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CHANGE IN TURBOCODER: ========================

The 3G technology introduces a turbo coder that can be used as a half-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-rate coder. On average, a turbo coder effectively reduces the minimum required Eb/No by 1 dB to 2dB. Without a turbo coder, the exponential complexity for a K = 10 coder, which would be required for a fourth-and fifth-rate coder, does not offset its Eb/No benefits. This design complexity is minimized with a turbo coder. In 1xEV-DO, the turbo coder is operated at a third- and fifthrate in the forward link, and at a half- and fourth-rate in the reverse link. A turbo coder consists of two K = 4 half-rate convolution coders and a turbo interleaver, as shown in Figure 1. Every information bit is routed through the turbo coder unchanged to become one of the coder output symbol bits. The information bit is also coded by the K = 4 half-rate coder, producing two symbol bits on lines A and B. The K = 4 half-rate coder is not as complex as the K = 9 coder, and its output is a function of the previous three bits. In addition, the input information bits are scrambled by the turbo interleaver and are coded by the interleaver K = 4 half-rate coder, producing two addition symbol bits on lines C and D. The coder rate selection is implemented through the puncture control. When a half-rate coding is selected, the puncture control inhibits the bit streams on lines B, C, and D. Thus, the turbo coder generates only two coded symbol bits: the original instruction bits and the bits on line A. When third-rate coding is required, the 2-bit symbol output of the K = 4 half-rate coder is enabled along with the original information. When fourth-rate

coding is required, in addition to the 2-bit symbol at the output of the K = 4 half-rate coder and the original information bit, the bit stream on line C is enabled.


1> What is the coding .. is it still CDMA?
Rather than allowing multiple users to simultaneously share a single carrier for both uplink and downlink transmission, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO uses a different approach to achieve high data rates. 1xEV-DO recognizes the asymmetrical nature in which data is moved over an IP network. Higher volumes of data are downloaded from the network to the user than are uploaded from the user to the network. The download to upload ratio may vary between four-to-one and six-to-one, and is in some cases even higher. To take advantage of this asymmetrical pattern, 1xEV-DO technology uses different multiple access division techniques for uplink and downlink data transmission. For uplink data transmission, 1xEV-DO uses the classical CDMA code division technology similar to IS-95 and 3G-1X, and for downlink transmission, a time division techniques where, a single 1.25-MHz carrier is time-shared with a maximum of 59 users, is used. Because voice transmission requires continuous use of the carrier, voice transmission is not implemented in 1xEV-DO

2> How about the hardware philosophy?

While the Physical Layer of 1xEV-DO, identifying channel encoding and channel structure differs greatly from IS-95 and 3G-1X, the RF signal and 1.25-MHz bandwidth is compatible with IS-95. Therefore, the same RF equipment (amplifiers, filters, etc.) used to provide IS-95 service can be used to provide 1xEV-DO service.

3> How we are able to reach such high data rate?

The elimination of uninterrupted, real-time voice transmission constrains allows 1xEV-DO systems to time-multiplex the distribution of downlink data to each online subscriber in a particular service area. Unlike IS-95 and 3G-1X systems, where the base station must be able to maintain simultaneous, continuous downlink voice channels within a sector, time multiplexing allows 1xEV-DO systems to concentrate its full downlink transmit power to a single on-line user at any one time. This allows the base station to transmit user data at the highest data rate, up to 2.4-Mbps peak data rate provided, that a discernible Eb/No level is maintained.

4> Can it coexist?

The 1xEV-DO architecture provides an overlay solution to voice networks running in cellular or personal communications services (PCS) spectrums and requires a dedicated 1.25-MHz channel. Although designed to leverage from IS95 and 3G-1X systems, the 1xEV-DO does not require any signaling or backhaul interaction with the MSC and can co-exist with any voice technology such as GSM and TDMA

5> Characteristics?
The peak data rates for 1xEV-DO are: Forward Link (Downlink) = 2, 457.6 Kbps Reverse Link (Uplink) =153.6 Kbps. Forward link average aggregate throughput can be from 350 to 550 kbps per carrier-sector for high mobility (vehicle) end-users, and up to 650 kbps per carrier-sector for low-mobility and stationary end-users.

6> How are the data rates controlled on the FORWARD LINK?
Data rate is assigned based on the signal strength measured at the AT. The data rate that is actually transmitted to any one AT is a function of that AT RF environment. The AT continuously monitors the quality of its receive pilot signal, in addition to monitoring the pilot signal from other neighboring sectors. As with IS-95 and 3G-1X, the pilot signal transmitted by each sector is distinguished by an offset of the PN short code. Because the received pilot signals from the different sectors are predictable, the AT can acquire the pilot signal and measure the pilot channel carrier-to-interference (C/I) ratio. By measuring the C/I ratio, the AT is able to determine its current best serving sector and the highest data rate it may be able to receive reliable data from that sector. As a result of this determination, the AT sends back a data rate control (DRC) report to the BTS. The DRC identifies the serving sector and the highest rate in which the AT can receive quality data from the sector. The serving sector transmits to a scheduled AT at the rate indicated in its DRC report As shown in Table 1-2 forward link data can be transmitted at nine different data rates that are chosen to provide efficient coverage under a full range of conditions experienced at typical cellular/PCS cell sites. The data starts at 38.4 kbps and doubles itself up to 2.457.6 kbps. Each data rate is associated with a particular packet bit size and modulation type.

7> How are the PACKETIZED DATA transmitted on the FWD link?
Forward link data is transmitted in successive 26.67-ms frames, which are divided into sixteen 1.667-ms slots in which packets of data are transmitted. The transmission duration of a single packet may vary from 1 to 16 slots as a function of the data transmission rate. Pilot and control information are inserted (punctured) within each frame at fixed intervals for AT extraction. The packet AT destination is specified within the packet. Upon receiving the packet, the AT transmits an acknowledge (ACK) signal indicating that the packet is received and its data is uncorrupted.

8> How are the data rates controlled on the REVERSE LINK?
Same as in 3G-1X, 1xEV-DO uses reverse link (uplink) pilot pulses permitting coherent detection by the BTS of the reverse link data from the AT. Uplink data is transmitted in successive 26.67-ms frames at data rates from 9.6 kbps to 153.6 kbps. The initial transmit rate of an AT is 9.6 kbps. Subsequently, the transmit rate can be increased or decreased depending on the total traffic activity in the sector. A Reverse Rate Indicator (RRI) transmitted by the AT is used by the BTS to identify the rate in which the AT is transmitting traffic data.

9> What is the capacity of 1X-EVDO system?

Because of the fundamental differences in how the reverse and forward links operate, capacity analysis for the two links is completely different. The reverse link is analyzed in a method similar to voice systems and results in a maximum number of simultaneous users. The forward link is analyzed in a manner more similar to 3G-1X data services, and results in per-sector throughput.


As shown in the above table, the capacity in terms of the maximum number of sessions is almost independent of data rate. The higher data rates require higher traffic gain. The resulting extra power is offset by the decrease in the amount of time the channel is used (i.e., channel activity). The capacity for the 153.6 kbps channel users is lower because of the higher required Ec/Nt.


As can be seen from the above figure, the throughput increases with the number of users, leveling off at around eight users. This increase in users is a direct manifestation of the scheduling gain. As the scheduler has more users to choose from, there is a greater probability that one or more of the users will be in a good Geometry and capable of supporting high channel rates.


What are the functions of each elements of the architecture?

Users will access the system, which is referred to as the Radio Access Network (RAN), through an Access Terminal (AT) that maintains an air interface with a 1xEV-DO base station. The AT may be used in a laptop computer, a hand-held device such a Palm Pilot or personal digital assistant, or multi-mode mobile with AMPS/IS-95 and 3G-1X/1xEV-DO capabilities.

All call processing negotiated between the AT and the base station is covered is defined by 1xEV-DO Protocol Architecture IS-856

The FMS provides the interface to complete the call control functions required by the AT to acquire the RAN network. This interface is defined by the 1xEV-DO IS-856 Protocol Architecture. Two network routers are physically housed with an FMS in the same frame. The routers shown in above figure are functionally located and do not necessarily represent individual routers. The RAN network may contain up to six FMS frames, designated FMS0 through FMS5. The FMS frame houses up to four primary and four backup A Servers. Each A-Server contains one Application Processor (AP) running on the Sun Solaris Operating System (OS), Version 8. The A Server also contains up to two Traffic Processors (TPs), one Alarm Card, and one local boot disk. The APs run the 1xEV Controller software to perform overhead channel management signaling processing and OA&M control functions. These functions include session establishment and release, frame selection, and radio link protocol (RLP) processing. The TPs run VxWorks to perform traffic processing and the Packet Control Function (PCF) to handle the packet data interface between the base station the PDSN components. The 1xEV controller software also performs the packet control function (PCF) to process the data for standard A10/A11, Radio-Packet (R-P) interface with the Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN). This interface is maintained either via a 100 Mbps ethernet connection or an ATM interface to the Internet service provider backbone IP network. The A10/A11 R-P interface terminates the mobility management defined by the air interface protocol (IS-856) and is the demarcation point between the RAN and IP packet networks. The FMS-processed data is connected to PDSN via the downlink input router, and because the PDSN is located at Internet serving network, the router is connected to the PDSN over an ethernet connection. Each FMS frame is capable of interfacing and handling the call processing function for 48 base stations.

PDSN: Pdsn implements the PPP,IP and the STATIC IP layer of the EV-DO protocol stack. It also manages the IP address .Let us understand that.
The PDSN is operated as a Home Agent (HA) for the serving network in which it Resides. The serving network allocates the PDSN to open an IP session with a petitioning AT. The IP address defines a physical location on the Internet. When an IP session is established with an AT, the most significant digits of the IP address, which are listed in the Internet routing tables, are used to direct Internet data traffic associated with the AT to and from the PDSN. The PDSN maps the AT to the IP address so that data reaching the PDSN is directed to the AT.


Authentication, Authorization and Accounting :

Prior to allowing an AT network access, the AT is challenged for authentication to determine if the AT is not masquerading under a false ID, and also for authorization to determine if the AT is permitted (authorized) to access the network. This challenge is implemented by the Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) server via a server/client relationship with the PDNS client. The AAA maintains a subscriber database which is used to validate the users ID and password. The PDSN records AT data usage to provide accounting information to the AAA Server.

The protocol stack?

The most important point of this stack??? the RLP

The RLP connection between the AT and the FMS has negative acknowledgement (NACK) capabilities, indicating when missing frames are discovered. This NACK capability, which reduces the amount of signaling required, allows for the

retransmission of frames that were lost. While this capability will not totally eliminate lost frames, it will significantly decrease the probability of incurring lost frames. If frames are lost anyway, a high-level protocol or mechanism, such as TCP should recover from that problem as it does now in wire Internet connections.


Each active user is assigned one of 59 Walsh codes from a 64-ary set, where four codes are pre-assigned. Therefore, a single carrier can be time-shared by 59 active data traffic channel users. This means that although at any one time, only one user is actively receiving data over the data traffic channel, 59 users are assigned logical channels on the carrier.

The frame structure:

This is what happens when the AT is active and data is being downloaded

When no data is transmitted the idle slot looks like

Even though data is not transmitted during idle time slots, the MAC and pilot channels are transmitted during their correct timing sequence within the idle time slot. The forward MAC Channel is composed of up to 64 code channels, which are orthogonally covered and BPSK-modulated on a particular phase of the carrier. Each code channel is identified by a MAC index, which has a value of between 2 and 63 and defines a unique 64-ary Walsh cover and a unique modulation phase. There are two sub-channels on the forward link MAC channel: the Reverse Activity Channel (RAC) and the Reverse Power Control Channel (RPC). SO THAT EXPLAINS THE CONTROL CHANNEL BUT HOW IS THE DATA TRAFFIC CHANNEL IS MAPPED ON THE FWD LINK? User data is transmitted in two 400-chip bursts during each half slot period. In order to maximize data throughput, AT users sharing the carrier are serviced in any time slot order. Depending on the scheduler algorithm, AT users with reporting a good RF environment will have a better chance to be allotted the time slot to receive data. Other AT users will have to wait until their RF environment improves. In this way, the base station is always transmitting at the highest rate possible to maximize its data throughput.

Two very important concepts: DRC (Dynamic Rate Control)

The rate at which data is transmitted to the AT is a function of the AT RF environment, and is subject to dynamic reselection during each 1.66-ms slot-clock period. The AT continuously monitors the quality of receive pilot pulses from all sectors in the active set (all neighboring sectors). In response, the AT sends back a data rate control (DRC) report to the base stations in the active set. The DRC report identifies the sector with the highest C/I ratio and the highest rate in which the AT can receive quality data from the sector within a margin to insure a low erasure rate. The sector identified be the DRC code than resumes transmission at the rate indicated by the DRC report.

Virtual Soft Handoff

The selection from one sector to another is called virtual soft handoff. Unlike soft handoff performed in IS-95 during which the mobile may simultaneously interact with two or more sectors to realize a signal gain, this signal gain is not achieved during virtual handoff because the AT interacts with only one sector at a time. Lets understand it through a call flow.

When the DRC report from an active AT identifies (points to) Sector 1 as its best serving sector, Sector 1 sends a Forward Data Request to the 1xEV Controller in the FMS. In response, the FMS sends the requested Data Packets to Sector 1, which are then transmitted in Frame messages to the AT. Subsequently, if the DRC reports from the AT point to Sector 2 as its best serving sector for a definable period, Sector 2 will send a Forward Data Request to the 1xEV Controller in the FMS. Sensing that it has not received best server pointing DRC reports for a period of time, Sector 1 will send a Forward Stop Indicator message to the 1xEV Controller. This message also identifies the last frame ID transmitter to the AT. After receiving indications from both sectors, the 1xEV Controller directs Sector 1 to flush the remaining un-transmitted data from its buffer. The Data Packets are then sent to Sector 2 so that transmission to the AT can continue from Sector 2



Whether EVDO carriers can be added to the existing MODCELL cabinet?


A 1xEV-DO/IS-95/3G-1X mixed-mode Modular Cell 3 cabinet will support a mix of 1xEV-DO and IS-95 and/or 3G-1X carriers by allowing the mixing of 1xEV-DO CDMA Digital Module (CDM) with IS-95 and 3G-1X CDM in the same cabinet. Because 1xEV-DO technology uses the same RF footprint as does IS-95 and 3G-1X, the top portion of the cabinet, containing filters, transmit amplifiers, and other components does not change for 1xEV-DO. The only hardware modification required for 1xEV-DO deployment is within the top shelf of the CDM.. There is no limitation on the placement of 1xEV-DO carrier. This means that the 1xEV-DO carrier can be equipped in any CDM of the Modular Cell frames, primary frame, or growth frame. The 1xEV-DO Modem contains the functionality required to support the 1xEV-DO physical layer and is used for all 1xEV-DO Flexent platforms. Currently, only one 1xEV-DO carrier can be deployed per Modular Cell cabinet by modifying the first CDM. Converting the CDM hardware for 1xEV-DO deployment is a two-step procedure: a. All CCU packs are removed and replaced with a single 1xEV-DO Modem (EVM). The EVM contains two modem boards, EVTx and EVRx. Two CCU slots are reserved for a single EVM, where the EVTx transmit board is plugged in to slot 1 and the EVRx receive board is plugged in to slot 2. The 1xEV-DO modem boards are pin-compatible with the backplane so that no external wiring or pin jumping is required. b. The CRC must be replaced with a 44WW13D or later version. This version accommodates 1xEV-DO operation and is compatible with IS-95 and 3G-1X.


Rather than having dedicated CDMs to separately process each carrier as in the Modular Cells 1, 2, and 3, the digital shelf in the Modular Cell 4 cabinet pools its carrier signal processing hardware resources for either 1xEV-DO data or 3G-1X/IS95 data. Universal radio controllers (URC) are used to steer transmit and receive data for each carrier to either an EVM for 1xEV-DO operation or a CDMA modem unit (CMU) for IS-95 and 3G-1X (refer to Figure 4-5). In a mixed-mode system, at least two URCs are required, one for 1xEV-DO data and the other for 3G-1X/IS-95 data. For transmission, the URC will direct the signal received from the RNC or AUTOPLEX network to either the 4.0 EVM, for 1xEV-DO, or CMU for 3G-1X and IS95, where the signal is modulated. In large cells, a number of CMUs may be installed to provide a pool of channel elements (CE) to process 3G-1X/IS-95 voiceand data signals. The task of the URC is to select the next available CMU and CE from the pool to process the incoming voice and data signals.

The modulated signal from the 4.0 EVM or CMU is up-converted to its appropriated carrier frequency by the UCR. The upconverted carrier signal is then amplified, filtered and routed to the base station transmit antenna. Each UCR can process up to three carriers. Reverse link signals received through the UCR are down-converted and appropriately routed to either the 4.0 EVM or the next available CMU designated by the URC for demodulation. The demodulated signal is then routed through its appropriate URC to its designation via the RAN or AUTOPLEX network. The location: The digital card shelf backplane is functionally divided into four sections, where each section is dedicated to receive circuit packs of a specific type. Except for the first section, which is dedicated for URC, circuit packs may be placed in any slot within their dedicated sections.The first section is a fourslot location where URCs can be placed in the first three slots. The fourth slot is reserved for a redundant URC that will be available in a future release. The URC provides T1/E1 facility interface via the I/O unit (IOU) for the digital card shelf .Initially, in a mix-mode system, one URC must be used exclusively for 1xEV-DO service. The URC exclusivity will be removed in subsequent releases. The second section is divided into two six-slot groupings, where the first group is immediately after the URC section, occupying slots 5 through 10, and the second group is the last six slots on the digital shelf, occupying slots 17 through 22. Generally, the first two of the 12 slots are occupied the 4.0 EVM EVTx and EVRx modem boards and the remaining slots may be occupied by CDMA modem units (CMU) in base stations that also provide IS-95 or 3G-1X service. The CMUs contains a number of the channel elements (CE) that perform the signal spreading and de-spreading required by CDMA baseband processing for IS-95 and 3G-1X. The third section is a two-slot position occupied by the common timing unit (CTU).

The CTU receives the timing signal from the GPS to maintain base station synchronization with the other base stations in the CDMA network. Two CTU are generally installed where the second CTU provides backup. Lastly, the fourth section is a six-slot position to be occupied by Universal CDMA Radio (UCR). The UCR provides radio processing including peak limiting, overload control, and upbanding/downbanding for the appropriate RF frequency.


The FMS requires a minimum of a primary and a backup DO-AP. Each DO-AP consists of the following

One hard disk drive to provide a local boot disk One Sun Ultra SparcTM Central Processing Unit (CPU) card running the Solaris 9 operating system. Essentially, the CPU functions as the 1xEVDO application processor to perform Overhead Channel Management signaling processing and OA&M control functions. Two Traffic Processes (TPs) that run on the VxWorks operating system to perform signaling and traffic processing One alarm card: Support for reset, power up, and power down commands issued from the Watchdog Integrated with the Modular Filter and Fusing Unit (MFFU) to provide alarm indication such as temperature, power, and fan failures, in addition to providing alarms for its associated server One Maintenance Interface Panel (MIP); allows connection of links to the Local Maintenance Terminal (LMT) and external router components. Two routers (Ethernet switches) are provided, one switch is active, and the other is on standby. The router provides the physical and logical communication data links between the network base stations and the components within the FMS, and also provides the network links between the FMS components and the Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) via 100baseT (Ethernet) interface specified for the R-P interface (also known as IOS A10A11 interface). The router also provides a data link between the Element Management System (EMS) on the OMP-FX, and to other servers within the FMS.


The AT and the RAN network maintain either a closed or open connection state that dictates the type of communications between the two. Closed Connection: In this connection state, the AT is not assigned to a dedicated airlink resource. Communications between the AT and the RAN network are conducted over the access channel and control channel. Open Connection: In this connection state, the AT can be assigned the forward traffic channel, and is assigned a reverse power control channel and a reverse traffic channel. Communications between the AT and RAN network are conducted over these assigned channels, as well as over the control channel. AT INITIALIZATION STATE: In this mode, the AT registers on the RAN to identify its presence and location within the RAN network. In response to registering, the AT is assigned a unique address allowing the RAN to page and send messages to the AT. The AT will enter the initialization state, which is controlled by the initialization protocol. In this state, the AT, which has no information about the serving base station or RAN network, must acquire the RAN network and synchronize with its timing. The initialization state is activated by the air link management protocol after the AT is switched on or, the AT user attempts to open or return to a session after a long pause. In either situation, the initialization state is activated to control how the AT acquires the RAN network in its service area. To do this, the AT may select a forward CDMA channel from a preferred channel record provided to the AT from the RAN network. In addition to preferred channels, the channel record identifies the system (compliance specification) and its band class. Immediately after the AT is activated, the AT enters a RAN network determination mode. At this time, the AT selects and tunes to one of the channels from its channel record and attempts to acquire its forward link pilot signal. If the AT cannot acquire the pilot signal within 60 seconds, the AT refers back to the channel record to identify another network. When a pilot signal is acquired, the AT monitors the Sync Message broadcast on its control channel. The Sync message will contain information about its serving base station and RAN. One of the values read from the Sync message is the range of AT revisions compatible with the base station, the base station sector pilot PN offset, and network system timing. The RAN network sets the System Time field of the Sync message to 60 ms after the start of the Control Channel Cycle in which the Sync Message is transmitted. The System Time is specified in units of 26.66 ms. The Sync message transmission period is 1.28 seconds. If the AT acquires the Sync message within 5 seconds, the AT will advance to the idle state. If the AT version is not within the revision range specified by the Sync message or the AT cannot synchronize to the control channel cycle within 5 seconds, the AT goes back to the RAN network determination mode for channel reselection. AT IDLE STATE: At this time, an open connection exists, where the AT is not assigned to a dedicated airlink resource. Communications

between the AT and RAN network are conducted over the access channel and control channel. In order for the RAN network to identify each AT that enters its coverage area, the AT must register when it enters the coverage area. Unlike IS-95 and 3G-1X, there is no central database such as a home location register (HLR) and visitor location register (VLR) in the in the 1xEV-DO system as in traditional wireless voice systems to keep track of each AT location. In order to keep track of the AT and to know where to page it, 1xEV-DO uses registration. There are two possible registration procedures: UATIRequest Message-based RouteUpdate Message-based. In both messages, which are handled by the route update protocol, the AT sends its location information to the base station so that the RAN network may focus its paging of the AT to the correct coverage area. Rather than using serial number paging as in voice wireless systems, each AT is assigned a unicast AT identifier (UATI) address. This address is similar to the IP address that is assigned to data packets to steer the packet The AT must include its UATI address within the UATIRequest message to allow the RAN to direct (address) its page to the AT. As a result, the RAN returns an access acknowledge (AcAck) response. When the UATIRequest message is sent for the first time after the initialization state, the AT is not assigned any identification address. To provide an address, the AT picks a Random Access Terminal Identifier (RATI) and includes the RATI in its UATIRequest message in place of the UATI. The RAN recognizes the RATI and will assign a UATI value which the AT will use throughout its stay within the subnet. The UATI is a 128-bit address value divided into two fields: UATI104 and UATI024. The 104 most significant bits (MSB) of the UATI, which make the UATI104 field, provide data steering within the RAN network between the PDSN and the base station sector, where the eight least significant bits (LSB) of the UATI104 field are the base station sector codes. The UATI104 value is sent to the AT in the SectorParameterMessage on the control channel. The least significant UATI024 field is sent to the AT in the UATIAssignment message. When an UATI value is included in the UATIRequest message, the RAN would know that the AT had registered in another subnet and is registering its location in its current subnet. This reregistration is referred to as Inter-Subnet Idle Transfer. InterSubnet Idle Transfer is also known as Inter-PCF Idle Handoff.

When is Route Update Message sent ?

In the idle state, the AT sends a RouteUpdate message to the RAN when the AT moves into a different subnet. A subnet is a definable coverage area controlled through a single Evolution Controller (EVC) within a Flexent Mobility Server (FMS). The current subnet servicing an AT is identified by its Color Code sent over the Control Channel. The RouteUpdate message is also sent when the AT computes that its distance (radius, r) from the base station it sent last RouteUpdate message is greater than the RouteUdateRadius value in the SectorParameter message from that base station

Where, xC and xL are the longitude and latitude, respectively, of the sector that receive the last RouteUpdate message from the AT, and yC and yL are the longitude and latitude, respectively, of the sector currently providing coverage to the AT. The base station locations are entered in the EMS data base via the Base Station Antenna Longitude and Latitude in Degrees, Hours, and Seconds fields of the Service Nodes GUI page for each base station. The RouteUpdate message is used when the AT is requesting a traffic channel assignment


When the AT is in the sleep sub-state, it enters the slotted mode operation. In this mode of operation, the AT may stop monitoring the control channel and shut down some processing resources to reduce power consumption, and thereby increase battery life. The control channel, which is interlaced with the transmission of traffic data, is transmitted every 425 ms for a 13.33-ms duration, as shown in Figure . On the occurrence of every twelfth control channel cycle (time slot) which occurs every 5.12 seconds, the RAN and AT transition from the Sleep Sub-State to the Monitor Sub-State for the 13.33-ms control channel cycle time slot to exchange synchronous capsules. To prevent loss of this exchange, the AT cannot change its Active Set pilot at a time that causes it to miss a synchronous Control Channel capsule. There are 12 control channel cycles within 5.12 seconds

The control cycle time slot used is derived from the ATs UATI value. The Sleep State is similar to the 3G-1X slotted mode, and although 3G-1X has fewer time slots, its slot cycle occurs every 5.12 seconds, allowing hybrid AT/3G-1X mobile operation. If the AT is a hybrid mobile, it is required to monitor the paging channel on the 3G-1X system as well as the 1xEV-DO slotted control channel in the same time slot period. Usually in 1xEV-DO, the sleep cycle time slot is determined by the hash function using the AT-assigned UATI value. If the 1xEV-DO control channel time slot assigned to the AT does not align with the 3G-1X paging channel time slot, the AT is required to change the 1xEVDOassigned time slot to coincide with the 3G-1X time slot. In that case, the AT would send a PreferredControl Channel Cycle to the 1xEV-DO base station, indicating the desired time slot. As a result, the 1xEV-DO awake control channel time slot for the AT is recalculated to coincide with the 3G-1X awake time slot.


Forward link handoff in 1xEV-DO is directed by the AT when it is determined that a particular sector could provide better service, in the way of faster data rate, than its current serving sector. Upon monitoring pilot signal strength from the better serving sector, the AT calculates the highest data rate that can be supported from the sector. Then the AT identifies this rate in its transmitted data rate control (RDC) channel, which it directs to the sector. However, before doing this, the AT must be certain that its target sector has the air resources to serve the AT, and that the sector can quickly tap into the ATs forward link data stream so to avoid unnecessary delay. To provide this certainty, the AT must continuously monitor the pilot signal levels from all of its neighboring sectors, and choose those pilot PN offsets that are strong enough to be potential candidates for handoff. When potential candidates are identified, the RAN is informed via a message exchange that transpires between than. As a result, the Evolutionary Controller (EVC) in the RAN allocates traffic channels and the necessary resources to the target sector so that it could handle the handoff should the AT direct it to do so. The Flexent Mobility Server (FMS) contains four primary EVCs and four backup EVCs. The data traffic handled by each on-line EVC is connected to the Packet Data Service Node (PDSD) through the Pack Control Function (PCF). Each EVC services a single subnet which consists of up to eight base stations. A call handoff from a sector serviced by the PCF in one subnet to a sector serviced by a different PCF in another subnet, regardless of whether the PCF is on the same or different FMS frame, is called an inter-PCF handoff. This handoff will always be controlled by a single EVC.


Although in IS-95 forward and reverse link soft handoff occur simultaneously, in 1xEV-DO soft or softer handoff only applies to the reverse link, and the mechanism in which soft and softer handoffs are implemented are similar. Soft and softer handoffs are permitted in CDMA if the handoff sectors are operating on the same

channel frequency currently in use by the mobile. In a typical soft handoff scenario, the mobile establishes communication with a new antenna face, on the same sector of a new sector without breaking the connection with its current antenna face. This diversity with two or more antenna faces will occur throughout the handoff period, which is the period that the mobile remains in the area to received discernible data from the antenna faces within the soft handoff theater (overlapping boundaries among the antenna faces). In 1xEV-DO, reverse link handoff may occur when the AT directs its DRC channel to a new antenna face, prompting a reverse link soft handoff scenario between the current antenna face and the handoff candidate antenna face. Duplicate data packets received by the RAN from the soft handoff diversity are discarded by the Radio Link Protocol (RLP) operating at the airlink Application Lay. The RLP performs frame selection on the reverse link. When an AT is in soft handoff, all the reverse link legs will send frames to the RLP. When the RLP receives multiple copies of the same frame, the RLP selects a frame that successfully passes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). Other copies of that frame are discarded. For open connections in soft handoff with sectors that are controlled by the same or by a different FMS frame, the same EVC always controls the connection. The control can be changed only when the AT re-registers with a new EVC under a different FMS. Re-registering occurs only when the AT is in the dormant mode. During softer handoff, which occurs when handoff is between antenna faces on the same, the same forward link and reverse link modems are used. The power control bits for the softer handoff legs are combined. In other words, the modem makes one decision for the up or down power control bits sent on the forward link power control channel.


A hybrid AT supports both 1xEV-DO and 3G-1X calls and is capable of transmitting and receiving data on the 1xEV-DO carrier and making voice calls, and transmitting and receiving data on the IS-2000 system. The frequency change between the 1xEV-DO system and the 3G-1X system is performed by the hybrid AT. There is no network involvement at all; in fact, the network is not aware of any switch. For example, if a hybrid AT is in the middle of transmitting data on the 1xEVDO system, when the AT receives a page for a voice call, the AT could switch to the 3G-1X system to receive the voice call if the user chooses to do so. The 1xEV-DO system would not know that the AT had left the 1xEV-DO system and gone to the 3G-1X system for a voice call, because the AT does not send any indication back the 1xEV-DO system. The 1xEV-DO system would finally determine that the reverse link is lost or that the Dormancy Timer has expired; the 1xEV-DO system would release the connection. The 3G-1X system would not know that the AT has just broken a connection with the 1xEV-DO system for this voice call. The hybrid AT is able to receive a Page message when it is on the 1xEV-DO system because the AT is in slot-mode operation with the 3G-1X network. The AT will wake up in its designated 3G-1X slot to monitor the 3G-1X paging

channel. If the AT is on the 1xEV-DO traffic channel, the AT may send a null DRC to indicate that it does not want to receive any data from the network while it is monitoring the 3G-1X paging channel. If there is no page message for the AT on the 3G-1X system, the AT would come back to the 1xEV-DO system to resume its data connection by pointing a non-null DRC to some sector. If there is a page message for the AT, the AT would stay in the 3G-1X system to continue call setup procedures.

Operation and maintenance of EVDO Components: 2 EV-DO bts (1 CARRIER EACH)

Is currently installed in MUMBAI-4 (RCS-38,39) which are visible through EMS GUI One has to install the JAVA RUNTIME ENV2 (j2re-1_4_1-windows-i586.exe) to view the application. It can be downloaded from internet or can be collected from me. One will be needing admin password for PC to be able to install it.