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Significant changes from the 2008 to the 2011 edition of ACI 318

S. K. Ghosh

he American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary (ACI 318R11).1 ACI 318-11 has been adopted by the 2012 International Building Code (IBC).2 Thus, whenever the 2012 IBC is adopted by a local jurisdiction, as it will be by the State of California on January 1, 2014, ACI 318-11 will be law within that jurisdiction.

Although the changes from ACI 318-083 to ACI 318-11 are not as extensive or as substantive as those from ACI 318054 to ACI 318-08, some of the changes in the latest cycle have significant effects on the design and construction of concrete structures.

Chapter 1: General Requirements


This paper summarizes the significant changes made since the publication of the 2008 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08) that are reflected in the 2011 edition of the code. Changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete as well as precast, prestressed concrete, including posttensioned concrete, are enumerated. The changes to Appendix D: Anchoring to Concrete, are particularly important and are of major interest to the precast/ prestressed concrete industry. These are described in detail. In section 1.1.4, ACI 332-04 Residential Code Requirements for Structural Concrete5 has been updated to ACI 332-10.6 In commentary sections R1.1.8.1 and R.1.1.8.2, two standards published by the Steel Deck Institute (SDI) are referenced: Standard for Non-Composite Steel Floor Deck (ANSI/SDI NC-2010)7 and Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck (ANSI/SDI C1.0-2006).8 The first document refers to ACI 318 for the design and construction of the structural concrete slab. The second document refers to the

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appropriate portions of ACI 318 for the design and construction of the concrete portion of the composite assembly. Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks, and Roof Decks,9 published by SDI, is also referenced. ACI 318 previously referenced Standard for the Structural Design of Composite Slabs (ANSI/ASCE 3)10 for the design of composite slabs and Standard Practice for the Construction and Inspection of Composite Slabs (ANSI/ASCE 9)11 for guidelines on the construction of composite steel deck slabs. In commentary section R1.1.9.1, the references have been updated from the 200512 to the 201013 ASCE 7/SEI standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, from the 200614 to the 200915 edition of the International Building Code, and from the 200616 to the 200917 edition of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. These newer editions have been added to Table R1.1.9.1, Correlation between Seismic-Related Terminology in Model Codes. The following sentence has been added at the end of commentary section R1.1.9.1: The model building codes also specify overstrength factors, 0, that are related to the seismic-force-resisting system used for the structure and used for the design of certain elements. Section 1.1.10 states that ACI 318 does not govern the design and construction of tanks and reservoirs. Section R1.1.10 now tells the user that guidance for the design and construction of cooling towers and circular prestressed concrete tanks is found in the reports of ACI committees 334 Concrete Shell Design and Construction,18 350 Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures,19 372 Tanks Wrapped with Wire or Strand,20 and 373 Tanks with Internal Tendons.21 This is an expanded version of commentary section R19.1.1 of ACI 318-08, which has been moved to chapter 1 of ACI 318-11. Section1.2 now requires Type, size, and location of anchors, and anchor installation and qualification requirements in accordance with D.9 to be shown in contract documents.

Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for Concrete,24 ASTM A496 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, for Concrete Reinforcement,25 and ASTM A497 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Deformed, for Concrete26 have been combined into ASTM A1064 Standard Specification for Steel Wire and Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain and Deformed, for Concrete.27 This change is reflected in the definition of welded wire reinforcement in section 2.2 of ACI 318-11.

Chapter 3: Materials
Section 3.2.1 now refers to slag cement, rather than ground-granulated blast-furnace slag, because ASTM has changed the title of ASTM C989 to Standard Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and Mortars.28 ASTM A615 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement29 and ASTM A706 Standard Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement30 (section 3.5.3.1) have both added Grade80 reinforcement, which has a minimum yield strength of 80,000psi (550MPa). The use of this reinforcement is not permitted by section 21.1.5 in special moment frames and special structural walls. Available data were judged to be insufficient to confirm applicability of existing code provisions to special moment frames and special structural walls reinforced with steel having yield strength higher than 60,000psi (410MPa). Section 3.5.3.2 of ACI 318-08 required that for bars with fy exceeding 60,000psi, the yield strength shall be taken as the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35percent. ACI defines fy as specified yield strength of reinforcement. The same section in ACI 318-11 requires that for bars with fy less than 60,000psi, the yield strength shall be taken as the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.5percent, and for bars with fy at least 60,000psi, the yield strength shall be taken as the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35percent. This definition of yield strength overrides the one prescribed in ASTM A615, A706, A995, and A996. Section 3.5.3.8 permits the use of zinc and epoxy dualcoated reinforcing bars conforming to ASTM A1055 Standard Specification for Zinc and Epoxy Dual-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars.31 Section 3.5.9 now requires ASTM A970 headed deformed bars to conform to Annex A1 Requirements for Class HA Head Dimensions. The commentary explains that the limitation to Class HA head dimensions from Annex A1 of ASTM A970 is due to a lack of test data for headed deformed bars that do not meet Class HA dimensional requirements. While ACI 318-11 references ASTM A97009,22 ACI 318-08 referenced ASTM A970-06,32 which did not have an Annex A1. ACI 318 required that obstructions

Chapter 2: Notations and Definitions


The definition for headed deformed bars in ACI 318-08 contained a number of requirements for the head. The definition now refers to section 3.5.9, which in turn references Annex A1 Requirements for Class HA Head Dimensions of ASTM A970 Standard Specification for Headed Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.22 Definitions have been added for vertical wall segment and wall pier. ASTM A82 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement,23 ASTM A185 Standard

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and interruptions of the bar deformations, if any, shall not extend more than 2db from the bearing face of the head (db is the nominal diameter of bar).

Chapter 6: Formwork, Embedments, and Construction Joints


Design drawings and specifications has been changed to contract documents in sections 6.1.1 and 6.4.7. Other than that, there are no changes in this chapter.

Chapter 4: Durability Requirements


It is required in Table4.2.1 that percent sulfate by mass in soil be determined by ASTM C1580 Standard Test for Water-Soluble Sulfate in Soil33 and that concentration of dissolved sulfates in water in parts per million (ppm) be determined by ASTM D516 Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water34 or ASTM D4130 Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brine.35 Section R4.5.1 says that ACI 222R-01 Protection of Metals in Concrete against Corrosion36 has adopted chloride limits, test methods, and construction types and conditions that are slightly different from those in ACI 318, as shown in Table R4.3.1. It also says that ACI 201.2R-08 Guide to Durable Concrete37 has adopted these same limits by referring to ACI 222R-01.

Chapter 7: Details of Reinforcement


In section 7.7.6, which addresses corrosive environments and other severe exposure, amount of concrete protection shall be suitably increased has been changed to the concrete cover shall be increased as deemed necessary and specified by the licensed design professional. In section 7.10.4.5, which is about splicing of spiral reinforcement, the use of deformed zinc-coated (galvanized) bars, plain zinc-coated (galvanized) bars, and zinc-and-epoxy dual-coated deformed bars as spiral reinforcement is now recognized. A new section 7.10.5.4 has been added, and it reads: Where longitudinal bars are located around the perimeter of a circle, a complete circular tie shall be permitted. The ends of the circular tie shall overlap by not less than 6in. [150mm] and terminate with standard hooks that engage a longitudinal column bar. Overlaps at ends of adjacent circular ties shall be staggered around the perimeter enclosing the longitudinal bars. Figure1 illustrates the requirement. In sections 7.12.3.2 through 7.12.3.5, new requirements have been added concerning temperature and shrinkage reinforcement in posttensioned slabs. These requirements define the gross area of beam and slab sections to be used for determining the effective prestress. A figure has been added to the commentary to better illustrate the intentions of the provision. Figure2 is an adaptation of the commentary figure. The primary reason for this code change was to clearly discourage the practice of providing all of the required shrinkage and temperature reinforcement in the beam web with none in the slab between beams.

Chapter 5: Concrete Quality, Mixing, and Placing


For the purpose of establishing standard deviation for test records, a test record obtained less than 12 months before a submittal was acceptable under ACI 318-08. The 12-month limit has now been extended to 24 months in ACI 318-11 section 5.3.1.1. ACI 318-08 required documentation showing that proposed concrete mixture proportions will produce an average compressive strength equal to or greater than the required average compressive strength to consist of one or more field strength test record(s) or trial mixtures not more than 12months old. The 12-month limit has now been extended to 24months in ACI 318-11 section 5.3.3. Section 5.6.1 now requires the testing agency performing acceptance testing of concrete to have minimum proficiency in compliance with ASTM C1077 Standard Practice for Laboratories Testing Concrete and Concrete Aggregates for Use in Construction and Criteria for Laboratory Evaluation.38 Also, all reports of acceptance tests are required to be provided to the licensed design professional, contractor, concrete producer, and when requested, to the owner and the building official. Commentary section R5.6.5 now clarifies that the instructions for investigation of low-strength test results are applicable only for evaluation of in-place strength at the time of construction. Strength evaluation of existing structures is covered in chapter20.

Chapter 8: Analysis and DesignGeneral Considerations


There are no changes in this chapter.

Chapter 9: Strength and Serviceability Requirements


The design load combinations in section 9.2 have been revised to be fully consistent with those of ASCE/SEI 7-10.13 That standard has converted wind loads to strength level and changed the wind load factor in strength design from 1.6 to 1.0.

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The less common loadsself-straining loads T, fluid pressure F, and horizontal earth pressure Hhave been removed from the basic load combinations. They are now covered in sections 9.2.3, 9.2.4, and 9.2.5, respectively.

in.

Chapter 10: Flexure and Axial Loads


Lateral buckling shall be considered has been deleted from section 10.7.1 because it is not a meaningful or enforceable requirement. Also, section 10.7.4 of ACI 318-08 has been deleted because it contained shear reinforcement requirements in a chapter devoted to flexure and axial loads. Commentary section R10.10.2 has added the following text: Several methods have been developed to evaluate slenderness effects in compression members that are subject to biaxial bending. A review of some of these methods is presented in Reference 10.34.39

Chapter 11: Shear and Torsion


Section 11.7 on deep beams has undergone several changes. Section 11.7.2 now reads: Deep beams shall be designed either by taking into account nonlinear distribution of strain or by appendixA. In all cases, minimum distribution reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with 11.7.4. The first sentence is rewritten for clarity. The second sentence is an addition. Section 11.7.3 used to require Vn not to exceed 10 fc' bwd, where Vn is nominal shear strength, fc' is specified compressive strength of
Figure 1. Circular tie configuration per section 7.10.5.4. Note: 1in. = 25.4mm.

concrete, bw is web width, and d is distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement. It now requires Vu to be less than or equal to 10 fc' bwd, where Vu is factored shear force at section and is strength reduction factor. Section 11.7.4, requiring distributed reinforcement along the sides of deep beams to be not less than that required in 11.7.4.1 and 11.7.4.2 is

L1 L1/2

Beam web width L2 L2/2

Beam tendons 6 ft maximum per 7.12.3.4 (typical). See 7.12.3.5 for additional reinforcement required when spacing is greater than 4.5 ft. Beam and slab tendons within shaded area must provide 100 psi minimum compression in shaded area (gross area tributary to each beam).

Slab shrinkage and temperature tendons

Figure 2. Gross area for determining effective prestress. Source: Adapted by permission from ACI, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary (ACI 318R-11) (2011), Fig.R7.12.3(a). Note: L1 = clear slab span on left side of beam; L2 = clear slab span on right side of beam. 1in. = 25.4mm; 1ft = 0.305m. PCI Journal | Wi n t e r 2013 145

new. In section 11.7.4.2, the area of shear reinforcement parallel to the longitudinal axis of the beam is now required to be not less than 0.0025 b ws 2, where s 2 is the center-to-center spacing of the longitudinal shear reinforcement. The 0.0025 was 0.0015 in ACI 318-08. The former section 11.7.6, which permitted provision of reinforcement satisfying A.3.3 instead of the minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement specified in 11.7.4 (now 11.7.4.1) and 11.7.5 (now 11.7.4.2) has been deleted. Commentary section R11.7 has been rewritten to reflect these changes and to explain some of them. The last sentence in section R11.7.4 now reads: Tests have shown that vertical shear reinforcement (perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member) is more effective for member strength than horizontal shear reinforcement (parallel to the longitudinal axis of the member) in a deep beam, but the specified minimum reinforcement in both directions is required to control the growth and width of diagonal cracks. This explains the increase in the amount of the minimum horizontal shear reinforcement as well as the deletion of former section 11.7.6.

Chapter 14: Walls


Commentary section R14.8.4 references ASCE7 AppendixC: Serviceability Considerations. The text has been updated to be consistent with ASCE/SEI 7-10.

Chapter 15: Footings


There are no changes in this chapter.

Chapter 16: Precast Concrete


There are only minor revisions to this chapter.

Chapter 17: Composite Concrete Flexural Members


There are no changes in this chapter.

Chapter 18: Prestressed Concrete


The permissible stress of 0.82fpy (where fpy is specified yield strength of prestressing steel) but not greater than 0.74fpu (where fpu is specified tensile strength of prestressing steel) in prestressing steel immediately upon prestress transfer in section 18.5.1 has been eliminated based on practical experience with posttensioned concrete members. Commentary section R18.5.1 is now considerably shorter and much more direct. The formulas for estimating friction loss in posttensioning tendons have been eliminated from section 18.6.2.1 as being textbook material. That section now simply states: The required effective prestress force shall be indicated in the contract documents. Table R18.6.2, giving friction coefficients for posttensioning tendons for use in the deleted formulas, has also been eliminated. Section 18.6.2.2 now reads: Computed friction loss shall be based on experimentally determined wobble and curvature friction coefficients. Section 18.6.2.3 says: The prestress force and friction losses shall be verified during tendon stressing operations as specified in 18.20. Commentary section R18.7.2 has been expanded to provide guidance on the value of p for various types of prestressing reinforcement. The p term in Eq.(18-1) reflects the influence of the stress-strain properties of different types of prestressing reinforcement on the value of fps, stress in prestressing steel at nominal flexural strength. Commentary section R18.9.3.2 now clarifies how to compute the minimum bonded reinforcement corresponding to resultant tensile force Nc in positive moment areas. In chapter2, the definition of Nc now makes it clear that it includes the combined effects of all service loads and effective prestress.

Chapter 12: Development and Splices of Reinforcement


The factor used to modify development length based on reinforcement coating e given in section 12.2.4(b), applicable in ACI 318-08 to epoxy-coated bars and wires, has now been made applicable to zinc-and-epoxy dual-coated bars. Part of commentary section R12.6 Development of Headed and Mechanically Anchored Deformed Bars in Tension has been rewritten to reflect the change discussed under chapter 3, item 5. In 2011, the excess reinforcement factor for headed bars in section 12.6.2 was removed from the code. The excess reinforcement factor As required/As provided, (where As required is area of nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement required and As provided is area of nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement provided) applicable to deformed bars without heads, is not applicable for headed bars where force is transferred through a combination of bearing at the head and bond along the bar.

Chapter 13: Two-Way Slab Systems


In slabs with shear heads and in lift-slab construction, structural integrity reinforcement is now required to have ClassB, rather than ClassA, tension lap splices or mechanical or welded splices satisfying section 12.14.3.

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Chapter 19: Shells and Folded Plate Members


There are no changes in this chapter.

Chapter 20: Strength Evaluation of Existing Structures


There are no changes in this chapter.

In ACI 318-11 section 21.5.3.2, item (b) has been changed to six times the diameter of the smallest primary flexural reinforcing bars, excluding longitudinal skin reinforcement required by section 10.6.7. Item (c) has been deleted. Item (d) now is 6in. (150mm). For deeper beams, this is a significant decrease in the spacing of confinement reinforcement in the regions of potential plastic hinging. It is intended to improve confinement in these regions. Section 21.5.3.3 has been expanded to read as follows: Where hoops are required, primary flexural reinforcing bars closest to the tension and compression faces shall have lateral support conforming to 7.10.5.3 or 7.10.5.4. The spacing of transversely supported flexural reinforcing bars shall not exceed 14 in. [360mm]. Skin reinforcement required by 10.6.7 need not be laterally supported. A new section 21.6.3.2 has been added, requiring that in columns with circular hoops, the minimum number of longitudinal bars be six. For a special shear wall for which special boundary elements were required, section 21.9.6.4(e) stated: Horizontal reinforcement in the wall web shall be anchored to develop fy within the confined core of the boundary element. The requirement has now been expanded as follows: Horizontal reinforcement in the wall web shall extend to within 6in. [150mm] of the end of the wall. Reinforcement shall be anchored to develop fy in tension using standard hooks or heads. Where the confined boundary element has sufficient length to develop the horizontal web reinforcement and Avfy/s (where Av is area of shear reinforcement within spacing s, and s is center-to-center spacing of shear reinforcement) of the web reinforcement is not greater than Ashfyt/s (where Ash is total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including crossties) within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension bc, fyt is the specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement, and bc is cross-sectional dimension of member core measured to the outside edges of the transverse reinforcement composing area Ash) of the boundary element transverse reinforcement parallel to the web reinforcement, it shall be permitted to terminate the web reinforcement without a standard hook or head. Figure3 illustrates this. Door and window openings in shear walls often lead to narrow vertical wall segments, many of which have been defined as wall piers in the IBC2 and in the Uniform Building Code (UBC)42 before it. Wall pier provisions are now included for the first time in the new section 21.9.8 of ACI 318-11. The dimensions defining wall piers are given in section 2.2. Shear failures of wall piers have been observed in previous earthquakes. The intent of section 21.9.8 is to prescribe detailing that would result in sufficient shear strength of wall piers so that failure will be flexure governed, rather

Chapter 21: EarthquakeResistant Structures


In sections 21.1.4.1 and 21.1.5.1, references to special structural walls and coupling beams have now been changed to special structural walls, and all components of special structural walls including coupling beams and wall piers. This is in view of the inclusion of wall pier provisions in section 21.9 of ACI 318-11. ACI 318-08 section 21.1.5.2 required deformed reinforcement resisting earthquake-induced flexure, axial force, or both to comply with ASTM A706,40 except that ASTM A61541 grades 40 and 60 reinforcement were permitted subject to two supplementary requirements. ACI 318-11 requires the ASTM A706 reinforcement to be Grade 60. This is in order to exclude the new Grade 80 reinforcement that has been added to ASTM A706. Section 21.3.3 of ACI 318-08 provided two choices for the calculation of the required shear strength of a column of an intermediate moment frame. It could be calculated as the sum of the shear associated with the development of nominal moment strength at each restrained end of the clear span and the shear calculated for factored gravity loads. Alternatively, it could be calculated as the maximum shear obtained from design load combinations that include E (where E is effects of earthquake or related internal moments and forces), with E assumed to be twice that prescribed by the legally adopted general building code for earthquake-resistant design. In the new section 21.3.3.2 of ACI 318-11, the multiplier of two has been increased to the overstrength factor of the intermediate moment frame 0, which is three. The multiplier of two was determined to be unconservative. In ACI 318-08 section 21.5.3.2, the spacing of hoops within the region of potential plastic hinging at each end could not exceed the smallest of the following: d/4 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bars 24 times the diameter of the hoop bars 12in. (300mm)

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Boundary element reinforcement Ash Horizontal web reinforcement Av Horizontal web reinforcement Av

Avfy /s Ashfyt /s
6 in. dh or dt 6 in. d

Figure 3. Development of wall horizontal reinforcement in confined boundary element. Note: fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement; fyt = specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement; d = development length in tension of deformed bar, deformed wire, plain and deformed welded wire reinforcement, or pretensioned strand; dh = development length in tension of deformed bar or deformed wire with a standard hook, measured from critical section to outside end of hook (straight embedment length between critical section and start of hook [point of tangency] plus inside radius of bend and one bar diameter); dt = development length in tension of headed deformed bar, measured from the critical section to the bearing face of the head; s = center-to-center spacing of shear reinforcement. 1in. = 25.4mm.

than shear governed. The provisions apply to wall piers considered part of the seismic forceresisting system. Provisions for wall piers not considered part of the seismic forceresisting system are given in section 21.13. Wall piers having ( w/ b w) 2.5 (where w is the length of the entire wall or wall segment or wall pier considered in the direction of the shear force) behave essentially as columns. Section 21.9.8.1 requires them to be detailed like columns. Alternative requirements are provided for wall piers having ( w/ b w) > 2.5. The design shear force determined according to section 21.6.5.1 may be unrealistically large in some cases. As an alternative, section 21.9.8.1(a) permits the design shear force to be determined using load combinations in which the earthquake load effect has been amplified to account for member overstrength. Wall piers at the edge of a wall are addressed in section 21.9.8.2. Under in-plane shear, inclined cracks can propagate into segments of the wall directly above and below the wall pier. Shear failure within the adjacent wall segments can occur unless sufficient reinforcement is provided in the adjacent wall segments (Fig.R21.9.8). A new Table R21.9.1 in the commentary effectively summarizes the new requirements. Commentary section R21.10.3 has been expanded to reference ACI Requirements for Design of a Special Unbonded Post-Tensioned Precast Shear Wall Satisfying ACI ITG-5.1 and Commentary (ACI ITG-5.2-09),43 which defines design requirements for one type of special structural walls constructed using precast concrete and unbonded posttensioned tendons.

Chapter 22: Structural Plain Concrete


A new section 22.2.4 has been added, requiring that modification factor for lightweight concrete in chapter 22 be in accordance with section 8.6.1.

Appendix A: Strut-and-Tie Models


There are no changes in this appendix.

Appendix B: Alternative Provisions for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Flexural and Compression Members
There are no changes in this appendix.

Appendix C: Alternative Load and Strength Reduction Factors


The alternative strength design load combinations in section C.9.2.2 have been revised to be fully consistent with those of ASCE/SEI 7-10.13 That standard has converted wind loads to strength level and changed the wind load factor in strength design to 1.0.

Appendix D: Anchoring to Concrete


The onerous nature of seismic design imposed by ACI 31808 section D.3.3 on anchors in Seismic Design Category (SDC) C or higher is alleviated and the seismic design of anchors is made considerably more reasonable. Where

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the tension component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to the anchor or group of anchors is equal to or less than 20% of the total factored anchor tensile force determined from the same load combination, the seismic design requirements of section D.3.3 to prevent a brittle tension failure of anchors simply do not apply anymore (section D.3.3.4.1). Similarly, where the shear component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to the anchor or group of anchors is equal to or less than 20% of the total factored anchor shear force determined from the same load combination, the seismic design requirements of section D.3.3 to prevent a brittle shear failure of anchors simply do not apply anymore (section D.3.3.5.1). Where the seismic component of the total factored tension demand on an anchor or a group of anchors exceeds 20%, the following four options have been made available: a. Ensure failure of ductile steel anchor ahead of the brittle failure of concrete (section D.3.3.4.3(a)). In other words, the strength of ductile steel anchors needs to be smaller than the strengths calculated from various concrete failure modes. In ACI 318-08, this check was based on the design strengths of anchors determined from the considerations of steel anchor failure and concrete failure under tension. In ACI 318-11, this check is made less onerous in two ways:  he ductility check is to be performed now based T on the nominal strengths associated with ductile steel anchor and concrete failure modes. This is easier to satisfy than a check based on design strengths because the -factors applied to concrete failure modes are smaller than that applied to steel anchor failure.  n ACI 318-08, the concrete failure strengths I were reduced by a factor of 0.75. In ACI 318-11, for the purpose of this ductility check, the 0.75 factor is replaced by a factor of 1.2 on the steel strength. This is equivalent to applying a factor of 1/1.2 = 0.83 on the concrete strengths, an 11% increase from before.

c. Design for the maximum tension force that can be transmitted by a nonyielding attachment (section D.3.3.4.3(c)). d. Design for the maximum tension force obtained from design load combinations involving E, with E increased by 0 (section D.3.3.4.3(d)). For an anchor or a group of anchors subject to shear, three options similar to b, c, and d have been made available. Unlike ACI 318-08, ductile anchor failure in shear is not an option anymore. As in ACI 318-08, in calculation of the design strength of an anchor or a group of anchors subject to the seismic design requirements for tension, concrete-governed strength is multiplied by a factor of 0.75, while steel-governed strength is not (section D.3.3.4.4). However, for anchors subject to the seismic design requirements for shear, ACI 318-11 does not impose this 0.75 factor on the concretegoverned strengths anymore. In ACI 318-08 and earlier editions, the steel strength and pullout strength of anchors in tension and the steel strength in shear of a group of anchors were calculated based on the strength of a single anchor multiplied by the number of anchors in the group. Unless the anchors are all loaded equally, this can lead to a situation where the most highly stressed anchor could fail before reaching the calculated capacity of the group. In ACI 318-11, Table D.4.1.1 prescribes how to compute the strength of an anchor group depending on the failure mode and based on the most highly stressed anchor. The maximum anchor diameter for which the provisions of sections D.5.2 and D.6.2 can be applied to calculate the concrete breakout strength in tension and shear, respectively, has been increased from 2 to 4in. (50 to 100mm) (section D.4.2.2). This expansion is based on the results from new tests conducted using larger-diameter anchors. However, a new Eq.(D-34) has also been introduced for an upper-bound value of basic concrete breakout strength in shear for a single anchor Vb to account for the largerdiameter anchors. ACI 318-08 also imposed a 25in. (635 mm) limitation on the anchor embedment depth for the calculation of concrete breakout strength using the provisions of appendixD. This limitation was effectively removed by section 1908.1.10 of the 2009 IBC.15 ACI 318-11 does not have this limitation anymore. An adhesive anchor is defined in section D.1 as a postinstalled anchor, inserted into hardened concrete with an anchor hole diameter not greater than 1.5 times the anchor diameter, that transfers loads to the concrete by bond between the anchor and the adhesive, and bond between

In addition, this ductility check now involves the new concept of a stretch length: a minimum unbonded length of 8 times the diameter of the anchor to ensure an adequate ductile rotational capacity of the connection for proper energy dissipation. The stretch length can be provided outside of concrete by using an anchor chair (Fig.4) or by debonding part of the anchor within concrete.

b. Design the anchor for the maximum tension force that can be transmitted by a ductile metal attachment after considering the overstrength and strain hardening of the attachment (section D.3.3.4.3(b)).

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tion and during the anchor service life and can be obtained for cracked and uncracked concrete from tests performed and evaluated in accordance with ACI 355.4-11, Acceptance Criteria for Qualification of Post-Installed Adhesive Anchors in Concrete.44 Alternatively, the minimum values given in Table D.5.5.2 can be used, provided the conditions outlined in section D.5.5.2 and in Table D.5.5.2 are satisfied.

Miscellaneous items
The term design drawings and specifications has been replaced with contract documents throughout ACI 31811. Lateral reinforcement and lateral ties have been replaced with transverse reinforcement and transverse ties, respectively.
Figure 4. Use of anchor chair for providing stretch length. Photo courtesy of J. Silva, Hilti North America.

Acknowledgments
Significant help from Pro Dasgupta and Jason Ericksen of S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. with this paper is gratefully acknowledged.

the adhesive and the concrete (Fig.5). The method of calculating nominal strength of adhesive anchors in bond failure is provided, along with requirements for testing and evaluation of adhesive anchors for use in cracked concrete or subject to sustained loads. Failure modes postulated for other anchors apply to adhesive anchors as well, except that the calculation of strength in anchor pullout is replaced by the evaluation of adhesive bond strength in accordance with section D.5.5. The provisions for adhesive anchors include criteria for overhead anchors, seismic design requirements, installation and inspection requirements, and certification of adhesive anchor installers. Separately, a certification program has been established jointly by ACI and the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute. Characteristic bond stress of adhesive anchors depends on the installation method and use conditions anticipated during construc-

References
1. ACI (American Concrete Institute) Committee 318. 2011. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary (ACI 318R11). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 2. ICC (International Code Council). 2012. International Building Code. Washington, DC: ICC. 3. ACI Committee 318. 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI.

Figure 5. Adhesive anchor and bond failure of adhesive anchor. Photo courtesy of Rolf Eligehausen, University of Stuttgart. 150 W int e r 2 0 1 3 | PCI Journal

4. ACI Committee 318. 2005. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 5. ACI Committee 332. 2004. Residential Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 332-04) and Commentary. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 6. ACI Committee 332. 2010. Residential Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 332-10) and Commentary. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 7. SDI (Steel Deck Institute). 2010. Standard for NonComposite Steel Floor Deck. ANSI/SDINC-2010. Fox River Grove, IL: SDI. 8. SDI. 2006. Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck. ANSI/SDI C1.0-2006. Fox River Grove, IL: SDI. 9. SDI. 2007. Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks, and Roof Decks. No. 31. Fox River Grove, IL: SDI. 10. ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers). 1994. Standard for the Structural Design of Composite Slabs. ANSI/ASCE 3-91. Reston, VA: ASCE. 11. ASCE. 1994. Standard Practice for the Construction and Inspection of Composite Slabs. ANSI/ASCE 9-91. Reston, VA: ASCE. 12. SEI (Structural Engineering Institute). 2005. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE 7-05. Reston, VA: ASCE. 13. SEI. 2010. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE 7-10. Reston, VA: ASCE. 14. ICC. 2006. International Building Code. Washington, DC: ICC. 15. ICC. 2009. International Building Code. Washington, DC: ICC. 16. NFPA (National Fire Protection Association). 2006. Building Construction and Safety Code. NFPA 5000. Quincy, MA: NFPA. 17. NFPA. 2009. Building Construction and Safety Code. NFPA 5000. Quincy, MA: NFPA. 18. ACI Committee 334. 1991. Reinforced Concrete Cooling Tower ShellsDesign and Construction. ACI 334.2R-91. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI.

19. ACI Committee 350. 2006. Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures and Commentary. ACI 350-06. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 20. ACI Committee 372. 2003. Design and Construction of Circular Wire- and Strand-Wrapped Prestressed Concrete Structures. ACI 372R-03. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 21. ACI Committee 373. 1997. Design and Construction of Circular Prestressed Concrete Structures with Circumferential Tendons. ACI 373R-97. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 22. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2009. Standard Specification for Headed Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement including Annex A1 Requirements for Class HA Head Dimensions. ASTM A970/A970M-09. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 23. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2007. Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A82/A82M-07. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 24. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2007. Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for Concrete. ASTM A185/ A185-07. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 25. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2007. Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A496/A496M-07. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 26. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2007. Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Deformed, for Concrete. ASTM A497/A497M-07. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 27. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2010. Standard Specification for Steel Wire and Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain and Deformed, for Concrete. ASTM A1064/ A1064M-10. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 28. ASTM Subcommittee C09.27. 2009. Standard Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and Mortars. ASTM C989/C989M-09a. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 29. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2009. Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A615/A615M-09b. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

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30. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2009. Standard Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A706/A706M09b. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 31. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2010. Standard Specification for Zinc and Epoxy Dual-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars. ASTM A1055/A1055M-10. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 32. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2006. Standard Specification for Headed Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A970/A970M-06. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 33. ASTM Subcommittee C09.69. 2009. Standard Test for Water-Soluble Sulfate in Soil. ASTM C1580/ C1580M-09. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 34. ASTM Subcommittee D19.05. 2007. Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water. ASTM D516/ D516M-07. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 35. ASTM Subcommittee D19.05. 2008. Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brine. ASTM D4130/D4130M-08. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 36. ACI Committee 222. 2001. Protection of Metals in Concrete Against Corrosion (ACI 222R-01). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 37. ACI Committee 201. 2008. Guide to Durable Concrete (ACI 201.2R-08). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 38. ASTM Subcommittee C09.98. 2010. Standard Practice for Laboratories Testing Concrete and Concrete Aggregates for Use in Construction and Criteria for Laboratory Evaluation. ASTM C1077/C1077M-10. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 39. Furlong, R. W.; Hsu, C.-T. T.; and Mirza, S. A. 2004. Analysis and Design of Concrete Columns for Biaxial BendingOverview. ACI Structural Journal 101 (3): 413423. 40. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2006. Standard Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A706/A706M06A. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. 41. ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2007. Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A615/A615M-07. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

42. ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials). 1997. Uniform Building Code. Whittier, CA: ICBO. 43. ACI Innovation Task Group 5. 2009. Requirements for Design of a Special Unbonded Post-Tensioned Precast Shear Wall Satisfying and Commentary. ACI ITG-5.209. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 44. ACI Committee 355. 2011. Acceptance Criteria for Qualification of Post-Installed Adhesive Anchors in Concrete and Commentary. ACI 355.4-11. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI.

Notation
As provided =  area of nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement provided As required =  area of nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement required Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including crossties) within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension bc = area of shear reinforcement within spacing s = cross-sectional dimension of member core measured to the outside edges of the transverse reinforcement composing area Ash = web width = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement = nominal diameter of bar = effects of earthquake or related internal moments and forces = specified compressive strength of concrete = stress in prestressing steel at nominal flexural strength = specified tensile strength of prestressing steel = specified yield strength of prestressing steel = specified yield strength of reinforcement = specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement = fluid pressure

Av bc

bw d db E fc' fps fpu fpy fy fyt F

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W int e r 2 0 1 3 | PCI Journal

H w d

= horizontal earth pressure = length of entire wall or length of wall segment or wall pier considered in direction of shear force = development length in tension of deformed bar, deformed wire, plain and deformed welded wire reinforcement, or pretensioned strand = development length in tension of deformed bar or deformed wire with a standard hook, measured from critical section to outside end of hook (straight embedment length between critical section and start of hook [point of tangency] plus inside radius of bend and one bar diameter) = development length in tension of headed deformed bar, measured from the critical section to the bearing face of the head = clear slab span on left side of beam = clear slab span on right side of beam = resultant tensile force in positive moment = center-to-center spacing of shear reinforcement = center-to-center spacing of longitudinal shear reinforcement = self-straining loads = concrete breakout strength in shear for a single anchor = nominal shear strength = factored shear force at section = influence of different types of prestressing reinforcement on the value of fps = modification factor for lightweight concrete = strength reduction factor = factor used to modify development length based on reinforcement coating = overstrength factor

dh

dt

L1 L2 Nc s s2 T Vb Vn Vu

p e 0

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About the author


S. K. Ghosh, PhD, FPCI, heads his own consulting practice, S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc., in Palatine, Ill., and Aliso Viejo, Calif. He was formerly director of Engineering Services, Codes, and Standards at the Portland Cement Association in Skokie, Ill. Ghosh specializes in the analysis and design, including wind- and earthquake-resistant design, of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. He is active on many national technical committees and is a member of American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 Standard Building Code, the Masonry Standards Joint Committee, and the ASCE 7 Standard Committee (Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures). He is a former member of the Boards of Direction of ACI and the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

the 2008 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R08) that are reflected in the 2011 edition of the code are summarized. Changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete as well as precast, prestressed concrete, including posttensioned concrete, are enumerated. The changes to Appendix D: Anchoring to Concrete are particularly important and are of major interest to the precast/prestressed concrete industry.

Keywords
ACI 318, code, structural concrete.

Review policy
This paper was reviewed in accordance with the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institutes peer-review process.

Reader comments
Please address any reader comments to journal@pci .org or Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, c/o PCI Journal, 200 W. Adams St., Suite 2100, Chicago, IL 60606. J

Abstract
Significant changes made since the publication of

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W int e r 2 0 1 3 | PCI Journal

Significant changes to the ACI 318-08 appendixes relative to precast/ prestressed concrete
S. K. Ghosh
Significant changes have been made since American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 published the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R05).1 Changes to the appendixes in the new 2008 edition2 are summarized in this paper. The rest of the changes were covered in a three-part series of articles in special members-only supplements. The intent of this article is to provide a summary of significant changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete, precast concrete, and prestressed concrete (including post-tensioned concrete). This information should be useful to building officials, design engineers, practitioners, and the academic community. Changes to chapters 1 through 8 of ACI 318-08 were discussed in the MarchApril 2008 issue of the PCI Journal in part 1 of the aforementioned article series. Changes to chapters 9 through 20 were discussed in part 2 of this series in the supplement to the MayJune 2008 issue. Changes to chapter 21 were discussed in part 3 of the article series in a supplement to the September October 2008 issue. ACI 318-08 will be the reference document for concrete design and construction in the 2009 edition of the
PCI Journal | S p e c i a l S u p p l e m e n t 3

Editors quick points


n This paper describes changes from the 2005 edition to the 2008 edition of ACI 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. Specifically, changes to the appendixes are discussed. n ACI 318 underwent a major revision with this version. n Changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete and provisions affecting precast/prestressed concrete, including post-tensioned concrete, are enumerated.

International Building Code (IBC),3 which will continue to reference ASCE 7-05, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.4 All section and chapter numbers used in this paper refer to those of ACI 318-08 unless otherwise noted.

Appendix A: Strut-and-Tie Models


No significant changes were made to this appendix.

tension, or 3ca1 from one or more adjacent anchors when subjected to shear. The distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete in one direction is represented by ca1. ACI 318-08 also added to the definition, only those anchors susceptible to the particular failure mode under investigation shall be included in the group. An important new term, anchor reinforcement, is defined as reinforcement used to transfer the full design load from the anchors into the structural member. New sections D.5.2.9 and D.6.2.9 contain provisions concerning anchor reinforcement. ACI 318-05 defined supplementary reinforcement as reinforcement proportioned to tie a potential concrete failure prism to the structural member. ACI 318-08 has revised the supplementary reinforcement definition to read, reinforcement that acts to restrain the potential concrete breakout but is not designed to transfer the full design load from the anchors into the structural member. The second part of the revised definition clearly indicates that supplementary reinforcement is not anchor reinforcement. Section D.3.3 of ACI 318-05 reads, When anchor design includes seismic loads, the additional requirements of D.3.3.1 through D.3.3.5 shall apply. This wording has now changed to when anchor design includes earthquake forces for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E, or F, the additional requirements of D.3.3.1 through D.3.3.6 shall apply. There are two differences: Section D.3.3.6 has been added. The applicability of the ACI 318-05 provision included seismic design category (SDC) B, which is no longer the case.

Appendix B: Alternative Provisions for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Flexural and Compression Members
Changes were made in section B.8.4, Redistribution of Moments in Continuous Nonprestressed Flexural Members, that parallel changes in section 8.4, Redistribution of Moments in Continuous Flexural Members. Section 8.4 was discussed in part 1 of the ACI 318-08 article series.

Appendix C: Alternative Load and Strength Reduction Factors


No significant changes were made to this appendix.

Appendix D: Anchoring to Concrete


The three significant changes in Appendix D are the following: new definitions of reinforcement types that cross the concrete breakout surface new requirements on how seismic loads are handled for anchors provisions that were added to the concrete breakout design of anchorages for lightweight concrete

The change in the SDC matters for section D.3.3.1 only because subsequent ACI 318-05 language restricted the applicability of sections D.3.3.2 through D.3.3.5 to structures assigned SDC C, D, E, or F. Section D.3.3.2 of ACI 318-08 specifically requires that pullout strength Np and steel strength of the anchor in shear Vsa shall be based on the results of the ACI 355.2 Simulated Seismic Tests. This specific requirement was not part of ACI 318-05. Section D.3.3.3 has undergone an important change. While the section in ACI 318-05 required that the design strength of anchors shall be taken as 0.75Nn and 0.75Vn, the ACI 318-08 section requires that the anchor design strength associated with concrete failure

ACI 318-05 defined an anchor group as a number of anchors of approximately equal effective embedment depth with each anchor spaced at less than three times its embedment depth [3hef] from one or more adjacent anchors. This definition considered anchors subject to tension but not anchors subject to shear. This deficiency has now been corrected. The 318-08 definition reads, a number of anchors of approximately equal effective embedment depth with each anchor spaced at less than 3hef from one or more adjacent anchors when subjected to
4 S pecial Su p p le me n t | PCI Journal

modes shall be taken as 0.75Nn and 0.75Vn. The variables , Nn, and Vn represent the strength reduction factor, the nominal strength in tension, and the nominal shear strength, respectively. By making the seismic reduction apply only to concrete failure modes, it is significantly more difficult to meet the requirements of section D.3.3.4 when anchors subjected to seismic forces in structures assigned to SDC C, D, E, or F have to be governed by the strength of a ductile steel element. Section D.3.3.4 of ACI 318-05 waived the ductile anchor failure requirement if section D.3.3.5 could be satisfied. The same section in ACI 318-08 waives the ductile failure requirement if either section D.3.3.5 or section D.3.3.6 can be satisfied. The 2006 IBC section 1908.1.16 modified ACI 318-05 section D.3.3.5 to read, Instead of D.3.3.4 . . . specified in D.3.3.3, or the minimum design strength of the anchors shall be at least 2.5 times the factored forces transmitted by the attachment. The 2006 IBC includes the text of ACI 318-05 section D.3.3.5 with the addition of or the minimum design strength of the anchors shall be at least 2.5 times the factored forces transmitted by the attachment. In other words, ductile anchor failure was declared unnecessary if the anchorage was overdesigned for concrete breakout. This concept has been adopted into section D.3.3.6 of ACI 318-08 with the wording, as an alternative to D.3.3.4 [ductile anchor failure] and D.3.3.5 [yielding in the attachment], it shall be permitted to take the design strength of the anchors as 0.4 times the design strength determined in accordance with D.3.3.3. For anchors of stud-bearing walls, the 0.4 factor may be taken as 0.5. Because ACI 318 is a material standard, the committee did not feel comfortable modifying the design load, as the 2006 IBC had done. It was decided instead, in effect, to modify the strength reduction factor. A 0.4 multiplier on is equivalent to a 2.5 multiplier on the design load. Section D.3.4 concerning anchors embedded in lightweight concrete is differentbut mostly in appearance, not really in substance. An important sentence has been added to section D.4.2.1: Where anchor reinforcement is provided in accordance with D.5.2.9 and D.6.2.9, calculation of the concrete breakout strength in accordance with D.5.2 and D.6.2 is not required. This sentence was added because anchor reinforcement is reinforcement that carries all of the design load when breakout failure occurs. The commentary concerning supplementary reinforcement has changed in section RD.4.4. Important new points are, An explicit design of supplementary

Figure 1. Anchor reinforcement for tension. Source: Reprinted by permission from Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 2008), p. 426, Fig. RD.5.2.9.

reinforcement is not required. However, the arrangement of supplementary reinforcement should generally conform to that of the anchor reinforcement shown in Fig. RD.5.2.9 and RD.6.2.9 (b). Full development is not required [of the supplemental reinforcement]. The descriptions of conditions A and B in section D.4.4 were editorially modified for greater clarity. The descriptions now read, Condition A applies where supplementary reinforcement is present except for pullout and pryout strengths. Condition B applies where supplementary reinforcement is not present, and for pullout or pryout strength. A distinction is now made between the effective crosssectional area of anchor in tension Ase,N and the effective cross-sectional area of anchor in shear Ase,V. In ACI 315-05, there was only the effective cross-sectional area of anchor Ase. The change is reflected in ACI 318-08 Eq. (D-3), (D-19), and (D-20).
PCI Journal | S p e c i a l S u p p l e m e n t 5

Figure 3. Edge reinforcement and anchor reinforcement for shear. Source: Reprinted by permission from Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 2008), p. 435, Fig. RD.6.2.9(b).

Figure 2. Hairpin anchor reinforcement for shear. Source: Reprinted by permission from Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 2008), p. 435, Fig. RD.6.2.9(a).

with a tapered conical shape at the bottom. Approved postinstalled anchors give both effective areas in the product approval. In most cases, the areas provided are the same as those given by the equations in the ACI 31808 commentary. In Eq. (D-7) for basic concrete breakout strength, a lightweight concrete factor was introduced. An important new section, D.5.2.9, has been added to ACI 318-08. This section reads, Where anchor reinforcement is developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface, the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining Nn. A strength reduction factor of 0.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement.

Commentary section RD.5.1.2 reproduces an equation from American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B1.1, Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN and UNR Thread Form)5 for Ase,N of threaded bolts. Commentary section RD.6.1.2 reproduces an equation from ANSI/ASME B1.1 for Ase,V for threaded bolts. The two equations are identical. The difference in the value obtained from the two equations is evident for postinstalled mechanical anchors, particularly torque-controlled expansion anchors
6 S pecial Su p p le me n t | PCI Journal

An important new commentary section RD.5.2.9 states that for conditions where the factored tensile force exceeds the concrete breakout strength of the anchor(s) or where the breakout strength is not evaluated, the nominal strength can be that of anchor reinforcement. The commentary includes Fig. RD.5.2.9, which is helpful and is reproduced in this paper as Fig. 1. The variable d0, which represents the outside diameter or shaft diameter of a headed stud, headed bolt, or hooked bolt of ACI 318-05, has been replaced with da in ACI 318-08. This change is reflected in Eq. (D-16) for pullout strength in tension and in section D.8.3. The lightweight concrete factor is introduced in Eq. (D-17) for the concrete side-face blowout strength of a single anchor in tension and in Eq. (D-18) for the concrete side-face blowout strength of a group of anchors in tension. A new modification factor h,V has been added to Eq. (D-21) and (D-22) for concrete breakout strength of anchors in shear. The factor is defined by Eq. (D-29) and is for anchors located in a concrete member in which ha < 1.5ca1 and ha is the thickness of the member in which an anchor is located, measured parallel to anchor axis. The lightweight concrete factor is also introduced into Eq. (D-24) and (D-25) for the basic concrete breakout strength in shear. Paralleling section D.5.2.9, another important new section, D.6.2.9, has been added to ACI 318-08. It reads, Where anchor reinforcement is either developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface, or encloses the anchor and is developed beyond the breakout surface, the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining Vn. A strength reduction factor of 0.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement. New commentary section RD.6.2.9 explains the provision. It includes Fig. RD. 6.2.9(a) and RD.6.2.9(b), which are reproduced in this paper as Fig. 2 and 3, respectively.

The changes to appendix D are few in number but are quite substantive in nature. Anchor design strength associated with steel failure is no longer to be reduced by an additional 0.75 factor. Also, there are new provisions that clearly define the role of anchor reinforcement, which is designed to carry the entire anchorage load once breakout failure in tension or shear occurs.

References
1.  American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318. 2005. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 2.  ACI Committee 318. 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 3.  International Code Council (ICC). 2009. International Building Code. Washington, DC: ICC. 4.  Structural Engineering Institute. 2005. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-05). Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. 5.  American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 1989. Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN and UNR Thread Form). American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASME B1.1. Fairfield, NJ: ASME.

Notation
Ase =  effective cross-sectional area of anchor (ACI 318-05) Ase,N =  effective cross-sectional area of anchor in tension Ase,V = effective cross-sectional area of anchor in shear ca1 =  distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete in one direction (if shear is applied to the anchor, ca1 is the maximum edge distance) ca2 =  distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete in the direction perpendicular to ca1, in. d0 = outside diameter of anchor or shaft diameter of headed stud, headed bolt, or hooked bolt (ACI 318-05)

Summary and conclusion


Significant and substantial changes have been made in appendix D of ACI 318-08. The other appendixes had no or only minor changes. Changes to appendix D in ACI 318-08 have been summarized and discussed in this paper on significant changes from ACI 318-05 to ACI 318-08.

PCI Journal | S p e c i a l S u p p l e m e n t

da =  outside diameter of anchor or shaft diameter of headed stud, headed bolt, or hooked bolt ha =  thickness of member in which an anchor is located, measured parallel to anchor axis hef = effective embedment depth of anchor ld = development length in tension of deformed bar, deformed wire, plain and deformed welded-wire reinforcement, or pretensioned strand, in.

Nn = nominal strength in tension Np =  pullout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete V = shear force

Vn = nominal shear strength Vsa =  nominal strength in shear of a single anchor or group of anchors as governed by the steel strength = lightweight concrete factor = strength reduction factor

ldh =  development length in tension of deformed bar or deformed wire with a standard hook, measured from critical section to outside end of hook (straight embedment length between critical section and start of hook [point of tangency] plus inside radius of bend and one bar diameter), in. N = tensile force

h,V =  factor used to modify shear strength of anchors located in concrete members with ha < 1.5ca1

About the author


S. K. Ghosh, PhD, FPCI, is president of S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. in Palatine, Ill. in the appendixes of the 2008 edition are summarized in this article. In addition to changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete, provisions affecting precast/prestressed concrete, including post-tensioned concrete, are enumerated.

Keywords
ACI 318, code, structural concrete.

Synopsis
Significant changes were made since American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 published the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). The changes

Reader comments
Please address any reader comments to PCI Journal editor-in-chief Emily Lorenz at elorenz@pci.org or Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, c/o PCI Journal, 209 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60606. J

S pecial Su p p le me n t | PCI Journal

Significant changes to ACI 318-08 relative to precast/ prestressed concrete: Part 2


S. K. Ghosh
Significant changes have been made since American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 published the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05).1 The changes in the new 2008 edition2 are summarized in this paper. The intent of this article is to provide a summary of significant changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete, precast concrete, and prestressed concrete (including post-tensioned concrete). This information should be useful to building officials, design engineers, practitioners, and the academic community. Changes to chapters 1 through 8 of ACI 318-08 were discussed in part 1 of this article series, published as a member supplement to the MarchApril 2008 issue of the PCI Journal. Changes to chapter 9 through 20 of ACI 318-08 are discussed in this part 2 of the article series. Changes to chapter 21 and the appendices will be discussed in part 3, which will appear in a subsequent issue of the PCI Journal. ACI 318-08 will be the reference document for concrete design and construction in the 2009 edition of the International Building Code (IBC),3 which will continue to reference ASCE 7-05.4 All section and chapter numbers used in this paper refer to those of ACI 318-08 unless otherwise noted.
PCI Journal | S p e c i a l S u p p l e m e n t S3

Editors quick points


n This second of three papers describes the changes from the 2005 edition to the 2008 edition of ACI 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, for chapters 9 through 20. n ACI 318 underwent a major revision with this version. n Part 3 will follow in a subsequent issue of the PCI Journal.

Chapter 9: Strength and Serviceability Requirements


The new commentary section, R9.2.1(a), provides valuable and much-needed clarification. It points out that the loadfactor modification of section 9.2.1(a) is different from the live-load reduction based on the loaded area that is typically allowed in the legally adopted general building code. The live-load reduction in the code adjusts the nominal load L. The lesser load factor in section 9.2.1(a) reflects the reduced probability of the joint occurrence of maximum values of multiple transient loads at the same time. The reduced live loads specified in the legally adopted general building code can be used simultaneously with the 0.5 load factor specified in section 9.2.1(a). In section 9.3.2.2, the strength-reduction factor for spirally reinforced columns was increased from 0.70 to 0.75. Commentary section R9.3.2 notes that this increase is partly due to the superior performance of spirally reinforced columns when subjected to excessive loads or extreme excitations5 and is partly due to new reliability analyses.6 The -factor modifications of section 9.3.4(a)(c) are now also applicable to structures that rely on intermediate precast concrete structural walls to resist earthquake effects in seismic design categories (SDC) D, E, or F. Previously, the modifications applied only to structures that rely on special moment frames or special structural walls to resist earthquake effects. In section 9.3.5, the -factor for plain concrete was increased from 0.55 to 0.60. As stated in commentary section R9.3.5, this is partly due to recent reliability analysis and a statistical study of concrete properties.6 The first paragraph of section R9.3.4 of ACI 318-05 was eliminated. In section R9.4, it is clarified that the maximum specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement fy in section 21.1.5 is 60,000 psi (420 MPa) in special moment frames and special structural walls.

Members. The slenderness provisions are reorganized to reflect current practice where second-order effects are considered primarily using computer analysis techniques, while the style of presentation used by ACI 318 since 1971 is retained. The moment magnifier method is also retained as an alternate procedure. Section 10.10.1 permits slenderness effects to be neglected "for compression members not braced against sidesway when:
klu ! 22 " r

and "for compression members braced against sidesway when:


#M & klu ! 34 " 12 % 1 ( ! 40 " r $ M2 '

where k lu r M1
2

= effective length factor = unsupported length = radius of gyration = smaller factored end moment = larger factored end moment

M1/M2 =  positive if a compression member is bent in single curvature A new feature permits a compression member to be considered braced against sidesway when bracing elements have a total stiffness, resisting lateral movement of that story, of at least 12 times the gross stiffness of the columns within the story. Section 10.10.2 requires that when slenderness effects are not neglected as permitted by section 10.10.1, the design of compression members, restraining beams, and other supporting members be based on the factored forces and moments from a second-order analysis satisfying [section] 10.10.3, 10.10.4, or 10.10.5. Section 10.10.3 is titled Nonlinear Second-Order Analysis, section 10.10.4 contains requirements for elastic second-order analysis, and section 10.10.5 details moment magnification procedure. The members being discussed are also required to satisfy sections 10.10.2.1 and 10.10.2.2. Section 10.10.2.1 requires that second-order effects in compression members, restraining beams, or

Chapter 10: Flexure and Axial Loads


For a compression member with a cross section larger than required by considerations of loading, section 10.8.4 permits the minimum reinforcement to be based on a reduced effective area Ag not less than one-half the total area. ACI 318-05 used to state that the provision does not apply in regions of high seismic risk. ACI 318-08 now states that this provision does not apply to special moment frames or special structural walls designed in accordance with chapter 21. The most significant change in chapter 10 is a rewriting of sections 10.10 through 10.13 of ACI 318-05 into the new section 10.10, Slenderness Effects in Compression
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Figure 1. Stud rails are used as slab shear reinforcement. Photo courtesy of Decon U.S.A. Inc.

other structural members not exceed 40% of the moment due to first-order effects. Section 10.10.2.2 requires that second-order effects be considered along the length of compression members. This can be done using the nonsway moment magnification procedure outlined in section 10.10.6. Section 10.10.4 on elastic second-order analysis includes new equations (10-8) and (10-9), which provide morerefined values of EI considering axial load, eccentricity, reinforcement ratio, and concrete compressive strength, as presented in the two Khuntia and Ghosh ACI Structural Journal articles.7,8 Commentary section R10.13.8, Tie Reinforcement around Structural Steel Core, which was section R10.16.8 in ACI 318-05, used to state: Concrete that is laterally confined by tie bars is likely to be rather thin along at least one face of a steel core section. Therefore, complete interaction between the core, the concrete, and any longitudinal reinforcement should not be assumed. Concrete will probably separate from smooth faces of the steel core. To maintain the concrete around the structural steel core, it is reasonable to require more lateral ties than needed for ordinary reinforced concrete columns. Because of probable separation at high strains between the steel core and the concrete, longitudinal bars will be ineffective in stiffening cross sections even though they would be useful in sustaining compression forces. This text has now been replaced with, Research has shown that the required amount of tie reinforcement around the structural steel core is sufficient for the longi-

tudinal steel bars to be included in the flexural stiffness of the composite column.9

Chapter 11: Shear and Torsion


The revisions to achieve a consistent treatment of lightweight concrete throughout ACI 318 (see discussion of section 8.6 in Significant Changes to ACI 318-08 Relative to Precast/Prestressed Concrete: Part 110) have led to the deletion of section 11.2 of ACI 318-05. The revisions to ACI 318 also affect several of the equations in chapter 11. Those equations are found in sections 11.2, Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for Nonprestressed Members; 11.3, Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for Prestressed Members; 11.5.1, Threshold Torsion; 11.5.2, Calculation of Factored Torsional Moment; 11.9, Provisions for Walls; and 11.11, Provisions for Slabs and Footings. In addition, in section 11.6.4.3 (11.6 is the section on shear friction), = 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete was changed to Otherwise, shall be determined based on volumetric proportions of lightweight and normalweight aggregates as specified in [section] 8.6.1, but shall not exceed 0.85. Although the equations in the sections noted previously have different appearances, there have not been any significant changes related to the shear strength of structural members made of lightweight concrete. Significant changes were made to the list of members in section 11.4.6.1 for which minimum shear reinforcement is not required where Vu exceeds 0.5Vc. Solid slabs, footings, and joists are excluded from the minimum shear-reinforcement
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requirement because there is a possibility of load sharing between weak and strong areas. Section 11.4.6.1, under item (a), has now clarified that the slabs must be solid. Based on experimental evidence,11 a new limit on the depth of hollow-core units was established in item (b) of section 11.4.6.1. Research has shown that deep, lightly reinforced one-way slabs and beams, particularly if constructed with highstrength concrete, or concrete with a small coarse aggregate size, may fail at shear demands less than Vc computed using Eq. (11-3) especially when subjected to concentrated loads.1214 Because of this, the exclusion for certain beam types in 11.4.6.1(e) is restricted to cases in which the total depth h does not exceed 24 in. Commentary section R11.4.6.1 further advises that for beams where f c' is greater than 7000 psi, consideration should be given to providing minimum shear reinforcement when h is greater than 18 in. and Vu is greater than 0.5Vc. The new exception in item (f) in section 11.4.6.1 provides a design alternative to the use of shear reinforcement, as defined in section 11.4.1.1, for members with longitudinal flexural reinforcement in which f c' does not exceed 6000 psi, h is not greater than 24 in., and Vu does not exceed 2 fc' bwd. Fiber-reinforced concrete beams with hooked or crimpled steel fibers in dosages greater than or equal to 100 lb/yd3 (59 kg/m3) have been shown through laboratory tests to exhibit shear strengths larger than 3.5 fc' bwd.15 Commentary section R11.4.6.1(f) points out that the use of steel fibers as shear reinforcement is not recommended when corrosion of fiber reinforcement is of concern. In section 11.6.5, the upper limit on the nominal shear-friction strength Vn was significantly increased for both monolithically placed concrete and concrete placed against intentionally hardened concrete. Commentary section R11.6.5 points out that the increase is justified in view of test data.16,17 Section 11.6.5 now clarifies that if a lower-strength concrete is cast against a higher-strength concrete, the value of f c' used to evaluate Vn must be the f c' for the lower-strength concrete. The increase in the upper limit on the nominal shearfriction strength is also reflected in section 11.8.3.2.1 (part of section 11.8, Provisions for Brackets and Corbels). One of the most significant changes in chapter 11 is the addition of code requirements to permit the use of headed stud assemblies as shear reinforcement in slabs and footings (section 11.11.5). Using shear stud assemblies, as shear reinforcement in slabs and footings, requires specifying the stud shank diameter, the spacing of the studs, and the height of the assemblies for the particular applications (Fig. 1). Tests18 have shown that vertical studs mechanically anchored as close as possible to the top and bottom of slabs are effective in resisting punching shear. . . . Compared with a leg of a stirrup having bends at the ends, a stud head exhibits smaller slip, and thus results in smaller shear crack widths. The improved performance results in larger limits for shear strength and spacing between peripheral
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lines of headed shear stud reinforcement. Both the amount of shear assigned to the concrete Vc and the nominal shear strength Vn = Vc + Vs are permitted to be larger for headed stud assemblies than for other forms of slab or footing shear reinforcement at 3 f c' bod and 8 f c' bod, respectively. Section 11.11.5.1 clarifies that in the calculation of Vd = Av fyd /s, Av is equal to the cross-sectional area of all the shear reinforcement on one peripheral line that is approximately parallel to the perimeter of the column section, where s is the spacing of the peripheral lines of headed shear stud reinforcement. Commentary section R11.11.5.1 clarifies that when there is unbalanced moment transfer, the design must be based on stresses. The maximum shear stress due to a combination of Vu and the fraction of unbalanced moment vMu should not exceed vn, where vn is taken as the sum of 3 f c' and Av fyt /(bos). The specified spacings between peripheral lines of shear reinforcement [Fig. 2] are justified by experiments.18 Commentary section R11.11.5.2 cautions that the clear spacing between the heads of the studs should be adequate to permit placing of the flexural reinforcement.

Chapter 12: Development and Splices of Reinforcement


A new section 12.1.3 was added. The section specifically calls designers attention to the structural-integrity requirements in section 7.13. There was concern within ACI Committee 318 that many designers were simply not aware of these requirements, though they have existed since the 1989 edition of ACI 318. In all of the equations for development length of deformed bars and deformed wire in tension and compression, in sections 12.2.2 and 12.2.3, respectively, the lightweightaggregate factor was moved from the numerator to the denominator. At the same time, in section 12.2.4(d), = 1.3 was replaced by shall not exceed 0.75 unless fct is specified (see [section] 8.6.1). All of this is consistent with the definition of in section 8.6 and is explained clearly in commentary section R12.2.4. Before ACI 318-08, Eq. (12-2) for Ktr included the yield strength of the transverse reinforcement fyt. The current expression assumes that fyt = 60 ksi (414 MPa) and includes only the area and the spacing of the transverse reinforcement and the number of bars being developed or lap spliced. This is because tests have shown that transverse reinforcement rarely yields during bond failure. By far the most significant change in chapter 12 is the introduction of section 12.6, Development of Headed and Mechanically Anchored Deformed Bars in Tension. The

use of headed deformed bars is attractive as an alternative to hooked bar anchorages in regions where reinforcement is heavily congested. The term development, as used in section 12.6, indicates that the force in the bar is transferred to the concrete through a combination of a bearing force at the head and bond forces along the bar. The term anchorage, as used in section 12.6, indicates that the force in a bar is transferred to the concrete through bearing of the head alone. Commentary section R12.6 states that the provisions for headed deformed bars were written with due consideration of the provisions for anchorage in Appendix D and the

bearing strength provisions of [section] 10.4.19,20 Appendix D contains provisions for headed anchors related to the individual failure modes of concrete breakout, side-face blowout, and pullout, all of which were considered in the formulation of [section] 12.6.2. The restriction that the concrete must be normalweight, the maximum bar size of no. 11, and the upper limit of 60,000 psi on fy are based on test data.21 Commentary Fig. R12.6(a) shows the length of headed deformed bar ldt measured from the critical section to the bearing face of the head, which is given in section 12.6.2 for developing headed deformed bars.

 
Figure 2. Typical arrangements are shown for headed shear-stud reinforcement and critical sections. Reproduced with permission from ACI 318-08 Figure R11.11.5.

Fig. R11.11.5Typical arrangements of headed shear stud reinforcement and critical sections.

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For bars in tension, heads allow the bars to be developed in a shorter length than required for standard hooks.1921 The minimum limits on clear cover, clear spacing, and head size are based on the lower limits on these parameters used in the tests to establish the expression for ldt in [section] 12.6.2. Headed bars with Abrg < 4Ab have been used in practice, but their performance may not be accurately represented by the provisions of [section] 12.6.2. Headed bars may be used only in compliance with the requirements of section 12.6.4. A factor of 1.2 is consistently used for epoxy-coated headed reinforcing bars, the same value as used for epoxycoated standard hooks. The upper limit of 6000 psi on the value of f c' in section 12.6.2 is based on the concrete strengths used in the Texas tests.1921 Because transverse reinforcement was shown to be largely ineffective in improving the anchorage of headed deformed bars, additional reductions in development length are not used for headed deformed reinforcing bars. The sole exception to this is a reduction for excess reinforcement. Commentary section R12.6 indicates that where longitudinal headed deformed bars from a beam or slab terminate at a column or other supporting member, as shown in Figure R12.6(b), the bars should extend through the joint to the far face of the supporting member, allowing for cover and avoiding interference with column reinforcement, even though the resulting anchorage length exceeds ldt. Extending the bar to the far face of the supporting member improves the performance of the joint. Section 12.6.3 requires that heads not be considered effective in developing bars in compression because there are no available test data demonstrating that the use of heads adds significantly to anchorage strength in compression. In section 12.8, Eq. (12-3) for the development length of plain welded-wire reinforcement in tension now shows the lightweight-aggregate factor in a position that is consistent with its definition in section 8.6. In section 12.13, the expression for the embedment length of web reinforcement between the midheight of a member and outside end of the hook now contains . In section 12.15, Splices of Deformed Bars and Deformed Wire in Tension, section 12.15.3 was added. The section states that when bars of different size are lap spliced in tension, splice length shall be the larger of ld of larger bar and tension lap splice length of smaller bar.

from the face of the column that is equal to the thickness of the projection below the slab soffit. In section 13.3, what used to be called special reinforcement is now called corner reinforcement. Corner reinforcement is now required at exterior corners of slabs supported by edge walls or where one or more edge beams have a value of f greater than 1.0. New, useful commentary is provided in section R13.3.6. In section 13.3.8.5, column core was replaced by region bounded by the longitudinal reinforcement of the column. Section 13.5.3.3 on transfer of unbalanced moments to columns was editorially rewritten for clarity. Two substantive changes have also been made. The limit of 37.5% of the balanced steel ratio on the amount of reinforcement within the effective slab width was updated to refer to a minimum net tensile strain of 0.010 to be consistent with the unified design approach, and the requirement for the minimum net tensile strain was eliminated for moment transfer about the slab edge for edge and corner connections based on the original recommendation from ACI Committee 352. New commentary section R13.6.7 explains the moment redistribution of up to 10% that is permitted to occur in slabs that are analyzed using the direct design method.

Chapter 14: Walls


Section 14.3.7 used to read, In addition to the minimum reinforcement required by 14.3.1, not less than two no. 5 bars shall be provided around all window and door openings. Such bars shall be extended to develop the bar beyond the corner of the openings but not less than 24 in. The section now reads, In addition to the minimum reinforcement required by 14.3.1, not less than two no. 5 bars in walls having two layers of reinforcement in both directions and one no. 5 bar in walls having a single layer of reinforcement in both directions shall be provided around window, door, and similar sized openings. Such bars shall be anchored to develop fy in tension at the corners of the openings. Section 14.8, Alternative Design of Slender Walls, was introduced in the 1999 edition of ACI 318, and the provisions are based on similar provisions in the Uniform Building Code (UBC),22 which in turn are based on experimental research.23 Changes were made in the 2008 edition to reduce differences in the serviceability provisions between ACI 318 and the UBC to ensure that the intent of the UBC provisions is included in future editions of the IBC. Before the 2008 edition, under section 14.8.3, the effective area of longitudinal reinforcement in a slender wall for obtaining an approximate cracked moment of inertia was calculated using an effective area of tension reinforce-

Chapter 13: Two-Way Slab Systems


Section 13.2.6 has also been added. This section states that when used to increase the critical concrete section for shear at a slab-column joint, a shear cap shall project below the slab and extend a minimum horizontal distance
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ment defined by Eq. (14-7) without the h/2d modifier. The contribution of the axial load to the cracked moment of inertia was overestimated in many cases where two layers of reinforcement were used in a slender wall. The effective area of longitudinal reinforcement was modified in 2008 by introducing the h/2d modifier. The neutral axis depth c in Eq. (14-7) corresponds to this effective area of longitudinal reinforcement. Section 14.8.4 has undergone significant changes. Prior to this edition, out-of-plane deflections of wall panels were calculated using the effective moment of inertia given in section 9.5.2.3. However, reevaluation of the original test data23 indicated that out-of-plane deflections increase rapidly when the service-level moment exceeds 2/3Mcr. A linear interpolation between cr [given by Eq. (14-10)] and n [given by equation (14-11)] is used to determine s to simplify the design of slender walls if the maximum moment in member due to service loads Ma exceeds 2/3Mcr. Commentary section R14.8.4 states that service-level load combinations are not defined in Chapter 9 of ACI 318. However, they are discussed in appendix C of ASCE/SEI 7-05, although, unlike ACI 318, appendixes to ASCE/SEI 7 are not considered to be mandatory parts of the standard. Appendix C of ASCE 7-05 recommends the following load combination for calculating service-level lateral deflections of structures: D + 0.5L + 0.7W which corresponds to a 5% annual probability of exceedance. According to section R14.8.4, if a slender wall is designed to resist earthquake effects, E, and E is based on strengthlevel seismic forces, a conservative estimate of servicelevel seismic forces is 0.7E.

Chapter 17: Composite Concrete Flexural Members


No change was made to this chapter.

Chapter 18: Prestressed Concrete


One important change in section 18.4.1 permits an increase in the allowable concrete compressive stress immediately after prestress transfer at the ends of pretensioned, simply ' ' supported members from 0.60 fci to 0.70 fci . This change was made based on research results and common practice in the precast/prestressed concrete industry. The remainder of section 18.4.1 was editorially rewritten. Section 18.8.2 on minimum flexural reinforcement was editorially rewritten. A sentence added to commentary section R18.8.2 points out that the requirement of section 18.8.2 does not apply to members with unbonded tendons because the transfer of force between the concrete and the prestressing steel, and abrupt flexural failure immediately after cracking, does not occur when prestressing steel is unbonded.24 Changes were made in section 18.10.4 on redistribution of moments in continuous prestressed flexural members, which are very similar to the corresponding changes made in section 8.4 on redistribution of moments in continuous nonprestressed flexural members. Section 18.12.4 provides specific guidance concerning tendon distribution that will permit the use of banded tendon distributions in one direction. . . . The minimum average effective prestress of 125 psi was used in two-way test panels in the early 1970s to address punching shear concerns in lightly reinforced slabs. A sentence was added to clearly indicate that if the slab thickness varies along or perpendicular to the span of a slab resulting in a varying slab cross section, the 125 psi minimum effective prestress and the maximum tendon spacing are required at every cross section tributary to the tendon or group of tendons along the span, considering both the thinner and the thicker slab sections. There are significant modifications of the requirements for structural integrity steel in two-way, unbonded, posttensioned slab systems, previously in section 18.12.4, now in sections 18.12.6 and 18.12.7. Section 18.12.6 requires that in slabs with unbonded tendons, a minimum of two -in. diameter or larger, seven-wire post-tensioned strands shall be provided in each direction at columns, either passing through or anchored within the region bounded by the longitudinal reinforcement of the column. Such reinforcement provided at
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Chapter 15: Footings


An important new section 15.10.4 was added, stating unequivocally that the minimum reinforcing steel in nonprestressed mat foundations shall meet the requirements of section 7.12.2 in each principal direction and that the maximum spacing shall not exceed 18 in. The new commentary section R15.10.4 also supplies important clarification. It states that minimum reinforcing steel may be distributed near the top or bottom of the section, or may be allocated between the two faces of the section as deemed appropriate for specific conditions, such that the total area of continuous reinforcing steel satisfies [section] 7.12.2.

Chapter 16: Precast Concrete


No substantive changes were made to this chapter.

any location over the depth of the slab suspends the slab following a punching shear failure, provided the tendons are prevented from bursting through the top surface of the slab.25 Where the two structural integrity tendons are anchored within the region bounded by the longitudinal reinforcement of the column, the anchorage is required to be located beyond the column centroid and away from the anchored span. Outside column and shear cap faces, these two structural integrity tendons are required to pass under any orthogonal tendons in adjacent spans so that vertical movements of the integrity tendons are restrained by the orthogonal tendons. Where tendons are distributed in one direction and banded in the orthogonal direction, this requirement can be satisfied by first placing the integrity tendons for the distributed tendon direction and then placing the banded tendons. Commentary section R18.12.6 states that where tendons are distributed in both directions, weaving of tendons is necessary and the use of [section] 18.12.7 may be an easier approach. That section allows the structural integrity tendons to be replaced by deformed-bar bottom reinforcement. In section 18.13.4 (section 18.13 is on Post-tensioned Tendon Anchorage Zones), nominal tensile stress was changed to tensile stress at nominal strength, nominal compressive strength of concrete to compressive stress in concrete at nominal strength, and design drawings to contract documents.

The test load intensity in section 20.3.2 of ACI 318-05, 0.85 (1.4D + 1.7L), was not changed when the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations were brought into the main body of ACI 318-02 because Committee 318 did not want to reduce the fundamental level of structural safety. However, the ACI 318-05 format was confusing to practitioners because it appeared to refer only to the traditional ACI load combinations, which are now in appendix C. Also, test load combinations including snow and rain loads were not provided. To correct these deficiencies without substantially changing the test load intensity, the required test load intensity was revised to be not less than the largest value given by three different load combinations.

References
1.  ACI Committee 318. 2005. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). Farmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute (ACI). 2.  ACI Committee 318. 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 3.  International Code Council. 2006. International Building Code. Falls Church, VA: International Code Council. 4.  Structural Engineering Institute. 2005. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 5.  Mlakar, P. F., ed. 2005. Special Section: Performance of the Pentagon: Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, V. 15, No. 3 (August): pp. 187221. 6.  Nowak, A. S., N. M. Szerszen, E. K. Szeliger, A. Szwed, and P. K. Podhorecki. 2005. Reliability-Based Calibration for Structural Concrete. Report No. UNLCE 05-036. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 7.  Khuntia, M., and S. K. Ghosh. 2004. Flexural Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Columns and Beams: Analytical Approach. ACI Structural Journal, V. 101, No. 3 (MayJune): pp. 351363. 8.  Khuntia, M., and S. K. Ghosh. 2004. Flexural Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Columns and Beams: Analytical Approach. ACI Structural Journal, V. 101, No. 3 (MayJune): pp. 364374. 9.  Tikka, T. K., and S. A. Mirza. 2006. Nonlinear Equation for Flexural Stiffness of Slender Composite Columns in Major Axis Bending. Journal of Structural Engineering, V. 132, No. 3 (March): pp. 387399.

Chapter 19: Shells and Folded Plate Members


Section 19.4.2, instead of providing values of the coefficient of friction , now refers to section 11.6.4.3 for those values. A few other changes, which are essentially editorial, were made in the chapter.

Chapter 20: Strength Evaluation of Existing Structures


Since the 1995 edition of ACI 318, section 20.2.3 referenced section 5.6.5 for determining concrete strength from cores when evaluating the strength of an existing structure. However, section 5.6.5 was developed for investigating low-strength test results, not evaluating the strength of existing structures. ACI Committee 214 has developed procedures for estimating an equivalent f c' from core test data. The requirements of section 20.2.3 were changed to require an estimate of an equivalent f c' and the commentary references the ACI 214.4R-03 methods.26
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10.  Ghosh, S. K. 2008. Significant Changes to ACI 318-08 Relative to Precast/Prestressed Concrete: Part 1. PCI Journal, V. 53, No. 2 (MarchApril): supplement. 11.  Hawkins, N. M., and S. K. Ghosh. 2006. Shear Strength of Hollow-Core Slabs. PCI Journal, V. 51, No. 1 (JanuaryFebruary): pp. 110114. 12.  Angelakos, D., E. C. Bentz, and M. D. Collins. 2001. Effect of Concrete Strength and Minimum Stirrups on Shear Strength of Large Members. ACI Structural Journal, V. 98, No. 3 (MayJune): pp. 290300. 13.  Lubell, A., E. C. Sherwood, E. C. Bentz, and M.P. Collins. 2004. Safe Shear Design of Large Wide Beams. Concrete International, V. 26, No. 1 (January): pp. 6678. 14.  Brown, M. D., O. Bayrak, and J. O. Jirsa. 2006. Design for Shear Based on Loading Conditions. ACI Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 4 (JulyAugust): pp. 541550. 15.  Parra-Montesinos, G. J. 2006. Shear Strength of Beams with Deformed Steel Fibers. Concrete International, V. 28, No. 11 (November): pp. 5766. 16.  Kahn, L. F., and A. D. Mitchell. 2002. Shear Friction Tests with High-Strength Concrete. ACI Structural Journal, V. 99, No. 1 (JanuaryFebruary): pp. 98103. 17.  Mattock, A. H. 2001. Shear Friction and HighStrength Concrete. ACI Structural Journal, V. 98, No. 1 (JanuaryFebruary): pp. 5059. 18.  ACI-ASCE Committee 421. 1999 (reapproved 2006). Shear Reinforcement for Slabs. ACI 421.1R-99. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 19.  Thompson, M. K., M. J. Ziehl, J. O. Jirsa, and J.E. Breen. 2005. CCT Nodes Anchored by Headed BarsPart 1: Behavior of Nodes. ACI Structural Journal, V. 102, No. 6 (NovemberDecember): pp. 808815. 20.  Thompson, M. K., J. O. Jirsa, and J. E. Breen. 2006. CCT Nodes Anchored by Headed BarsPart 2: Capacity of Nodes. ACI Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 1 (JanuaryFebruary): pp. 6573. 21.  Thompson, M. K., A. Ledesma, J. O. Jirsa, and J. E. Breen. 2006. Lab Splices Anchored by Headed Bars. ACI Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 2 (MarchApril): pp. 271279.

22.  International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). 1997. Uniform Building Code. Whittier, CA: ICBO. 23.  Athey, J. W, ed. 1982. Test Report on Slender Walls. Los Angeles, CA: Southern California Chapter of the American Concrete Institute and Structural Engineers Association of Southern California. 24.  Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 423. 2005. Recommendations for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons (ACI 423.3R-05). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI 25.  Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 352. 1988. Recommendations for Design of Slab-Column Connections in Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Structures (ACI 352.1R-89). ACI Structural Journal, V. 85, No. 6 (NovemberDecember): pp. 675696. 26.  ACI Committee 214. 2003. Guide for Obtaining Cores and Interpreting Compressive Strength Results (ACI 214.4R-03). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI.

Notation
Ab = area of an individual bar or wire Abrg =  net bearing area of the head of stud, anchor bolt, or headed deformed bar Ag = gross area of concrete section Av = area of shear-reinforcement within spacing s bo =  perimeter of critical section for shear in slabs and footings bw = web width or diameter of circular section c =  distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis d =  distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement D = dead loads or related internal moments and forces E =  load effects of earthquake or related internal moments and forces EI = flexural stiffness of compression member fy =  specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement fyt =  specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement
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f c' = specified compressive strength of concrete


' =  specified compressive strength of concrete at time of fci initial prestress

f =  ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of slab bounded laterally by centerlines of adjacent panes (if any) on each side of the beam v =  factor used to determine the unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab-column connections cr =  computed out-of-plane deflection at midheight of wall corresponding to cracking moment n =  computed out-of-plane deflection at midheight of wall corresponding to nominal flexural strength s =  computed out-of-plane deflection at midheight of wall due to service loads = modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete = coefficient of friction = strength-reduction factor vn  = nominal shear-stress capacity = 3
f c' + Av fyt /(bos)

h = overall thickness or height of member I = moment of inertia of section about centroidal axis

k = effective length factor for compression members Ktr = transverse reinforcement index ld =  development length in tension of deformed bar, deformed wire, plain and deformed welded-wire reinforcement, or pretensioned strand ldt =  development length in tension of headed deformed bar, measured from the critical section to the bearing face of the head lu = unsupported length of compression member L = live loads or related internal moments and forces M1 =  smaller factored end moment on a compression member M2 =  larger factored end moment on a compression member Ma = maximum moment in member due to service loads Mcr = cracking moment Mu = factored moment at section r =  radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member s = c  enter-to-center spacing of items, for example, spacing of the peripheral lines of headed shear-stud reinforcement Vc =  nominal shear strength provided by concrete Vd = shear force at section due to unfactored dead load Vn = nominal shear strength Vs =  nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement Vu = factored shear force at section

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About the author


S. K. Ghosh, PhD, FPCI, is president of S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. in Palatine, Ill.

concrete, are enumerated. Only changes to chapters 9 through 20 of ACI 318-08 are discussed in this article.

Keywords
ACI 318, code, structural concrete.

Reader comments
Please address any reader comments to PCI Journal editor-in-chief Emily Lorenz at elorenz@pci.org or Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, c/o PCI Journal, 209 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60606. J

Synopsis
Significant changes were made since American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 published the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). The changes in the upcoming 2008 edition are summarized here. In addition to changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete, provisions affecting precast/prestressed concrete, including post-tensioned

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A SPECIAL MEMBERS-ONLY SUPPLEMENT


No. 53-5

Letter to the Editor: Exposure Class Assignments.......................S2 Significant Changes to ACI 318-08 Relative to Precast/Prestressed Concrete: Part 3...................................................................................S2
209 West Jackson Boulevard Suite 500 Chicago, IL 60606 Phone: 312-786-0300 Fax: 312-786-0353 www.pci.org 209 West Jackson Boulevard Suite 500 Chicago, IL 60606 Phone: 312-786-0300 Fax: 312-786-0353 www.pci.org

209 West Jac Suite 500 Ch Phone: 31 Fax: 312 www

S. K. Ghosh

209 West Jackson Boulevard I Suite 500 I Chicago, IL 60606 Phone: 312-786-0300 I Fax: 312-786-0353 I www.pci.org

Letter to the Editor


Exposure class assignments In Significant Changes to ACI 318-08 Relative to Precast/Prestressed Concrete: Part 1 in the supplement to the MarchApril 2008 issue of the PCI Journal, S. K. Ghosh provided a nice summary of significant changes to chapters 1 through 8 of Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). I would like to add a comment. In my view, one of the more significant changes in chapter 4 of ACI 318-08 is the statement in section 4.2.1 that The licensed design professional shall assign exposure classes based on the severity of the anticipated exposure of structural concrete members for each exposure category according to Table 4.2.1. This statement explicitly requires the licensed design professional to consider and assign exposure classes for the structure in accordance with the new format for durability provisions. This change may be of interest to your members. Anthony E. Fiorato Senior consultant CTLGroup Skokie, Ill.

Significant changes to ACI 318-08 relative to precast/prestressed concrete: Part 3


S. K. Ghosh
Significant changes have been made since American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 published the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05).1 The changes in the new 2008 edition2 are summarized in this series of papers. The intent of this series of articles is to provide a summary of significant changes that affect conventionally reinforced concrete, precast concrete, and prestressed concrete (including post-tensioned concrete). This information should be useful to building officials, design engineers, practitioners, and the academic community. Changes to chapters 1 through 8 of ACI 318-08 were discussed in part 1 of this article series, published as a member supplement to the MarchApril 2008 issue of the PCI Journal. Changes to chapters 9 through 20 were discussed in part 2 of this article series, published in a supplement to the MayJune 2008 issue of the PCI Journal. Changes to chapter 21 are discussed in this part 3 of the article series. Changes to the appendices will be discussed in a separate article, which will appear in a subsequent issue of the PCI Journal.

Editors quick points


n This part 3 of three papers describes the changes from the 2005 edition to the 2008 edition of ACI 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, for chapter 21. n ACI 318 underwent a major revision with this version. n Changes to the appendices will follow in a separate article in a subsequent issue of the PCI Journal.
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ACI 318-08 will be the reference document for concrete design and construction in the 2009 edition of the International Building Code (IBC),3 which will continue to reference ASCE 7-05.4 All section and chapter numbers used in this paper refer to those of ACI 318-08 unless otherwise noted.

Overall changes to chapter 21: EarthquakeResistant Structures


A number of overall changes have been made to chapter 21. Title The title of the chapter has changed from Special Provisions for Seismic Design to EarthquakeResistant Structures. Notation In previous editions of ACI 318, the format was to have all definitions in chapter 2, with the exception of chapter 21, which in ACI 318-05 contained definitions. Having definitions in two places is undesirable because there can be problems in updating the definitions consistently. Alternatively, having definitions in chapter 21 but not chapter 2 can create difficulties locating definitions. Thus, all definitions have been transferred from chapter 21 to chapter 2. In addition to the transfer, a few of the definitions have been modified. Detailing requirements by seismic design category ACI Committee 318 originally developed seismic design provisions for regions of high seismic risk. The design provisions were placed in appendix A in earlier versions of ACI 318 and subsequently in chapter 21. Provisions for regions of moderate seismic risk were added later. It has always been understood among the users of ACI 318 that the body of the document, excluding chapter 21, provides design and detailing requirements for regions of low seismic risk. As long as the model building codes divided the United States into Seismic Zones 0 through 4, and seismic detailing requirements were triggered by seismic zones, it was relatively easy for the practicing engineer to correlate the regions of low, moderate, and high seismic risk of ACI 318 with the Seismic Zones 0 through 4 of the model codes.

But then the model building codes started triggering seismic detailing requirements by seismic performance categories, which were a function of the seismic hazard at the site and the occupancy of the structure. The IBC3 now triggers seismic detailing requirements by seismic design categories (SDCs) that are additionally functions of the soil characteristics at the site. Thus, in recent times, ACI 318 has used the awkward language: in regions of low seismic risk or for structures assigned to low seismic performance or design categories, in regions of moderate seismic risk or for structures assigned to intermediate seismic performance or design categories, and in regions of high seismic risk or for structures assigned to high seismic performance or design categories. ACI 318-08 has dropped this cumbersome language. Instead, SDCs are now used directly in section 1.1.9, Provisions for Earthquake Resistance, section 21.1.1, Scope, and elsewhere. This is a significant positive development. Because the IBC will no longer have to provide an interface between the SDC and the regions of low, moderate, and high seismic risk of ACI 318, it will be possible to eliminate unnecessary amendments to ACI 318 requirements. More logical organization In ACI 318-05, design and detailing requirements for structures assigned to SDC A and B were located in chapters 1 through 18. Additional detailing requirements for structures assigned to SDC C were given in sections 21.12 and 21.13, and those for structures assigned to SDCs D, E, and F were given in sections 21.2.2 through 21.2.8 and 21.3 through 21.10. This was obviously not the most logical arrangement. In ACI 318-08, seismic detailing requirements have been organized in the order of ascending SDCs. Chapter 21 starts with two new provisions for SDC B structures and the provisions for SDC C structures (commonly referred to as intermediate detailing) follow. Appearing last in chapter 21 are the provisions for SDC D, E, and F structures (commonly referred to as special detailing). Table 1 shows the section number changes that have resulted in chapter 21 from ACI 318-05 to 318-08. Deliberate use of special A primary use of the term special in chapter 21 is to define structural systems in which the proportions and details make them suitable as primary lateral-force-resisting systems of structures assigned to high SDCs. However, the term special was also used throughout chapter 21 for other purposes, sometimes leading to confusion in code usage. Any unnecessary or confusing use of the term special has now been removed from all of chapter 21, as well as from a few locations in chapter 1 that refer to seismic design requirements. Retention of the term special transverse reinforcement, which refers to the confinement reinforcement within the region of
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potential plastic hinging at the ends of special-moment-frame columns, was considered. However, following an ACI 318 ballot, this was dropped from further consideration.

Specific changes to chapter 21


More-specific changes to chapter 21 are large in number. Removal of commentary sentence When the committee was removing the word special, it was noted that the 2003 National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) provisions5 and ASCE 7-054 now include intermediate precast concrete walls. So the no-longer-relevant commentary sentence, Although new provisions are provided in 21.13 for design of intermediate precast structural walls, general building codes that address seismic performance or design categories do not include intermediate structural walls, was struck from ACI 318-08 commentary section R21.1.1 (previously ACI 318-05 commentary section R21.2.1). High-strength transverse reinforcement Section 21.2.5 of ACI 318-05 introduced a sentence that limits the yield strength of transverse reinforcement, including spirals, to 60,000 psi (42 MPa). The added sentence was part of a change that modified ACI 318-02 sections 9.4 and 10.9.3 to allow the use of spiral reinforcement with specified yield strength up to 100 ksi (690 MPa). The added sentence

specifically prohibits such use in members resisting earthquake-induced forces in structures assigned to SDC D, E, or F. This was largely a result of some misgiving that high-strength spiral reinforcement might be less ductile than conventional mild reinforcement and that spiral failure has been observed in earthquakes. There are fairly convincing arguments, however, against such specific prohibition. Spiral failure, primarily observed in bridge columns, has invariably been the result of insufficient spiral reinforcement. Also, prestressing steel, which is primarily the highstrength steel available on the U.S. market, is at least as ductile as welded-wire reinforcement, which is allowed to be used as transverse reinforcement. Under 2006 IBC section 1908.1.5, the applicability of the ACI 318-05 restriction The value of fyt for transverse reinforcement including spiral reinforcement shall not exceed 60,000 psi is narrowed by the clause for computing shear strength in front of the requirement. Two of the functions of transverse reinforcement in a reinforcement concrete member are to confine the concrete and to act as shear reinforcement. There has been enough testing of columns68 with highstrength confinement reinforcement ( fyt ranging up to 120 ksi [830 MPa] and beyond) to show that

Table 1. ACI 318-05 and the corresponding ACI 318-08 chapter 21 section numbers ACI 318-08 section numbers All definitions have moved to chapter 2 21.1 General Requirements 21.2 Ordinary Moment Frames 21.3 Intermediate Moment Frames 21.4 Intermediate Precast Structural Walls 21.5 Flexural Members of Special Moment Frames 21.6  Special Moment-Frame Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Load 21.7 Joints of Special Moment Frames 21.8 Special Moment Frames Constructed Using Precast Concrete 21.9 Special Structural Walls and Coupling Beams 21.10 Special Structural Walls Constructed Using Precast Concrete 21.11 Structural Diaphragms and Trusses 21.12 Foundations 21.13  Members Not Designated as Part of the Seismic-Force-Resisting System
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ACI 318-05 section numbers 21.1 Definitions 21.2 Same title Not included 21.12 Requirements for Intermediate Moment Frames 21.13 Same title 21.3 Same title 21.4 Same title 21.5 Same title 21.6 Same title 21.7 Special Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls and Coupling Beams 21.8 Same title 21.9 Same title 21.10 Same title 21.11  Members Not Designed as Part of the Lateral-Force-Resisting System

there is no detriment to such use. The 2006 IBC, therefore, uses the ACI 318-05 upper limit on the yield strength of transverse reinforcement solely to limit the width of possible shear cracks to acceptable levels. This does not preclude the use of highstrength transverse reinforcement for confining the core of a concrete member. During discussion of this item within ACI 318 Subcommittee H, Budek9 introduced research results that showed equivalent shear and confinement performance of 18-in.-diameter columns with transverse reinforcement having roughly 200 ksi (1380 MPa) yield strength. Section 21.1.5.4 of ACI 318-08 now states, The value of fyt used to compute the amount of confinement reinforcement shall not exceed 100,000 psi. Section 21.5.5.5 of ACI 318-08 now states, The value of fy or fyt used in design of shear reinforcement shall conform to 11.4.2. Section 11.4.2 reads, The values of fy and fyt used in design of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 60,000 psi, except the value shall not exceed 80,000 psi for welded deformed wire reinforcement. Thus, unlike the 2006 IBC, ACI 318-08 imposes an upper limit of 100 ksi (690 MPa) on the yield strength of high-strength confinement reinforcement in members resisting earthquake-induced forces in structures assigned to SDC D, E, or F. Also, ACI 318-08 requires such transverse reinforcement to conform to ASTM A1035.10 Section 3.5.3.1 requires deformed reinforcing bars to conform to ASTM A61511 (carbon steel), ASTM A70612 (lowalloy steel), and ASTM A95513 (stainless steel). Ordinary moment frames Section 21.2, for the first time, contains specific detailing requirements for ordinary moment frames in buildings assigned to SDC B. Both SDC A and SDC B fall under the old designation of low seismic risk. Structures assigned to SDC A are required to satisfy chapters 1 through 18 and chapter 22 of ACI 318. Frames in buildings assigned to SDC A are required in both the 2003 NEHRP provisions5 and ASCE 7-054 to satisfy additional requirements. The additional requirements of ASCE 7-05 are:

In structures assigned to SDC B, flexural member of ordinary moment frames forming part of the seismic forceresisting system shall have at least two main flexural reinforcing bars continuously top and bottom throughout the beams through or developed within exterior columns or boundary elements. In structures assigned to SDC B, columns of ordinary moment frames having a clear height-to-maximum-plandimension ratio of five or less shall be designed for shear in accordance with ACI 318-05 section 21.12.3 (ACI 318-08 section 21.3.3).

Intermediate moment frames There are important changes in section 21.3, Intermediate Moment Frames. Intermediate moment frames include beamcolumn as well as slab-column moment frames. When the requirements for intermediate moment frames were introduced in ACI 318-83, shear design requirements for beam-column and slab-column frames were grouped (section 21.12.3 of ACI 318-05). However, it was never intended that nominal shear stresses due to shear and moment transfer in two-way slabcolumn frames be treated the same as beam shear in beamcolumn frames or one-way shear in two-way slabs, though the provisions appear to indicate such. The provisions of former section 21.12.3 constrained slab-column designs in a way that was not intended and that was not supported by observations in laboratory tests. Analyses of laboratory tests14 indicate that the ductility or inelastic deformability of slab-column framing is better judged on the basis of the level of gravity shear stress and the presence of slab shear reinforcement. This has been recognized for gravity framing of buildings assigned to high SDCs (section 21.13.6) and slab-column intermediate frames (section 21.3.6.8). The purpose of a significant change to section 21.3.6.8 was to clarify that the nominal shear stresses due to shear and moment transfer in two-way slabs do not need to satisfy the requirements of section 21.3.3, but instead only need to satisfy the requirements of section 21.3.6.8. In addition, section 21.3.6.8 was modified to make it more consistent with current understanding of the relationship between earthquake demands and strengths, as reflected in section 21.13.6. ACI 318-05 permitted the value of eccentric shear stress to reach vn for design load combinations including E, as long as the contribution of E does not exceed 0.5vn. Considering that E was the linear earthquake action divided by a force-reduction factor R, ACI 318-05 was believed to permit unsafe levels of nominal shear stresses. A modification has eliminated this provision in ACI 318-08 and has replaced it with a more rational one. Specifically, in section 21.3.6.8 (formerly section 21.12.6.8), the second sentence has been changed from It shall be permitted to waive this requirement if the contribution of the earthquake-induced factored
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two-way shear stress transferred by eccentricity of shear in accordance with 11.12.6.1 and 11.12.6.2 at the point of maximum stress does not exceed one-half of the stress vn permitted by 11.12.6.2 to It shall be permitted to waive this requirement if the slab design satisfies requirements of 21.13.6. Columns supporting discontinued shear walls Discontinuous shear walls and other stiff members can impose large axial forces on supporting columns during earthquakes. Section 21.4.4.5 of ACI 318-05 already contained transverse reinforcement requirements for such columns in order to improve column toughness under anticipated demands. The requirements are triggered when the factored axial compressive force in these members, related to earthquake effect, exceeds Ag fc' /10. The same requirements continue in section 21.6.4.6 of ACI 318-08. However, the trigger has been adjusted by adding the following sentence: Where design forces have been magnified to account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system, the limit of Ag fc' /10 shall be changed to Ag fc' /4. While section 21.6.4.6 applies to columns of special moment frames, ACI 318-08 has added corresponding requirements for columns of intermediate moment frames. Section 21.3.5.6 requires the following: Columns supporting reactions from discontinuous stiff members, such as walls, shall be provided with transverse reinforcement at the spacing, s0, as defined in 21.3.5.2 over the full height beneath the level at which the discontinuity occurs if the portion of factored axial compressive force in these members related to earthquake effects exceeds Ag f c' /10. Where design forces have been magnified to account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismicforce-resisting system, the limit Ag f c' /10 shall be increased to Ag f c' /4. This transverse reinforcement shall extend above and below the columns as required in 21.6.4.6(b). It should be noted that the confinement that section 21.3.5.6 requires is considerably less than that required by section 21.6.4.6. Also, the 2006 IBC section 1908.1.12 modifies ACI 318-05 section 21.12.5 to introduce a provision similar to that of ACI 318-08 section 21.3.5.6. Beams and joints of special moment frames Changes have been made to sections 21.5, Flexural Members of Special Moment Frames, and 21.7, Joints of Special Moment Frames, to clarify maximum beam width, joint confinement requirements, and design rules for joints having beam stubs extending a short distance past the joint. Recent research15 has shown that the effective beam width is more closely related to the depth of the column than it is to
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the depth of the beam. A recommendation based on the column widths and beam widths tested to date has been adopted. Research16 has also indicated that extensions of beams (beam stubs) that project a short distance past the joint can also be considered as confining members to joints if they extend at least one effective depth beyond the joint face and meet the dimensional and reinforcment requirements for full flexural members. A change has been made to recognize this effect. Section 21.5.1.4 now reads, Width of member, bw, shall not exceed width of supporting member, c2, plus a distance on each side of supporting member equal to the smaller of (a) and (b): (a) width of supporting member, c2, and (b) 0.75 times the overall dimension of supporting member, c1. It used to read, plus distances on each side of supporting member not exceeding three fourths of the depth of flexural member. Sections 21.7.3.1, 21.7.3.2, and 21.7.3.3 on transverse reinforcement within beam-column joints of special moment frames have been rewritten for added clarity. Section 21.7.3.3, in particular, represents a major improvement. It used to read, Transverse reinforcement as required by 21.4.4 [now 21.6.4] shall be provided through the joint to provide confinement for longitudinal beam reinforcement outside the column core if such confinement is not provided by a beam framing into the joint. It now reads, Longitudinal beam reinforcement outside the column core shall be confined by transverse reinforcement passing through the column that satisfies spacing requirements of 21.5.3.2, and requirements of 21.5.3.3 and 21.5.3.6, if such confinement is not provided by a beam framing into the joint. An example of transverse reinforcement through the column provided to confine the beam reinforcement passing outside the column core is now shown in Fig. R21.5.1. This figure is a welcome addition (Fig. 1). Finally, the following text has been added to section 21.7.4.1: Extensions of beams at least one overall beam thickness h beyond the joint face are permitted to be considered as confining members. Extensions of beams shall satisfy 21.5.1.3, 21.5.2.1, 21.5.3.2, 21.5.3.3, and 21.5.3.6.

Columns of special moment frames Significant changes have been made to section 21.6.4 to improve the organization and expression of transverse reinforcement requirements for columns in special moment frames, as well as to eliminate one provision. The provisions of section 21.6 are intended to apply to a column of a special moment frame for all load combinations if, for any load combination, the axial load exceeds Ag f c' /10. The wording in ACI 31805 was often misinterpreted as meaning that the provisions applied only for those load combinations for which the axial load exceeded Ag f c' /10. Thus, section 21.6.1 of ACI 318-08 has been modified to read, Requirements of this section apply to special moment frame membersthat resist a factored axial compressive force Pu under any load combination exceeding Ag f c' /10. (emphasis added) Several areas for potential improvement of ACI 31805 provisions related to columns of special momentresisting frames were first identified by ACI 318 Subcommittee H. These included the following: The items listed as (a) through (e) in ACI 31805 section 21.4.4.1 were not expressed in parallel language. ACI 318-05 required that the area of transverse reinforcement be determined using (a) or (b) but did not require that (c), (d), and (e) always be satisfied. The term design strength of the member core was used in ACI 318-05 in section 21.4.4.1(d), but that terminology was not well defined. ACI 318-05 section 21.4.4 used both bc and Ash to determine the required amount of special transverse requirement. However, bc was based on center-to-center dimensions and Ash was based on the out-to-out dimensions of the hoop. To make it easier for the user, these items have been made consistent. In section 2.1 of ACI 318-08, both Ash and bc are measured to the outside edges of transverse reinforcement. This amounts to a small increase in Ash on the order of 2% to 3%.

Figure 1. Maximum effective width of wide beam and required transverse reinforcement. Source: Reprinted by permission from Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 2008) p. 334, Figure R21.5.1.

eliminating ACI 318-05 section 21.4.4.1(d), which allowed the design of columns with less than the specified confinement reinforcement, if the column core satisfied design requirements; allowing crossties of diameter less than that of the hoops (section 21.6.4.2).

Additional deliberations within ACI 318 Subcommittee H led to additional changes, including: removing the terminology special transverse reinforcement to refer to the confinement reinforcement within the length lo of the column;

ACI 318-05 section 21.4.4 has been replaced with the new ACI 318-08 section 21.6.4. The revision is outlined in Table 2. Note that the revised section 21.6.4 is made up of parts of ACI 31805 section 21.4.4, with some revision and some reorganization.
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A two-sentence paragraph has been added to section R21.6.4.4. Equations (21-4) and (21-5) are to be satisfied in both crosssectional directions of the rectangular core. For each direction, bc is the core dimension perpendicular to the tie legs that constitute Ash, as shown in Fig. R21.6.4.2 [Fig. 2]. This figure replaces ACI 318-05 Fig. R21.4.4 and represents a significant improvement. Finally, the following sentence has been deleted from the commentary on ACI 318-05 section 21.4.4.6 (now 21.6.4.5). Field observations have shown significant damage to columns in the unconfined region near the midheight. The requirements of 21.4.4.6 are to ensure a relatively uniform toughness of the column along its length. Special moment frames made with precast concrete A change has been made to commentary section R21.8.4 to alert designers to ACI ITG-1.2,17 which provides an option to satisfy the provisions of section 21.1.1.8. ACI 374.118 provides for the development of precast concrete special moment frames that can meet the requirements of section 21.1.1.8. ACI ITG-1.2 is an industry standard that defines requirements, in addition to those of section 21.8.4, for the design of one specific type of moment frame that consists of precast
Table 2. Reorganization of ACI 318-5 section 21.4.4 into ACI 318-08 section 21.6.4 ACI 318-08 section numbers 21.6.4.4 No change No change 21.6.4.2 Deleted 21.6.4.7 21.6.4.3 21.6.4.2 21.6.4.2 21.6.4.6 21.6.4.5 Eq. (21-3) Eq. (21-4) Eq. (21-5) Eq. (21-2)
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concrete beams post-tensioned to precast or cast-inplace concrete columns. The columns are continuous through the joints, and each beam spans a single bay. The hybrid beam-to-column connection uses a system of post-tensioning strands that run through a duct at the center of the beam and through the column. Mild-steel reinforcement is placed in ducts in the center of the beam and through the column, and then grouted. A key feature of the hybrid frame connection is that the grouted mild reinforcing bars must be deliberately debonded for short distances in the beams adjacent to the beam-column interfaces in order to reduce the high cyclic strains that would otherwise occur at those locations. The amount of mild-steel reinforcement and posttensioning steel are proportioned so that the frame recenters itself after a major seismic event. The University of Washington test results for the Third and Mission building in San Francisco, Calif., and the Precast Seismic Structural Systems (PRESSS) building test results for the frame direction can be used as a basis for special precast concrete hybrid moment frame designs in accordance with ITG-1.2. The results of the University of Washington tests are on file at ACI in conjunction with ITG-1.2. The results of the PRESSS building frame direction tests are available in a series of reports from PCI. The following sentence has been added at the end of section R21.8.4. ACI ITG 1.2 defines design requirements for one type of special precast concrete moment frame for use in accordance with 21.8.4. ACI ITG-1.2 has also been added to the chapter 21 commentary reference list. Boundary elements of special shear walls Section 21.9.6.4 (c) has been changed to permit increased spacing of transverse reinforcement in the boundary elements of walls with relatively thin boundary zones. ACI 318-05 section 21.7.6.4(c) required special boundary elements to satisfy ACI 318-05 section 21.4.4.2, which limited the spacing of transverse reinforcement to no more than one quarter of the minimum member dimension. This was an unintended consequence of referring the wall transverse reinforcement requirements to those of columns of special moment frames. For a 12-in.-thick (300mm) wall, the spacing requirements could not exceed 3 in. (75 mm). The Uniform Building Code,19 in its last two editions, relaxed the maximum spacing to

ACI 318-05 section numbers 21.4.4.1 21.4.4.1(a) 21.4.4.1(b) 21.4.4.1(c) 21.4.4.1(d) 21.4.4.1(e) 21.4.4.2 21.4.4.3 21.4.4.4 21.4.4.5 21.4.4.6 Eq. (21-2) Eq. (21-3) Eq. (21-4) Eq. (21-5)

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the smaller of 6 in. (150 mm) and 6 times the longitudinal bar diameter, regardless of wall thickness. Wall specimens tested by Thomsen and Wallace20 included rectangular walls RW1 and RW2 with boundary transverse reinforcement spaced at three quarters of the wall thickness. The walls had lateral drift capacities in excess of 2% of the wall height. Section 21.9.6.4(c) now reads, The boundary element transverse reinforcement shall satisfy the requirements of 21.6.4.2 through 21.6.4.4 except Eq. (21-4) need not be satisfied and the transverse reinforcement spacing limit of 21.6.4.3(a) shall be onethird of the least dimension of the boundary element. A sentence has been added at the end of section R21.9.6.4 that reads, Tests show that adequate performance can be achieved using spacing larger than permitted by 21.6.4.3(a). The Thomsen and Wallace paper20 has also been added to the chapter 21 commentary reference list. Coupling beams In section 21.9.7, a clarification has been provided that the provisions of sections 21.5.2 through 21.5.4 can be applied to coupling beams of moderate aspect ratios (2 ln/h < 4). Conventional reinforcing details for coupling beams with moderate aspect ratios (2 ln/h < 4) have at times been disallowed by building departments, even though the intent of ACI 318 has always been to allow these details. The ACI 318-05 provisions for coupling beams that are part of the lateral-forceresisting system are summarized in Table 3. It should be evident from Table 3 that ACI 318 was inadvertently silent on the issue of whether conventional reinforcement could be used in beams with 2 ln/h < 4. ACI 318-05 section 21.7.7.2 used to read, Coupling beams with (ln/h) < 4 shall be permitted to be reinforced with two intersecting groups of diagonally placed bars symmetrical about the midspan. ACI 318-08 section 21.9.7.3 now reads, Coupling beams not governed by 21.9.7.1 or 21.9.7.2 shall be permitted to be reinforced either with two intersecting groups of diagonally placed bars symmetrical about the midspan or according to 21.5.2 through 21.5.4. Significant changes have been made to section 21.9.7 to relax the spacing requirements for transverse reinforcement confining diagonal reinforcement in coupling beams and to introduce

Consecutive crossties engaging the same longitudinal bar have their 90-degree hooks on opposite sides of column 6db extension 6db 3 in. Ash2

xi bc2 xi Ash1 xi xi bc1 The dimension xi from centerline to centerline of tie legs is not to exceed 14 inches. The term hx used in equation 21-2 is taken as the largest value of xi.
Figure 2. This is an example of transverse reinforcement in columns. Source: Reprinted by permission from Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 2008) p. 341, Figure R21.6.4.2.

xi

an alternate detail involving confinement of the entire beam cross section (Fig. 3). ACI 318-99 first introduced diagonal reinforcement in coupling beams. Among its provisions was the requirement that spacing not exceed one quarter of the minimum member dimension. For diagonally reinforced coupling beams, this dimension is defined as the cross section of the diagonal cage (out to out) plus nominal cover. This may result in a spacing as low as 2 in. (50mm) in practical situations. This appears to be unnecessarily restrictive. Andres Lapage carried out a brief review of available diagonally reinforced coupling beam test results for the benefit of subcommittee H. Paulay and Binney21 had tested a 6 in. 31in. (150mm 790mm) coupling beam with a span-to-depth ratio of 1.3 and a 6 in. 39 in. (150mm 990mm) beam with a span-to-depth ratio of 1.0. The spacing of transverse reinforcement around the diagonal reinforcement in both beams was 4 in. (100mm), 4.6db, bw/1.5, and d1/1.0. Tassios et al.22 have tested a 5 in. 20 in. (125mm 500mm) coupling beam with a span-to-depth ratio of 1.0 and a 5in. 12in. (125mm 300mm) beam with a span-to-depth ratio of 1.7. The spacing of transverse reinforcement around the diagonal reinforcement was 2 in. (50mm), 5.0db, bw/2.5, and d1/1.3. Setting aside the difference in loading protocol, all four specimens exhibited negligible strength degradation up to total rotations of 5%. Galano and Vignoli23 had tested two 6 in. 16 in. (150mm 410mm) coupling beams with a span-to-depth ratio of 1.5. The spacing of transverse reinforcement around the diagonal reinPCI Journal | S p e c i a l S u p p l e m e n t S9

forcement was 4 in. (100mm), 10db, bw/1.5, and d1/1.3. These specimens experienced buckling of the diagonal reinforcement at total rotations below 3%. It should be emphasized that the transverse reinforcement around the diagonal was spaced at 10db. The results suggest that the transverse reinforcement around the diagonals need not be spaced at one quarter the minimum dimension of the confined section as long as the spacing does not exceed 6db. Thus some relaxation of the spacing requirement appears to be justified. See ACI 318-08 section

21.9.7.4(c) for such relaxation. ACI 318 Subcommittee H also explored whether confinement of the entire beam section might be a suitable alternative. Examples of this detailing in practice were identified. It was noted that this was the approach used successfully in early PCA tests.24 This alternative detailing approach has now been incorporated into ACI 318-08 (see section 21.9.7.4[d]). The organization and presentation of

A
Line of symmetry Horizontal beam reinforcement at wall does not develop fy

Note: For clarity, only part of the required reinforcement is shown on each side of the line of symmetry. Avd = total area of reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars

Transverse reinforcement spacing measured perpendicular to the axis of the diagonal bars not to exceed 14 in.

Wall boundary reinforcement

bw /2 bw Section A-A

ln

Elevation (a) Confinement of individual diagonals.

Note: For clarity in the elevation view, only part of the total required reinforcement is shown on each side of the line of symmetry.

Spacing not exceeding smaller of 6 in. and 6db Horizontal beam reinforcement at wall does not develop fy

B
Line of symmetry

Note: For clarity, only part of the required reinforcement is shown on each side of the line of symmetry. Avd = total area of reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars

Transverse reinforcement spacing not to exceed 8 in.

h db Transverse reinforcement spacing not to exceed 8 in. Section B-B Note: Consecutive crossties engaging the same logitudinal bar have their 90-degree hooks on opposite sides of beam.

Wall boundary reinforcement ln

Elevation

(b) Full confinement of diagonally oriented reinforcement. Wall reinforcement shown on one side only for clarity.

Figure 3. Coupling beams are shown with diagonally oriented reinforcement. Wall boundary reinforcement is shown on one side only for clarity. Source: Reprinted by permission from Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 2008) p. 355, Figure R21.9.7. S10 S pecial Su p p le me n t | PCI Journal

Table 3. Coupling beam detailing requirements of ACI 318-08 ACI 318-08 section 21.9.7.1 Conditions Conventional reinforcement per ACI 318-08 section 21.5 Diagonal reinforcement per ACI 318-08 section 21.9.7.4 (ln /h) > 4, no limit on Vu Required* Not permitted 21.9.7.3 (ln /h) < 4, no limit on Vu Not mentioned Permitted 21.9.7.2 (ln /h) < 2 and Vu > 4 fc' Acw Not permitted Required

*The provisions of sections 21.5.1.3 and 21.5.1.4 need not be satisfied if it can be shown that the beam has adequate lateral stability. Only sections 21.5.2 through 21.5.4 need be satisfied. ' Note: Acw = area of concrete section of an individual pier, horizontal wall segment, or coupling beam resisting shear; fc = design compressive strength of concrete; h = overall thickness or height of member; ln = length of clear span measured face to face of supports; Vn = nominal shear strength; Vu = factored shear force at section.

section 21.9.7 have improved. Also, because the bars are diagonal (not longitudinal), and flexural reinforcement is not present, some sections that had been called out in earlier editions of ACI 318 were not strictly correct. These have been corrected. The following important commentary has been added to section R21.9.7: Diagonal bars should be placed approximately symmetrically in the beam cross section, in two or more layers. The diagonally placed bars are intended to provide the entire shear and corresponding moment strength of the beam; designs deriving their moment strength from combinations of diagonal and longitudinal bars are not covered by these provisions. Two confinement options are described. The first option is found in section 21.9.7.4(c). This option is not needed but revisions were made in the 2008 Code to relax spacing of transverse reinforcement confining the diagonal bars, to clarify that confinement is required at the intersection of the diagonals, and to simplify design of the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement around the beam perimeter; beams with these revised details are expected to perform acceptably. Section 21.9.7.4(d) describes a second option for confinement of the diagonals introduced in the 2008 Code (Figure R21.9.7(b)). This second option is to confine the entire beam cross section instead of confining the individual diagonals. This option can considerably simplify field placement of hoops, which can otherwise be especially challenging where diagonal bars intersect each other or enter the wall boundary.

Special structural walls made with precast concrete A change made to section 21.10 now allows the use of unbonded, post-tensioned precast concrete walls, coupled or uncoupled, as special structural walls, provided that the requirements of ACI ITG-5.125 are satisfied. Testing and analysis2628 have shown that, with appropriate limitations, unbonded post-tensioned precast concrete walls, coupled or uncoupled, can exhibit seismic performance equal to or better than that of cast-in-place special reinforced concrete shear walls. ITG-5.1 defines the protocol necessary to establish a design procedure, validated by analysis and laboratory tests, for such precast concrete walls. Provided that the requirements of ITG-5.1 are satisfied, the requirements of section 21.1.1.8 that such walls must have strength and toughness equal to or exceeding those provided by a comparable monolithic reinforced concrete structure satisfying the chapter are met. Since 2002, ACI 318 has permitted in section 21.8.3 (previously 21.6.3) the use of special moment frames constructed using precast concrete, provided those frames met the requirements of ACI 374.1.18 The object of the recent change to section 21.10 was to allow, in a similar manner, through a systematic program of analysis and laboratory testing, the use of one type of special precast concrete structural walls. For special precast concrete moment frames, section 21.8.3 also contains two requirements related to the details and materials used in test specimens and the design procedure used to proportion test specimens. For walls, those latter two requirements are not needed because they are specifically included in ITG-5.1. The ITG-5.1 document has been adopted in section 3.8.10 of ACI 318-08. Section 21.10.3 now reads, Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete and unbonded post-tensioning tendons and not satisfying the requirements of 21.10.2 are permitted provided they satisfy the requirements of ACI ITG-5.1.
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Table 4. Coupling beam detailing requirements of ACI 318-05 ACI 318-05 section 21.7.7.1 Conditions Conventional reinforcement per ACI 318-05 section 21.3 Diagonal reinforcement per ACI 318-05 section 21.7.7.4 (ln /h) > 4, no limit on Vu Required Not permitted 21.7.7.2 (ln /h) < 4, no limit on Vu Not mentioned Permitted 21.7.7.3 (ln /h) < 2 and Vu > 4 fc' Acw Not permitted Required

' Note: Acw = area of concrete section of an individual pier, horizontal wall segment, or coupling beam resisting shear; fc = design compressive strength of concrete; h = overall thickness or height of member; ln = length of clear span measured face to face of supports; Vn = nominal shear strength; Vu = factored shear force at section.

A new commentary section R21.10.3 has also been added. Structural diaphragms and trusses Terminology and design requirements for diaphragms and trusses have been updated through changes in sections 21.1, Definitions, and 21.11, Structural Diaphragms and Trusses. ACI 318-05 sections 21.9.2 and 21.9.3, as written, implied that a complete transfer of forces was required only for composite-topping slab diaphragms, not for noncomposite diaphragms. A new section, 21.11.3, has been added to clarify that this is required for all diaphragms. Structural trusses are separated from diaphragms because requirements differ and separating them clarifies the requirements. In sections 21.1, in the definition of boundary elements, any reference to diaphragms has been eliminated. Boundary elements are now for structural walls only. The definition of collector element has been revised to Element that acts in axial tension or compression to transmit seismic forces within a structural diaphragm or between a structural diaphragm and a vertical element of the lateralforce-resisting system. The definition of structural diaphragm has been revised to clarify that it transmits forces to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system, rather than to lateral-forceresisting members. The definitions of strut and tie elements have been deleted. Section 21.11.2, Design Forces, which is new in ACI 318-08, reads, The earthquake design forces for structural diaphragms shall be obtained from the legally adopted general building code using the applicable provisions and load combinations. New section 21.11.3, Seismic Load Path, reads: 21.11.3.1All diaphragms and their connections shall be proportioned and detailed to provide for a complete transfer
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of forces to collector elements and to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system. 21.11.3.2Elements of a structural diaphragm system that are subjected primarily to axial forces and used to transfer diaphragm shear or flexural forces around openings or other discontinuities, shall comply with the requirements for collectors in 21.11.7.5 and 21.11.7.6. Any reference to continuous load path has been eliminated from section 21.11.4, Cast-in-Place Composite-Topping Slab Diaphragm, because the topic is now covered in section 21.11.3. Section 21.11.7.2 has been changed for clarity to Bonded tendons used as reinforcement to resist collector forces or diaphragm shear or flexural tension. Section 21.11.7.3 now reads, All reinforcement used to resist collector forces, diaphragm shear, or flexural tension. References to structural truss elements, struts, ties, and diaphragm chords have been eliminated from section 21.11.7.5. The former sections 21.9.8.1 and 21.9.8.2 have now been replaced by section 21.11.8, Flexural Strength, which reads, Diaphragms and portions of diaphragms shall be designed for flexure in accordance with 10.2 and 10.3 except that the nonlinear distribution of strain requirements of 10.2.2 for deep beams need not apply. The effects of openings shall be considered. This is an important change because flexure is no longer supposed to be resisted by the boundary element reinforcement only, as was implied by earlier editions of ACI 318.

The new section 21.11.11, Structural Trusses, now reads: 21.11.11.1Structural truss elements with compressive stresses exceeding 0.2 f c' at any section shall have transverse reinforcement, as given in 21.6.4.2 through 21.6.4.4 and 21.6.4.7, over the length of the element. 21.11.11.2All continuous reinforcement in structural truss elements shall be developed or spliced for fy in tension. A valuable new commentary section in R21.11.2 was added. There are other significant additions to and deletions from the commentary on section 21.11. Notable among these are the additions to section R21.11.8. Diaphragm shear strength Studies of precast concrete parking structures following the 1994 Northridge earthquake27 indicated that composite topping slab diaphragms depend on shear friction to transmit inertial forces to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system. The results of this research were used to develop ACI 318-05 Eq. (21-11) and are summarized in ACI 318-05 commentary section R21.9.7. However, ACI 318-05 Eq. (21-11) referred to distributed transverse reinforcement within the diaphragm (for consistency with ACI 318-05 Eq. [21-10]) rather than to distributed longitudinal reinforcement. When the provisions in ACI 318-05 section 21.9.7.2 were originally developed, it was assumed that the sentence The required web reinforcement should be distributed uniformly in both directions was sufficient to ensure that the same amount of reinforcement was used in both the longitudinal and the transverse directions. There were subsequent indications that clarification was needed. ACI 318-05 section 21.9.7.3 (now 21.11.9.3) has been revised to directly refer to shear friction reinforcement. Both boundary and distributed reinforcement in the topping slab are assumed to contribute to the shear strength of the topping slab diaphragm, but connectors between the precast concrete elements are not included at this time. Section 21.11.9.1 (formerly 21.9.7.1) has added the following text below Eq. (21-10): For castin-place topping slab diaphragms on precast floor or roof members, Acv shall be computed using the thickness of topping slab only for noncomposite topping slab diaphragms and the combined thickness of cast-in-place and precast elements for

composite topping slab diaphragms. For composite topping slab diaphragms, the value of f c' used to determine Vn shall not exceed the smaller of f c' for the precast members and f c' for the topping slab. Sections 21.11.9.3 and 21.11.9.4 now read: 21.11.9.3Above joints between precast elements in noncomposite and composite cast-in-place topping slab diaphragms, Vn shall not exceed Vn = Avf fy where Avf is total area of shear friction reinforcement within topping slab, including both distributed and boundary reinforcement, that is oriented perpendicular to joints in the precast system and coefficient of friction, , is 1.0 where is given in 11.6.4.3. At least one-half of Avf shall be uniformly distributed along the length of the potential shear plane. Area of distributed reinforcement in topping slab shall satisfy 7.12.2.1 in each direction. 21.11.9.4Above joints between precast elements in noncomposite and composite cast-in-place topping slab diaphragms, Vn shall not exceed the limits in 11.6.5 where Ac is computed using the thickness of the topping slab only. Commentary section R21.9.7 has been modified to explain the changes. Gravity columns An error has been corrected in section 21.13, Members Not Designated as Part of the Seismic-Force-Resisting System. Consider the case of a gravity column where the effects of design displacements are not explicitly checked and the member has axial load exceeding Ag fc' /10. According to ACI 318-05 section 21.11.3.3, the member need not satisfy ACI 318-05 section 21.4.3.2 and, therefore, the column lap splice might be located at the base of the column. However, if the effects of the design displacements were checked, then according to ACI 318-05 section 21.11.2.2, the member had to satisfy ACI 318-05 section 21.4.3.2 and the location of the column splice had to be within the center of the column length. In other words, if a gravity column might yield under the design displacements, the designer could splice the longitudinal reinforcement at any location, but if the column was not expected to yield, the splice had to be located near midheight. This did not make sense. This flaw traced back to ACI 318-95. Before the 1995 edition, lap-splice locations were not prescribed for members that were not proportioned to resist forces induced by earthquake motions. The flaw has been corrected in ACI 318-08. ACI 318-05 section 21.11.2.2 used to require members with factored gravity axial forces exceeding Ag f c' /10 to satisfy secPCI Journal | S p e c i a l S u p p l e m e n t S13

tions 21.4.3, 21.4.4.1(c), 21.4.4.3 and 21.4.5. ACI 318-08 section 21.13.3.2 now requires such columns to satisfy sections 21.6.3.1, 21.6.4.2, and 21.6.5. ACI 318-05 section 21.11.3.3 required members with factored gravity axial forces exceeding Ag f c' /10 to satisfy sections 21.4.3.1, 21.4.4, 21.4.5, and 21.5.2.1. ACI 318-08 section 21.13.4.3 now requires such columns to satisfy sections 21.6.3, 21.6.4, 21.6.5, and 21.7.3.1.

Strength Concrete. In Proceedings, Second International Symposium on High-Strength Concrete, pp. 6187. Detroit, MI: ACI. 9.  Budek, A., M. Priestley, and C. Lee. 2002. Seismic Design of Columns with HighStrength Wire and Strand as Spiral Reinforcement. ACI Structural Journal, V. 99, No. 5 (SeptemberOctober): pp. 660670. 10.  American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee A01.05. 2006. Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain, Low-carbon, Chromium, Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A1035/ A1035M-06. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM. 11.  ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2006. Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A615/A615M-06A. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM. 12.  ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2006. Standard Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A706/A706M-06A. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM. 13.  ASTM Subcommittee A01.05. 2006. Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. ASTM A955/A955M-06A. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM. 14.  Pan, A., and J. P. Moehle. 1989. Lateral Displacement Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plates. ACI Structural Journal, V. 86, No. 3 (MayJune): pp. 250258. 15.  ACI-ASCE Committee 352. 2002. Recommendations for Design of Beam-Column Connections in Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Structures (ACI 352R-02). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 16.  Meinheit, D. F., and J. O. Jirsa. 1981. Shear Strength of R/C Beam-Column Connections. Journal of the Structural Division, V. 107, No. ST11 (November): pp. 22272244. 17.  ACI Innovation Task Group 1. 2003. Special Hybrid Moment Frames Composed of Discretely Jointed Precast and Post-Tensioned Concrete Members (ITG-1.2-03) and Commentary (ITG-1.2R-03). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI.

Conclusion
Changes to chapter 21 of ACI 318-08 have been summarized and discussed in this part of the current series of papers on significant changes from ACI 318-05 to ACI 318-08. It is clear that the changes to chapter 21 are significant in number and quite substantive in nature. The changes include a complete reorganization of the chapter and a change in its title.

References
1,  American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318. 2005. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 2.  ACI Committee 318. 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 3.  International Code Council. 2006. International Building Code. Washington, DC: International Code Council. 4.  Structural Engineering Institute. 2005. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE 7-05. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 5.  Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC). 2003. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. Washington, DC: BSSC. 6.  Muguruma, H., and F. Watanabe. 1990. Ductility Improvement of High-Strength Concrete Columns with Lateral Confinement. In Proceedings, Second International Symposium on High-Strength Concrete, pp. 4760. Detroit, MI: American Concrete Institute (ACI). 7.  Muguruma, H., M. Nishiyama, F. Watanabe, and H. Tanaka. 1991. Ductile Behavior of High-Strength Concrete Columns Confined by High-Strength Transverse Reinforcement. In Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures and Innovations in Design, pp. 877891. Detroit, MI: ACI. 8.  Sugano, S., T. Nagashima, H. Kimura, A. Tamura, and A. Ichikawa. 1990. Experimental Studies on Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Members of High
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18.  ACI Committee 374. 2005. Acceptance Criteria for Moment Frames Based on Structural Testing (ACI 374.1-05) and Commentary (ACI 374.1R-05). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 19.  International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). 1994, 1997. Uniform Building Code. Whittier, CA: ICBO. 20.  Thomsen, J. H., and J. W. Wallace. 2004. Displacement Design of Slender Reinforced Concrete Structural WallsExperimental Verification. Journal of Structural Engineering, V. 130, No. 4: pp. 618630. 21.  Paulay, T., and J. R. Binney. 1974. Diagonally Reinforced Coupling Beams of Shear Walls. In Shear in Reinforced Concrete, pp. 579598. Detroit, MI: ACI. 22.  Tassios, T., M. Moretti, and A. Bezas. 1996. On the Behavior and Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Coupling Beams of Shear Walls. ACI Structural Journal, V. 93, No. 6 (NovemberDecember): pp. 711720. 23.  Galano, L., and A. Vignoli. 2000. Seismic Behavior of Short Coupling Beams with Different Reinforcement Layouts. ACI Structural Journal, V. 97, No. 6, (NovemberDecember): pp. 876885. 24.  ACI Innovation Task Group 5. 2007. Acceptance Criteria for Special Unbonded PostTensioned Precast Walls Based on Validation Testing (ITG-5.1-07) and Commentary (ITG5.1R-07). Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 25.  Priestly, M. J. N., S. Sritharan, J. Conley, and S. Pampanin. 1999. Preliminary Results and Conclusions from the PRESSS Five-Story Precast Concrete Test Building. PCI Journal, V. 44, No. 6 (NovemberDecember): pp. 4267. 26.  Perez, F. J., S. Pessiki, R. Sause, and L. W. Lu. Lateral Load Tests of Unbonded PostTensioned Precast Concrete Walls. In Large Scale Structural Testing, pp. 161182. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI. 27.  Restrepo, J. I. 2002. New Generation of Earthquake Resisting Systems. In Proceedings, Fifth fib Congress, Session 6, Osaka, Japan, pp. 4160.

28.  Wood, S. L., J. F. Stantas, and N. M. Hawkins. 2000. Development of New Seismic Design Provisions for Diaphragms Based on the Observed Behavior of Precast Concrete Parking Garages during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. PCI Journal, V. 45, No. 1, (JanuaryFebruary): pp. 5065.

Notation
Ac = area of concrete section resisting shear transfer Acv =  gross area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section in the direction of shear force considered Acw =  area of concrete section of an individual pier, horizontal wall segment, or coupling beam resisting shear Ag = gross area of concrete section Ash =  total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including crossties) within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension bc Avf = area of shear-friction reinforcement bc =  cross-sectional dimension of member core measured to the outside edges of the transverse reinforcement composing area Ash bw = web width or diameter of circular section c 1 = dimension of rectangular or equivalent rectangular column, capital, or bracket measured in the direction of the span for which moments are being determined = dimension of rectangular or equivalent rectangular column, capital, or bracket measured in the direction perpendicular to c1

c2

d1 =  minimum dimension of confined section containing diagonal reinforcement db E fy fyt = diameter of diagonal reinforcing bars = load effects of earthquake or related internal moments and forces = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement = specified yield strength of the transverse reinforcement

f c' = specified compressive strength of concrete h = overall thickness or height of member

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ln lo

= length of clear span measured face-to-face of supports = length, measured from joint face along axis of structural member, over which special transverse reinforcement must be provided

Pu = factored axial compressive force at section R so vn = response modification factor = center-to-center spacing of transverse reinforcement within the length lo = nominal shear stress

Vn = nominal shear strength Vu = factored shear force at section = modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete = coefficient of friction = strength-reduction factor

About the author


S. K. Ghosh, PhD, FPCI, is president of S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. in Palatine, Ill.

concrete, including post-tensioned concrete, are enumerated. Only changes to chapter 21 of ACI 318-08 are discussed in this article.

Keywords
ACI 318, codes, structural concrete.

Reader comments Synopsis


Significant changes were made since the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 published the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). Some of the changes in the upcoming 2008 edition are summarized here. In addition to changes affecting conventionally reinforced concrete, provisions affecting precast/prestressed Please address any reader comments to PCI Journal editor-in-chief Emily Lorenz at elorenz@pci.org or Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, c/o PCI Journal, 209 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60606. J

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Significant Changes in the 2005 ACI Code Including Changes Affecting Precast/Prestressed Concrete Part 1
S. K. Ghosh, Ph.D., FPCI
President S. K. Ghosh Associates, Inc. Palatine, Illinois

Significant changes made since the publication of the 2002 ACI 318 Building Code, which are reflected in the upcoming 2005 edition of the Code, are summarized. In addition to changes impacting conventionally reinforced concrete, provisions affecting precast/prestressed concrete including post-tensioned concrete are enumerated. Changes in Appendix D, Anchoring to Concrete, are not discussed in this Part 1 article.

he 2005 edition of the American Concrete Institutes Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) is in the final stages of preparation. The significant changes from the previous edition of the ACI Code (ACI 318-02) are summarized in this article. The complete changes were published in the July 2004 issue of ACIs Concrete International . 1 They were also posted on the ACI website until August 31, 2004, when the public comment period ended. Pertinent discussion received by the deadline of August 31, 2004 will be published in a future issue of Concrete International.
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ACI Committee 318 is required to respond in writing to all the discussion that is submitted. In the process of responding to public comments, the Committee may decide to make modifications to the published changes. However, major changes are not anticipated at this stage. The intent of this article is to provide a summary of significant changes impacting conventionally reinforced concrete, precast concrete and prestressed concrete (including post-tensioned concrete). This information should be useful to building officials, design engineers, practitioners and the academic community.

ACI 318-05 will be the reference document for concrete design and construction in the 2006 edition of the International Building Code,2 Supplement No. 1 to the 2005 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,3 and the second (2006) edition of the NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code,4 issued by the National Fire Protection Association. All section numbers refer to the 2005 Code, unless otherwise noted. In the following paragraphs, strike-out marks indicate deletion of existing (ACI 318-02) text, and underlining indicates addition of new text. Chapters
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not discussed do not have any changes in them. Changes in Appendix D, Anchoring to Concrete, will be discussed in Part 2 of this paper, to appear in the next issue of the PCI JOURNAL. Change of Notation Perhaps the most important change in ACI 318-05 is a thorough clean-up of the notation used in the Code. A Notation and Terminology Task Group was formed within ACI 318 under the leadership of Sharon Wood to review ACI 318-02 and develop a unified set of notation. The feeling was almost universal that the Code will be easier to use if the notation is consistent throughout. The Task Group identified six specific tasks: 1. Consolidate similar terms as appropriate. 2. Eliminate unnecessary terms. 3. Provide a unique definition of each term used in ACI 318-02. 4. Move prescriptive requirements from the list of notation into the Code. 5. Use notation, rather than text, whenever possible in the Code. 6. Move the list of notation from Appendix E to Chapter 2. The Task Group effort resulted in the following changes: 1. Notation has been consolidated. Four hundred and six terms were included in Appendix E of ACI 318-02, while ACI 318-05 includes 305 terms. 2. Duplicate definitions of terms are eliminated. In some cases, the definitions for terms were slightly different in different chapters. In those cases, the most general definition is given in the list of notation and the definition is clarified in the Code, as needed. 3. All terms related to stress in reinforcement are expressed in units of psi. The applicable equations have been modified. 4. The list of notation at the beginning of each chapter has been deleted in ACI 318-05. 5. Most of the notation-related changes within the Code are editorial in nature and are motivated by the objective to use notation, rather than text, within the Code provisions. 6. The Task Group did not review the notation in the Commentary in detail, and the list of Commentary notaSeptember-October 2004

tion is incomplete. However, a few changes have been made to be consistent with the notation in the Code and to eliminate duplicate definitions. Change in Terminology Welded wire fabric is now called welded wire reinforcement throughout the Code. This has given rise to a large number of editorial changes throughout ACI 318-05. Chapter 2, Definitions The definition of structural lightweight concrete has been revised so that it refers to equilibrium density, as specified in ASTM C 56700,5 and uses the correct title of C 567. The definition and required dimensions of a drop panel are currently given within Section 13.3 Slab Reinforcement. Users of the Code cannot find this definition easily. The primary drop panel definition has been moved to Chapter 2, where it is defined as a projection below the slab at least onequarter the slab thickness beyond the drop. The additional dimensional requirements are given in Chapter 13, in a new Section 13.2.5. Development length is now defined as length of embedded reinforcement, including pretensioned strand, required to develop... Transfer length has been newly defined as length of embedded pretensioned strand required to transfer the effective prestress to the concrete. Chapter 3, Materials A new paragraph has been added at the beginning of Commentary Section 3.5.1 pointing out that Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement is not addressed in this Code and that ACI Committee 440 has developed guidelines for the use of FRP Reinforcement.6,7 The referenced standards listed in Section 3.8.1 have been updated. Sections 2.3.3 (Load Combinations Including Flood Loads) and 2.3.4 (Load Combinations Including Atmospheric Ice Loads) of SEI/ASCE 7-02 Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures3 are declared to be part of ACI 318-05.

The 17th, rather than the 16th, edition of AASHTO Standard Specifications, dated 2002, 8 are partially adopted in Section 3.8.5. The 2004, rather than the 2002, edition of ACI 355.2 Qualification of Post-Installed Mechanical Anchors in Concrete9 is adopted in Section 3.8.6. The 2002, rather than the 2000 edition of AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel 10 has been adopted in Section 3.8.7. Chapter 5, Concrete Quality, Mixing, and Placing When an acceptable record of field test results is not available, concrete proportions established from trial mixtures meeting certain restrictions are permitted in Section 5.3.3.2. The first restriction has been modified to read: Combinations of Materials shall be those for proposed work. This is to clarify original intent. Chapter 6, Farmwork, Embedded Pipes, and Construction Joints Section 6.4.4 of ACI 318-02 read: Construction joints in floors shall be located within the middle third of spans of slabs, beams, and girders. Joints in girders shall be offset a minimum distance of two times the width of intersecting beams. The two sentences have now been placed in separate Sections 6.4.4 and 6.4.5, so that Section 6.4.4 (not 6.4.5) can be waived for prestressed concrete construction in Chapter 18. Chapter 9, Strength and Serviceability Requirements Commentary Sections R9.1 and R9.2 now make references to SEI/ASCE 7-02,3 rather than to ASCE 7-98. Section 9.2.4 has been modified as follows: For If a structure is in a flood zone, or is subjected to forces from atmospheric ice loads, the flood or ice loads and the appropriate load combinations of SEI/ASCE 7 shall be used. The expressions contained in Fig. R9.3.2 of ACI 318-02 for interpolation of within t values of 0.002 and 0.005 did not produce accurate values,
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according to some code users. Editorial changes have been made to modify the expressions to solve the inaccuracy. The of 0.75 in ACI 318-02 for flexural sections in pretensioned members where strand embedment is less than the development length, as provided in Section 12.9.1.1, is now applicable from the end of the member to the end of the transfer length. From the end of the transfer length to the end of the development length, may be linearly increased from 0.75 to 0.9. Where bonding of a strand does not extend to the end of the member, strand embedment begins at the end of the debonded length. See also Section 12.9.3 and Fig. R.9.3.2.7(a). The following second paragraph has been added to Commentary Section R.9.3.2.7: Where bonding of one or more strands does not extend to the end of the member, in lieu of a more rigorous analysis, may be conservatively taken as 0.75 from the end of the member to the end of the transfer length of the strand with the largest debonded length. Beyond this point, may be varied linearly to 0.9 at the location where all strands are developed, as shown in Fig. R9.3.2.7(b). Alternatively, the contribution of the debonded strands may be ignored until they are fully developed. Embedment of debonded strand is considered to begin at the termination of the debonding sleeves. Beyond this point, the provisions of Section 12.9.3 are applicable. Confinement reinforcement often creates congestion in reinforced concrete members. Research has shown11,12 that reinforcement with a yield strength up to 100,000 psi can be used for confinement, without any detriment to member performance. Spiral reinforcement with specified yield strength up to 100,000 psi is, therefore, permitted by Section 10.9.3 of ACI 318-05. Section 9.4 has accordingly been modified as follows: The values of Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of reinforcement fy and fyt used in design calculations shall not exceed in excess of 80,000 psi except for prestressing steel and for spiral transverse reinforcement in 10.9.3.
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Chapter 10, Flexure and Axial Loads Ag in The axial load limit of 0.10f c Section 10.3.5 is clarified to be a limit on factored axial compression load. Commentary Section R10.6.1 has been rewritten in places to provide editorial clarification. The maximum spacing of reinforcement closest to the tension force, for purposes of crack control, is given by: 40, 000 40, 000 s = 15 2.5cc 12 fs fs with fs in psi, whereas in ACI 318.02 it was given by: s= 36 540 2.5cc 12 fs fs

with f s in ksi units. This change reflects the higher service stresses that occur in flexural reinforcement with the use of the load combinations introduced in the 2002 Code. Note that fs is permitted to be taken equal to (2/3) fy, rather than 60 percent of fy, as in ACI 318-02. The crack control provisions were updated to reflect the higher service stresses that occur in flexural reinforcement with the use of the load combinations introduced in ACI 318-02. Section 10.6.7 on skin reinforcement in deep members has been modified as follows: If the effective depth d Where h of a beam or joist exceeds 36 in., longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed along both side faces of the members. Skin reinforcement shall extend for a distance d/2 nearest h/2 from the tension face. nearest the flexural tension reinforcement. The spacing s the spacing ssk between longitudinal bars or wires of the skin reinforcement shall be as provided in 10.6.4, where cc is the least distance from the surface of the skin reinforcement or prestressing steel to the side face. not exceed the least of d/6, 12 in., and 1000Ab/(d-30). It shall be permitted to include such reinforcement in strength computations if a strain compatibility analysis is made to determine stress in the individual bars or wires. The total area of longitudinal skin reinforcement in both faces need not ex-

ceed one half of the required flexural tensile reinforcement. The changes in Section 10.6.7 are intended to simplify the crack control provisions for skin reinforcement and make these provisions consistent with those required for flexural tension reinforcement. The size of skin reinforcement is not specified; research13 has indicated that the spacing rather than bar size is of primary importance. As indicated earlier, Section 10.9.3 has been modified to permit the use of spiral reinforcement with specified yield strength of up to 100,000 psi. For spirals with fyt greater than 60,000 psi, only mechanical or welded splices may be used. Section 10.13.6 requires that in addition to load combinations involving lateral loads, the strength and stability of the structure as a whole under factored gravity heads must be considered. In Items (a) and (b) of that section, 1.4 dead load and 1.7 live load of ACI 318-02 has been replaced by factored dead and live loads in ACI 318-05, thus supplying a much-needed clarification. Chapter 11, Shear and Torsion A change of much significance to the precast concrete industry is that an alternative design procedure for torsion design has been introduced in Section 11.6.7, which more realistically addresses L-shaped beams. Design for torsion now must be in accordance with Section 11.6.1 through 11.6.6, or 11.6.7. The design for torsion in Sections 11.6.1 through 11.6.6 is based on a thin-walled tube, space truss analogy. Section 11.6.7, titled Alternative design for torsion, states: For torsion design of solid sections within the scope of the Code with an aspect ratio, h/bt (h = overall thickness or height of member, b t = width of that part of cross section containing the closed stirrups resisting torsion), of three or greater, it shall be permitted to use another procedure, the adequacy of which has been shown by analysis and substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests. Sections 11.6.4 (Details of torsional reinforcement) and 11.6.6 (Spacing of torsion reinPCI JOURNAL

forcement) apply. Commentary Section R11.6.7 states that examples of such procedures are to be found in References 14, 15, and 16, which have been extensively and successfully used for design of precast prestressed concrete beams with ledges. The procedure described in References 14 and 15 is an extension to prestressed concrete sections of the torsion design procedures of pre-1995 editions of ACI 318. The fourth edition of the PCI Design Handbook17 describes the procedure of References 14 and 15. The procedure was experimentally verified by the tests described in Reference 18. Section 11.6.4.2, which requires transverse torsional reinforcement to be anchored in ways indicated by Items (a) or (b), has had Item (a) modified as follows: (a) A 135-deg standard hook or seismic hook, as defined in 21.1, around a longitudinal bar; Chapter 13, Two-Way Slab Systems A new Section 13.2.5 prescribes the dimensional requirements for drop panels that were in ACI 318-02 Sections 13.3.7.1 and 13.3.7.2, but makes them applicable only when the drop panel is used to reduce the amount of negative reinforcement over a column or minimum required slab thickness. A new Commentary Section R13.2.5 points out that drop panels with dimensions less than those specified in 13.2.5 may be used to increase slab shear strength. Chapter 14, Walls The in Eq. (14-1), giving the design axial load strength of a wall eligible to be designed by the empirical design method, was 0.7 in ACI 318-02. Now the same must correspond to compression-controlled sections in accordance with Section 9.3.2.2. This is for consistency with Chapter 9. For similar reasons, under Section 14.8, Alternative design of slender walls, the previous requirement that the reinforcement ratio should not exceed 0.6bal was replaced by the requirement that the wall be tensioncontrolled, leading to approximately the same reinforcement ratio.
September-October 2004

Chapter 15, Footings An important clarification of Section 15.5.3 has been provided by replacing Other pile caps shall satisfy one of 11.12, 15.5.4, or Appendix A with Other pile caps shall satisfy either Appendix A, or both 11.12 and 15.5.4. Section 15.5 deals with shear design of footings.

Chapter 21, Special Provisions for Seismic Design A new term, design story drift ratio, is defined as the relative difference of design displacements between the top and the bottom of a story, divided by the story height. This is part of a change in Section 21.11 that is discussed later. As mentioned earlier, Sections 9.4 and 10.9.3 have been modified to allow the use of spiral reinforcement with specified yield strength of up to 100,000 psi. A sentence added to Section 21.2.5 specifically prohibits such use in members resisting earthquakeinduced forces in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E, or F. This is largely the result of some misgiving that high strength spiral reinforcement may be less ductile than conventional mild steel reinforcement and that spiral failure has in fact been observed in earthquakes. There are fairly convincing arguments, however, against such specific prohibitions. Spiral failure, primarily observed in bridge columns, have invariably been the result of insufficient spiral reinforcement, rather than the lack of ductility of the spiral reinforcement. Also, prestressing steel, which is the only high-strength steel available on this market, is at least as ductile as welded wire reinforcement, which is allowed to be used as transverse reinforcement. Section 21.5.4 modifies the development length requirements of Chapter 12 for longitudinal beam bars terminating at exterior beam-column joints of structures assigned to high seismic design categories. But then Section 21.7.2.3 of ACI 318-02 required that all continuous reinforcement in structural walls be anchored or spliced in accordance with the provisions for reinforcement in tension in Section 21.5.4. Section 21.9.5.4 of ACI 318-02 further required that all continuous reinforcement in diaphragms, trusses, ties, chords, and collector elements be anchored or spliced in accordance with the provisions for reinforcement in tension as specified in Section 21.5.4. Sections 21.7.2.3 and 21.9.5.4 were very confusing to the user, because Section 21.5.4 is really not applicable to situa97

Chapter 18, Prestressed Concrete Tendons of continuous post-tensioned beams and slabs are usually stressed at a point along the span where the tendon profile is at or near the centroid of the concrete cross section. Therefore, interior construction joints are usually located within the end thirds of the span, rather than the middle third of the span, as required by Section 6.4.4. This has had no known detrimental effect on the performance of such beams. Thus, Section 6.4.4 is now excluded from application to prestressed concrete. ACI 318-02 required prestressed two-way slab systems to be designed as Class U, which meant that ft could be up to 7.5 fc . ACI 318-05 restricts ft in such slabs to 6 fc , thus limiting the permissible flexural tensile stress in two-way prestressed slabs to the same value as in ACI 318-99 and prior codes. Section 18.4.4.4 has been modified as follows: Where If h the effective depth of a beam exceeds 36 in., the area of longitudinal skin reinforcement consisting of reinforcement or bonded tendons shall be provided as required by 10.6.7. In Commentary Section R18.10.3, the statement that for statistically indeterminate structures, the moments due to reactions induced by prestressing forces, referred to as secondary moments, are significant in both elastic and inelastic states is now supported by three added references. 19-21 The sentence, When hinges and full redistribution of moments occur to create a statically determinate structure, secondary moments disappear. has been deleted. This removes an unnecessary and potentially confusing sentence. Section 18.12.4 no longer refers to normal live loads, because it is largely meaningless.

tions covered by those sections. This problem existed with ACI 318 editions prior to 2002 as well. In a very significant and beneficial change, the requirements of Section 21.7.2.3 were modified to remove the reference to beam-column joints in Section 21.5.4. Because actual forces in longitudinal reinforcement of structural walls may exceed calculated forces, it is now required that reinforcement in structural walls be developed or spliced for fy in tension in accordance with Chapter 12. The effective depth of member referenced in Section 12.10.3 is permitted to be taken as 0.8lw for walls. Requirements of Sections 12.11, 12.12, and 12.13 need not be satisfied, because they address issues related to beams and do not apply to walls. At locations where yielding of longitudinal reinforcement is expected, 1.25fy is required to be developed in tension, to account for the likelihood that the actual yield strength exceeds the specified yield strength, as well as the influence of strain-hardening and cyclic load reversals. Where transverse reinforcement is used, development lengths for straight and hooked bars may be reduced as permitted in Sections 12.2 and 12.5, respectively, because closely spaced transverse reinforcement improves the performance of splices and hooks subjected to repeated cycles of inelastic deformation. The requirement that mechanical splices of reinforcement conform to Section 21.2.6, and welded splices to Section 21.2.7, has now been placed in

Section 21.7.2.3. Consequently, Sections 21.7.6.4(f) of 21.7.6.6 of ACI 318-02 have been deleted. In a companion change, Section 21.9.5.4 now requires that all continuous reinforcement in diaphragms, trusses, struts, ties, chords, and collector elements be developed or spliced for fy in tension. Structural truss elements, struts, ties, diaphragm chords, and collector elements with compressive stresses ex at any section are receeding 0.2 f c quired to be specially confined by Section 21.9.5.3. The special transverse reinforcement may be discontinued at a section where the calculated . compressive stress is less than 0.15f c Stresses are calculated for factored forces using a linear elastic model and gross-section properties of the elements considered. In recent seismic codes and standards, collector elements of diaphragms are required to be designed for forces amplified by a factor 0, to account for the overstrength in the vertical elements of the seismic-forceresisting system. The amplification factor 0 ranges between 2 and 3 for concrete structures, depending upon the document selected and on the type of seismic system. To account for this, Section 21.9.5.3 now additionally states that where design forces have been amplified to account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system, and 0.15f c shall be the limits of 0.2f c and 0.4f c , respecincreased to 0.5f c tively.

In a very significant change, provisions for shear reinforcement at slabcolumn joints have been added in a new Section 21.11.5, to reduce the likelihood of punching shear failure in two-way slabs without beams. A prescribed amount and detailing of shear reinforcement is required unless either Section 21.11.5(a) or (b) is satisfied. Section 21.11.5(a) requires calculation of shear stress due to the factored shear force and induced moment according to Section 11.12.6.2. The induced moment is the moment that is calculated to occur at the slab-column joint where subjected to the design displacement defined in Section 21.1. Section 13.5.1.2 and the accompanying commentary provide guidance on the selection of slab stiffness for the purpose of this calculation. Section 21.11.5(b) does not require the calculation of induced moments, and is based on research22,23 that identifies the likelihood of punching shear failure considering interstory drift and shear due to gravity loads. The requirement is illustrated in the newly added Fig. R21.11.5. The requirement can be satisfied in several ways: adding slab shear reinforcement, increasing slab thickness, designing a structure with more lateral stiffness to decrease interstory drift, or a combination of two or more of these factors. If column capitals, drop panels, or other changes in slab thickness are used, the requirements of Section 21.11.5 must be evaluated at all potential critical sections.

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REFERENCES
1. ACI Committee 318, Revisions to ACI 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, Concrete International, V. 26, No. 7, July 2004, pp. 130-213. 2. ICC, International Building Code, International Code Council, Falls Church, VA, 2003, 2006 (to be published). 3. ASCE, ASCE 7 Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, Structural Engineering Institute, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 1998, 2002, 2005 Including Supplement (to be published). 4. NFPA, NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2003. 5. ASTM, Test Method for Determining Density of Structural Lightweight Concrete, 17th Edition, American Society for Testing and Materials, Washington, DC, 2001. 6. ACI Committee 440, Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars (ACI 440.1R-03), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2003, 42 pp. 7. ACI Committee 440, Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening of Concrete Structures (ACI 440.2R-02), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2002, 45 pp. 8. AASHTO, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th Edition, American Association for State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, 2001. 9. ACI, Qualification of Post-Installed Mechanical Anchors in Concrete (ACI 355.2-04), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2004. 10. AWS, Structural Welding Code Steel, AWS D1.1/D1.1M, American Welding Society, Miami, FL, 2002. 11. Saatcioglu, M., and Razvi, S. R., Displacement-Based Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns for Confinement, ACI Structural Journal, V. 99, No. 1, January-February 2002, pp. 2-11. 12. Pessiki S., Graybeal, B., and Mudlock, M., Proposed Design of High-Strength Spiral Reinforcement in Compression Members, ACI Structural Journal, V. 98, No. 6, November-December 2001, pp. 799-810. 13. Frosch, R. J., Modeling and Control of Side Face Beam Cracking, ACI Structural Journal, V. 99, No. 3, May-June 2002, pp. 376-385. 14. Zia, P., and McGee, W. D., Torsion Design of Prestressed Concrete, PCI JOURNAL, V. 19, No. 2, March-April 1974, pp. 46-65. 15. Zia, P., and Hsu, T. T. C., Design for Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Concrete Flexural Members, PCI JOURNAL, V. 49, No. 3, May-June 2004, pp. 34-42. 16. Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams, PCI JOURNAL, V. 25, No. 4, September-October 1980, pp. 32100. 17. PCI, PCI Design Handbook Precast and Prestressed Concrete, Fourth Edition, Precast/Prestressed Institute, Chicago, IL, 1992. 18. Klein, G. J., Design of Spandrel Beams, PCI Specially Funded Research Project No. 5, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 1986. 19. Bondy, K. B., Moment Redistribution: Principles and Practice Using ACI 318-02, PTI Journal, V. 1, No. 1, Post-Tensioning Institute, Phoenix, AZ, January, 2003, pp. 3-21. 20. Lin, T. Y., and Thornton, K., Secondary Moment and Moment-Redistribution in Continuous Prestressed Concrete Beams, PCI JOURNAL, V. 17, No. 1, January-February 1972, pp. 8-20. 21. Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures, Response Publications, Canada, 1997, pp. 517-518. 22. Megally, S., and Ghali, A., Punching Shear Design of Earthquake Resistant Slab-Column Connections, ACI Structural Journal, V. 97, No. 5, September-October 2000, pp. 720-230. 23. Moehle, J. P., Seismic Design Considerations for Flat Plate Construction, Mete A. Sozen Symposium: a Tribute From his Students, ACI SP-162, J. K. Wight and M. E. Kreger, Editors, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1996, pp. 1-35.

September-October 2004

99

Significant Changes in the 2005 ACI Code, Including Changes Affecting Precast/Prestressed Concrete Part 2
S. K. Ghosh, Ph.D., FPCI
President S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Palatine, Illinois

Significant changes made since the publication of the 2002 ACI 318 Building Code, which are reflected in the 2005 edition of the Code, were summarized in Part 1 of this article (September-October 2004 PCI JOURNAL). In addition to changes impacting conventionally reinforced concrete, provisions affecting precast/prestressed concrete, including posttensioned concrete, were enumerated. Changes in Appendix D, Anchoring to Concrete, not discussed earlier, are discussed in this Part 2 article.

he 2005 edition of the American Concrete Institutes Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) has been out for several months. The significant changes from the previous edition of the ACI Code (ACI 318-02) were summarized in Part 1 of this article, published in the September-October 2004 issue of the PCI JOURNAL, except that changes in Appendix D, Anchoring to Concrete, were not included. The intent of this article is to provide a summary of significant changes in Appendix D, Anchoring to Concrete, from ACI 318-02 to ACI 318-05. ACI 318-05 will be the reference document for concrete design and construction in the 2006 edition of the International Building Code,1 Supplement No. 1 to the 2005 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,2 and the second (2006) edition of the NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code,3 issued by the National Fire Protection Association. All section numbers refer to the 2005 Code, unless otherwise noted. In
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the paragraphs that follow, strike-out marks, wherever used, indicate deletion of ACI 318-02 text, and underlining indicates addition of new text.

Change of Notation
Perhaps the most important change in ACI 318-05 is a thorough clean-up of the notation used in the Code, as discussed in Part 1 of this article. The notation changes in Appendix D of the Code are extensive and are vitally important if one is to follow the changes in that appendix from ACI 318-02 to ACI 318-05. Table 1 presents a comprehensive list of the changes. It should be evident that the ACI 318-05 notation is more descriptive. The subscripts c for concrete and a for anchor have been added in several cases. Also, to illustrate the pattern, factors 1 and 5 have been replaced by ec,N and ec,V, respectively, where ec, N, and V stand for eccentricity, normal force (tension), and shear, respectively. The factor ec,N is used to modify the tensile strength of anchors based
PCI JOURNAL

on eccentricity of applied loads, and ec,V is used to modify the shear strength of anchors based on eccentricity of applied loads.

The intent is to clarify the design of post-installed anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete in the body of the Code rather than in the Commentary. Anchor Close to Three or More Edges Section D.5.2.3 now states that where anchors are located less than 1.5hef from three or more edges, the value of hef used in Eqs. (D-4) through (D-11) must be the greater of ca,max/1.5 and one-third of the maximum spacing between anchors within the group; in ACI 318-02, it was just ca,max/1.5. The limit on hef of at least one-third of the maximum spacing between anchors within the group prevents the designer from using a calculated strength based on individual breakout prisms for a group anchor configuration. Code Fig. RD.5.2.3, reproduced here as Fig. 1, is useful in understanding the requirement of Section D.5.2.3. To visualize the requirement, move the concrete breakout surface, which originates at the actual hef, in a direction parallel to the applied tension toward the surface of the concrete. The value of hef used in Eqs. (D-4) to (D-11) is determined when either (a) the outer boundaries of the failure surface first intersects a free edge, or (b) the intersection of the breakout surface between anchors within the group first intersects the surface of the concrete. Point A in Fig. 1 defines the intersection of the transported failure surface with the concrete surface and determines the value of hef to be used in the computation of anchor breakout strength. In Fig. 1, the actual hef is 5.5 in., but three edges are within 1.5hef, or 8.25 in., from the end anchor. Therefore, the limiting value of hef (hef in the figure) is the larger of ca,max/1.5 and one-third of the maximum spacing for an anchor group. This gives hef = max (6/1.5, 9/3) = 4 in., which is to be used for the value of hef in Eqs. (D-4) to (D-11), including the calculation of ANC; ANC = [(6 + 4)(5 + 9 + 1.5(4)] = 200 in.2. Note that by ACI 318-02, hef would also have been equal to 6/1.5 = 4 in. The new modification does not make any difference in this particular example until the spacing between the anchors exceeds (6/1.5)(3) = 12 in.

Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor in Tension


In Section D.5.2.1, the equations for the nominal concrete breakout strength, Ncb or Ncbg, of a single anchor or a group of anchors in tension have been changed as follows: has been replaced by: and Ncbg = AN 123Nb ANo Ncb = ANC ed,Nc,Ncp,NNb ANCo (D-4) Ncb = AN 23 Nb ANo

has been replaced by: ANC ec,Ned,Nc,Ncp,NNb (D-5) ANCo Apart from a change of notation, a new modification factor cp,N has been added to each equation for reasons that need to be explained. Appendix D of ACI 318-02 assumed that anchors with an edge distance equal to 1.5hef or greater developed the basic concrete breakout strength in tension. Test experience has since shown that many torque-controlled and displacement-controlled expansion anchors and some undercut anchors require an edge distance greater than 1.5hef to meet this requirement in uncracked concrete without supplementary reinforcement to control splitting. These types of anchors introduce splitting tensile stresses in the concrete during installation that are increased during load application and may cause a premature splitting failure. The cp,N factor is a new modification factor for these types of anchors to prevent splitting failure where supplementary reinforcement to prevent splitting is not present. Ncbg = Basic Concrete Breakout Strength of Post-Installed Anchors In Section D.5.2.2, the basic concrete breakout strength of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete is given as follows: Nb = kc fc hef1.5

where kc = 24 for cast-in anchors, and kc = 17 for post-installed anchors ACI 318-05 has added: The volume of kc for post-installed anchors shall be permitted to be increased above 17 based on ACI 355.2 product-specific tests, but shall in no case exceed 24. The following has been removed from RD.5.2.2: When using k [now kc] values from ACI 355.2 product approval reports, 3 [now c] shall be taken as 1.0 because the published test results of the ACI 355.2 product approval tests provide specific k values for cracked or uncracked concrete.
May-June 2005

Fig. 1. Anchor in tension close to three or more edges (ACI Code Fig. RD.5.2.3).
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Table 1. ACI 318 Appendix D Notation Changes from the 2002 to 2005 Editions.
Notation ACI 318-05 ACI 318-02
Abrg ANc ANco Ase AVc AVco same AN ANo same AV AVo c cac ca,max ca,min ca1 ca2 do do eh e N cmax cmin c1 c2 same same same same

ACI 318-05 Description


Bearing area of the head of stud or anchor bolt, in.2, Appendix D. Projected concrete failure area of an a single anchor or group of anchors, for calculation of strength in tension, in.2, as defined in see D.5.2.1. AN shall not be taken greater than nANo. See Fig. RD.5.2.1(b), Appendix D. Projected concrete failure area of one a single anchor, for calculation of strength in tension when if not limited by edge distance or spacing, in.2, as defined in see D.5.2.1 Fig. RD.5.2.1(a), Appendix D. Effective cross-sectional area of anchor, in.2, Appendix D Projected concrete failure area of an a single anchor or group of anchors, for calculation of strength in shear, in.2, as defined in see D.6.2.1 and AV shall not be taken greater than nAVo. See Fig. RD.6.2(b), Appendix D. Projected concrete failure area of one a single anchor, for calculation of strength in shear, when if not limited by corner influences, spacing, or member thickness, in.2, as defined in see D.6.2.1 and see Fig. RD.6.2(a), Appendix D. Distance from center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete, in., Appendix D. Critical edge distance required to develop the basic concrete breakout strength of a post-installed anchor in uncracked concrete without supplementary reinforcement to control splitting, in., see D.8.6, Appendix D. The largest edge maximum distance from center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete, in., Appendix D. The smallest edge minimum distance from center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete, in., Appendix D. Distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete in one direction, in.; where If shear force is applied to anchor, c1 ca1 is taken in the direction of the applied shear force. If tension is applied to the anchor, ca1 is the minimum edge distance See Fig. RD.6.2(a), Appendix D. Distance from center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete in the direction orthogonal perpendicular to c1 ca1, in., Appendix D. Outside diameter of anchor or shaft diameter of headed stud, headed bolt, or hooked bolt, in., see See also D.8.4, Appendix D. Value substituted for do when an oversized anchor is used, in., see See D.8.4, Appendix D. Distance from the inner surface of the shaft of a J- or L-bolt to the outer tip of the J- or L-bolt, in., Appendix D. Eccentricity of normal force on a group of anchors; the distance between the resultant tension load on a group of anchors loaded in tension and the centroid of the group of anchors loaded in tension, in.; eN is always positive. See Fig. RD.5.2(b) and (c), Appendix D. Eccentricity of shear force on a group of anchors; the distance between the resultant shear load on a group of anchors loaded in shear in the same direction point of shear force application and the centroid of the group of anchors loaded in resisting shear in the same direction of the applied shear, in.; eV is always positive, Appendix D. Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi, Chapters 4, 5, 8-12, 14, 15,18-22 18, 19, 21 22, Appendices A-D. Square root of specified compressive strength of concrete, psi, Chapters 8, 9, 11, 12, 18, 19, 21, 22, Appendix D. Modulus of rupture of concrete, psi, See see 9.5.2.3, Chapters 9, 14, 18, Appendices Appendix B, D. Calculated concrete tensile stress in a region of a member, psi, Appendix D. Specified tensile strength of anchor steel, psi, Appendix D. Specified tensile strength of anchor sleeve, psi, Appendix D. Specified yield strength of anchor steel, psi, Appendix D. Thickness of member in which an anchor is anchored located, measured parallel to anchor axis, in., Appendix D. Effective anchor embedment depth of anchor, in., see See D.8.5 and Fig. RD.1, Appendix D Coefficient for basic concrete breakout strength in tension, Appendix D. Coefficient for pryout strength, Appendix D. Load bearing length of anchor for shear, not to exceed 8do, in., see D.6.2.2, Appendix D. =h  ef for anchors with a constant stiffness over the full length of the embedded section, such as headed studs or post-installed anchors with one tubular shell over the full length of the embedment depth, Appendix D. =2  do for torque controlled expansion anchors with a distance sleeve-separated from the expansion sleeve, Appendix D Number of anchors in a group, Appendix D. Number of items, such as strength tests, bars, or wires, monostrand anchorage devices, anchors, or shearhead arms being spliced or developed along the plane of splitting, Chapters 5, 11, 12, 18, Appendix D. Basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete, as defined in D.5.2.2, lb, see D.5.2.2, Appendix D.
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e V fc

same same same same ft fut futsl fy h same k same

fc
fr futa fya ha hef kc kcp

le

n Nb
98

n same

Ncb Ncbg Nn Np Npn Nsa Nsb Nsbg Nua s

same same same same same Ns same same Nu same so

Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor, as defined in D.5.2.1, lb, see D.5.2.1, Appendix D. Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors, as defined in D.5.2.1, lb, see D.5.2.1, Appendix D. Nominal strength in tension, lb, Appendix D. Pullout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete, as defined in D.5.3.4 or D.5.3.5, lb, see D.5.3.4 and D.5.3.5, Appendix D Nominal pullout strength in tension of a single anchor, as defined in D.5.3.1, lb, see D.5.3.1, Appendix D. Nominal strength of a single anchor or group of anchors in tension as governed by the steel strength, as defined in D.5.1.1 or D.5.1.2, lb, see D.5.1.1 and D.5.1.2, Appendix D. Side-face blowout strength of a single anchor, lb, Appendix D. Side-face blowout strength of a group of anchors, lb, Appendix D. Factored tensile force load applied to anchor or group of anchors, lb, Appendix D. Anchor center to center spacing, in., Appendix D. Center-to-center spacing of items, such as longitudinal reinforcement, transverse reinforcement, prestressing tendons, wires, or anchors, spacing of shear or torsion transverse reinforcement in direction parallel ot longitudinal reinforcement, in., Chapters 11, 10-12, 17-18, 21, Appendix D. Spacing of the outer anchors along the edge in a group, in., Appendix D. Sample standard deviation, psi, Chapter 5, Appendix D. Thickness of washer or plate, in., Appendix D. Basic concrete breakout strength in shear of a single anchor in cracked concrete, as defined in D.6.2.2 or D.6.2.3, lb, see D.6.2.2 and D.6.2.3, Appendix D. Nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of a single anchor, as defined in D.6.2.1, lb, see D.6.2.1, Appendix D. Nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of a group of anchors, as defined in D.6.2.1, lb, see D.6.2.1, Appendix D. Nominal concrete pryout strength of a single anchor, as defined in D.6.3, lb, see D.6.3, Appendix D. Nominal concrete pryout strength of a group of anchors, lb, see D.6.3, Appendix D.

ss

s t

Vb Vcb Vcbg Vcp Vcpg Vn Vsa Vua c,N

same same same same

same Vs Vu same 3

Nominal shear strength, lb, Chapters 8, 10, 11, 21, 22, Appendixces C, D. Nominal strength in shear of a single anchor or group of anchors as governed by the steel strength, as defined in D.6.1.1 or D.6.1.2, lb, see D.6.1.1 and D.6.1.2, Appendix D. Factored shear force load applied to a single anchor or group of anchors, lb, Appendix D. Strength reduction factor, see 9.3, Chapters 8-11, 13, 14, 17-19, 21, 22, 17-22, Appendices A, B, C, D. Modification factor, for strength in tension, to account for cracking, as defined in D.5.2.6 and D.5.2.7, Appendix D. Factor used to modify tensile strength of anchors based on presence or absence of cracks in concrete, see D.5.2.6, Appendix D. Modification factor, for pullout strength, to account for cracking, as defined in D.5.3.1 and D.5.3.6, Appendix D. Factor used to modify pullout strength of anchors based on presence or absence of cracks in concrete, see D.5.3.6, Appendix D. Modification factor, for strength in shear, to account for cracking, as defined in D.6.2.7, Appendix D. Factor used to modify shear strength of anchors based on presence or absence of cracks in concrete and presence or absence of supplementary reinforcement, see D.6.2.7 for anchors in shear, Appendix D. Factor used to modify tensile strength of post-installed anchors intended for use in uncracked concrete without supplementary reinforcement, see D.5.2.7, Appendix D.

c,P

c,V cp,N ec,N

Modification factor, for strength in tension, to account for anchor groups loaded eccentrically, as defined in D.5.2.4, Appendix D. Factor used to modify tensile strength of anchors based on eccentricity of applied loads, see D.5.2.4, Appendix D. Modification factor, for strength in shear, to account for anchor groups loaded eccentrically, as defined in D.6.2.5, Appendix D. Factor used to modify shear strength of anchors based on eccentricity of applied loads, see D.6.2.5, Appendix D. Modification factor, for strength in tension, to account for edge distances smaller than 1.5hef, as defined in D.5.2.5, Appendix D. Factor used to modify tensile strength of anchors based on proximity to edges of concrete member, see D.5.2.5, Appendix D. Modification factor, for strength in shear, to account for edge distances smaller than 1.5c1, as defined in D.6.2.6, Appendix D. Factor used to modify shear strength of anchors based on proximity to edges of concrete member, see D.6.2.6, Appendix D.
99

ec,V

ed,N

ed,V

May-June 2005

mentary reinforcement to control splitting does not affect the selection of Condition A or B in Sections D.4.4 and D.4.5.

Steel Strength of Anchor in Shear


In Section D.6.1.2(b), Eq. (D-20) for cast-in headed bolt and hooked bolt anchors is now applicable also to post-installed anchors where sleeves do not extend through the shear plane. Section D.6.1.2(c) now requires that for post-installed anchors where sleeves extend through the shear plane, Vsa shall be based on the results of tests performed and evaluated according to ACI 355.2. Alternatively, Eq. (D-20) shall be permitted to be used. Eq. (D-19) in Section D.6.1.2(c) of ACI 318-02 has been deleted. These changes have been made to require testing if the contribution of post-installed anchor sleeves to shear strength is to be taken into account.

Fig. 2. Anchor in shear close to three or more edges (ACI Code Fig. RD.6.2.4).

Modification Factor for Anchor Groups Loaded Eccentrically in Tension Fig. RD.5.2.4, showing the definition of eN for a group of anchors, has been significantly modified. Modification Factor Based on Presence or Absence of Cracks in Concrete ACI 318-05 has added the following requirements: 1. Where the value of kc used in Eq. (D-7) is taken from the ACI 355.2 product evaluation report for postinstalled anchors qualified for use in cracked and uncracked concrete, the values of kc and c,N shall be based on the ACI 355.2 product evaluation report. 2. Where the value of kc used in Eq. (D-7) is taken from the ACI 355.2 product evaluation report for postinstalled anchors qualified for use only in uncracked concrete, c,N shall be taken as 1.0. The intent once again is to clarify the design of post-installed anchors used in cracked and uncracked concrete in the body of the Code. Modification Factor for Post-Installed Anchors As noted earlier, ACI 318-05 has introduced a modification factor for post-installed anchors designed for uncracked concrete in accordance with Section D.5.2.6 without supplementary reinforcement to control splitting. This modification factor is given by: or ca,min 1.5hef > if ca,min < cac (D-13) cac cac where the critical edge distance, cac, is defined in Section D.8.6 (equal to 2.5hef for undercut anchors and 4hef for torquecontrolled anchors and displacement-controlled anchors). For all other cases, including cast-in anchors, cp,N is to be taken equal to 1.0. The new modification factor, cp,N, has been explained earlier. Section RD.5.2.7 points out that the presence of supple cp,N =
100

Concrete Breakout Strength in Shear


Section D.6.2.1(c) now states: For shear force parallel to an edge, Vcb or Vcbg shall be permitted to be twice the value of the shear force determined from Eq. (D-21) or (D-22), respectively, with the shear force assumed to act perpendicular to the edge and with ed,V taken equal to 1.0. This modification is intended to clarify how to evaluate the shear breakout strength when anchors are loaded parallel to an edge. Section RD.6.2.1 has been modified as follows: The assumption shown in the upper right example of Fig. RD.6.2.1(b), with the case for two anchors perpendicular to the edge, is a conservative interpretation of the distribution of the shear force on an elastic basis. When using Eq. (D-22) for anchor groups loaded in shear, both assumptions for load distribution illustrated in examples on the right side of Fig. RD.6.2.1(b) should be considered because the anchors nearest the edge could fail first or the whole group could fail as a unit with the failure surface originating from the anchors farthest from the edge. If the anchors are welded to a common plate, when the anchor nearest the front edge begins to form a failure cone, shear load would be transferred to the stiffer and stronger rear anchor. For this reason, anchors welded to a common plate do not need to consider the failure mode shown in the upper right figure of Fig. RD.6.2.1(b). For cases where nominal strength is not controlled by ductile steel elements, D.3.1 requires that load effects be determined by elastic analysis. The case of shear force parallel to an edge is shown in Fig. RD.6.2.1(c). A special case can arise with shear force parallel to the edge near a corner. In the example of a single anchor near a corner (see Fig. RD.6.2.1(d)), the provisions for shear in the direction of the load should be checked in addition to the provisions for shear in the direction parallel to the edge. where the edge distance to the side c2 is 40 percent or more of the distance c1 in the direction of the load, the shear strength parallel to that edge can be computed directly from Eq. (D20) and (D-21) using c1 in the direction of the load. These changes are intended to provide guidance for computing the nominal concrete breakout strength in shear for
PCI JOURNAL

cp,N = 1.0 if ca,min > cac

(D-12)

anchor groups and for anchors that are loaded parallel to an edge. Anchor Close to Three or More Edges Section D.6.2.4 now states: Where anchors are influenced by three or more edges, the value of ca1 used in Eqs. (D-23) through (D-28) shall not exceed the greatest of: ca2/1.5 in either direction, ha/1.5, and one-third of the maximum spacing between anchors within the group. In ACI 318-02, it was: edge distance c1 [now ca1] shall be limited to h[now ha]/1.5. The changes have been made so that the overly conservative concrete breakout strengths in shear given by ACI 318-02 for anchors influenced by three or four edges would be more in accordance with test results. The limit on ca1 of at least one-third of the maximum spacing between anchors within the group keeps the calculated strength from being based on individual breakout prisms for a group anchor configuration. Fig. RD.6.2.4, reproduced here as Fig. 2, is useful in understanding the requirement of Section D.6.2.4. To visualize the requirement, move the concrete breakout surface originating at the actual ca1 in the direction of the applied shear toward the surface of the concrete. The value of ca1 to be used in Eqs. (D-21) to (D-28) is determined when either (a) the outer boundaries of the failure surface first intersect a free edge, or (b) the intersection of the breakout surface between anchors within the group first intersects the surface of the concrete. Point A in Fig. 1 defines the intersection of the transported failure surface with the concrete surface, and determines the value of ca1 to be used in the computation of anchor breakout strength. In Fig. 2, the actual ca1 is 12 in., but two orthogonal edges are within 1.5ca1 or 18 in. from the anchor group; ca2 = the larger of 5 and 7 in. = 7 in., and ha = 8 in. Therefore, the limiting value of ca1 (ca 1 in the figure) is the largest of ca2,max/1.5, ha/1.5, and one-third of the maximum spacing for an anchor group. This gives ca1 = max (7/1.5, 8/1.5, 9/3) = 5.33 in., which is to be used for the value of ca1 in Eq. (D-21) to (D-28), including the calculation of AVc; AVc = (5 + 9 + 7)(1.5)(5.33) = 168 in.2, which is the cross-sectional area of the member. Note that by ACI 318-02, ca 1 would also have been equal to 8/1.5 = 5.33 in. The new modifications do not make any difference in this particular example until the spacing between the anchors exceeds (8/1.5)(3) = 16 in. and/or the larger orthogonal edge distance ca2 exceeds 8 in.

Critical Edge Distance for Post-Installed Anchors


A new Section D.8.6 has been added, requiring that the critical edge distance, cac (see Modification Factor for Post-Installed Anchors, above), unless determined from tension tests in accordance with ACI 355.2, shall not be taken less than: 2.5hef for undercut anchors 4hef for torque-controlled anchors 4hef for displacement-controlled anchors

Concluding Remarks
ACI 318 Appendix D, Anchoring to Concrete, which was first included in ACI 318-02 and introduced the Concrete Capacity Design (CCD) method of anchor design, has been modified in a number of ways in ACI 318-05. These changes have been discussed in this article. Further changes to Appendix D of ACI 318-02 have been suggested.4,5 ACI Committee 318 will consider these changes for possible inclusion in ACI 318-08. PCI has sponsored an extensive research program, conducted by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. (WJE), to study design criteria for headed stud groups loaded in shear5,6 as well as subject to the combined effects of shear and tension. The Sixth Edition of the PCI Design Handbook,7 while using Appendix D of ACI 318-02 for stud groups in tension, has chosen to use shear provisions culminating from this research. Further results from this investigation have just been published.8 In view of the above, it appears likely that Appendix D will undergo further significant modifications in ACI 318-08 and beyond.

REFERENCES
1. ICC, International Building Code, International Code Council, Falls Church, VA, 2003, 2006 (to be published). 2. ASCE, ASCE 7 Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, Structural Engineering Institute, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 1998, 2002, 2005 Including Supplement. 3. NFPA, NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2003. 4. Eligehausen, R., Fuchs, W., and Hofmann, J., Comments in ACI 318-05 Discussions and Closure, with ACI Committee 318 Response, Concrete International, V. 27, No. 3, March 2005, pp. 163-165. 5. Meinheit, D. F., and Anderson, N. S., Comments in ACI 318-05 Discussions and Closure, with ACI Committee 318 Response, Concrete International, V. 27, No. 3, March 2005, pp. 165-168. 6. Anderson, N. S., and Meinheit, D. F., Design Criteria for Headed Stud Groups in Shear: Part 1Steel Capacity and Back Edge Effects, PCI JOURNAL, V. 45, No. 5, SeptemberOctober 2000, pp. 46-75. 7. PCI Design Handbook: Precast and Prestressed Concrete, Sixth Edition, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 2004. 8. Anderson, N. S., and Meinheit, D. F., Pryout Capacity of Cast-In Headed Stud Anchors, PCI JOURNAL, V. 50, No. 2, March-April 2005, pp. 90-112.
101

Concrete Pryout Strength in Shear


In Section D.6.3.1, a new equation has been added for the pryout strength of a group of anchors in shear: Vcpg = kcpNcpg

where Ncpg is given by Eq. (D-5).


May-June 2005