adoption of the Latin alphabet. Much like Gasprinskii himself, Akhundov viewed education and enlightenment as the keys to a better life for Muslim society. An exhaustive bibliography of over 1,700 Russian sources dealing with Akhundov is provided by A. N. Lerman in Mirza Fatah Akhundov v vusskoi pechati 1837-IQ62 gg. Bibliografiia (Mirza Fatali Akhundov in Russian publications, i83j-ig62. A bibliography) (Baku: tip. "Krasnyi Vostok", 1962).

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Two of these works appeared in Kazan', while the third was published in Tiflis. At that same time a Turkic-language newspaper entitled Ekingi was founded in Baku by Hasan Bey Meliko v.19 Although it had only a brief existence, the newspaper cast a ray of light, like a lightning bolt, upon [long] dormant ideas. Even though a few works such as the tale of Tahir ve Zuhra (Tahir and Zuhra) were available [at that time], these cannot be included [in our discussion] because of their lack of literary significance. [Among Muslims] the state of general knowledge was regrettably pitiful. Unaware of the discoveries of "Kepler" and "Newton", Muslim society viewed the world and universe through the eyes of "Ptolemy", and was heedless of both contemporary affairs and the life-styles of other nations. In short, whatever may have been the circumstances of the civilized world four hundred years ago, we Muslims find ourselves today in exactly the same circumstances; that is, we are four hundred years behind! But now in this same Islamic world characterized by a dearth of knowledge, a lack of information, and torpor, one can discern a slight revival, a degree of awakening and understanding. This revival is not the result of some external influence, but is a marvellous, natural phenomenon born from within. In 1881 we published an essay in Russian entitled Rusyada ehl-i Islam (Russian Islam).20 In this essay we called upon Muslims to Biographical information can be found in D. Dzhafarov, M. F. Akhundov (Moscow, 1962.) For appreciations of Akhundov's role in the modernist trend in Azerbaidjan, see H. W. Brands, Azerbaidschanische Volksleben und modernistische Tendenz in des Schauspielen Mirza Feth-Ali Ahundzades (Gravenhage, 1958), and T. A. Swietochowski, "Modernizing trends and the growth of national awareness in 19th century Russian Azerbaidjan", doctoral dissertation (New York University, 1968): 76-158. 19. Hasan Bey Melikov Zerdabi (1842-1907), an Azeri educator, journalist, and grass-roots "enlightener", worked for the modernization of Muslim life in much the same way as did Gasprinskii, except that the scope of his activity was parochial rather than pan-islamic. He devoted his adult life to improving the Muslim schools, developing education for girls, establishing charitable societies, and promoting an Islamic theater. From July, 1875 to September, 1877 he was editor and publisher of Ekingi, the first private newspaper in a Turkic language to be published in Russia. He and Gasprinskii were essentially contemporaries, and while there is evidence that they knew of and admired each other's work, there is nothing that points to any serious cooperation between them. Concerning Hasan Bey there is an extensive Soviet literature, of which the following should be noted: Z. B. Geiushev, Mirovozzrenie G. B. Zardabi (The world view of G. B. Zardabi) (Baku, 1962), and M. M. Kasumov, "G. Zardabi vydaiushchiisia Azerbaidzhanskoi prosvetitel'" (G. Zardabi Distinguished Azeri enlightener), Trudy Instituta istorii i filosofii AN Az.SSR, VIII (1955): 136-178. In English there is T. A. Swietochowski, op. cit., 171-197. 20. An extremely important early essay, Russkoe musul'manstvo (Russian Islam) first brought Gasprinskii's name and ideas to public attention. Originally serialized in issues 43-47 (1881) of the newspaper Tavrida, it was subsequently expanded and reprinted as a separate publication. In this essay Ismail Bey discussed the situation of the Islamic community in Russia and raised the issue of its modernization. The key to a better life for his co-religionists was, he felt, active cooperation between an enlightened Russian government and an awakened Muslim people. For a Russian reaction to this essay, see M. Miropiev, "Kakiia nachala dolzhny by polozheny v osnovu obrazovaniia russkikh inorodtsev-

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write and translate works concerning science, literature, and contempor ary progress. P se God, for we were fortunate that our appeal coincided with the intentions and thoughts of many individuals. As a result, today, some twenty years later, as many as three hundred scientific and literary works have been published in our own language. I realize that for a people numbering in the millions the publication of three hundred items in twenty years is not a great deal. Nevertheless, compared with the "three" works that I mentioned above, one hundred times those three is not insignificant. Generally speaking, the contents of these three hundred national21 works are such as to encourage people to read and learn. Among the books themselves are those which discuss geography, introductory philosophy, astronomy, the preservation of health, and other useful knowledge. New method [usl-i gadid] primers and reading books, plays, and one or two national novels make up the literary contributions. The authors of the above are "young " who have been trained in our national medresse and who, through self-education, have acquired scientific knowledge.22 But those youth who have entered the [Russian] gymnasia and universities have not yet shown a service to our national literature. Although the mulla have taken many steps forward, these others have just made a beginning.23 There is a very simple explanation for this regrettable state of affairs. While our enlightened, educated Muslims24 know Russian and European languages, and while they enter various professions such as medicine, engineering, mining, and law, they are unable to read and write in their own national language! There is no educated Russian who does not read and write his own native tongue, no educated Austrian, Pole, Georgian, or Armenian who is not literate in his own national language. Unfortunately, this is not the case with our people. musul'man? Po povodu broshiury Ismail-beia Gasprinskago" (What sort of principles should be established as a basis for the education of Russian nativeMuslims? A propos the essay of Ismail Bey Gasprinskii), Rus', IV, 17 (Sept. 1, 1884): 24-41. 21. In the original essay, Gasprinskii used the word mitt which, although usually translated as "national", merely refers to the community of Muslims as a religious community and has nothing to do with the Western concept of "nation". 22. Mulla were Islamic teachers trained in the medresse for service in the mekteb (primary schools). The "young mulla" to whom Gasprinskii refers are clearly representatives of the modernist wing of that professional group; men who had become aware of the need to broaden the range of their intellectual inquiry to include secular as well as religious (Islamic) subjects. The phrase "through self -education" is an obvious reference to the fact that only theological studies were pursued in the medresse. 23. Here Gasprinskii directs mild criticism toward those of the intelligentsia who have become so westernized that they have lost all touch with their Islamic roots. From many of his other writings, it is clear that he felt very strongly that those who had succeeded in life, whether it be materially or intellectually, had an obligation to share with their brethren the fruits of their own success. This attitude, so pronounced in Gasprinskii, probably results from the triple influence of traditional Islamic teaching, French Utopian socialism, and Russian populism. 24. That is, those Muslims who had attended non-Islamic schools in which Turkic was seldom if ever taught.

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Above all else Islam makes two demands [on its adherents]: one is education, the other is prayer. As a consequence, in every place where Muslims are to be found, a mekteb25 is built for the former and a mosque for the latter. Depending upon the locality, they are constructed either of stone, wood, or felt cloth. Those of sedentary Muslims are found in fixed places; those of the nomads are portable and travel along with them. Everyone knows that the Islamic world's largest and most important buildings and building complexes consist of mekteb and mosques. In every village, in every quarter, somehow or other one will find a place of instruction. In Russia, at a time when education was hardly considered, and there were only two Russian schools to be found in the whole country, every Muslim village had one mekteb apiece. But, if in former days these schools sufficed and were competent, we must all acknowledge that to meet the demands of today they are in need of reform. For several years I was in the teaching profession,26 and [during that time] I became intimately acquainted with conditions in the Russian schools and Muslim mekteb. [In the latter] the poor students would rock at their reading desks for six or seven hours everyday for five or six years.27 There were many nights when I was unable to sleep because of my bitterness and regret at seeing them deprived of the ability to write and of a knowledge of the catechism and other matters, and their inability to acquire, in the end, anything other than the talent for repeating an Arabic sentence.28 25. On the role of the mekteb in Islamic society, consult L. Brunot, "Maktab", in Encyclopedia of Islam (London, 1936), III: 177-180. 26. According to . Seydahmet, Gaspirali Ismail Bey (Istanbul, 1934): 18, after his departure from, the Moscow Military Academy in 1867, Gasprinskii accepted a position as a Russian language instructor in Bakhchisarai at the Zingirli medresse. Beginning in 1869 he taught for two years at the Dereky mekteb in Yalta, before once again returning to teach at Zingirli. He failed to retain his post for very long when, as a result of his criticism of the traditional educational method then in use, he incurred the wrath and enmity of both students and faculty alike. Under pressure to recant or resign, and even threatened with physical harm, Gasprinskii quit the medresse in 1871. Around 1875, Ismail Bey again tried his hand at formal teaching, but his outspoken views once more led to conflict with the educational establishment. See O. Aqoqraqh, "Qart mu'allim ve yazigilanmizdan Isma'il Gasprinski" (Ismail Gasprinskii One of our former teachers and writers), Oku Ileri, 2 (June, 1925): 9. 27. In the traditional mekteb the students were required to recite their lessons aloud, both to help them to memorize the material and to permit the instructor to correct their pronunciation. The rhythm of their recitations was aided by rocking their upper bodies as they sat cross-legged on the floor. 28. Here we are introduced to the basic criticism of the old method of Muslim education: it was based upon learning by rote with no concern for student compreh ension. Knowledge of the Kuran and other religious writings (this being the only knowledge deemed worthy of mastering), was to be limited to their memoriz ation. For Turkic children this was particularly difficult because the material to be mastered was in Arabic, a language in which they were all too often given no training. For a list of the reading materials used in an old method mekteb mater ialswhich point up the entirely religious content of the curriculum see S. Rybakov,

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School time was being wasted. The teaching of skills, techniques, the Russian language, and other matters was [so inadequate] that a fifth-year mekteb student could neither perform his daHy prayers properly nor write a simple letter. A remedy had to be found for this state of affairs. It was necessary to complete the teaching of religion well and in a short time, and then to find a way to provide [the students] with the skills, languages, and information needed for today's world. It was because of this that we opened a discussion of the new method [usul-i gadid] in 1884 in Tergiiman, the newspaper that we had founded in 1883. A graded and phonetic primer was published29 and a mekteb in Bakhchisarai was changed over to this method and system. The visible progress made by the students of this mekteb compelled other schools to adopt the method.30 In six months, after mastering reading and writing in Turkish and the four basic arithmetical processes, the novice students had begun lessons to learn Arabic, and were reading a book that taught the elements of religion. [Their successes] reverberated in far-off provinces, and today the "phonetic method" [usul-i savtiye] has spread all the way to Chinese Turkistan. [In the intervening period] over five hundred old [method] mekteb have been reformed. Because the opportunity presented itself, Russian language teachers have been invited to a number of mekteb, and one hears that perfect Russian has been acquired with ease. (For example, in mekteb in Bakhchisarai, Sheki, Kuldzha, Shirvan, Nakchivan, and other places.) Great success has been achieved in awakening public opinion concerning the mekteb because Muslims are an alert people whc, once they are exposed to something, come to know and understand it. Consequently, I am hopeful that there will be other reforms and that the idea of change will not be reserved only for the primary schools. Reform of the Arab medresse as well has been engraved on the heart of the nation. After spending eight or ten years studying grammar, which is the primary section of the Arabic and Islamic sciences, and after being "imprisoned in the medresse" for fifteen years, the student does not know Arabic. He will have come across the names of Ghazl, Bukhr, and Taftzn, but will have had no acquaintance with the "Novometodisty i starometodisty v russkom musul'manstve" (New methodists and old methodists within Russian Islam), Mir Islama, II, 12 (1913): 856, citing an article in the Turkic review Suva, 14 (Jul. 15, 1913). 29. The primer was entitled Khoga-yi sibyan. A z vaqitta oqumaq yazrnaq ve hisab bildirir (The teacher of children. Provides knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic in a short time). Gasprinskii contended that the material covered by this book could be mastered in only six months, instead of the usual four or five years using the old method. 30. The first new method mekteb was opened in the Kaytaz Aga quarter of Bakhchisarai with an enrolment of twelve students and an instructor named Bekir Emekdar Efendi. The success of the enterprise was such that, despite strong opposition from local traditionalists, forty new students were enrolled after only two months. As news of the school spread, from the Caucasus and the Volga region came to Bakhchisarai in order to learn the new method, then returned home to establish their own reformed mekteb. By the end of the 1880's, every Russian province contained two or three such institutions. See I. Gasprinskii, "Turk Yurtgularma" (To the men of Turk Yurdu), Turk Yurdu, I (1328/1910): 194, 236-237.

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likes of eAli Htisayn Ibn Sn, Frb, or Ibn Khaldun.31 Consequently, it dawns on many men that this is not a very~s*ound or reasonable way to terminate their education. Thanks to this [realization], and with the intention of renovating the educational method, they have been rather successful in reforming and reorganizing the following medresse: the Zingirli in Bakhchisarai, the Barudi in Kazan', the 'Osmanov in Ufa, and the Huseynov in Orenburg. In order to facilitate the teaching of Arabic, newly organized grammar books have been published. For example, there are the works of Ahmed Hadi Efendi Maksudi [published] in Kazan'.32 The search for knowledge does not take this path alone. Profiting from the state-run primary schools,33 Muslim students are entering the [Russian] gymnasia and universities in order to become acquainted with contemporary progress and learning, and the number who complete [these schools] is increasing. Twenty years ago "one of our people" had received a university education; now such people number more than one hundred. Fifty Muslim young men who have received a [Russian] higher education and who have entered the professions of engineering, medicine, law, etc., can be found in Baku alone. There are also those who have been educated in, and returned home from, French and German universities. It is noteworthy that there is a greater number of Muslims in the southern provinces who study Russian than there are in the inner provinces. We hope that our coreligionists up and down the Volga will recognize that they are being delinquent in this matter, and that they will endeavor to become acquainted with contemporary progress through a knowledge of the Russian language. There are thousands of scientific and technical works written in Russian; it is necessary to profit from them.34 31. All of those mentioned were outstanding and much revered Islamic intel lectuals. 32. Specifically Al-qavanin al-nahviya (The rules of grammar), Kazan', 1893. See item 21. 33. Gasprinskii is referring to both the regular Russian primary schools and the special Russo-Tatar (or Russo-Native) schools, the second of which appeared in small numbers beginning in the 1870's. The latter type of school was specifically set up to provide state-controlled education for Muslim and other inorodtsy (nonRussian) children, and was based upon the pedagogical ideas of N. I. Il'mmskii. For a useful analysis of the role of Il'minskii in the education of non-Russian minorities, see I. T. Kreindler, "Education policies toward the Eastern nationalities in Tsarist Russia: a study of Il'minskii's system", unpublished doctoral disserta tion (Columbia University, 1970) which also contains a thorough bibliography. K. E. Bendrikov, in his Ocherki po istorii narodnogo obrazovaniia v Turkestane, X865-IQ24 (Essays on the history of public education in Turkestan, i86^-i24) (Moscow, i960), has provided scholars with an excellent study of the Russo-Native schools in Turkestan. 34. That Gasprinskii took pains to point out that many Muslims had been lax with regard to learning Russian is noteworthy on two counts: first, it reflects the intense indifference, even abhorrence, of traditionalist Muslims toward acquiring a non-Islamic language; secondly, it reveals Ismail Bey's conviction that Russian as well as other European languages must be learned if Muslims are to enter the mainstream of modern life. For many Russian Muslims, to study the state language was tantamount to inviting ultimate russification. Traditionalists certainly have a valid point to make in this regard; nevertheless, committed as

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In a similar way the national theater is the product of recent years. Besides the comedies of Mirza Fatih 'Ali, which have been around for some time, several new comedies have been written and published. Theatrical plays in the national language have appeared in Baku, Karabagh, Gendzhe, and Bakhchisarai. In Baku a permanent theat rical company has been formed, and one or two plays have been translated from Russian. Armenian, Georgian, and Jewish girls serve in the roles of women. We are thankful [for all of this], but it cannot be denied that our theater rests on one leg.

One notices traces of awakening and progress among Muslim women, who have remained even further behind in comparison with Muslim men. If you want proof [of progress in this area], I can only give you a little. In the last days of winter there is a "white flower" which grows in the snow; surely you know it. If this blooming flower is not proof that summer has arrived, it is a certain sign that the beginning of summer is near. There are some signs just like this one [with regard to the advancement of our women]. Twenty-five years ago the respected wife of Hasan Bey (who was one of our journalists),35 was the only Muslim woman who had received an education; now there exist perhaps twenty such women. In St. Petersburg, in a women's medical [nursing?] school, three Muslim women are studying medical science, and one is practicing medicine.36 It is well known that two Muslim women are writing, and their results are being published.37 Let them be examples and models for emerging authors. This world is one of hope; why should we despair?

Charity, giving alms, and helping others are fundamental to the Islamic faith. Because of this, God be praised, we can say that there is no one who does not tithe, give alms and [other assistance]. Everyone contributes within his means, and thus every year a great deal of money he was to achieving a syncretic solution to the problem of "Islam in the modern world", Gasprinskii felt that the benefits to the Islamic community derived from learning Russian far out-weighed the threat that knowledge of the language might pose. 35. The reference is to Khanifa Khamm, wife of Hasan Bey Melikov Zerdabi. See note 19. 36. In Perevodchik, 10 (Mar. 12, 1895): 20, Gasprinskii noted that Razia Kutluiarova, a Muslim woman, had completed her medical studies in St. Petersburg and had been granted permission to practice. The exact nature of Razia Khanim's medical training, however, is unclear. 37. See the bibliographic entries for Khanifa Khamm (also entered under the nom de plume 'Alimat al-Benat), and Ibnet-ul-Suleymani.

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is dispensed in this way. Nevertheless, while there are those who help themselves to these charities, there are others too ashamed to do so, and, as a result, go hungry. Being aware of the fact that there is a lot for some and nothing for others, the public has begun to rectify the situation. In recent years, to provide order to charitable activities and to increase the opportunities for such projects, the idea of the "charitable society" has emerged. Twenty-five years ago in all of Russia there was only one "Muslim charitable society", in Vladikavkaz. Today such societies have been established and are performing their tasks in each of the following places: Khankerman, Kazan', Troitsk, Semipalatinsk, Ufa, and Hadzhi Terhan.38

[The extent of] publishing activity and the book trade is the most concrete testimony to the degree of advancement and progress of a nation; it is the most direct proof. Twenty years ago there were two printing presses in Muslim hands: that of the 'Abdullin Tas publishing house in Kazan', and of the Insizade press in Tiflis. Now there exist the "Terguman" press in Bakhchisarai, the press of Ilias Mirza Boragani in St. Petersburg, of the Karimov brothers in Kazan', of Mulla Ibrahim Karimov in Orenburg, and of Doctor Akhundov and 'Ali Merdan Bey in Baku. In all we have progressed from two such estab lishments to eight.39

I am leaving it up to each reader to make his own evaluation as to the degree of progress and advancement that has been made in each of the areas [of Muslim life] about which I have been writing. Following are the works which we reviewed this evening, and which comprise a part of our new [gadid] literature. This list is by no means complete; if we may, we have postponed its completion until another time.40

38. Copies of the regulations and Dy-laws oi a number of charitable societies are available in the turcica collection of the Helsinki University Library. In 1908, a standardized form for writing up the by-laws of such organizations was published in Zaman kalindar. Taqvim igog (A calendar of the times. An almanac for igog) (Kazan', 1908): 20-25. 39. Information on the "Terguman" press is readily available in the many works dealing with Gasprinskii. Of the other publishing enterprises, only the Insizade "Turkguluk" press (Turkishness), has had its activities in Turk adequately Yili 18 chronicled. (Istanbul, 1928): Yusuf336-337, Aquraoglu, may be used with caution in this regard; much more accurate, however, is A. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, op. cit. : 30-31, which is also a mine of information for all Muslim periodical publishing in Russia before 1920. 40. Gasprinskii appears never to have completed the list.

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PART I BOOKS PERTAINING TO INSTRUCTION 1 - 'Abdullah Muhammed Feyzi, Mukhtasar 4lm-i hal (A short catechism) , Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1316/1898-99, 58 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, lito-tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1903, 56 p. [H]; 1908, 56 p. [H]. 2 - 'Abdullah Muhammed Feyzi, Mukhtasar gografya-yi 'umum (A short universal geography), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 95 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, lito-tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1905, 84 p. [H]; 3rd, tipo-lit. I. V. Ermolaeva, 1908, 88 p. [H]. 3 - 'Abdullah Muhammed Feyzi, Qava 'id-i turkiye (The rules of Turkish), Kazan', tipo-lit. M. Chirkova, 1898, 42 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, tipo-lit. I. V. Ermol aeva, 1907, 40 p. [H]. 4 - 'Abdullah Na'metullin Vyatqali, Qtrq rayet-i trk (Forty Turkish banners), Kazan', n.p., 1899. 5 - 'Abdullah Sadiqi al-ayqi, Tarikh-i enbiya (A history of the prophets), Part I, Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1895, 63 p. [H]. Other editions: 1897, 63 p. [H]; tip. Chirkova, 1899, 43 p. [H]; Part II, tip. Ermolaeva, 1907, 32 p. [H]; other editions: tip. "Millet", 1909, 34 p. [H]. 6 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Akhlq risalesi (A treatise on morals), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1890, 24 p. Other editions: 1893, 24 p. [H]; 1898, 24 p. [H, TE]; 1904, 24 p. [H]. On 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, see note 17. 7 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Enmuzeg. Lisanimizni sarf ve nahv qa'ideleri (A model. The grammatical and syntactical rules of our language), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895, 87 p. [H]. One of Nasiri's major concerns was the creation of a Tatar literary language free from Arabic and Persian borrowings and closer to the Volga region vernacular than Chagatai. Enmuzeg is an attempt by Nasiri to systematize his work in this area. See A. Sa'adi, Tatar edebiyati tarihi (Tatar literary history) (Kazan', 8 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Hisabhq (A manual of arithmetic) , Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1873, 52 p. [H]. Other editions: 1899, 85 p. This was a pioneering work for which Nasiri had to create appropriate Tatar vocabulary for the mathematical terminology. He wrote the book to satisfy the need for a mathematical textbook in his own school, where he sought to introduce secular subjects into the curriculum. See Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, art. cit.: 122. To the same genre of scientific writings belong 'Ilm-i hendese and the three parts of Usl-i gografya-yi kebir listed below. 9 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, 'Ilm-i hendese (Geometry), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895, 24 P- [10 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Miikemmel ruse ve tolarg"a lgat (A complete Russian and Tatar dictionary), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 263 p. [LO, TE]. Other editions: 2nd, 1905-6, 263 p. [TE, WL]. This work is more commonly known under its Russian title Polnyi russko-tatarskii slovar'.

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11 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Numune-yi qava'id-i rusya ve tatarya (The pattern of the rules of Russian and Tatar), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta [?], 1891. 12 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Otuz va' z (Thirty sermons), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1888, 180 p. [TE]. A collection of the teachings of certain great Muslim saints including Anas ibn Malik, Ibn 'Abbas, and even Jesus Christ for use by imam during Ramazan and other religious feasts. The texts are in Arabic. 13 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Qava'id-i lisan-i 'arab (The rules of the Arabic language), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1896, 74 p. Nasiri's textbook was evidently used in old method as well as new method schools. See la. Koblov, Konfessional'nyia shkoly Kazanskikh Tatar (Kazan' Tatar confes sional schools), Kazan', 1915, p. 24. 14 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Qava'id-i qira'at-i Rusiye (The rules for reading Russian), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1889, 24 p. A Russian primer for young Tatars. 15 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Usul-i gografya-yi kebir. I: Azya qit'asi (The fundamental principles of geography. I: The Asian continent), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1894, 206 p. [H]; II: Afriqa qiast (II: The African continent), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 200 p. [H]; III: Evsaf-i geziretui-' Arab ('Arabistan) (III: Description of the Arabian peninsula-Arabia), Kazan', tip. imper. Universit eta, 1899, 138 p. [H]. 16 - 'Abdurrahman ibn Isma'il, Mu'allim-i sarf-i lisan al-'arab (A teacher of Arabic grammar), Kazan', n.p., 1896. 17 - 'Abdusselam Akhundzade, Risale-yi 'umdetlahkm (A treatise on the funda mentals of legal decisions), part I, Baku, n.p., 131 1 /1893-94, 136 p. 'Abdusellam Akhundzade (1843 or 1844-1906), was born and educated in the Transcaucasus. In 1872, after serving as imam in the village of Salyan, he departed for Tiflis where he was appointed instructor of Turkic and Persian at the Muslim Spiritual Assembly. Seven years later he became a teacher of Islamic law, Turkic, and Persian at the well-known Gori Pedagogical College. In 1894 he was named head of the Spiritual Assembly and eyk ul-Islam of the Transcaucasus. For brief biographical notices on Akhundzade, see Perevodchik, 33 (Sept. 17, 1894): 66 and Zaman kalindar, op. cit. : 35. 18 - 'Abdusselam Akhundzade, Tarikh-i muqaddes-i enbiya (The holy history of the prophets), Part I, Baku, lit. G. I. Demurova, 1310/1892-3, 228 p. [H]. 19 - Ahmed Hadi al-Maqsudi, Al-durus al-ifdhiya (Oral lessons), Part I, Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 192 p. [TE]. Other editions: 4th, 1910, 152 p. [H]. Part II, Kazan', n.p., 1899. Educator and journalist, Ahmed Hadi (1867- 1945) was an important figure in the gadidist movement. Along with the numerous educational texts that he wrote, he founded in 1906 the Kazan' newspaper Yoldiz (The Star), which served as an organ for moderate reformism. On Ahmed Hadi, and his more famous brother Sadreddin, see A. Battal-Taymas, Iki Maksudiler (The two Madsudis) (Istanbul, 1959). as well as Tergiiman, 26 (Mar. 15, 1906): 1-2. 20 - Ahmed Hadi al-Maqsudi, Mu'allim-i evvel (The first teacher), Part I, Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 142 p. [H, TE]. Other editions: 2nd, 1897, 72 p. [H]; 3rd, 1898, 64 p. [H, NYPL]; 4th, tipo-lit. M. Chirkova, 1900, 88 p. [H]; 5th, tipo-lit. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1902, 70 p. [H]; 7th, lito-tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1904, 56 p. [H]; 10th, 1908, 48 p. [H]; and 1909, 48 p. [TE]; 14th, 1910, 48 p. [H].

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A new method primer based upon the ideas of Gasprinskii, with whom Maqsudi had become acquainted while teaching at the Zingirli medresse in Bakhchisarai. The publication of at least fourteen editions f this textbook attests to its great populari ty. Maqsudi also wrote a companion volume entitled Mu'allim-i sani (The second teacher). See A. Battal-Taymas, op. cit. : 58. 21 - Ahmed Hadi al-Maqsudi, Al-qavanin al-nahviya (The yules of grammar), Kazan', n.p., 1893. Other editions: 3rd, lito-tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1911, 60 p. [H]. An advertisement in Perevodchik, 12 (Mar. 24, 1894): 12, states that Al-qavanin al-nahviya is an Arabic grammar "prepared according to the new method". In a previous issue of the same newspaper (5, Febr. 4, 1894: 10), Gasprinskii comments that Maqsudi's textbook is better than those turned out by the Egyptians. 22 - Ahmed akir, Akhlq risalesi (A treatise on morals), Parts I and II, Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 23 p., 22 p. [H]. 23 - 'Alimgan ibn Muhammedgan al-Barudi, Medkhal-i 'arabiye (Introductory principles of Arabic), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1894, 55 p. [H]. Other editions: tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1903, 54 and 32 p. [H]. 'Alimgan al-Barudi (1857-1921) was a well-known mudarris {medresse professor) and reformer. He was the founder of the Muhammadiyya medresse in Kazan' which instituted a curriculum composed of both religious and secular subjects, including the Russian language. An active gadidist, he wrote a number of text books for use in the reformed schools; Medkhal-i 'arabiye is probably one of those works. Barudi is the subject of two studies: Yusuf Aquraoglu, Damulla Alimgan al-Barudi (Kazan', 1907), and A. Battal-Taymas, Alimcan Barudi (Istanbul, 1958). One should also consult the review Al-Din va'l-Adap (issued irregularly beginning in March, 1906), of which Barudi was editor-in-chief. 24 - Baha'eddin "suis" and "neskhi" al-Maqsudi, calligraphy), Mu'allim-i Ufa, n.p., khat-i 1891. suis ve neskh (A manual for teaching 25 - Cherniaevskii, A. O., Vatan dili, Part I: Trk-azerbigan dilinde (The national language, Part I: The Turk-Azerbaidjan tongue), Tiflis, n.p., 1895. Other editions: 3rd, 1896, 70 p. [H]; 4th, 1898, 71 p. [H]; 5th, 1901, 70 p. [H]; 6th, 1908, 65 p. [H]. A. O. Cherniaevskii (1840- 1894) was an Azerbaidjani-born Russian who served as director of the Gori Pedagogical College from its inception in 1876. His textbook Vatan dili first published in 1883 was a popular grammar of Azeri Turkic utilizing the phonetic method of presentation. A brief study of Cherniaevskii's pedagogical ideas is L. Vekilova, "Metodicheskoe nasledie A. O. Cherniaevskogo" (The legacy of A. O. Cherniaevskii's method), Russkii iazyk v natsional'noi shkole, 4 (1964): 34-38. 26 - Fehmi Efendi, Usl-i fars (The fundamentals of Persian), n.p., 1894. 27 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il, ihan name (An atlas), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1889, 14 p. Concerning this publication (or perhaps a later edition), the St. Petersburg newspaper Russkaia zhizn' wrote that Gasprinskii had accomplished something worthwhile by publishing an atlas with a Tatar text; the hope was also expressed that he would continue to publish a whole series of scientific and belletristic works in that language. "Efforts such as this will eliminate one of the major obstacles to the spread of education among non- Russian peoples: the lack of textbooks in the native tongues." {Perevodchik, 14 (Apr. 10, 1894): 28.) 28 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il, Hisab. Mukhtasar 4lm-i hisab ve mesa*il-i hisabiye (Calculations. A short book on arithmetic and mathematical problems), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 46 p. [H].

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A textbook designed to teach the four fundamental arithmetical processes, with each section followed by exercises. The text lacks any introduction which might have explained the expected duration of the course. 29 "Terguman" - Gasprinskii, Isma'il, Khoga-yi sibyan (The teacher of children) , Bakhchisarai, matbaasi, 1884. Other editions: 3rd, 1892, 90 p. [H, IUK]; 7th, 1898, 52 p. [H, D]. See note 29. 30 "Terguman" - Gasprinskii, Isma'il, Qira'at-i tur M (The reading of Turkish), Bakhchisarai, matbaasi, 1886. Other editions: 1894, 26 p. [H]. A textbook to be used in a new method mekteb after the students had mastered Khog"a-yi sibyan. 31 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il, Ser meq destesi (The choicest calligraphy paper), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi [?], 1893. 32 "Terguman" - Gasprinskii, Isma'il, Sara'it al-Islm (The stipulations of Islam), Bakhchisarai, matbaasi, 1897, 83 p. [H]. 33 - Haris Feyzi, Hifz-i sihhat-i izdivag (Preserving the correctness of marriage), Kazan', n.p., 1901. A gadidist pedagogue, Haris Feyzi was also editor-in-chief of the Kazan' Tatar newspaper Akhbar (The News). See A. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, op. cit.: 71. 34 - Haris Feyzi, Rehber-i iml (A guide to orthography), Orenburg, n.p., 1900. 35 - Haris Feyzi, Ta4im-i qira'at-i ve tahrir-i trk (Exercises for reading and writing Turkish), Kazan', n.p., 1900. 36 - Ibrahim Imurad, Gografya matematiqi (The mathematics of geography), Kazan', n.p., 1889. 37 - Khayrullah ibn 'Osman, Sarf-i 'arabi tatbiqath (The application of Arabic grammar), Kazan', n.p., 1898 [H]. The author was an Ufa akhund (theologian). His textbook was used in old method as well as new method schools, according to la. Koblov, op. cit. : 24. 38 - Lutfullah (Imam), Tergiime al-mesa'il ve gevab al-sa'il (The interpreting of questions and an answer to the critics), Kazan', n.p., 1898. 39 - Mansurof, 'Abdurrahman, Mu'allim al-sibyan (The teacher of children), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1899 or 1900, 32 p. [H]. 40 - Muhammed ibn Fatih Molla Muhammed 'Ata, Ebvab al-tasrif (Aspects of grammatical inflection), Kazan', n.p., 1895. 41 - Muhammed erif Ahmedganoglu, ografya-yi 'umum (A universal geography) , Kazan', n.p., 1898. 42 - 'Osman Aqoqraqh, Khutut-i islmiye (Islamic writings), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1900. 'Osman Nuri Aqoqraqh was a Crimean Tatar historian, author, translator of Russian literature into Turkic, and a faithful disciple of Gasprinskii. A one-time collaborator with the newspapers Vlfet (Rapprochement) and Vaqt (The Times), he joined the staff of Terguman in 1906. 43 - Qisas al-enbiya ve ahval-i duvel al-islm (The history of the prophets and the affairs of the States of Islam), Kazan', tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1901, 132 p. [H].

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Other editions: lito-tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1906, 120 p. [H]; 3rd, n.d., 120 p. [H]; 4th, tip. A. Umerova, 1909, 108 p. [H]. 44 - Ruseden qirgizgaya qirgizgadan ruseye lgat (A Russian-Kirghiz, KirghizRussian dictionary), Tashkent, n.p., 1883. 45 - Sadreddin ibn Nizameddin al-Maqsudi, Terguman rus (The translation of Russian), Part I, Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1900, 60 p. [TE]. Of the two Maqsudi brothers, Sadreddin (1879-1957) was perhaps the more famous. Well-educated he took a degree at the Sorbonn in Paris and an inveterate traveller, he became a major Muslim political figure through his participation in the Russian State Dumas. Besides A. Battal-Taymas', Iki Maksudiler, op. cit., a special issue of Turk Kulturu, 53 (Mar. 1967) has been devoted to Sadreddin. 46 - Salihgan ibn Muhammedgan al-Barudi, Sarf-i 'arabi (Arabic grammar), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1898, 71 p. [H]. Salihgan ibn Muhammedgan al-Barudi was a Kazan' . 47 - Salihgan ibn Muhammedgan al-Barudi, Taqrib al-ezhan min tegvid al-qur'an (The meeting of minds by means of the proper recitation of the Koran), Kazan', Khazane matbaasi, 1309/1891-2, 23 p. [H]. According to Gasprinskii, Perevodchik, 10 (Mar. 19, 1893): 19, Taqrib al-ezhan is "a guide to the correct reading and pronunciation of Arabic". 48 - Sarf-i turk (A grammar of Turkish) , n.p., 1897. 49 - akirgan ibn Ahmedgan al-Tahiri, Beda' al-ta'lim nam miikemmel elifba (A complete primer known as the beginning of education) , Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 104 p. [H]. 50 - akirgan ibn Ahmedgan al-Tahiri, Mukhtasar qava'id al-tegvid (Brief rules for reading the Koran), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895, 40 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, 1317/1899-1900, 32 p. [H]. 51 - akirgan Akhundzade, 'Aqa'id-i islmiye (The doctrines of Islam), Kazan', n.p., 1899. 52 - Sultan Megid Ganizade, Istilah-i Azerbigan (The idiom of Azerbaidjan) , Baku, n.p., 1890. Sultan Megid Ganizade (1866-?), an Azeri pedagogue and litterateur who was veryactive in the gadidist movement, was well acquainted with Gasprinskii and accom panied the Crimean reformer on his important journey to Central Asia in 1893. A brief biographical note on Ganizade is found in Zaman kalindar igio (Calendar of the times, igio) (Kazan', 1909): 39. 53 - Sultan Megid Ganizade, Kilid-i edebiyat (The key to literature), Baku, tip. Akhundova, 1901, 72 p. A collection of readings, in Persian, for beginning students. See Perevodchik, 34 (Sept. 16, 1901): 134. 54 - Tegvid (The art of reading the Koran), n.p., 1898. Possibly the work of M. Aqura published in Bakhchisarai in 1897. copy of this in Helsinki. 55 - Usl-i tedris (A method of instruction) , Kazan', n.p., 1899. There is a

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56 - 'A., Yel gemisi (The wind boat), Tiflis, n.p., 1889. 57 - A. Alvayzi, Tegriibename (A book of experiments [?]), Tashkent, n.p., 1891. 58 - 'Abbas Khalifa, Zubdet ul-fera'iz ve 'ilm al-miras (The fundamentals of inheritance laws and the science of bequests), Kazan', n.p., 1888. 59 - 'Abdul'allam Feyizkhanoglu, Muharrik al-efkr (The movement of ideas), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 46 p. [H, IUK]. The brother of Huseyn Feizkhanov (note 6), 'Abduallam (d. 1910) studied Russian after receiving a medresse education. His book Muharrik al-efkr provides a critical discussion of the political, and particularly, the economic status of the Russian Tatars. As such, it would appear to be a significant contribution to the literature of the Muslim "renaissance" of the pre-1905 period. Brief descriptions of this work can be found in A. Zeki Velidi Togan, Bugunkii Turkili (Tiirkistan) ve y akin tarihi (Present-day Turkistan and its recent history) (Istanbul, 1942-1947): 540-541; and Perevodchik, 13 (Apr. 18, 1893): 26. 60 - 'Abdullah al-Makhdumi, Ta'addud zevgati hifz-i sihhata tafbiq (The application of the science of good health to polygamy), Orenburg, tip. Karimova, 1901, 20 p. [H]. 61 - 'Abdullah Sadiqi al-Gayqi, Byuk bir servet-i hikaye (A great wealth of tales), Kazan', n.p., 1898. 62 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Efsane-yi Gulrukh ve Qarnergan. Roman (The tale of Glrukh and Qamergan. A novel), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1896, 54 p. [H, TE]. The tale of princess Gulrukh, daughter of the Emperor of China, and Qamergan, son of the ah of Khwarezm. Professor N. F. Katanov published a review of this work in Deiatel', 4 (1897). 63 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Fevakih ul-gulesa (The fruits of the companions), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1884, 615 p. [LO, TE, TTK]. Reflecting his wide range of interests, this volume by Nasiri is a collection of tales and anecdotes drawn from the Kuran and the Hadiths concerning all aspects of life. Appended to the work are a number of specimens of Tatar folk literature. 64 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Hava ve su (Air and water), Kazan', n.p., 1889. 65 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, 'Ilm-i zira'at (The science of agriculture), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 24 p. [TE]. Contains advise on how to sow grain and cultivate gardens. 66 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Khavas-i nebatat (The particular qualities of plants), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 112 p. Provides information on some three hundred and thirteen useful plants, with their names given in Russian, Tatar, and Latin. 67 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Lehge-yi talari (A Tatar dictionary), 2 vols, Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895-1896, 226 p., 156 p. [TE]. This represents the first dictionary of its kind in that Nasiri drew all of his descriptive examples from the Tatar spoken language. He ignored the written

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language of the time, overwhelmed as it was by Arabic, Persian, and Central Asian influences, in order to create a new literary language out of the Tatar vernacular. 68 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Qava4d-i kitabet (The book of regulations), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 32 p. [H]. 69 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Qtrq vezir qtssasi (The tale of the forty vezirs), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1881, 160 p. Other editions: 3rd, 1888, 160 p. [LO]; 4th, 1891, 160 p. [TE]; 5th, 1896, 160 p. [BrM, H]; St. Petersburg, tip. Boraganskago, 1902, 160 p. [H]; Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1907, 160 p. [TE]; 1908, 160 p. [H]; tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1910, 160 p. [H, WL]. A translation into Tatar from the Ottoman Turkish of eyhzade. 70 - 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Ziibdet min tevarikh al-rus (Excerpts from Russian history), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1890, 27 p. [TE]. A pamphlet containing the biographies of the Russian sovereigns from 862 to 1880. It represents one of the few of Nasiri's historical works that were published. 71 - 'Abdurrahim Qazanli Efendi, Kitab-i muhimmet ul-zaman (The book of the important affairs of the time), Kazan', tip. Vecheslava, 1889, 64 p. [IUK]. 72 - 'Abdurrahman al-Mansuri, Ma4umat-i nafi'ye (Useful information), Orenburg, n.p., 1901. 73 - Abulgazi Bahadir Khan, Tarikh-i segere-yi turk (A history of Turkic genea logy), trans, from agatai by 'Abdul'allam Feyizkhanoglu, Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1891, 222 p. The author is the famous seventeenth century Khivan historian. His Tarikh-i ueg"ere-yi tiirk is a historical and genealogical study of the aybanid dynasty, which traced its ancestry to ingis Khan. On Abulgazi, see Jno Eckmann, "Die tschaghataische Literatur", in Philologiae turcicae fundamenta (Wiesbaden, 1964), II: 382-385. 74 - Ahmed Hadi Maqsudi, Mantiq-i gedid (The new logic), Kazan', n.p., 1900. See item 19. 75 - Ahmed Midhat, Yahq yollarhq (The ways of youth), trans, by Sadreddin al-Maqsudi, Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1897, 30 p. [H]. Besides playing an important role in the development of journalism in the late Ottoman Empire, Ahmed Midhat (1844- 191 3) was a prolific writer both of fiction and what might be called works of popularized knowledge. Most, if not all, of his writings were instruments of social criticism or aimed at bringing modern European knowledge to his compatriots in a simple and attractive form. In this, and many other respects, there is a striking similarity between Ahmed Midhat and Gasprinskii, and indirect evidence points to the influence of the former upon the latter. For brief but penetrating discussions of Midhat, see B. Lewis, "Ahmad Midhat", Encyclopedia of Islam (London, i960), I: 289-290, and N. Berkes, op. cit. : 281-285. 76 - Ahmed akirMulla, Qurban risalesi (A treatise on sacrifice) , Kazan', n.p., 1898. 77 - Alekseev, Sart ve rus mukalemesi (A Sart and Russian dialogue), Tashkent, n.p., 1884. 78 - *Ali Asgar Kemal, Bakhtsiz yigit. Dram (The unfortunate young man. A drama), Kazan', tip. Karimova, 1900, 20 p. [H]. Other editions: Elektro-tip. Sarafa, 1907, 108 p. [NYPL, TE]. 'Ali Akbar oglu Kemaleddin, better known as 'Ali Asgar Kemal (1879-1933), was a talented poet and dramatist given credit for being one of the founders of

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the Tatar national theater. The above drama was his first. A chapter is devoted to Kemal in the study by M. N. Gainullin and G. G. Vazieva, Tatar dbiyaty XXyz (20th century Tatar literature) (Kazan', 1954): 86-202. 79 - ' Alimat al-Benat Khanim, Husn al-vasiyet (Good advice), St. Petersburg, tipolit. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 20 p. [H]. 'Alimat al-Benat is a pseudonym meaning "erudite woman". According to A. Vambry {art. cit}: 77) it is the pen name of Khanifa Khanim, the daughter of a certain Ismetulluf. Since Vambry's identification of this woman is so vague, there is the possibility that she was the wife of Hasan Bey Meliko v Zerdabi (notes 19 and 35). Another possibility is that she was a teacher in the city of Tara, in Tobol'sk Province, " famous for her learning". See Perevodchik, 18 (May 8, 1894): 36. 80 - 'Alimat al-Benat Khanim, Mu'aseret-i edebi (The rules of good manners), 2nd d., St. Petersburg, tip. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 23 p. [H]. 81 - 'Alimgan ibn Muhammedgan al-Barudi, Kitab al-erba'infi al-hadis (The book of the forty Hadiths), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1899. See item 23. 82 - 'Alimgan ibn Muhammedgan al-Barudi, Lgat-i suis (The third dictionary), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 41 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, tipo-lit. M. Chirkova, 1897, 4 P- [; 3rd, tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1902, 40 p. [H]; 4th, tipo-lit. I. V. Ermolaeva, 1907, 40 p. [H]. 83 - 'Alimgan ibn Muhammedgan al-Barudi, Niimune-yi hisab (A model for calculation) , Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1891, 24 p. Other editions: 2nd, 1896, 24 p. [H]; 3rd, 1898, 24 p. [H]; 4th, 1903, 20 p. [H]. 84 - 'Alimof, Muhammed Safa ibn Badreddin, Nasa4h-i nafi'a (Useful advice), St. Petersburg, tipo-lit. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 69 p. [H]. This work, written by a Moscow , is a collection of moralizing tales for children. "It is written in simple, but good language, and is suitable for reading at home and school." See Perevodchik, 35 (Sept. 23, 1901): 138. 85 - 'Aliyef, Mulla Qari Qurban, Kitab-i tarikh (The book of history), Kazan', n.p., 1889. 86 - 'Ayfullah ibn Muhammed, Hifz al-sihhat (The preservation of health), St. Peters burg, n.p., 1900. 87 - Baramaihq barasmda (On sericulture), transi, by V. V. Bezobrazov, Tiflis, n.p., 1885. 88 - Bikiyof, Muhammed Zahir ibn Garullah, Eluf yaki giizel qiz Khadige. Roman (Eluf, or the beautiful girl Khadige. A novel), Kazan', tip. M. Chirkova, 1889, 77 p. [TTK]. Other editions: Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1896, 77 p. [H]; tip. "Bayan ul-Hak", 1908, 59 p. [TE]. Muhammed Zahir (1870-1902) was one of the earliest modern Tatar writers. A social critic, he attacked the destructive influences of vice, much of it introduced to the Tatars by Russians, on the fabric of Tatar society in his novels Eluf and Guneh-i keba'ir (see item 129). 89 - Bukhara Amiri, Ruzname-yi sefer khayriyet (The diary of a good will trip), Kazan', n.p., 1900. Undoubtedly a work describing a trip to Russia by the Emir of Bukhara, Abdul Ahad (1885-1910). The Emir frequently travelled throughout Russia many of these travels were chronicled by Gasprinskii in Perevodchik and was often a guest of the Russian royal family in St. Petersburg. A man with some reformist

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inclinations, the Emir began receiving Gasprinskii's newspaper in 1892 [Perevodchik, 27 (July 31, 1892): 53]. Gasprinskii expended a great deal of time and effort trying to obtain the Emir's permission to open new method schools for native children in Bukhara. That permission was finally granted in 1908, but the school that resulted continued to function for just a short time owing to the violent opposition of the traditionalist Bukharan clergy. 90 - Al-ulpani, 'Arabidan manzuman Mevlud tergiimesi (A verse translation from Arabic of the Mevlud), Orenburg, n.p., 1900. 91 - Damulla ihabeddin hazretinin mersiyesi (Damulla Sihabeddin's elegy), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 15 p. [H]. An elegy to ihabeddin al-Margani (see note 5). 92 - Fasiheddin ibn Mulla Muhi'eddin, Tib kitabt (A book of medicine), Kazan', n.p., 1896. 93 - Fasiheddin ibn Mulla Muhi'eddin, Veba ve andan saqlanmaq icin isti'mal qihna turgan esbab ve areler (The cures and remedies in current use for protection against the plague), Kazan', tip. Vecheslava, 1893, 35 p. [TE]. 94 - F[atih] K[arimi], Bir akird ile bir istudent (The medresse student and the university student), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 40 p. [H]. Muhammed Fatih Gilman oglu Kerimi (i87o?-i945), the son of an akhund, complet ed his studies in an old method medresse and then spent five years in Istanbul. Upon his return to Russia, he bought a printing house in Orenburg with the aid of the gadidist 'Abdulgani Bey Huseynov (a millionaire merchant) and commenced a career in writing and publishing. He collaborated with a number of Muslim newspapers, including arq-i Rus (The Russian Orient) and Al-'Asr al-Gadid (The New Age), and in 1906 became chief editor of the newspaper Vaqt (The Times). In addition he wrote a number of works ranging from a geographical textbook and a teaching manual, to belletristic pieces such as Bir akird ile bir istudent. In the latter Kerimi launched an attack upon both the old Muslim educational system and the ignorance and lack of culture of the Muslim clergy. Brief notices concerning Kerimi can be found in Z aman kalindar... io, op. cit. : 39-40; Dzh. Validov, op. cit. : 78-80; and A. Vambry, "The awakening of the Tatars", The Nineteenth Century, LVII (Febr. 1905): 219 ff. 95 - F[atih] K[arimi], Sahh babaymn uylenuvi (The marriage of old Sahh), Oren burg, tip. Karimova, 1901, 16 p. [H]. Like the previous work, this short story is a critique of the old ways in Muslim life. 96 - Gafil ibn 'Abdullah, Selime yani 'iffet (Selime, or innocence), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1316/1898-9, 80 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, lito-tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1904, 48 p. [H]. The author is the same as Riza'eddin ibn Fakhreddin (see item 146). Selime yani *iffet was the first of his two novels, and for both he used the pseudonym Gafil ibn 'Abdullah in order to avoid public recognition. See A. Battal-Taymas, "La littrature des Tatars de Kazan", in Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta, II: 767; also A. Sa'adi, op. cit. : 106-107. 97 - Galvanoplastin (Electrotypography), Kazan', n.p., 1899. 98 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il Bey, Rehber-i mu'allimin yani mu'allimlere yolda (A guide or companion for teachers), Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1898, 30 p. [D, H]. One of Gasprinskii's most important works, in which he thoroughly discussed his

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educational ideas and the fundamentals of the new method. Rehber-i mu'allimin was meant to be a guide for those who desired to administer or teach in a new method mekteb. As such it provided detailed information on curriculum planning, teaching techniques, and even classroom organization, as well as a spirited defense of the new method itself. 99 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il Bey, Salname-yi tiirk (A Turkish almanac), Bakhchisarai, Basmakhane-yi Islmiye, 1882, 81 p. [IUK]. One of Ismail Bey's earliest publications. In it he provided a wealth of information on a wide variety of subjects ranging from history and geography, to contemporary events, education in various countries, the press, train schedules, and even a discussion of the history, spread, and treatment of syphilis. 100 - Guerli Feridun, Ta'limat-i Soqrat (The instructions of Socrates), Bakhc hisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1891. A graduate of, and later instructor at, the Gori Pedagogical College, Feridun Bey acquired fame as a critic and historian of Azeri literature. His best work in this area is Azerbaygan edebiyati tarihi materyallan (Materials for Azerbaidjan literary history), 4 vols (Baku, 1925). B. E. Nabiyev has written a full length study of Guerli entitled Firidunbey kch'rli (Baku, 1963), which contains an extensive bibliography. 101 - Habib al-Nigar ibn Mulla Efendi, Miftah al-tevarikh (The key to the histories), Kazan', n.p., 1889. 102 - Hafiz Muhammed Zakir Efendi, Enbiya* tarikh-i (The history of the prophets), Part I, Kazan', tip. M. Chirkova, 1899, 74 p. 103 - Hakim Franklin'nin tergume hah (A biography of Master Franklin) , trans, by Sadiq Abdurrahman, Orenburg, tip. Karimova, 1901. According to Gasprinskii, Perevodchik, 27 (July 23, 1901), this is a biography of the American Benjamin Franklin translated "into local Tatar from Ottoman". N. Berkes (op. cit. : 282), notes that Franklin became quite popular in Turkey around 1870, when his Poor Richard came into vogue. 104 - Haqverdof, 'Abdurrahim Bey, Dagilan tifaq (The scattered brood), St. Peters burg,n.p., 1899, 46 p. [H]. 'Abdurrahim Bey Haqverdof (Haqverdili, 1870-1933), was an important Azeri playwright and stage director. Dagilan tifaq, the first of his tragedies, was written while he was still a student. In this play Haqverdof treats the problems associat ed with decaying feudalism by focusing on the inability of an aristocratic landowner, Ngf Bey, to confront the changes in the world around him. The play accurately portrays the crisis facing the Azeri landowning class in the 1880'sand 1890's, and is an indictment of that class. For further information concerning Haqverdof and his work, see K. Mamedov, Abdurragimbek Akhverdov (Baku, 1959). 105 - Hasan 'Ata Qazani, Basiret (Understanding), Part I, Kazan', n.p., 1888. Possibly Hasan 'Ata, a mulla from Kazan', who authored a work entitled Fen-i mesaha al-arz (The science of land surveying) (Kazan', 1893). See Perevodchik, 12 (Apr. 2, 1893): 23. 106 - Hasan 'Ata al-Sulabai, Mukhtasar al-viqaye (A short prophylaxis), Kazan', n.p., 1892. 107 - Hasangayef, Tarikh-i Islam (The history of Islam), Kazan', n.p., 1899. 108 - Huseynof, emseddin, Merhaba-yi ehr-i Ramazan (Welcoming the month of Ramazan), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1889, 18 p. [H]. Other editions: tip. M. Chirkova, 1894, 16 p. [H]; tip. imper. Universiteta, 1902, 16 p. [H].

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109 - Huseynof, emseddin, Pend name-yi 'Attar (The book of advice of 'Attar), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1890, 92 p. Other editions: 1899, 92 p. [H]. no - Ibnet-iil-suleymani, Tergib al-benat fi ta'allum al-edebiyat (The encouragement of daughters in the reading and writing of literature), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1897. in - Ibrahimof, 'Abdurreid, d., Mir'at (The mirror), St. Petersburg, tip. Ibragimova, 1900. [H: 2, 8-1 1, 13-18, 20-22; NYPL: complete.] 'Abdurreid Ibrahimof (1856-1944) was a major figure among the reformist ulema. His religious training was extensive, and included years of Kuranic study under famous scholars in Mecca. After his return to Russia Ibrahimof became a mulla, and in 1893 was elected hadi (judge) at the Muslim Spiritual Assembly in Orenburg. Because of his high position, he was allowed access to all of the secret documents of the Assembly, documents which exposed the subservient relationship of the Muslim hierarchy to the Russian government. This revelation resulted in his becoming increasingly anti-Russian, an attitude which was central to his partici pation in Muslim cultural and political developments from the mid-1890's onward. He took an active part in Tatar journalism, particularly after the liberalization of the Russian press laws in 1906, by editing or collaborating with such newspapers as lfet (Rapprochement) , Al-Tilmiz (The Student), and Bay an ul-Haq (The Revelation of the Truth). It was earlier, however, in 1900, that Ibrahimof initially became involved in periodical publishing when the first issue of Mir' at appeared. Twenty-one subsequent numbers were to be published on an irregular basis between 1902 and 1909. Mir'at was a literary and cultural, later political, review with a decidedly panislamic tendency. While most articles were written in Tatar, some were in Arabic. A brief notice on Ibrahimof is found in Dzh. Validov, op. cit. : 64-65. 112 - Ibrahimof, 'Abdurreid, Qaside-yi mevlud al-nbi (Panegyric on the birth of the prophet), St. Petersburg, tip. Boraganskago, 1901. According to Gasprinskii, this work was recommended for use at prayer gatherings by the Orenburg mufti Sultanov. See Perevodchik, 24 (June 30, 1901): 95. 113 - 'Ibret-i name (A message of warning), ed. by Muhammedgan Mitfaheddin, Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1871, 16 p. Other editions: 1872, 16 p. [TE]; 1883, n.p., 16 p. [H]; 1893, tip. imper. Universiteta, 24 p. [TE]; 1894, 16 p. [H]; 1899, tip. M. Chirkova, 16 p. [H]; 1902, 16 p. [H]; 1903, tip. Karimova, 16 p. [H]; 1906, 16 p. [H]. 114 - Idris Hamidi, 'Ilm-i hayvanat (Zoology), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1900, 75 p. [H]. The first Tatar zoology textbook. Written, as Gasprmskii notes, in a "simple, comprehensible language", it was designed for use by both mekteb and medresse students. See Perevodchik, 24 (June 30, 1901): 95. 115 - uavahir al-hikyat ve al-as'ilet ve lata' if al-rivayat ve al-mesle tergme min kitab Anis al-Galis al-Imam al-Suyuti (A treasury of tales and of questions, of the beauties of traditions, and of examples to malefactors. A translation of Imam alSuyuti's Anis al-Galis), trans, by 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri from the Arabic, Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1884, 139 p. [H]. Other editions: 4th, 1894, 138 p. [H, TE]; 5th, 1898, 136 p. [H]; 6th, 1900, 123 p. [H, TE]; 7th, 1905, 123 p. [H, BrM]. Originally the work of the Arab man of letters, aykh Galal al-Din 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr al-Suyuti. 116 - Khanifa Khamm, 'Aqide-yi ehil al-haqq (The creed of a man of God), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1312/1894-5, 19 p. [H]. See item 79.

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117 - Khanifa Khamm, Tergib (Enticement), Kazan', n.p., 1899, 16 p. [H]. 118 - Khayrullah ibn "Osman, Intikhab (The selection), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1314/1896-7, . []. See item 37. 119 - Kitab-i Kalila ve Dimne (The book of Kalila and Dimne), trans, from the Arabic by 'Abdul'allam Feyizkhanoglu, Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1889, 78 p. [H, LO]. 120 - Lata'if (Anecdotes), Kazan', n.p., 1901, 32 p. 121 - Likushin, Risale-yi asel ari (A treatise on honey bees), trans, from the Russian, Tashkent, n.p., 1897. 122 - Madatov, V., Grnmez al (The invisible shawl), Erivan, n.p., 1901, 25 p. Announcement of publication in Perevodchik, 27 (July 23, 1901). 123 - Menim tergumanim-i mukleme fransovi ve rusi (My translation of French and Russian conversations), Kazan', n.p., 1901. 124 - Mir 'Ali Sir Nava'i, il hadis (Forty hadiths), Tashkent, lit. Lakhtina, 1893, 24 p. [H]. 125 - Muhammed 'Abbas, Kelapui qiz-i hikye (The tale of the girl who sold scull-caps), Kazan', n.p., 1900. Muhammed 'Abbas was a pseudonym for the well-known Tatar political activist and littrateur, Muhammed 'Ayaz Ishaqi (1878-1954). For a biographical sketch of Ishaqi, see A. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, op. cit. : 84-85, note 4. Kelapui qtz was Ishaqi's second short story, and juxtaposes the "old" and the "new" in an effort to discredit the former. See A. Battal-Taymas, "Die modern Kazanturkische und Baschkirische Literatur", in B. Spuler, d., Handbuch der Orientalistik (Leiden, 1963), V, Part 1: 431-432. 126 - Muhammed Fatih al-Karimi, Khatunlar vaza'ifi (The duties of women), Orenburg, n.p., 1910 [sic]. See item 94. 127 - Muhammed al-Ishaqi, hhatun bilen turmu (Life with three women), Kazan', n.p., 1901 [?]. Ishaqi's first play, published in 1900 according to A. Battal-Taymas, Kazan Turkleri (The Kazan' Turks) (2nd d., Ankara, 1966): 137. 128 - Muhammed Sadiq, Feryad nazm megmu'ast (A collection of plaintive poetry), Kazan', tip. Karimova, 1901. A collection of Muhammed Sadiq's poetry. See the notice of publication in Perevodchik, 24 (June 30, 1901): 95. 129 - Muhammed Zahir Efendi, Guneh-i keba'ir (The deadly sin), Kazan', tip. Vecheslava, 1890, 70 p. [TE]. The author is the same as Muhammed Zahir Bikiyof (see item 88). For rsums and analyses of Guneh-i keba'ir, see N. Ashmarin, Ocherk literaturnoi deiatel'nosti Kazanskikh tatar-mokhammedan za i88o-i8g5 gg. (Sketch of the literary activity of the Kazan' Tatar-Muslims during the period i88o-i8g$) (Moscow, 1901): 35-39, and A. Sa'adi, op. cit. : 92-95. 130 - Muhammedgan al-Karimi, Fera'iz-i trk (Turkish inheritance law), Kazan', n.p., 1888. 131 - Muhammedgan ibn Minhageddin, d., Kitab-i i'tibar (The book of admonition) , Kazan', n.p., 1888.

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132 - Musa Aqgigit, Husameddin Mulla-yi Mkye (The tale of Mulla Husameddin) , Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1886, 70 p. Musa Aqgigit (1865-1923) was born in the Russian province of Penza, where he attended a state gymnasium. In 1885 he moved to Kazan', but two years later emigrated to Turkey. His major claim to fame is his novel Husameddin Mulla, which he wrote during his Kazan' sojourn in a simplified Turkic language. His choice of language may have been influenced by Gasprinskii, with whom Aqgigit is said to have collaborated. [Istoriia Tatar skoi ASSR (History of the Tatar ASSR) (Kazan', 1955), I: 391, and A. Sa'adi, op. cit. : 78.] Certainly the novel's content is supportive of Gasprinskii's program. The hero, the son of a village mulla, has received his education in Istanbul and returned home to open a school. In this school he employs a new, simpler method of instruction (usl-i g~adid), and hence arouses the hatred of the old mulla. The plot is a classic one of the conflict between gadidism and kadymism (i.e., the reaction of those opposed to gadidism), in which such problems as reform of the educational system, the role of women in society, and religious fanaticism and obscurantism are debated. Anal yses of the novel are to be found in A. Sa'adi, op. cit. : 76-81, and N. Ashmarin, op. cit. : 40-41. A modern Tatar edition, in Cyrillic, is available at Hoover. 133 - Namaz khogast (The teacher of prayers), Kazan', tip. Karimova, 1893, 43 p. [H]. Other editions: 1897, 47 p. [H]; 1898, 48 p. [H]; 1903, 48 p. [H]; 1908, 42 p. [H]. 134 - Narimanof, Nariman, Bahadir ve suna (The gallant and handsome man), Parts I and II, Baku, tip. gubernskago pravleniia, 1896 and 1317/1899-1900, 19 p., 8 p. [H]. Nariman Narimanof (1875-1925), educator, journalist, future Social Democrat and Communist, was an important young playwright who emerged among the Azeri Turks around the turn of the century. As is the case with so many of the writers included in Gasprinskii's bibliography, Narimanof was a social critic. Further details concerning his life and work are provided by M. Pavlo vich, "Pamiati N. Narimanova" (Recollections of N. Narimanov), Novyi Vostok, 7 (1925): 1 ff. For a study of Narimanof 's interest in language reform, see M. Mmmdov, Nariman Narimanov va ana dili (Nariman Narimanov and the native language) (Baku, 1971). 135 - Narimanof, Nariman, Dilin belast. Qomediya (The misfortune of language, A comedy), Baku, tip. gubernskago pravleniia, 1895, 46 p. [H]. 136 - Narimanof, Nariman, Hagi Zeynal'abidin Taqiyofun elli yilhk ma'isete ve gema'ata khidmetleri (Hag"i Zeynal'abidin Taqiyof's life and fifty years of service to society), Baku, matba'a Akhundova, 1900, 33 p. [H]. Hagi Zeynal'abidin Taqiyof (or Tagiev), was a wealthy Azeri industrialist known also for his very generous philanthropy. Gasprinskii often carried news items in Perevodchik about Taqiyof and his activities, and once included a special supplement entitled "Tagievskaia fabrika v Baku" (The Tagiev factory in Baku), in issue 17 (May 3, 1903). There is evidence that Gasprinskii himself was a recipient of Taqiyof generosity when funds were needed to keep the former's publishing enterprise in the black. 137 - Narimanof, Nariman, Nadanhq (Ignorance), Baku, lit. G. N. Demurova, 1894, 74 p. [H]. Nadanhq deals with the terrible consequences of ignorance for the development of man and society. Through this drama Narimanof criticizes all those who believe that the mode of life is predetermined, and hence there is no need for education, science, or culture. A brief analysis of this play is available in Dzh. Dzhafarov, Azerbaidzhanskii dramaticheskii teatr (The Azeri drama theater) (Baku, 1962): 59-61.

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138 - 'Osman Nuri Aqoqraqli, Hikyet-i Nengegan Khamm turbesi (The tale of Nengegan Khamm' s grave), St. Petersburg, tip. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 45 p. [H]. See item 42. !39 - 'Osman Nuri Aqoqraqli, Qtnlofdan qisa manzum (A short verse from Krylov), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1891. Probably a translation of some of the verses of I. A. Krylov (1768- 1844), the famous Russian fabulist. 140 - Pushkin, A. S., Bagesaray emesi (The Bakhchisarai fountain), trans, from the Russian by 'Osman Nuri Aqoqraqli, St. Petersburg, tipo-lit. I. Boraganskago, 1899. A bilingual edition in Russian and Gasprinskii's simplified Turkic. 141 - Qabus-name tergumesi (A translation of the Qabus-name) , trans, from the Persian by 'Abdulqayyum al-Nasiri, Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1882, 140 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, 1898, 140 p. [H, LO]. The Qabus-name is a famous Persian book of moral precepts. 142 - Qazana siyahat (A voyage to Kazan'), Kazan', n.p., 1901, 58 p. 143 - Qazaqi, U bed bakht (Three misfortunes) , Kazan', n.p., 1900. The author is 'AH Akbar oglu Kemaleddin ('Ali Asgar Kemal), discussed in item 78. t) bed bakht is a three-act play treating the controversy between the kadymist and gadidist viewpoints. See A. Battal-Taymas, Kazan Turkleri, op. cit. : 139. 144 - Qissa-yi Simurg (The tale of Simurg), Kazan', tip. Karimova, 1898, 16 p. [H]. 145 - Rahim Gihanahoglu, Tarikh-i yedi yuz yihnda (Seven centuries of history), Kazan', n.p., 1889. 146 - Riza'eddin ibn Fakhreddin, Asar. z memleketimizde olgan Islam 'alernlerinin tergeme ve tabaqalan, tarikh velodet ve vefatlan ve baqa ahvallan haqqinda yaztlmt bir kitabdir (Monuments. A book written concerning the biographies and social status of Muslim savants who live in our country, with dates of birth and death, and other events in their lives), 2 vols (15 fasc). Fasc.i: Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1900, 32 p.; Fasc. 2-15: Orenburg, tip. M.-F. G. Karimova, 1900-08, 470 p. [Complete: EPHE ; Fasc. 1-2: H, TE; Fasc. 3, 8-9, 12-14: H]. Riza'eddin ibn Fakhreddin (1859-1936) was, along with Musa Garulla Bigi, one of the foremost reformist theologians among Russian Muslims. At one time kadi at the Orenburg Spiritual Assembly, Riza'eddin early on fell under the influence first of ihabeddin al-Margani, then of Gasprinskii, and finally of Gamal al-Dn al Afghani (perhaps the most famous proponent of panislamism). While he was serving in Orenburg and endeavoring to provide some order to the Assembly's archives, Rizae'ddin began to develop an interest in history and biography. It was from those archives that he collected materials for his monumentalbut never completed biographical dictionary Asar. This work consists of biographies of outstanding Muslim theologians and savants who flourished in Russia from about the tenth century onward. Besides biographical information, Riza'eddin added his own and others' critical analyses of men and events, and often included actual documents and letters from the Assembly archives. A brief sketch of Riza'eddin's life and work can be found in Dzh. Validov, op. cit. : 70-73; more extensive is A. Bat tal-Taymas, Rizaeddin Fahreddin oglu (Istanbul, 1958). 147 - Riza'eddin ibn Fakhreddin, Quran ve tiba' at (The Koran and human nature), Kazan', n.p., 1900. 148 - Riza'eddin ibn Fakhreddin, aktrdhq edeb (The rules of student behavior),

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Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1899, 47 p. [H]. Other editions: 3rd, tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1904, 48 p. [H]; 5th, tip. "Millet", 1908, 48 p. [H, TE]; 6th, 1909, 48 p. [H, TE]. 149 - Riza'eddin Fakhreddin, Tanzimat (Reorganization) , Kazan', tip. B. L. Domb rovskago, 1898, 80 p. [H]. An extremely important work concerned with the question of reorganizing the Muslim spiritual administration in Russia, which had been under state control since the end of the eighteenth century. 150 - Riza'eddin Fakhreddin, Terbiyeli ana (The well-educated mother), Kazan', tip. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 16 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1905, 16 p. [H]; Orenburg, tipo-lit. t-va "Karimov, Khusaynovi K-o", 1909, 16 p. [H, TE]. 151 - Riza'eddin Fakhreddin, d., Terbiyeli khatun (The well-educated woman), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 29 p. [H]. Other editions: Orenburg, tip. Karimova, 1902, 29 p. [H]; 3rd, Kazan', lito-tip. I. N. Kharitonova, 1904, 24 p. [H]; tipo-lit. t-va "Karimov, Khusaynov i K-o", 1909, 24 p. [H, TE]. 152 - Sadreddin ibn Nizameddin Maqsudi, Ma'iset. Mill roman (The means of subsistence. A national novel), Kazan', tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1900, 78 p. [H]. On Maqsudi, see item 45. Ma'iset is a lengthy short story about the life of a Kazan' Tatar merchant. It was the author's first and last literary effort. According to A. Battal-Taymas, Kazan Turkleri, op. cit. : 136, the purpose of this work was "to instill a national ideal in the reader". 153 - Salaheddin Efeni, Risale-yi sullam al-sama' (A treatise on the staircase to heaven), Kazan', tip. M. Chirkova, 1895, 77 p. [H]. 154 - Sami'allah Efendi, Ma'lumat ibtida'iye (Preliminary knowledge) , Kazan', n.p., 1894. 155 - Seruddin ibn Miftaheddin, Nev' beer (Mankind), Kazan', n.p., 1898. 156 - Seruddin ibn Miftaheddin, Vaza'if al-insan (The obligations of man), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1898, 64 p. 157 - ah Ahmed Muhammedoglu, Bey an ul-haqq (A declaration of faith), Kazan', tipo-lit. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 68 p. [H]. 158 - emseddin al-Tahiri, Heyet-i gedide (The new system), Kazan', n.p., 1896. 159 - emseddin al-Tahiri, Mufassal heyet-i gedide kitabi (A detailed book on the new system), Kazan', n.p. 1900. emseddin al-Tahiri (1856-1932) was a reformist-minded imam who supported educational change along gadidist lines. The two works cited above are critiques of the traditional system of teaching. A brief treatment of Tahiri's "philosophical" ideas is found in Ykh"y Abdullin, "Tatar mg"riftchelre filosofiyseneng kayber ms'llre" (On some questions of philosophy among Tatar educators), Kazan Utlan, 12 (Dec. 1972): especially 164-166. 160 - erif al-Karimi, d., Qtsa-yi u qiz (The tale of the three girls), Kazan', tip. Karimova, 1897. 161 - eykh Muhammed Murad Efendi, Insaf (Usul-i gedid) (Justice. The new method), Kazan', n.p., 1900. 162 - ihabeddin al-Margani, Tarikh-i Bulgar (The history of the Bulgars), Part I, Kazan', n.p., 1900. See note 5. I have been unable to find reference to any work by Margani with this

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title. However, given the proneness for error in Gasprinskii's bibliography, the publication in question may actually be Mustafad al-akhbar fi akhvah Kazan ve Bulgar (Information concerning the history of Kazan' and Bulgar), the first part of which was published in Kazan' in 1885, with the second part appearing in 1900. It was Part II that dealt with the history of Tatar culture after the conquest of Kazan' by Muscovy in the mid-sixteenth century. For a recent study of Mustafad al-akhbar, but only of Part I, see M. A. Usmanov, "Istochniki knigi Sh. Mardzhani Mustafad al-akhbar fi akhvali Kazan ve Bulgar, ch. 1, Kazan', 1885" (The sources for . Margani's book Mustafad al-akhbar...), in Ocherki istorii povolzh'ia i priural'ia. Sbornk statei, vyp. II-III (Kazan', 1969): 144-154. 163 - Sindukof, Ahmed akir, Isim (Isim), Kazan', n.p., 1899. 164 - Sindukof, Ahmed akir, Kitb al-vasiyet (The book of advice), Kazan', tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1897, 16 p. [H]. 165 - Sultan Megid Ganizade, Allah Divani (The Divan of Allah), Baku, tip. gubernskago pravleniia, 1896, 18 p. [H]. See item 52. 166 - Sultan Megid Ganizade, Gelinler hamaHli (The brides' amulet), Baku, n.p., 1 90 1 [H]. 167 - Sultan Megid Ganizade, Nadir ah. Tragediya (Nadir ah. A tragedy), Baku, tip. "Aror", 1898, 128 p. 168 - Sultan Megid Ganizade, Tulki ve aqaq Bey (The fox and aqaq Bey), Baku, n.p., 1899. 169 - Tahir iyle Zuhre (Tahir and Zuhre), Kazan', tip. Karimova, 1897. 170 - Tolstoi, L., Biringi raqigi hikye (The tale of the first distiller), trans, from the Russian, Baku, n. p., 1897. Lev Tolstoi's The first distiller, or how the little devil earned a crust of bread (Pervyi vinokur, Hi kak chertenok kraiushku zasluzhil), was a comedy adapted from his short story "How the little devil earned a crust of bread" ( chertenok kraiushku vykupal), both of which were published in 1886. The play is an amusing piece of temperance propaganda, centering on the efforts of an imp to lead some peasants to sin. His labors succeed only after he teaches the peasants how to make and drink vodka. Gasprinskii includes the play in his bibliography for much the same reason that Tolstoi wrote it: to point up the dangers of alcohol. 171 - Turk qadinlan (Turkish women), trans, from the French by Fatih Karimi, Orenburg, tip. Karimova [?], 1901, 36 p. According to Gasprinskii, Perevodchik, 36 (Sept. 30, 1901): 142, the author (not disclosed) discusses the advances made by Ottoman Turkish women during the previous forty years. Karimi has translated this work in order to propagandize the education and emancipation of Russian Muslim women. 172 - Umidbayef, Muhammed Selim ibn Imuhammed, Mukhtasar al-viqaye (A short prophylaxis) , Ufa, n.p., 1890. The author also published a translation of Pushkin's "Bakhchisaraiskii fontn" (The fountain in Bakhchisarai) in 1901. See Perevodchik, 42 (Nov. 16, 1901): 166. 173 - Urmanef, Muhammed Ahsan, Munat-i Tatariya (The writings of Tataria) , St. Petersburg, tipo-lit. I. Boraganskago, 1900, 54 p. [H].

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PART III SUPPLEMENTARY READING* 174 - Abu'l-Khayr Nabioglu, Khayriye-yi Nabi (The good deeds of Ndbi), Bakhc hisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 52 p. [H]. 175 - Bakhtiyar nazim (Happy poetry), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1889. 176 - Beden-i insan. Resimli (The human body. Illustrated) , Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1901, 15 p. [H]. An illustrated pamphlet offering basic information on human anatomy. Approp riately enough Gasprinskii noted in the introduction (p. 1): "Before all else, man must know himself. " 177 - Defoe, Daniel, Hikye-yi Robinson (The tale of Robinson), Part III, ed. by Muhammed ah Aqura, Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1889, 48 p. Other editions: 2nd, 1894, 37 p. [H]; Parts III and IV, Kazan', tip. "Urnek", 1909 [TE]. In the preface (p. 2), Gasprinskii remarked that Hikye-yi Robinson was taken from an English novel which had been translated into many European languages, as well as into Russian, Ottoman Turkish, and Arabic. The widespread popularity of this novel made it appropriate that there should be an edition "in our language". 178 - Divan-i 'Aaq 'Umr (The poetry of'Asaq 'Umr), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1887. 179 - Gara'ib adat-i aqvam (The strange customs of people), "Terguman" matbaasi, 1890. Bakhchisarai,

180 "Terguman" - Gasprinskii, Isma'il Bey, Khalera vebasi (The cholera plague), Bakhchisarai, matbaasi, 1887, 16 p. [IUK]. A pamphlet designed to provide a basic understanding of the spread, prevention, and cure of cholera. 181 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il Bey, Mehur payitahtlar (Famous capitals), Bakhchis arai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1901, 45 p. [H]. An illustrated manual providing brief surveys of seven world capitals: St. Peters burg, Istanbul, London, Paris, Rome, Vienna, and Berlin. Gasprinskii devotes very little space to his description of St. Petersburg, especially compared with Istanbul, but excuses this (p. 4) on the grounds that a special work is being prepared about Russia alone. 182 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il Bey, Turkistan 'ulemasi (The 'ulema of Turkistan) , Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1900, 24 p. [H]. A collection of biographical sketches of some important ulema from Turkestan. These biographies serve to support Gasprinskii's contention that Islam is compatible with science and learning, since "at a time when the arts and sciences were rarely propagated in Europe [i.e., during the Middle Ages], the speculative and practical sciences were being studied independently in Turkestan" (p. 1). * This section heading was not included in the original text. The final thirtyfours items, as noted by Gasprinskii, were published in Bakhchisarai by the "Ter guman" matbaasi.

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183 - Gasprinskii, Isma'il Bey, Usl-i edeb. arq ve garb qa'ideleri (The method of education. The customs of East and West), Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1901, 24 p. [H]. The purpose of this essay was to acquaint Muslims with the educational methods of worth that were used by Russians and Europeans. 184 - Her gun "Terguman" matbaasi, gerek zakonlar 1897. (Laws necessary for every day), Bakhchisarai, 185 - Iki bahadir (Two heroes) , Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1886. 186 - Iran. Resimli megmu'a (Iran. An illustrated magazine), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1901. 187 - Ma'iset muharebesi (The struggle for a livelihood), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1886. 188 - Ma'lumat-i naf'iye (Useful information) , Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matb aasi, 1 90 1. 189 - Medeniyet-i Islmiye (The civilization of Islam), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1889, 48 p. 190 - Mevlud-i genab hazret 'Ali (The mevlud of honorable 'AU), Bakhchisarai "Terguman" matbaasi, 1900. 191 - Muhammedah Aqura, d., *Aruz-i tur (The prosody of Turkish), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 16 p. [H]. 192 - Muhammedah Aqura, d., dban qiz (The shepherd girl), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, X7 P- 193 - Muhammedah Aqura, d., - arzin suret-i tekili (The formation of the earth's shape), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 56 p. [H]. An introduction to cosmography, in which the author treats such topics as the universe before the formation of the earth, the origins of the earth itself, and its composition. 194 - Muhammedah Aqura, d., Nasihat-i hiikema (The advice of wise men), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 26 p. [H]. 195 - Muhammedah Aqura, d., Nevadir-i nefise (The rarity of beautiful objects), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 16 p. [H]. A collection of witticisms. 196 - Muhammedah Aqura, d., Ramazan hediyesi (The gift of Ramazan), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 17 p. [H]. 197 - Muhammedah Aqura, d., Ramazan nasihati (The admonition of Ramazan), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1897, 20 p. [H]. 198 - Murad Bey, Mukhtasar tarikh-i Islam (A short history of Islam), Bakhchis arai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1890, 78 p. [H]. 199 - Nasihat-i tibiyya (Medical advice), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1901. 200 - Risale-yi tergib (A treatise on encouragement) , Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1894. 201 - Rusiye gografyasi (Russian geography), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1885, 56 p.

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202 - emseddin Sami Bey, Yer (The earth), Bakhchisarai, "Tergtiman" matbaasi, 1897. 54 P- emseddin Sami Bey (1850- 1904) was an Ottoman author, journalist, and lexicographer, much admired by Gasprinskii. 203 - Tashih 'Aqa'idden (On the correction of dogma), Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1901. 204 - TegWube ve sanav {Experience and thinking [?]), Bakhchisarai, "Tergiiman" matbaasx, 1886. 205 - Temsilat-i Qmlof (The maxims of Krylov), trans, from the Russian, Bakhchis arai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1901. See item 139. 206 - Yunan hukemasi (The wise men of Greece), Bakhchisarai, "Terguman" matbaasi, 1901. A booklet comprising biographies of classical Greek savants. 207 - Zoraki tabib. Qomediya (The involuntary physician. A comedy) , Bakhchis arai, "Tergiiman" matbaasi, 1901.

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