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Biostatistics Spring 2013

Problem Set 2

Due Date: right before your final exam

1. Patients suffering from rheumatic diseases or osteoporosis often suffer critical losses in bone mineral density (BMD). Alendronate is one medication prescribed to build or prevent further loss of BMD. A study looked at 96 women taking alendronate to determine if a difference existed in the mean percent change in BMD among five different primary diagnosis classifications. Group 1 patients were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Group 2 patients were a mixed collection of patients with diseases including lupus, Wegeners granulomatosis and polyarteritis, and other vasculitic diseases (LUPUS). Group 3 patients had polymyalgia rheumatic or temporal arthritis (PMRTA). Group 4 patients had osteoarthritis (OA) and group 5 patients had osteoporosis (O) with no other rheumatic diseases identified in the medical record. Changes in BMD are shown in the following table. RA 11.091 24.414 10.025 -3.156 6.835 3.321 1.493 -1.864 5.386 3.868 6.209 -5.640 3.514 -2.308 15.981 -9.646 5.188 -1.892 16.553 7.412 5.559 4.761 -3.527 4.839 1.850 -3.933 9.669 4.659 1.137 7.521 0.073 LUPUS 2.961 0.293 8.394 2.832 -1.369 11.288 30997 7.260 5.546 Diagnosis PMRTA -3.669 -7.816 4.563 -0.093 -0.185 1.302 5.299 10.734 1.399 0.497 0.592 3.950 0.674 9.354 2.610 5.682 OA 11.146 -0.838 4.082 6.645 4.329 1.234 -2.817 3.544 4.160 1.160 -0.247 5.372 6.721 9.950 10.820 7.280 6.605 7.507 5.075 0.163 12.767 3.481 0.917 15.853 O 2.937 15.968 5.349 1.719 6.45 20.243 3.290 8.992 6.120 25.655

Biostatistics Spring 2013


-8.684 -0.372 21.311 10.831 3.351 9.557

Problem Set 2

Due Date: right before your final exam

Determine if you can conclude that there is a difference among population means. If there is a difference, which group(s) above is (are) different? Let = 0.05 for your tests. 2. A study reported the effects of chewing one piece of nicotine gum (containing 2 mg nicotine) on tic frequency in patients whose Tourettes disorder was inadequately controlled by haloperidol. The following are the tic frequencies under four conditions: Number of Tics during 30-Minute Period After End of Chewing baseline Gum chewing 0-30 minutes 30-60 minutes 249 108 93 59 1095 593 600 861 83 27 32 61 569 363 342 312 368 141 167 180 326 134 144 158 324 126 312 260 95 41 63 71 413 365 282 321 332 293 525 455

patient 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3. Researchers at a trauma center wished to develop a program to help brain-damaged trauma victims regain an acceptable level of independence. An experiment involving 72 subjects with the same degree of brain damage was conducted. The objective was to compare different combinations of psychiatric treatment and physical therapy. Each subject was assigned to one of 24 different combinations of four types of psychiatric treatment and six physical therapy programs. There were three subjects in each combination. The response variable is the number of months elapsing between initiation of therapy and time at which the patient was able to function independently. The results were as follows:

Biostatistics Spring 2013


Physical therapy program I

Problem Set 2

Due Date: right before your final exam

A 11.0 9.6 10.8 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.0 11.5 11.8 11.5 11.8 10.5 11.0 11.2 10.0 11.2 10.8 11.8

Psychiatric Treatment B C 9.4 9.6 9.6 10.8 10.5 10.5 11.5 11.5 12.3 9.4 9.1 10.8 11.2 11.8 10.2 10.8 11.5 10.2 12.5 11.5 10.5 10.5 11.8 11.5 11.8 11.8 12.3 13.7 13.5 12.5 14.4 14.2 13.5 11.5 10.2 11.5

D 13.2 13.2 13.5 15.0 14.6 14.0 12.8 13.7 13.1 14.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 14.2 13.7 11.8 12.8 12.0

II

III

IV

VI

Can one conclude one the basis of these data that the different psychiatric treatment programs have different effects? Can one conclude that the physical therapy programs differ in effectiveness? Can one conclude that there is interaction between psychiatric treatment programs and physical therapy programs? Let =0.05 for each test. 4. Research group studied diabetics insured by two employers. Group 1 subjects were employed by the city of Asheville, North Carolina, and group 2 subjects were employed by Mission-St. Josephs Health System. At the start of the study, the researchers performed the Mann-Whitney U test to determine if a significant difference in weight existed between the two study groups. The data are displayed in the following table. Weight (lbs) 252 240 205 200 170 170 320 148 214 Group 1 215 190 270 159 204 215 254 164 288 240 302 312 126 268 215 183 287 210 185 310 212 238 184 136 200 270 200 Group 2 195 210 190 172 190 140 280 264 270 220 295 202 268 220 311 164 206 170

Biostatistics Spring 2013


270 265 203 138 240 217

Problem Set 2
225 258 221 212 182 225

Due Date: right before your final exam


210 192 126 190

5. The following table shows the pesticide residue levels (ppb) in blood samples from four populations of human subjects. Use the Kruskal-Wallis test to test at the 0.05 level of significant the null hypothesis that there is no difference among the populations with respect to average level of pesticide residue. A 10 37 12 31 11 9 44 12 15 42 23 Population B C 4 15 35 5 32 10 19 12 33 6 18 6 11 9 7 11 32 9 17 14 8 15 D 7 11 10 8 2 5 4 5 2 6 3