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EQUIPMENTS : BOILERS BASIC WORKING Ref : http://steamofboiler.blogspot.co.

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Every household in the United Kingdom has a central heating boiler in their houses. But anyone of you has ever thought how does a central heating boiler work. Today I am going to explain how exactly the central heating system (boiler) works. Related Articles The Importance of Servicing Your Vaillant Boiler Eco Friendly Condensing Heating Boilers Explained Central Heating Boilers - What's the Difference? Central Heating Boiler - An Efficient Heating Method for Homes

The water stored in the vessel when heated to a desired temperature level by burning natural gases, coal and wood pellets can be defined as a boiler. The steam produced by the boiler when heated is piped to a spot which can be is utilized for different purposes such has running the production units, sanitizing some area, sterilizing equipments, to warm up the surroundings, to heat up the water, and many more. Burner is a heart of the boiler which converters water to steam. This burner is heated by supplying fuels into it. Generally the steam needed to heat your houses, buildings, hospital, office and other places where heat is required is created by the fuel that is burned and supplied to the boiler from the burner. The burner can be heated by using different fuels like natural gas, coal or wood pellets. If youre using natural gases, then the natural gases are released into the burner through a special pipe which heats the burners. If youre using any oil to heat the burner the then the oil is supplied to them which pressurizes and heats the burners. When it comes to wood pellets, the woods are burned using some fuel which helps to heat the burners. After the burners are heated up using the required fuels, then the gases or the fire from the burners are directly released on the boiler to heat up the water. The water can be boiled in the boiler depending on the two types of boilers used in the market. There are generally two types of boilers which use their own principles to produce heat. Firetube Boilers Watertube Boilers

Firetube Boilers: Firetube boilers are also know as shell boilers. These boilers are the most

commonly used boilers in the market. In the firetube or shell boilers the water is surrounded by the water. The water which surrounds the shell or firetube is heated by sending the hot gases or fire which is produced by the burner through the shell or firetube. The hot gases or fires are allowed four times through the tubes in the boiler before letting the out of the boilers. These tubes are generally set at the banks of the boilers. The firetube boiler systems can release up to 25,000lbs or 750hp of steam per hour. About 80% of the boilers that are in use today belong to this particular category.
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Watertube Boilers: In the Watertube Boilers the tubes are arranged vertically in the shell. Then the water is filled in the shell which is heated by sending the hot fuel or hot gases through the tubes. Generally Watertube boilers are built in rectangular shape with two or three drums. The drums are arranged at the top and bottom, where top drum is used to separate water and steam and the bottom drum is used to collect he sludge. Watertube boilers are usually utilized when more than 750hp of steam per hour is required. The temperature generally rises up to 212 degree Fahrenheit when the fuels or hot gases released into the boiler from the burner which heats up the water. At this temperature the water converted to the steam. The steam generated is then circulated throughout the building or home using radiators, vents and pipes, specifically created for heat transferring. To overcome the problems like overheat of the boilers, some of the heat is retained in the boiler to keeping the building or home warm needs. Since more steam is produced as the temperature increases, it is essential to check the boiler and ensure that excess pressure is not built. To check the pressure build up, run your boiler for short durations of time. Furthermore, they have to be maintained regularly to keep them in optimum working condition.

Basic Boiler System


A steam boiler is composed of 2 basic systems as shown in Figure 1. One basic boiler system is the water-steam system which is known as boiler waterside. In waterside of boiler, water is

heated and released by movement via water tubes, then water is transformed to steam, and also it retains as steam in the system.

Figure 1: Basic Boiler System Diagram (Source: Book-Boiler Control System Engineering-G.F Gilman) Steam boiler need to manage chemical stability. The method where this is performed could interact to control system of feedwater. The quantity of blowdown should be regarded in the control design of feedwater, particularly when the blowdown is continually performed. Frequently, the flow of blowdown is separated by content level ratio of the flow of feedwater. The popular method pertaining to managing the chemical content level is continuous blowdown. On big scale boiler this could possibly be performed automatically by way of measuring conductivity of boiler water to regulate blowdownn rate. Mixing ratio control of blowdown with conductivity and comparing feedwater flow to blowdown is carried out to get blowdown rate. Blowdown is usually obtained and conductivity is measured manually in utility plants. This is needed on a regular schedule or maybe any time the conductivity becomes very high. The other basic boiler system is the fuel-flue gas-air system. This system is as well-known as the boiler fireside. This specific system supplies heat which is transferred into boiler fireside system. Fuel is the input for this system and to perform combustion or firing needs air and ignition system. The combustion air and fuel is as well-known as wind box. Ash and gas will be the output of this system.

Boiler Type O and Type A


Boiler Type O Boiler type O has 2 drums, they are steam drum and mud drum. The composition of the convection tubes and water wall tubes forming the letter O. Combustion chamber is placed in the middle between convection tubes and water wall tubes. Boiler type O can be shown in the Figure 1 below:

Figure 1: Boiler Type O Legend: <!--[if !supportLists]-->1 <!--[if !supportLists]-->2 <!--[if !supportLists]-->3 Boiler Type A Boiler type A has 3 drums, they are steam drum and two mud drums. Boiler type A can be shown in the Figure 2 below: <!--[endif]-->: Furnace (combustion chamber) <!--[endif]-->: Steam drum <!--[endif]-->: Mud drum

Figure 2: Boiler Type A

Legend: <!--[if !supportLists]-->1 <!--[if !supportLists]-->2 <!--[if !supportLists]-->3

<!--[endif]-->: Furnace (combustion chamber) <!--[endif]-->: Steam drum <!--[endif]-->: Mud drum

Fire Tube Boiler Working Principle


Based on use classification, fire tube boiler is categorized as for process or heating boiler. It has range pressure not exceed 450 psi (small scale or medium scale). Design fire tube is regulated in ASME BPV Section I subpart PFT. Fire tube consists of tube and tube sheet.

Figure 1. Fire Tube Boiler Fire tube design use tubes to flow hot gases and distribute it to the safe point of discharge through stack. Water at the outside of tubes is heated by hot tubes, so there is heat transfer between hot gases inside tubes and water outside tubes. Water is converted to steam for process purpose. As long as combustion process there are some passes usually used. At the first pass, the hot gases in distributed in fire tube boiler through furnace. In Figure 1, the rear head of lower section had sealed the hot gas from first pass and direct it to the tubes at the second pass to front head. The hot gases from front head is redirected to the third pass then directed again to the fourth pass and the end the hot gas is discharged through stack.

Fire Tube Boiler Types


Fire tube boiler is one of boiler type in which hot air from combustion heats one or more pipes that contain water in the boiler. Fire tube boiler is one of two main types of existing boilers. Whereas the other type of boiler is water tube boiler. Fire tube boiler can be classified based

on configuration such as horizontal fire tube boiler and vertical fire tube boiler. Boiler type is also often referred to as smoke tube boiler or boiler shell. The types of fire tube boilers can be seen as following below: Cornish Boiler, boiler with single combustion flue container.

Figure 1: Cornish Boiler Lancashire Boiler, Boiler with double combustion flue container.

Figure 2: Lancashire Boiler Locomotive Boiler, boiler that has a lot of fire tubes.

Figure 3: Locomotive Boiler

Fire Tube Boiler Based on Configuration


Fire tube boiler is one of type boiler which is classified based on tube type. Fire tube it self can be classified based on configuration as Horizontal Fire Tube and Vertical Fire Tube. The following below is its classification: 1. Vertical Fire Tube Boiler

Figure 1: Vertical Fire Tube Verictical fire tube consists of a bundle of tubes, pipe, shell and head. The heat from gas combustion flows inside tubes. Combustion chamber and nozzle may be located on the bottom side or middle of boiler. The fire combustion burn in the middle of the shell boiler with a fire hose. Volume water is maintained approximately 80% of theigh of shell. The most suitable fuel for this boiler is gas because it is cheaper than the price of oil fuel and burn cleaner than diesel fuel. The range capacity of the boiler is between 10-1250 kg/hr and maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is not more than 1 MPa. It is ideal to use as a small boiler to produce steam, up to 800 kg / hr. 2. Horizontal Fire Tube

Figure 2: Horizontal Fire Tube Horizontal fire tube boiler is type of fire tube which is configured as horizontal model (see figure 2). The firing flows inside tube and the water outside tubes. This type can generate evaporation 100-12000 kg/hr and pressures up to 1-2 MPa (150-300 psig). Regarding to the large diameter of the shell boilers, structural support is designed to enough strong to resist load of boiler. If the steam pressure increases, so steam temperature will be higher. The size of this boiler also has a steam capacity between 500-1200 kg/hr and pressures up to 1-2 MPa (150200psig).

Cause of Failure in Fire Tube Boiler


Fire tube boiler is the type boiler which is classified based on tube type. The combustion occurs and flow through inside tube and boiler water is distributed outside tubes. When fire tube boiler is running, there are possibilities of failure occur. Failure should be prevented to avoid damage in boiler itself and environment. Failure can be caused by water level in boiler exceed minimum low water level. This condition may be caused by operator who careless to

maintain fire tube boiler keep in normal operating water level (NOWL). In modern boiler, fire tube boiler is designed automatic. If water level reaches minimum low level, fire tube boiler will sound alarm and automatically shut down. Another cause of failure in fire tube boiler is the boiler age is very old. Material of boiler is fatigue so cause material strength can not resist the pressure. This condition will make pressure part such as tubes and header explodes. Furthermore other reasons for failure are may be safety valve does not work if the pressure exceeds maximum allowable working pressure. Safety valve does not open to vent steam so the pressure will be accumulated and lead to failure. Too much scale in boiler water so heat is not transferred perfectly. This condition is similar with too much slag or smoky on inside tube or flue gas way. Heat transfer does not perform as expected condition. When metal temperature increases up to 600 F, the metal will be shrinkage and possibility of failure will be highly occur.

Advantage & Disadvantage Fire Tube Boiler


Each steam boiler type has its advantages and disadvantage as well as with the type of fire tube boiler. The following are advantages and disadvantages if the owner of power plant choose fire tube boiler as his boiler. Advantages of fire tube boiler: 1. The water is supplied in shell and outside tubes while hot gas is supplied inside tubes so the water volume can not be shaken easily when the fire tube boiler is running. 2. Fire tube boiler is so easy to use, operate, clean and maintain 3. Fire tube boiler can be used in small scale industries. 4. Fire tube boiler is relatively cheaper than water tube boiler. Disadvantages of fire tube boiler: 1. From the furnace combustion side, required time to fill water is longer than to increase temperature and pressure. 2. The efficiency of heat transfer (heat transfer efficiency) is bad enough because of the heat exchanger does not use thermal radiation. 3. In case of bombers fire tube boiler would be very dangerous if a large amount of hot water and steam have been accumulated inside (leakage occur). 4. The fire tube boiler can not produce steam at a pressure higher than 250 pounds per square inch. 5. Capacity of generated steam is limited.

Water Tube Boiler


In water tube boilers, boiler feed water flowing through the tubes into steam drum, water drum and header. Water is heated by gas burners or other fuel combustion to form steam and to be distributed into steam drum. Water tube boiler is selected if its steam and the steam pressure are very high as in the case of boilers for power generation.

Water tube boiler which is very modern designed with steam capacity of 4500-12000 kg / hour, with a very high pressure. Lots of water tube boilers are constructed in a package if used fuel oil and gas. For water tube that uses solid fuel, is not commonly designed package. Characteristics of water tube boilers are the following below: Forced, induced and balanced draft help to improve combustion efficiency Less tolerant of water quality resulting from water treatment plant. Allows for the higher thermal efficiency.

Figure 1: Water Tube Boiler (Source: United Nation Environment Program, 2008)

Water Tube vs Fire Tube Boiler


Water Tube vs Fire Tube Boiler is comparison between two types boiler which is viewed from several aspects. Water tube and fire tube boiler is steam boiler classification which is categorized based on tube type. Commonly water tube boiler is appropriate for significant gas streams going above enormous amounts of generated steam (lb/hr) and also can certainly manage high temperature and pressure of steam. Fire tube boiler is appropriate for low pressure of steam, commonly under 500psig. Water Tube vs Fire Tube Boiler can be seen in several aspects below: Water Tube Boilers aspects: Gas flow : higher than 50.000 pounds/hour

Temperature of gas inlet Pressure of gas Water inventory Location of sootblower Multiple pressure of steam Multiple modules Heat flux- vapor area Heating surface form Combustion firing Superheater location Fire Tube Boilers aspects: Gas flow Temperature of gas inlet Pressure of gas Water inventory Location of sootblower Multiple pressure of steam Multiple modules Heat flux- vapor area Heating surface form Combustion firing Superheater location

: small to adiabatic firing : commonly under 2 psig : low : everywhere within boiler : yes : yes : could be high when use fin tubes : fin tube and also bare tube : doable : everywhere in the gas way utilizing screen area

: generally less than 50.000 pounds/hour : small to adiabatic firing : commonly high up to 2100 psig : high : at exit boiler or inlet boiler : no : no : commonly low : bare tube : doable : at exit boiler or inlet boiler

Within water tube boiler, expanded areas could be employed to create it stream-lined if the gas flow is thoroughly clean. The pressure drop of flue gas may also be decrease when compared with an equal fire tube boiler due to design intensiveness. Water tube boiler could be scaled-down and also consider less, especially when the gas stream is significant, excess one hundred thousand pounds per hour. Superheater could be applied in the two boiler types. Within water tube boiler superheater might be positioned in an most effective area of gas temperature. A protect screen area or a huge convection area prefaces the superheater. Within fire tube boiler, it should be positioned at possibly the exit gas or inlet gas, generating the design fewer adaptable and weak to deterioration or slagging. When the discharged gas is concentrated naturally, the areas could be cleaned simply by employing retractable soot blowers. Generally, the kind of boiler to be utilized for a specific condition is established by the practical knowledge of the boiler maker. Occasionally a collaboration of water and fire tube boilers is applied to match exceptional demands. From explanation above comparison between Water Tube vs Fire Tube Boiler can be known

Package Boiler
Package boiler is a boiler that had been fabricated and available as a complete package. The entire pressure parts have been assembled in the workshop and ready to be sent to the field or site where power plant is located. On the field/site requires only connection and integration of course work in electrical connections, water pipes, steam pipes and fuel piping system to operate. Package boiler is one of classification of boiler based on erection. Design package boilers in general are the type of Fire Tube Boiler and have made up shell and tubes. This type has high heat transfer both radiation and convection.

Package boiler has the following characteristics: Package boiler has higher level of thermic efficiency than other types of steam boilers. A number of passes generate better heat transfer overall. Induced or forced draft system generates proper combustion efficiency. A large number of small diameter tubes can make package boiler has good convection heat transfer. The small dimension of combustion chamber/furnace and the high heat which is released will result in more rapid evaporation.

Figure 1: Package Boiler (Source: Spirax Sarco) Package boilers can be classified based on the number of passes which mean the number of times the combustion gases through the boiler. The combustion chamber is placed as the first pass after the later one, two, or three sets of fire tubes. The most common type of boiler in this class is unit of three passes with two sets of fire tubes and exhaust gases exiting from the back boiler.

Steam Boiler Classification


Steam boilers are built in the world from 200 BC until today, many developments have taken place that allow us to classify steam boiler in different ways. Hence steam boiler may be classified based on the following characteristics: 1. Classification of boiler based on pressure Low Pressure A steam boiler in which steam is generated at pressure less than 15 psi or a boiler in which hot water is generated at pressure not exceeding 160 psi and/or temperature not exceeding 250 o F High Pressure A steam boiler in which steam is generated at pressure exceeding 15 psi or a boiler in which hot water is generated at pressure exceeding 160 psi and/or temperature exceeding 250 o F Classification of boiler based on fuel Gaseous Fuel A steam boiler is fired by gas. The gas used may be natural gas, propane gas, etc.

2.

Liquid Fuel A steam boiler is fired by oil. The oil used may be heavy oil known as Bunker C because of low fuel cost. Solid Fuel This type of steam boiler is fired by coal, wood, rejected product, etc Electric Fuel This type of steam boiler is fired by electricity. Usually used for research laboratory, food industries, and others where smoke pollution is prohibited. Classification of boiler based on material Steel Cast Iron Classification of boiler based on tube type Fire Tube Boiler A steam boiler in which the products of combustion pass through the tubes, which are surrounded by water. Water Tube Boiler A steam boiler in which the water passes through the tubes and products of combustion surround the tubes. Classification based on circulation Natural Circulation Force Circulation Classification of boiler based on method of combustion Stoker Boiler Fluidized Bed Pulverized coal Burner-Fired Boiler Waste Heat Steam Boiler Classification of boiler based on type of support Top Supported Steam Boiler Bottom Supported Steam Boiler Middle and Girdle Steam Boiler Classification of boiler based on furnace construction Two Pass Steam Boiler One and a Half Pass Steam Boiler Single or Tower Type Steam Boiler Down-Shot Steam Boiler 9. Classification based on use Power Boiler Process Boiler Hot Water Heating Boiler Hot Water Supply Boiler Industrial Boiler Commercial Boiler Heat Recovery Boiler 10. Classification of boiler based on erection

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Package Boiler Field Erected Boiler

11. Classification of boiler based on mobility Stationary Boiler Stationary boiler is a boiler that is placed on permanent foundation such as boiler for power generation, industries and the others. Mobile Boiler Mobile boiler is a boiler that is placed on mobile foundation such as locomotive boiler and cab car. 12. Classification of boiler based on furnace position Internally Fired Steam Boiler Externally Fired Steam Boiler 13. Classification of boiler based on ASME Code Power Boiler - ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Section I Heating Boiler - ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Section IV 14. Classification of boiler based on heat source Conventional Boiler Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)

Oil Fired Boiler


Oil fired boiler is a boiler which uses oil as its fuel to perform combustion process. Oil fired boiler consist of several important parts such as burner nozzles, air compressor, atomizing air system, oil piping, oil metering valve system, flame ignition and the others. As in gas fired boiler, when NOx (nitrogen oxide) control is aspect of firing system, generally there could be small NOx burner controls or staged firing. Appropriate maintenance and procedure based on suggestions of boiler maker is important to an effective and risk-free firing process. The following below are several particular things that is related to oil fired boiler which must get special consideration: Monitor pressure control valves and oil pumps so these equipment can distribute oil to burner nozzles on the proper pressures. Perform pressure check every day. Circulation of oil must run readily. Any decrease in temperature of oil or outside should be inspected to make sure circulation of oil is running well. Flame variation of oil fired boiler must be supervised and proper temperature of oil must be maintained. Variations in temperature of oil are commonly effect of malfunctioning temperature control or unclean heater devices. Check with heater and pump suppliers for proper advice. Clear burner nozzles are important in order to get an effective flame. Accumulation of soot will certainly occurs in oil fired boiler. Any damage in flame qualities is indicator that nozzles must be flushed. Similar with gas fired boiler, oil fired boiler which has more than one burner must has proper pattern to use these burners to get optimum efficiency in which load conditions do not need the application of all burners continually. Oil firing needs atomizing system that is commonly steam or air. Variations in atomizing pressure can easily result in sooting, that can sooner or later cause reduction of boiler

efficiency. The reason behind that pressure loss may generally be caused by unclean oil nozzle or problem in air compressor or regulator. Variations in pressure instantly influence the capability of oil to appropriately burn and atomize totally. The effects consist of accumulation of oil and soot in boiler furnace, fuel-rich firing factors can make high cost in operating boiler and decrease boiler efficiency.

Gas Fired Boiler


Gas fired boiler is a boiler which uses gas as its fuel. Gas fired boiler consists of some important components such as flame ignition, gas metering system, air compressor, air piping, gas piping, burner nozzles, and the others. Combustion process of gas fired boiler should be maintained and operated properly to produce efficient combustion result. The following below are several certain things which are related to gas fired boiler that must obtain specific consideration: The pressure of gas is important to effective combustion and good burner procedure. Abnormal pressure might result in excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO), fuel-rich combustion, and high accumulation of soot which may decrease the efficiency of steam boiler. The troubles in gas pressure might be started from imbalances supply of gas pressure, unclean regulator of gas pressure or boiler regulator may be is not working. Burner of gas fired boiler having NOx settings must has damper to adjust combustion process and the circulation of flue gas to comply with the signs from control room. The remainder of NOx and burner settings must be modified for highest NOx control at optimum performance and lowest unstable organic substance or carbon dioxide production. The burner operations procedure must be managed for maximum efficiency based on recommendations of boiler maker. Flame recognition units must be controlled to let lowest excessive air operation correctly. The air/fuel ratio must be controlled to get the best effective operation of gas fired boiler. Adjustments could be various for base-loaded boilers as in contrast to a boiler which employs load swings through a warming up or practice load. Boilers owning swinging loads may possibly not be ready to run on decreased excess air control. The procedure of air handle damper must be tested to ensure that its reacting correctly to indicators from control room. The nozzle of gas pressure must be proper. The functioning of control valve in gas flow setting must be tested to ensure that it is reacting to indicators from control room. Gas fired boiler which has more than one burner must has design setting operation of burner for highest efficiency in which load conditions do not need utilization of all burners forever but may be design system need some of them to be used.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPV Code) is a code that is published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers which is used as standard for design, repair and maintenance, inspect, manufacture, and construct boiler and pressure vessel. ASME code is first published in 1914, since 1954 it had been renewed in every 3 years and also ASME will issue addenda every year. The latest edition now is ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 2010 edition. This code had been accepted internationally.

a) b) c) d) e) -

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPV Code) consists of 12 sections. Each section consists of parts, divisions, and subsections. The cost to buy complete ASME BPV code is approximately $6500 more. The following below are sections of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: ASME BPV Code Section 12 - Rules for the Construction & Continued Service of Transport Tanks ASME BPV Code Section 11 - Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components ASME BPV Code Section 10 - Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels ASME BPV Code Section 9 - Welding and Brazing Qualifications ASME BPV Code Section 8 - Pressure Vessels. This code consist 3 divisions as follow: ASME BPV Code Section 8 Division 1 ASME BPV Code Section 8 Division 2 - Alternative Rules ASME BPV Code Section 8 Division 3 - Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels

f) ASME BPV Code Section 7 - Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers g) ASME BPV Code Section 6 - Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers h) ASME BPV Code Section 5 - Nondestructive testing i) ASME BPV Code Section 4 - Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers j) ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Rules for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Subsection NCA General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2 ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 consists of: * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Subsection NB Class 1 Components * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Subsection NC Class 2 Components * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Subsection ND Class 3 Components * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Subsection NE Class MC Components * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Subsection NF Supports * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Subsection NG Core Support Structures * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Subsection NH Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service * ASME BPV Code Section 3 - Division 1 Appendices ASME BPV Code Section 3 Division 2 Code for Concrete Containments ASME BPV Code Section 3 Division 3 Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Material and Waste k) ASME BPV Code Section 2 Materials ASME BPV Code Section 2 Part A Ferrous Material Specifications

l)

ASME BPV Code Section 2 Part B Nonferrous Material Specifications ASME BPV Code Section 2 Part C Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals ASME BPV Code Section 2 Part D Properties (Customary) ASME BPV Code Section 2 Part D Properties (Metric) ASME BPV Code Section 1 - Rules for Construction of Power Boilers