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Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.

com

COURSE OUTLINE
RESEARCH STATISTICS: DATA ANALYSIS, 2 Credits Dr. Teguh Budiharso OBJECTIVES The course is so designed to the advancement application of a 4-credit research course, emphasizing to using empirical evidence of analysis for descriptive, correlation, experimental studies, and qualitative data relevant to research designs, research instruments, and kinds of data. CONTENTS/MATERIALS The contents of the course to be dealt with include: analysis to one variable research, e.g. mean, frequency, percentage; data obtained from a test and non-test instrument; instrument validation: item difficulty, discrimination index, validity, reliability; inferential statistics e.g. correlational, experiments study analysis including data collection procedures, analysis for qualitative data, and classroom action research. ACTIVITIES The course will be conducted in the forms of lectures, discussions, exercises, analysis of research reports and reading assignments. EVALUATION The students' final grade will be based on: (1) attendance and active participation in the classroom discussion (20%), (2) midterm test (30%), (3) quize/assignment (20%), and (4) final project or a final test (30%). READING LIST Required Koenker, Robert H. 1971. Simplified Statistics for Students in Education and Psychology. New Jersey, Totowa: Littlefield, Adams & Co. Handout for exercises. Elective Ary D. et al. 1985. Introduction to Research Education. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Best, John W. 1981. Research in Education. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. Borg, W.R. 1981. Applying Educational Research: A Practical Guide for Teachers. New York: Longman. Hatch, Evelyn and Farhady, Hossein. 1982. Research Design and Statistics for Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Newbury House Publisher Inc.

Contact for Appointment:

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

Jl. Ruhui Rahayu I Rt 03 No. 11 Samarinda 75123 Cell. 08195444410; 081333940001 E-mail: buda@cbn.net.id

MEETING SCHEDULE
TOPIC/SUB-TOPICS Introduction: general overview of the course, procedures, assignments, evaluation, review on research titles: one-variable, two variables; variables, e.g. nominal vs. continuous; discrete, nominal, interval, ratio; independent, dependent; final project, pre test. 2 Analysis for the Descriptive Statistics: direct experience to using instrument and data collection procedures for descriptive quantitative data: mean score, standard deviation, normal curve, z-score, frequency, rate percentage, etc. 3 Correlational analysis: direct experience to using instrument and data collection procedures for correlational study; analysis using Product Moment by Karl Pearson, Product Moment by Raw Scores, rho Product Moment, Hypothesis testing and interpretation: degrees of freedom (df), level of probability (p), observed value and table value, Ho and Ha, rejection and acceptance of the hypothesis, significance, positive correlation, negative correlation. 4 Experimental study: direct experience to using instrument and data collection to experimental study; analysis procedures for independent group design, matched group design, one-shot study, Hypothesis testing and interpretation: observed value and table value, Ho and Ha, rejection and acceptance of hypothesis, significance, positive value, and negative value. 5 Review of previous topics and discussion on final project (thesis proposal). 6-8 Procedures to validating research instrument: objective test, essay test, questionnaire, interview, tryout procedures, item analysis, validity, and reliability. 9 Midterm Test 10 Analysis to qualitative data: instrumentation and data collection procedures of essay test and questionnaire, data presentation and data verification. 11 Analysis to qualitative data: interviews and observation, data collection, data presentation, interpretation. 12.14 Classroom action research: procedures, data collection, data presentation, data verification. 15 Review 16 Final project be submitted/final test. 1 Malang, March 1, 2001

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

File: tistik-outline.doc.

FINAL TEST ON STATISTICS


IN DOING THIS TEST YOU ARE ALLOWED TO USE/OPEN YOUR BOOK, CALCULATOR, AND TABLE. 1. You are conducting an experimental study with the topic The Effect of Intensifying Pre Reading Activity to Increase Reading Achievement. a. State your research problem and null hypothesis b. After treatments, data in the form of scores from the experimental group are: 87, 72, 80, 46, 54, 93, 55, 50, 62, 47, 40, 60, 89, 46, 55, 67, 51, 78, 82, 68 Whereas, the data from the controlled group are 62, 56, 50, 38, 42, 71, 53, 50, 42, 38, 29, 36, 74, 44, 37, 49, 46, 74, 69, 40 What is your research finding, then? (process the data using appropriate formula) t= 7.1200

2. The data are the result of psycho test conducted by the admission committee. 18 21 10 21 12 17 13 22 11 12 12 16 16 20 10 10 16 16 4 7 10 17 20 14 10 23 6 7 14 14 10 10 11 12 15 15 15 18 23 5 14 19 17 3 19 9 15 18 16 10 19 12 16 15 17 7 27 17 17 17

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

21 20

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Describe the data above using histogram (dont forget to process the data first using a descriptive statistical formula to find the frequency). 3. Topic: The Relationship Between Grammar Achievement and Reading Achievement a. State your research problem and null hypothesis b. Reading scores; 76, 69, 62, 84, 71, 88, 94, 87, 73, 79 Grammar score; 71, 76, 77, 72, 70, 75, 83, 69, 67, 82 Is null hypothesis rejected or accepted if your study is directional with p=0.01 r= 0.2200---------

Good luck

TEST FOR QUALITATIVE DATA DATA 1 Translate the text below in good and correct bahasa Indonesia. Statistical analysis is usually divided into two broad categories which are designed as descriptive and inferential. Descriptive statistics are used to describe a group of individuals which has been actually observed. For example, suppose we administered an arithmetic test to a group of sixth grade children. From this data we could obtain a great deal of information including the following: the highest score, the lowest score, the mean score, number of score above 60, etc. Since we are only concerned with describing a particular group and not with forming any general theory, we are using a type of statistical analysis referred to as descriptive. Inferential statistics, sometimes called statistics, are used to make inferences about the total population in terms of observed samples of the total population.

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

FINAL EXAM OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Prof. Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd

CASE 1 Class A has received communicative methods with successful accomplishment. Mr Good taught the class. Class B received contextual teaching by Mr Bye. At the end of the program, both classes revealed a very successful accomplishment in speaking. Then, a researcher is curious to prove which method is superior. 1. What title is appropriate to prove whether communicative methods or contextual teaching is better? 2. identify what are the independent variable and the dependent variable. 3. What design is best for the case? 4. What instrument is best for the design? 5. Should you formulate a hypothesis? Why? CASE 2 Most teachers suspect that knowledge of vocabulary is connected with knowledge of writing. The case may obscure so a formal study needs to be conducted.

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

1. 2. 3. 4.

What title is best for the study? What instruments are useful for the study? What data are required for the study? How do you test the hypothesis? What statistical tool is appropriate?

CASE 3 In order to know the result of National Leaving Exam (UAN) in English for SLTP students, a researcher will conduct a study covering all SLTPs in Samarinda. He is going to analyze how the results reflect classification and general information on the test. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the title best for the purpose of the study? What design is appropriate for the study? What instrument is best used? What is the data of the study? What analysis will be appropriate for the data?

CASE 4 In teaching composition to English Department students, a lecturer is curious to classify typical problems faced by an individual. She examines carefully English compositions made by 10 students. Typical problems in composition made by English Dept students of UNIBA. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is the best title for the study? Identify 2 typical concerns that will be appropriate for the problems. What instrument is best used? What are the data of the study? What are the sources of the data? How should the data be processed to report the findings?

CASE 5 A study is designed to identify teacher talks in a reading class. The focus of the study is specified to utterances made by an English teacher when teaching. The utterances may vary from opening, explaining, responding students questions, styles to motivate, delivering questions, and closing the class. 1. What research is best for the study? 2. How many subjects do you need for the study?

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

3. Mention 3 most appropriate research instruments to collect data. 4. Mention 3 most appropriate data for this study. 5. How do you analyze the data? THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY IN ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT OF SLTA STUDENTS IN SAMARINDA 1. Develop one best research problem for the title above 2. What are the independent and the dependent variables of the title? 3. What treatments are subject to Experimental Group and what will be for the controlled group? 4. What instrument will be best to collect data? Why? THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FREQUENCY VISITS TO LIBRARY AND READING COMPREHENSION OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SLTP 1. Develop one best research problem for the title above. 2. Do you need to have treatments for this study? Why? 3. What kinds of data do you need for this study? 4. What kinds of instruments do you require for this study?

READING COMPREHENSION OF THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF SLTP IN SAMARINDA 1. Develop two research problems appropriate for the study. 2. What research design is best for the title? 3. What kind of instrument do you need for this study? 4. What kind of data do you use for analysis? AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO SEE THE EFFECT OF PRE-READING ACTIVITY IN READING COMPREHENSION REVEALED t-VALUE = 3.567 AT p=0.01, df=30. SUPPOSE t-TABLE AT p=0.01, df = 30 IS 3.566. 1. 2. 3. 4. Is the Ho rejected or accepted? Is the study significant or not? Why? Is the study successful? What method is superior and what method is weak?

A STUDY SEEING THE RELATIONSHIP OF SPEAKING AND INSTANT INTERPRETING FOUND r-VALUE = -0.867 (negative). SUPPOSE r-TABE AT p=0.05 and df = 40 IS 0.756. 1. Is the Ho rejected or accepted? 2. Is the study significant or not? 3. How do you infer the result of the study in a simple interpretation?

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

EXERCISES TO STATISTICS AND DATA ANALYSIS

VOCABULARY MASTERY OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SLTP 1 95, 85, 70, 45, 65, 70, 90, 80, 85, 60, 60, 65, 75, 70, 65, 80, 75, 85, 80, 40, 40, 45, 95, 85, 70, 45, 65, 70, 90, 80, 85, 60, 60, 65, 75, 70, 65, 80, 75, 85, 80, 40, 40, 45, 60, 65, 80, 90, 95, 45, 50, 60, 55, 75, 70, 60, 65, 75, 60, 60, 65, 65, 75, 70, 80, 90 1. How is the vocabulary mastery of the first year students of SLTPN 1? 2. How is the score distribution of vocabulary mastery of the first year students of SLTPN 1? THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT OF THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS 0F SLTP1 SAMARINDA Reading Scores: 90, 75, 60, 75, 40, 45, 40, 45, 50, 55, 65, 85, 70, 65, 70, 45, 90, 95, 80, 90, 85, 65, 40, 50, 55, 70, 95, 80, 85, 75, 80, 90, 45, 50, 65 Vocabulary Scores:

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

60, 65, 80, 90, 95, 45, 50, 60, 55, 75, 70, 60, 65, 75, 60, 60, 65, 65, 75, 70, 80, 90, 90, 95, 80, 75, 80, 65, 60, 45, 70, 75, 80, 90, 50 Does reading comprehension relate to vocabulary achievement of the third year students of SLTPN1 Samarinda? THE EFFECT OF GRAMMAR CORRECTIONS IN TEACHING PARAGRAPH OF THE FIRST SEMESTER STUDENTS OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT Experimental group: 100, 92, 92, 92, 92, 88, 88, 84, 84, 84, 80, 76, 72, 72, 60 Controlled group: 100, 92, 92, 92, 88, 88, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 72, 72, 68, 60 Does grammar corrections give better results on paragraph writing than those of conventional teaching of the first semester students of English department? 1. Is grammar correction superior? 2. Is the method successful in teaching paragraph writing?

TAKE HOME FINAL EXAM STATISTICS IN LINGUISTICS Dr. Teguh Budiharso The answer to this test must be submitted 7 days after the test is distributed. DATA A Experimental group 87, 72, 80, 46, 54, 93, 55, 50, 62, 47, 40, 60, 89, 46, 55, 67, 51, 78, 82, 68 Controlled group 62, 56, 50, 38, 42, 71, 53, 50, 42, 38, 29, 36, 74, 44, 37, 49, 46, 74, 69, 40 DATA B 18 21 10 21 13 22 11 12 16 20 10 10 4 7 10 17 10 23 6 7 10 10 11 12 15 18 23 5 17 3 19 9 16 10 19 12 17 7 27 17

Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

12 17 21 20

12 16 8

16 16 19

20 14 19

14 14 19

15 15 13

14 19 13

15 18 19

16 15 14

17 17 17

DATA C Reading scores: 76, 69, 62, 84, 71, 88, 94, 87, 73, 79 Grammar score: 71, 76, 77, 72, 70, 75, 83, 69, 67, 82 INSTRUCTION: 1. Each of the Data A, Data B, and Data C must be answered by showing the process of data analysis using appropriate statistical formula. 2. Data of two-variable research must be processed through correct steps of hypothesis testing completely. The final interpretation in good logic will finish the hypothesis testing. 3. Prior to doing the data in statistical tool, You must formulate: a. Title for each data mentioned in Data A, Data B, and Data C. b. Research problem for each title you develop. c. Working Hypothesis and Statistical hypothesis if required relevant to your title.

INTERPRETING DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AVALIABLE CRITERIA -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------No Scores Grade Qualification f % -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 80-100 A Excellent 2 70-79 B Good 3 60-69 C Fair 4 50-59 D Poor 5 10-49 E Very Poor --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NORM CRITERIA

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Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

1. Mean score 2. Identifying standard deviation (SD) 3. A = M+ 2xSD; B=M+1 SD; C=M; D=M-1xSD; E=M- 2xSD

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS: HYPOTHESIS TESTING PROCEDURES 1. Find data of statistic calculation using certain criteria, e.g. r-test or t-test. 2. Identify statistic table value for r-test or t-test. 3. Use p=0.05 (or alpha= 95%) or p=0.01 (alpha=99%); degrees of freedom (df) at N=N-1 or N= N1 + N2, the see the table value. 4. Formulate the Ho for the hypothesis testing. 5. Compare the value of r-test or t-test with table value. 6. If r-value or t-value is higher table value = significant, Ho rejected. If r-value or tvalue is less than table value = not significant, Ho is accepted.

INTERPRETING HYOPTHESIS TESTING VALUE FOR R-TEST -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------No r-value Status Interpretation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 + > table Significant Variable 1 relates to variable 2 If scores in variable 1 increase, scores in variable 2 increase too 2 3 4 = table < table - > table Not significant Not significant Significant Variable 1 does not relate to variable 2 Variable does not relates to variable, no relationship Variable 1 relates to variable 2 in negative meaning; variable 1 decreases but variable 2 increases

5 - < table Not significant No relationship --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

INTERPRETING HYOPTHESIS TESTING VALUE FOR T-TEST -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------No t-value Status Interpretation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 + > table Significant Independent variable affects the dependent variable; experimental group is better than controlled group; the research is successful 2 = table Not significant No effect from independent group to dependent group; experimental group may be the same as controlled group; the research is failed. No effect or the same as Independent variable gives effect to dependent sample but in negative sense; controlled group is better than experimental group; the research is failed.

3 4

< table - > table

Not significant Significant

5 - < table Not significant No effect -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCEDURES OF ANALYSIS Step 1 1. Taxonomy: classification into groups or categories. 2. Domain: put parts into certain group or category. 3. Determine the criteria. Step 2 Using Flow Diagram from Miles and Huberman (1994) 1. Data reduction: identifying, selecting, classifying, categorizing, simplifying, sorting. 2. Data Display: presenting certain groups and categories based on determined criteria. 3. Verification and conclusion drawing: checking and finalizing data display into final version. Crosscheck is done through triangulation process (data, theories, source persons, sites, procedures, etc.). Flow Diagram from Miles and Huberman (1994:10-12)

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Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

DATA COLLECTION

DATA DISPLAY DATA REDUCTION

CONCLUSION DRAWING

SYMBOLS, METAPHORS, AND MEANING Juwita Malam Engkau gemilang, malam cemerlang bagaikan bintang timur sedang mengambang Tak jemu-jemu, mata memandang Aku namakan dikau juwita malam Sinar matamu menari-nari, masuk menembus ke dalam jantung kalbu Aku terpikat, masuk perangkap Apa daya asmara sudah melekat Juwita malam, siapakah gerangan Tuan? Juwita malam, dari bulankah Tuan? Kereta kita, segera tiba, di Jatinegara kita kan berpisah

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Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

Berilah nama, alamat serta Esok lusa boleh kita jumpa pula Poet I love at forever I end at never I am in the middle of nowhere Forgive me mother Mantra 1. Wahai Saudaraku yang tunggal Engkau kupanggil, engkau kusawai Datanglah bersama angin dan cahaya bintang Bawalah Mar marti, kakang kawah adi ari-ari Kakangku mbarep, adiku wuragil Kaki among, nini among Ingkang ngemongi jiwa ragaku Ibu bumi bapa kuwoso Ibu wengi bapa rino

2.

Vocabulary in reading passage of English textbook for SLTA 1. 1. Number of words in all passages in the book. 2. Classification of words: noun, verb, adjective, adverb. 3. Appropriateness with list of words in curriculum. RENCANA JUDUL SKRIPSI 1. Rencana pembelajaran speaking; gambar untuk speaking: Developing speaking materials for the first year students SLTP Patra Darma. 2. Meningkatkan motivasi belajar menggunakan cerdas cermat; problem dalam KTSP Using STAD to Improve Reading Comprehension of ..... ; 3. Pengajaran vocab anak; 1000 vocab; ----lampiran kurikulum 1994/2004---kosa kata 1,000. noun, verb, adjective, --- proper verb/noun, ----Features of 1000 word-vocabulary in English curriculum for SLTP 4. Problem anak dalam belajar speaking; Problems in developing ideas in speaking class of ....... 5. Penguasaan vocab kelas 5 SD; pengajaran speaking pake gambar; Developing vocabulary list for the fifth grade students of SD; 6. Modal auxiliary; ---urutan alamiah: -ing, to be, morpheme s, -es; Bilingual syntax measure; Morpheme orders achieved by the first year students of SMAN 3 Bpp. 7. Validitas autentik material of reading; speaking through poetry: Developing authentic materials of reading for the third year students of SLTP;

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Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

8. Pengaruh vocab pada reading; derivational: ---s- -es, ---ambil sebanyak tekts kelas 3, seleksi: derivation apa aja, kelompokkan: derivation, inflection, derivation: noun, verb, adjective, adverb---Derivation and Inflection in the reading passages for the third year students of sltp 9. Kompetensi guru dalam mengajar bahasa Inggris; Teaching problems faced by English teachers at SMKN 5 Bpp.lesson plan, material development, teaching methods, developing evaluation, 10. penguasaan kosa kata dalam berbicara; Speaking class in the first year students of SLTPN 1 Bpp. 11. Reading pakai gambar; Improving reading comprehension through intensified prereading activity for the third year students of SLTPN 1 bpp. 12. Problem mengajar listening; Problems in teaching listening faced by English teacher of SDN 5 Bpp (classroom research) 13. Problems of comprehension in reading passages in English textbook faced by the first year students of SLTPN 1 Bpp (CAR). 14. Meningkatkan kemampuan menulis melalui percakapan; Improving paragraph writing ability through dialogue-texts for the fifth year students of sdn 1 bpp; The effect of dialogue-texts in teaching paragraph . . (CAR). 15. Grammar orders of English Language achieved by the second year students of SMK . 16. Ketidaksesuaian latar belakang pendidikan dan bidang ajar; Readiness of Elementary teachers in teaching English in kecamatan Balikpapan Utara 17. Grammar, rhetoric: topic sentence, developing sentences, conclusion; coherence; Coherence in paragraph writing by the first year students of sltpn 1 bpp. 18. Teaching vocabulary through dictation for the first year students of -----------------------------------------------------to be continued . . 19. Improving speaking ability through English clubs of .. 20. Variations of reading passage levels in English textbook for . (kata, kalimat, paragraf, topic)----level disusun sendiri--21. Performance analysis in using greetings; thanks; ---The use of greetings by the first year students of elementary school .. ethnography, sociolinguistics; classroom observation. 22. Vocabulary development of the 5-year age of Mara . 23. Minat dan prestasi bhs------- Minat---angket---- The relationship between motivation and English achievement of . . 24. Quality of English textbook for the sixth year students of SDN (tujuan pembelajaran, susunan dalam chapter, tema dan topic, reading texts, grammar, latihan, grammar). ------Literacy of word noting through dictation by . 25. Teaching strategies used by an English teacher at Pelita kindergarten . ; The role of school environment in developing vocabulary mastery of .. 26. The difference of home assignment texts and classroom assignment texts in reading comprehension for . . 27. Improving writing ability through pictures for .. . (The effect of pictures in teaching writing . . ). 28. Teaching strategies used by English teachers in SLTPN 5 bpp. 29. Speaking problems faced by the first year students of sltpn 1 bpp.

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Statistics in Linguistics, Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd Contact 08195444410; Email: buda@cbn.net.id and dr_tgh@yahoo.com

30. Readiness of testing of listening for UAN of slta 31. Learners Strategies in developing ideas for speaking ability used by the second year students of . . 32. Problems on reading comprehension faced by the first year students of 33. Interaction in reading class of the second year students of . . 34. Problems in teaching listening to the second year students of . 35. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH TOPICS 1. Teaching: classroom research, strategies, motivation, interactions, teaching methods, classroom management, assessment, curriculum, syllabus, RPP, textbook, worksheet, test, teaching materials, Textbook: 1. Vocabulary: theme, reading text, word list & word size, content words, exercises, teaching techniques 2. Reading: passage, reading questions, exercises, vocabulary presentation, 3. Grammar: grammar topics, exercises, teaching techniques 4. Skills: Listening; speaking, reading, writing, pronunciation, 5. RPP--------------instructional objectives; skkd, indicator, tujuan; tujuan & bahan ajar; strategi mengajar, evaluasi, reading, reading questions, grammar, vocabulary, 6. Assessment: Re

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