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Form 3 Chapter 6 : Land and Its Resources

Mineral : natural elements or compounds present in the earths crust

Elements (unsur) Compounds (sebatian)
Free element, inactive, do not combine with other
contain metals combine chemically with one
or more non-metallic materials
Iron oxide, lead sulphide, calcium carbonate,
tin oxide


Properties of Mineral

1. Hardness of minerals
The hardness of a mineral refers to its resistance on being scratched.
The hardness of a mineral is measured in Mohs.
Generally, all metal oxides, sulphides and carbonates are hard minerals

2. The solubility of minerals in water
Most metal oxides, metal sulphides and metal carbonates do not dissolve in water. Except
for potassium and sodium compounds.

3. Effect of Heat on Metallic Compounds
Type of metallic Reaction Products Example Test
Most metallic carbonates
will decomposed if heated

Except potassium
carbonate and sodium
carbonate because both
the metal carbonates
are very stable
Metallic oxides
And carbon dioxide
Cooper carbonate copper oxide
+ carbon dioxide

Zinc carbonate zinc oxide +
Carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide will turn
limewater chalky

changes red bicarbonate
indicator to yellow

extinguished burning splinter

Metallic Sulphides

Most metallic suplhides
will yield sulphur dioxide
and metal oxide when
heated in air or oxygen
Sulphur dioxide and
metal oxide
Zinc suplhide + oxygen zinc oxide +
sulphur dioxide

decolorize acidified Potasium
manganate (VII) solution

turn potassium dichromate
solution from orange to green

Metallic Oxides

Most metallic oxides do
not decomposed when
heated directly

Only oxides formed by
non-reactive metals such
as gold, mercury,
argentum and

Metal and oxygen

Mercury oxide mercury + oxygen

the glowing splinter will burn

Metals and non-metals
- Elements are classified into two main groups: Metals and non-metals
- 72 of the 92 elements found on the earths crust are metals
Example of metal and non-metal:
Metal Non Metal
Tin ( timah)
Lead (plumbum)


Physical properties of Metal
- Usually shiny
- Has a very high boiling point and melting
point , mercury (the only metal in liquid
form at room temperature), sodium and
- Metals such as iron and chromium can
withstand the pressure and stretching
- A good conductor
- Can be shape (boleh di bentuk)

Physical properties of Non Metal
- Low boiling and melting point
- usually fragile and easily broken when
given pressure
- weak conductor

Reaction Between Metals and Non-Metals
Reaction Reaction Test
Metals with oxygen

- Most metals react with
other elements to form
a more stable
- Each reaction will
produce metal oxide
that have different
color from original
- Energy is released
when a metal reacts
with oxygen to form an

Metal + oxygen metal oxide

Example of reaction

Zinc + oxygen zinc oxide

- Potassium manganate(VII) crytals
is heated to supply oxygen.

- Glass wool prevents the Potassium
manganate(VII) crytals from mixing
with metal filings.

Reaction example:

Magnesium + oxygen magnesium

Color of fire: bright white

Color of product : white

Metals with sulphur

- when metals react with
sulphur, metal
sulphides are formed.

Metal + sulphur metal


lead + sulphur lead

Silicon compound
Silica Silicates
-It is compound made up of silicon and oxygen.
( Silicon + oxygen sodium dioxide (silica))
-It occurs as quartz mineral.
-It can be found in sand, sandstone and igneous

- they are compound made up of silicon
and oxygen and metallic
(silicon + oxygen + metal silicate)
- An example is sodium silicate
- Silicates occur in the form of felspar,
clay, and asbestos

- Are insouluble in water
- Are not decomposed by heat
- Do not react with dilute hydrochloric acid.
- Sodium silicate dissolve in water
- Acidic silica dissolves in alkali to produce silicates

Uses of Silicon Compounds
- Used in manufacturing of bricks, glass and cement
- Used to make ceramic product such as brick, porcelain and tiles
- Silicon nitride and alumina are used to make engineering structure
- Silicon and iron oxide particle are use as the active compound in recording tape and
computer diskettes
- Used to make ceramic insulator
- Used to make superconductor
- Used to make aircraft , rocket nose cones and head shield tiles on space shuttle
- Used to make fibre optics

Calcium Compounds
- Most abundant calcium compound in Malaysia
- Calcium carbonate made up of calcium, carbon and oxygen
- Example : stalactites, stalagmites, coral, limestone, egg shells

Properties of Calcium Carbonate
- Calcium carbonate reacts with dilute acid to form salt, water and carbon dioxide.
- Example: calcium carbonate + dilute hydrochloric acid + carbon dioxide calcium chloride
+water + carbon dioxide
- The carbon dioxide liberated will turn limewater chalky
- Calcium carbonate is not soluble in water

Formation of calcium compound

Natural Fuel Resources
Petroleum, natural gas and coal are classified as fossil fuels.

1. Fossils are the remains of dead plants and animals that have been buried in the ground
for millions of years.

2. Petroleum consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds consisting of hydrogen and
carbon atoms only.

3. The various hydrocarbon compounds can be separated through fractional distillation.

4. The different types of hydrocarbon can be distilled because they have different boiling

5. The higher the boiling point of a petroleum fraction,

a. The darker its colour will be
b. The more viscous the fraction will be.
c. The more difficult it burns.
d. The more soot the flames produce.

6. Uses of various fractions of petroleum.