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NURSING RESEARCH Purpose of Nursing Research: Answer if its Basic Research, Applied Research, Qualitative Research, Quantitative Research,

Explanatory Research or Exploratory Research _Exploratory___1. To describe an existing problem situation and examine the underlying factors that contribute to the emergence of the problem _Explanatory__2. To understand or explain a prevailing situation; to explain a relationship between factors which may have already been identified in exploratory studies and why the relationship exists _Qualitative___3. Takes place in the field, gathers information, uses subjectivity, uses inductive process, investigates phenomena, associated with Naturalistic inquiry _Quantitative_4. Takes place both in natural as well as in contrived laboratory setting, gathers empirical evidence, uses control, uses deductive reasoning; investigates concepts, constructs, variables; associated with positivist theory _Applied______5. For solving problems, focuses on factors which can be changed by intervention to achieve a desired goal, to find solutions to existing problems _Basic_________6. To extend the base knowledge, formulation or refinement of theory, for discovery of general principles Research Process: Answers will be Conceptual Phase, Dissemination Phase, Implementation Phase, Design Phase, & Analysis and Interpretation Phase _Implementation Phase__`` 7. Collecting and managing data _Analysis and Interpretation Phase_ _8. Evaluating the data _Analysis and Interpretation Phase__ 9. Analyzing the data _Dissemination Phase__ 10. Using research findings _Dissemination Phase_ _11. Communicating the findings _Design Phase__ 12. Conducting a pilot study _Implementation Phase__ 13. Developing a budget and seeking fund _Conceptual Phase __ 14. Ethical considerations _Design Phase__ 15. Determining sampling plan _Conceptual Phase__ 16. Specifying assumption and limitation _Conceptual Phase_ _17. Formulating Research question Variables : Answers are Independent, Intervening (extraneous or confounding) and dependent variables _dependent__ 18. presumed effect (output or outcome) _intervening_ _19. clouds the internal and external validity of the study _independent_ _20. antecedent Hypothesis: Answers the ff. with Null hypothesis, Directional hypothesis, Alternative hypothesis, Non Directional hypothesis _Nondirectional__ 21. merely states the presence or absence of a relationship _Directional__ 22. Comatose patients placed on an air bed will have a lower incidence of skin breakdown than those who are not. _Null__23. There is no difference in incidence of skin breakdown between patients who are and who are not placed on air bed. _Alternative_ _24. There is a difference in incidence of skin breakdown between patients who are and who are not placed on air bed. PLS. MATCH Criteria to assess the quality of a study _H_25. The extent to which results can be applied to other groups h A. Reliability _G_26. Distorting or clouding influence that may come from research participants, B. Validity subjective influences of researcher, sample and sampling technique, faulty data C. Dependability collection and design. Biases are controlled. g D. Confirmability _I_27. The extent to which findings can be transferred to other settings. i E. Credibility _E_28. Confidence in truth and interpretations (believability) of the data e F. Triangulation _D_29. Objectivity d G. Bias _F_30. Use of multiple sources for conclusions f H. _B_31. The soundness of the evidence, measuring what it intends to measure b Generalizability _A_32. The accuracy and consistency of information obtained in the study a I. Transferability _C_33. Consistency and stability of evidence over time and over conditions c Probability Sampling :Answers are Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Cluster (multitstage) Sampling, Systematic Sampling _Systematic__34. researcher selects Kth case from a list (where, k = population divided by desired sample size), where K is the sampling interval (standard distance between the elements) Simple Random__35. researcher establishes sampling frame (listing of elements), then numbering all elements, then selecting sample elements _Cluster (multistage)__36. researcher selects random samples successively, from larger to smaller units by either simple or stratified random methods _Stratified Sampling__ 37. researcher divides the population into homogenous subgroups from which elements are selected at random Nonprobability Sampling : Answers will be Convenience Sampling, Snowballing Sampling, Quota Sampling, Purposive Sampling _Snowballing__ 38. aka Network or Chain Sampling _Purposive __ 39. aka Judgmental Sampling _Convenience __ 40. aka Accidental Sampling _Quota_ _41. researcher identifies population strata (subpopulation) and determines how many participants are needed from each stratum _Purposive__ 42. researcher decides to purposely select subjects who are judged to be typical of the population or particularly knowledgeable about the issues under study _Snowballing__ 43. every sample identifies and refers other persons who meet the inclusion (eligibility) criteria _Convenience__ 44. using most conveniently available people as participants Collection of Data: Write (A) for Questionnaire, (B) for Interview, (C) Observation (D) Records Records 45. provides a readily available and valuable source of data Observation 46. the most direct means of studying the subjects when the researcher is interested in their behavior Questionnaire 47. the most common type of research instrument Interview 48. the second most common method for data collection

Ethical Principles in Research : Answer (1) for Beneficence, (2) for Justice and (3) for Respect for Human Dignity Respect for Human Dignity 49. Right of Self-Disclosure Beneficence 50. protection of participants from exploitation

Descriptive Research Approach : You may answer (1) Survey, (2) Analysis Study, (3) Causal Comparative, (4) Relationship Study, (5) Prediction Study (Relationship Study )51. concerned with gaining a better understanding of complex behavioral patterns and phenomena by studying the relationship between variables that are hypothesized to be related. This technique is particularly useful for exploratory studies in areas where little or no previous research is available. (Relationship Study) (Prediction Study (Causal Comparative 52. In the study of good clinical instructors, a knowledge between relationships between ability to teach, intelligence, motivations, etc., is necessary. )53. usually carried out in areas where knowledge has already been established. )54. Studying the qualities of merit possessed by effective and ineffective Clinical Instructors requires a knowledge of antecedents that developed these instructors. )55. When comparing the cost of nursing education in the provinces with that in Metro Manila, not only are the actual expenses of nursing students taken into consideration but also the circumstances regarding the observed facts. )56. Anthropometric Study of Filipino Children and Youth. )57. In an urban area in the Philippines, JC investigated the attitude of a sample of public health nurses and a sample of public health nurses and a sample of social workers toward practitioners in the professions of public health nursing and social work. )58. A research project conducted by Montes attested to determine the adoption practices and procedures in 5 selected welfare agencies. The records of the agencies were carefully studied to establish the pattern followed by each adoption series. )59. are exploratory and partially experimental in design )60. This is a type of descriptive study in which data are gathered from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time

(Causal Comparative

(Survey (Survey

(Analysis Study

(Relationship study (Survey

Advantages of Experimental Design/Research and Non-experimental Design/Research : Write N if it is an advantage of Non-experimental Research. Write E if it is an advantage of Experimental Research. (E) 61. It establishes causal relationships. (E) 62. It can yield a higher degree of purity on observation by providing a controlled environment. (E) 63. It is possible to create conditions within a short period that might take years to occur naturally. (E) 64. It is possible to create situations in an experimental setting that are not found otherwise (E) 65. Pressures and problems of real life situations are eliminated. (N) 66. is less expensive (N) 67. It can be completed in a short span of time (N) 68. It is easier to gain the cooperation of study subjects. Study subjects are not subjected to unpleasant, unusual or even burdensome conditions. (N) 69. This is the method of choice where there is a considerable interval between the application of the independent variable and the appearance of response in the dependent variable. ( N )70. Translation of findings is more acceptable to consumers of research. NURSING JURISPRUDENCE c. 7 yrs. A. RA 9173 d. 8 yrs. 1. How much will be the penalty for violations of 7. The salary of a PHN shall not be lower than: prohibitions in the practice of Nursing (RA a. SG 12 9173)? b. SG 15 a. P 80,000 P 100,000 c. SG 20 b. P 40,000 P 80,000 d. SG 25 c. P 50,000 P 100,000 8. Your professional license may be revoked in d. P 50,000 P 100,000 which of the ff. circumstances? 2. To pass NLE , what is the general weighted a. violation of Nursing ethics average and ratings, respectively? b. practice of nursing under supervision a. 75 % with ratings not more than 60 c. gross competence % in any subject d. professional conduct b. 75 % with ratings @ least 60 % in all 9. Nursing Service Supervisors must have how subjects many MA units in management and c. 75 % with ratings not less than 65 % administration? in any subject a. 12 d. 75 % with ratings not less than b. 6 60 % in any subject area c. 9 3. Some of the passers of the June 2005 NLE will d. 15 be appointed as BON in the future. How many 10. Which of describes best RA 9173? years is the appointment, until replacement is a. The Philippine Nursing Act of 2001 appointed? b. The Philippine Nursing Act of 2000 4. a. 3 yrs. c. An Act Providing for a More b. 4 yrs. Responsible Nursing Profession c. 5 yrs. d. An Act Providing for a More d. 6 yrs. Responsive Nursing Profession 5. How many years in practice is the minimum BIOETHICS requirement for an RN to teach in a university? 1. Which among the basic human rights of a. 1 yr. research subjects holds a paramount value? b. 2 yrs. a. right to confidentiality c. 3 yrs. b. right to privacy d. 4 yrs. c. right to be protected from harm 6. What is the minimum number of yrs. in d. right to informed consent practice, required for deanship in a college of 2. Adriatica is on coma. She is kept alive with nursing? NGT feedings for 8 yrs. already. The husband a. 5 yrs. and the healthcare team consented and decided b. 6 yrs.

to withdraw NGT, and naturally, she died. The concerned people committed: a. an ethical act b. a moral act c. murder 3. 3. Marcus is staying alive for 3 yrs. already, due only to continuous mechanical ventilation. The decision to withdraw mechanical ventilation is: a. ethical b. unethical 4. The Good Samaritan Law protects those who: a. save lives within hours of duty b. save lives outside duty in a health care facility c. save lives without accepting recompense d. save lives and receive rewards 5. A nurse breaks into the record section of the hospital and obtains information from a clients chart. She violates the ethical principle of: a. privacy b. confidentiality c. veracity d. fidelity 6. A nurse in charge of caring for Cynthia discloses personal information of the patient without her knowledge. The nurse violates the ethical principle of: a. privacy b. confidentiality c. veracity d. fidelity 7. In relation to the nursing profession, the development of the Nursing Diagnosis promotes a. justice b. fidelity c. autonomy d. beneficence 8. Which of the ff. is considered an extraordinary measure in health care? a. mechanical ventilation b. TPN c. oral fluids d. oxygen administration 9. Which of the ff. can be withdrawn to aid for a peaceful and dignified death? a. ordinary measures b. extraordinary measures 10. In the Philippines, when a person has a serious illness, you expect the patients family to know the patients diagnosis: a. first b. after the patient knows LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES 1. The best definition of a tort is: a. The application of a force to the person of another by a reasonable individual b. An illegality committed by one person against the property or person of another c. Doing something that a reasonable person under ordinary circumstances would not do d. An illegality committed against the public and punishable by the law through the courts 2. A client is placed on a stretcher and restrained with straps while being transported to the X-ray department. A strap breaks and the client falls to the floor, sustaining a fractured arm. Later the client states that, The strap was worn just at the very spot where the strap snapped. The nurse is: a. Exempt from any lawsuit because of the doctrine of respondeat superior b. Totally and singly responsible for the obvious negligence because of failure to report defective equipment c. Liable along with the employer, for misapplication of equipment or use of defective equipment that harms the client d. completely exonerated, because only the hospital, as principal employer, is primarily responsible for the quality and maintenance of equipment.

3. The primary purpose for NLE is to protect: a. the public b. practicing nurse c. employing agency d. professional standards 4. An example of intentional tort would be: a. malpractice b. negligence c. breach of duty d. false imprisonment 5. When teaching about child abuse, the nurse tells a parent group that the best legal definition of assault is: a. Threats to do bodily harm to the person of another person b. The application of force to another person without lawful justification c. A legal wrong committed by one person against the property of another d. A legal wrong committed against the public and punishable by law through the state and courts 6. When teaching a staff about the legal terminology used in child abuse, the nurse emphasizes that the term battery means: a. A legal wrong committed by one person against the property of another b. Maligning the character of an individual while threatening to do bodily harm c. The application of force to the person of another person without lawful justification d. Doing something that a reasonable person with the same education or preparation would not do., 7. A toddler screams and cries noisily after parental visits, disturbing all the other children. When the crying is particularly loud and prolonged, the nurse puts the crib in the store room and closes the door. The toddler is left there until the crying ceases, a matter of 30-45 secs. Legally: a. The child needed to have limits set to control the crying b. The child had a right to remain in the room with the other children c. Keeping the child segregated alone for more than 30 minutes was too long d. The other children had to be considered, so the child needed to be removed 8. When obtaining a consent for surgery, initially the nurse should: a. Explain the risks involved in the surgery b. Explain that obtaining the signature is routine for any surgery c. Evaluate if the clients knowledge level is sufficient to give consent d. Witness the signature because this is what the nurses signature documents 9. A client who has been told she needs a hysterectomy for cervical cancer is upset about being unable to have more children. The nurse should: a. Evaluate her willingness to pursue adoption b. Encourage her to focus on her own recovery c. Emphasize that she does have 2 children already d. Ensure that all treatment options have been explored 10. The family of an elderly, aphasic client complains that the nurse failed to obtain a signed consent before inserting an indwelling catheter to measure hourly output. This is an example of: a. A catheter inserted for the clients benefit b. A treatment that doesnt need a separate consent form c. Treatment without consent of the client, which is an invasion of rights d. Inability to obtain consent for treatment because the client was aphasic