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Types of Motors used in Sewing Machines

SPME
Submitted by: Rahul Kumar Ojasvi Srivastava Samapriya Banerjee

Arvind Singh Bhagirath Ramesh Rasika Iyer Manish Kumar

What is a motor?
An electric motor is an electric machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor. In certain applications, such as in the transportation industry withtraction motors, electric motors can operate in both motoring and generating or braking modes to also produce electrical energy from mechanical energy. Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings approaching a megawatt. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, application, type of motion output, and so on.

Some of the motors commonly used in the Apparel Industry are: Clutch Motors Servo Motors

Step Motors Continuous Motors

The application and working of these machinery will be explained in the following pages of this report.

Clutch Motors:
A clutch is a mechanical device that provides for the transmission of power (and therefore usually motion) from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven member) when engaged, but can be disengaged. Clutches are used whenever the transmission of power or motion must be controlled either in amount or over time (e.g., electric screwdrivers limit how much torque is transmitted through use of a clutch; clutches control whether automobiles transmit engine power to the wheels). In the simplest application, clutches connect and disconnect two rotating shafts (drive shafts or line shafts). In these devices, one shaft is typically attached to a motor or other power unit (the driving member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work. In a torque-controlled drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they may be locked together and spin at the same speed (engaged), locked together but spinning at different speeds (slipping), or unlocked and spinning at different speeds (disengaged). In the textile industry, the motor is especially designed with powerful performance for industrial sewing machines purpose. Vibration and noise are minimized. The temperature rising of the motor is extremely low.

The size and weight of the flywheel eliminate speed reduction when it engaged with the clutch. Heavy-duty lining material prevents any slipping. Therefore the accurate clutch operation permits instant starting and stopping of the sewing machine.

The operating lever can always be kept in line with the pitman rod and foot treadle. Loosen the bracket holding screw so that the pulley side can end of bracket rotates freely. Now adjust the clutch lever to the most suitable operating position. Then, tighten the bracket holding screw and commence operation.

The motor is provided with a belt tightener of American dimensions. The tension of the belt is easily adjusted by simply loosening the adjustment nut.

The dimensions of the device is as follows:

Examples of a clutch motor: No. 9623: Enduro Hi-Torque Clutch Motors

Enduro Hi-Torque Clutch Motors These clutch motors are built to endure years of operation. All motors are supplied with a push button switch box and wire harness. The 3/4" shaft fits standard AMCO style pulleys. All motors supplied with pulley and mounting hardware. CE listed. Shipping weight 42 pounds.

Specifications: Full safety belt pulley cover. Extra heavy fly wheel is precision

balanced for rapid machine start. External clutch and brake adjustments with replaceable clutch disc. Fully enclosed shielded high quality ball bearings insure quiet running motor. Built-in belt tightener with positive locking

screw. Built-in capacitor and 6 Volt light plug.

Item Information USS Part 9623 No.: Unit of Sale: EA Description: MOTOR 1/2HP 115V 1750RPM 1P RPM: 1750 HP: 1/2 Phase: 1 Volts: 115 Unit Weight * : 48.396 lbs. (21952 grams)

ACCESSORY

FIXING BOLTS / PULLEY / VIBRATION ABSORBERS / PUSH BUTTOM SWITCH AND CABLE/BELT GUARD/RC SWITCH

Used in: SNLS Machines

Servo Motors:
A servomotor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position. It consists of a motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback, through a reduction

gearbox. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with servomotors.Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing. As the name suggests, a servomotor is a servomechanism. More specifically, it is a closed-loop servomechanism that uses position feedback to control its motion and final position. The input to its control is some signal, either analogue or digital, representing the position commanded for the output shaft. The motor is paired with some type of encoder to provide position and speed feedback. In the simplest case, only the position is measured. The measured position of the output is compared to the command position, the external input to the controller. If the output position differs from that required, an error signal is generated which then causes the motor to rotate in either direction, as needed to bring the output shaft to the appropriate position. As the positions approach, the error signal reduces to zero and the motor stops. The very simplest servomotors use position-only sensing via a potentiometer and bangbang control of their motor; the motor always rotates at full speed (or is stopped). This type of servomotor is not widely used in industrial motion control, but they form the basis of the simple and cheap servos used for radio-controlled models. More sophisticated servomotors measure both the position and also the speed of the output shaft. They may also control the speed of their motor, rather than always running at full speed. Both of these enhancements, usually in combination with a PID control algorithm, allow the servomotor to be brought to its commanded position more quickly and more precisely, with less overshooting. Examples of Servomotors: No. SM10502: Enduro Elite Non-Positioner Servo Motor (220V) - Generation Two

Item Specifications Voltage: 220V Phase: Single Phase Cycles: 50/60 Watts: 0 - 1400 Torque: 0 - 3.7 Foot Pounds Variable Speed: to 5000 RPM Features & Motor rotating direction setting Settings: Features & Maximum speed setting Settings: Motor weight: 11.6 lbs. Motor dimensions: 11.25 L x 7.5 W x 8.5 H Shipping 14 L x 11.5 W x 10.5 H dimensions: Supplied with: Instruction manual / parts list Supplied with: Mounting hardware Supplied with: Pulley cover (belt guard) Supplied with: 100mm pulley Supplied with: Horizontal push-button on/off with with heavy duty UL 10' wire lead for easy overhead hookpup

Unit Weight * : 14.551 lbs. (6600 grams)

Used in: SNLS Machines, Any machine with computer controlled cutting machines, gerber cutting machines, and computer controlled sewing machines.

Step Motors:
A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor's position can then be commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. Switched reluctance motors are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated. DC brush motors rotate continuously when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller. To make the motor shaft turn, first, one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step", with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle. Advantages 1. The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse. 2. The motor has full torque at standstill (if the windings are energized)

3. Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy of 3 5% of a step and this error is non cumulative from one step to the next. 4. Excellent response to starting/stopping/reversing. 5. Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. Therefore the life of the motor is simply dependant on the life of the bearing. 6. The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control, making the motor simpler and less costly to control. 7. It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to theshaft. 8. A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses. Disadvantages 1. Resonances can occur if not properly controlled. 2. Not easy to operate at extremely high speeds. Uses: A stepper motor can be a good choice whenever controlled movement is required. They can be used to advantage in applications where you need to control rotation angle, speed, position and synchronism. Because of the inherent advantages listed previously, stepper motors have found their place. Used in pattern plotters and automatic cutting machines.

Continuous Motors:

These are servo motors that can be used for supplying more power for a longer duration than the original servo motors. They supply longer modulations of power over a longer duration constraint, and offer more options of power outage for the apparel industry. Example:

No. Continuous run motor 220V / 3P 57417:

Add to My Items Heavy Duty Continuous Run Motor Continuous Run Motor for Buttonsewer, Buttonholer and Bartacker Machines. Precision balance for smooth quiet performance. Fan ventilated for cooler running. Built-in belt tightener adjustable for correct belt tension. Enclosed OSHA type belt guard for safety; fully adjustable. Oversize ball bearings prelubricated and permanently sealed. 6 volt light tap for low voltage light fixture. 2/5 H.P., 220 Volt, 3-Phase, 1725 RPM. Complete with pulley.

Click any Image for full view.

Item Information USS Part No.: 57417 Unit of Sale: EA Description: 1/2HP 1725 CONT MOTOR 220-3PH Style #: M24 Item Specifications

Unit Weight * : 28.643 lbs. (12992 grams)

Used in: Buttonsewer, Buttonholer and Bartacker Machines. Belts: A belt is a loop of flexible material used to mechanically link two or more rotating shafts. Belts may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently, or to track relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys. In a two pulley system, the belt can either drive the pulleys in the same direction, or the belt may be crossed, so that the direction of the shafts is opposite. As a source of motion, a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to continuously carry a load between two points. Pulleys: A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement of a cable or belt along its circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and to transmit power. A pulley is also called a sheave or drum and may have a groove between two flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a pulley system can be a rope, cable, belt, or chain that runs over the pulley inside the groove. Hero of Alexandria identified the pulley as one of six simple machines used to lift weights. Pulleys are assembled to form a block and tackle in order to provide mechanical advantage to apply large forces. Pulleys are also assembled as part of belt and chain drives in order to transmit power from one rotating shaft to another.

The pulley and best systems of various machines can be found below. They mainly used V-belts. Button Hole m/c : Motor Head 5.8", 2", Machine Head 5.5", 3.5" SNLS machine: Motor Head 3.5", Machine Head 3.5" 5 Thread O/L m/c: Motor Head 3.5", Machine Head 2" Feed of the arm m/c: Motor Head 3.5", Machine Head 3.5"

Baby Overlock: Machine Head 1.5", Motor head 2.5"

References:
www.universalsewing.com http://www.consew.com Sudar Garments Limited http://store.keysew.com http://www.adlee.com garmento.org