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- Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front -

Urban Planning and Management


7. Semester Group UPM03
January 2006
The Faculty of Engineering and Science
Department of development and planning

Theme: The complex city


Title: Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
Study: Urban Planning and Management
Project period: 16. September 2005 - 5. January 2006
Project group: UPM0703
Supervisor: David Flynn
Group members:

_________________________________________
Walid Darwish Mostafa

_________________________________________
Jacob Hylling Poulsen

_________________________________________
Isaac Kwamena Arthur

_________________________________________
Number printed: 7
Violeta Paniagua Gil
Number of pages: 125, 47

Appendices: 3
_________________________________________
María José Pérez Abellán
Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................... 1

ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................... 3

PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................... 4

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 6


1.1. Background................................................................................................................ 6
1.2. Historical Development of Aalborg .......................................................................... 8
1.3. Research Rationale .................................................................................................... 9
1.4. Problem Formulation............................................................................................... 10
1.5. Structure and Research Methodology...................................................................... 11
1.5.1. Outline Structure of the Project ........................................................................ 11
1.5.2. Research Design ............................................................................................... 12
1.5.3. Theoretical Source of Material ......................................................................... 13
1.5.4. Empirical Information ...................................................................................... 13
1.6. Limitation of Work.................................................................................................. 15

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................... 16


2.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 16
2.2. Concepts .................................................................................................................. 17
2.3. Different Scales and Strategies for Waterfront Redevelopment ............................. 18
2.3.1. Global Imperatives, Local Forces and Waterfront Redevelopment ................. 19
2.3.2. Redevelopment Strategies ................................................................................ 21
2.4. Urban Waterside Regeneration: “ the Water’s edge. The Space between Buildings
and Water”...................................................................................................................... 22
2.5. Tourist Potentials in Relation to Harbour Front Redevelopment ....................... 25
2.5.1. Sustainable Tourism Development................................................................... 29

CHAPTER THREE: THEORETICAL FRAME WORK .................................................. 32


3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 32
3.2. Keys for a Redevelopment Waterfront Plan in Aalborg City.................................. 32
3.3. Tourism Development in Theory ............................................................................ 35

CHAPTER FOUR: SITUATION ANALYSIS IN THE AALBORG CENTRAL


HARBOUR FRONT .......................................................................................................... 38
4.1. General perception about Aalborg........................................................................... 39
4.1.1. City model ........................................................................................................ 39
4.1.2. Aalborg Municipal Authority’s strategy .......................................................... 40
4.2. Focus on Aalborg Waterfront .................................................................................. 47
4.3. Study Area ............................................................................................................... 49
4.3.1. The inner city - Actual situation ....................................................................... 49
4.3.2. Future situation: Aalborg Municipal Authority’s plans ................................... 52

CHAPTER FIVE: ANALYSIS OF AALBORG MUNICIPAL AUTHORITY’S


STRATEGIES FOR THE CENTRAL HARBOUR FRONT ............................................ 59
5.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 59

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

5.2. Urban Planning........................................................................................................ 60


5.2.1. Mixed Uses ....................................................................................................... 60
5.2.2. Accessibility ..................................................................................................... 75
5.2.3. Urban Design Analysis..................................................................................... 87
5.3. Economical Aspects ................................................................................................ 99
5.3.1. Economical Analysis ........................................................................................ 99
5.3.2. Tourism: Potential and Attraction to Waterfront Regeneration in Aalborg ... 106

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION..................................................................................... 121

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 123

APPENDIX A: PICTURES & MAP................................................................................ 126


APPENDIX A.1: PICTURES ...................................................................................... 126
APPENDIX A.2: MAP................................................................................................. 133

APPENDIX B: INTERVIEWS ........................................................................................ 135


APPENDIX B.1: INTERVIEW WITH RIE MALLING (Architect) FROM
AALBORG MUNICIPALITY ...................... 135
APPENDIX B.2: INTERVIEW WITH PETER HERMANSEN FROM TOURIST
INFORMATION OFFICE ............... 147
APPENDIX B.3: INTERVIEW WITH NIELS ANDERSEN (Chairman) FROM
“AALBORG CITY” ............. 152
APPENDIX B.4: INTERVIEW WITH BO VAGNBY (Professor) FROM
AALBORG UNIVERSITY ........... 156

APPENDIX C: OTHER CASE STUDIES....................................................................... 165


APPENDIX C.1: BARCELONA- PORT VELL (SPAIN) .......................................... 165
APPENDIX C.2: MALMÖ (SWEDEN) ...................................................................... 168
APPENDIX C.3: BALTIMORE (USA)....................................................................... 170
APPENDIX C.4: NICE (FRANCE)............................................................................. 171

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

ABSTRACT

The Aalborg waterfront area in recent times has lost its vibrant and industrial status. In the
quest to solve this problem, the municipal authorities have proposed a strategy to revitalise
the Central Harbour Front. The revitalisation strategy includes linking the Central Harbour
Front with the inner city in order to establish an optimum usage and also create a vibrant
atmosphere of both places for its citizens.

This project is focused on finding out if the proposed strategy can deliver the stated
benefits for the city. It also aims to assess how the Central Harbour Front could be linked
with central district and make it attractive to citizens and visitors, and also the economic
potentials that can be obtained from the project.

This assessment is centred on both theoretical and empirical approach. Series of expert
interviews were also conducted to obtain empirical data for analysis.

A critical analysis of the Municipal Authority’s plans was conducted in relation to mixed
uses, urban design, traffic accessibility, economics and political concepts. The analysis
showed the above concepts has the potential of making the central waterfront attractive
and can create a vibrant resource for the city.

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The choice of topic for our project owed to the belief that, Aalborg has great potentials
around the Limfjorden that have not been exploited to the optimum. The fact that most of
the members of the groups are foreigners from different countries that are characterised
with important development and urban planning around harbour areas, contributed to
attract our attention to realise that Aalborg does not take advantage of these potentials. The
benefits of these potentials could be realised culturally, environmental, social and
economical sense for the whole city and the Northen part of Jutland.

This project has become a challenge for all of us, not only because of doing it in English
language, which is not our mother tongue, but also because of the complex process that we
have to go through to get it done.

To understand deeply the situation of the harbour front, we were supposed to study and to
analyse its historical development, the current situation and the proposed future plan of the
Aalborg Municipal Authority. We intended to study the waterfront on a bigger scale, to
have a deeper insight of what is happening in the area. Later, we chose to focus only on
the area called Central Water Front to analyse it on a smaller scale. This was also
important for us to meet our project deadline and work within our available resources.

Along this process, we sought for literature and theories that supported our ideas; we
studied the current and future plans for the area, and conducted some interviews that let us
know the opinion of different groups directly and indirectly concerned with development
of the master plan.

In this way, the working process has been developing from more general ideas about
waterfront regeneration towards some more concrete aspects such as the mixed- uses of
activities at the waterfront, the traffic accessibility or tourism attraction. Thus, we have
outlined the potentials elements that the waterfront has, considering urban planning as a
tool for improvement and regeneration in a more social and economic manner.

This project would not have been possible without the collaboration of several people who
answered our interviews, and helped us to look for information. We would like to express
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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

our deepest thanks to the Aalborg Municipality, which gave us some pieces of
information and maps about the future plans. Our appreciation goes to some of personnel
of the Aalborg Municipality especially Helle Jakobsen, who gave us the opportunity to
participate in the Aalborg Harbour Workshop, and to Rie Malling who patiently answered
our questions on the future plan of the waterfront area.

We are also really thankful to Peter Hermansen from the Tourist Office, to Niels Andersen
from “Aalborg City”, and to Professor Bo Vagnby of Aalborg University. These people
also gave us the opportunity to interview them. They gave us their respective opinions
about the current plans for the waterfront and explained to us their point of view through
some suggestions and alternatives for developing the Aalborg central harbour front.
Finally our warmest thanks goes to our supervisor, David Flynn, for orienting us in our
working process and encouraging us to continue in the correct way.

At this juncture, it is important to know that we have used Harvard Method to make the
references; it means that we have indicated the name of the authors, the year of the
publication of the ideas and the number of pages where you can find them. At the end of
the report a list of references includes more information about the sources used. There are
also appendices with some additional information such as pictures, map of the future plan
the waterfront, interviews, and other examples of successful waterfront regeneration plans
in other cities.

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION


1.1. Background

Historical observations bare the fact that human civilisations have transformed the nature
of societies from simple to complex over the years. These developments can be attributed
to the growing and complex social, cultural, economic and environmental needs of people
in society. From time to time, aspects of some physical fabric of communities become
obsolete or outlive its usefulness; hence the need for redevelopment1 becomes relevant.
Redevelopment of open spaces including harbour front areas has become important
initiative for urban development not only to beautify the place but also to enhance socio-
economic development.

In the case of Aalborg, the present state of its harbour front area has become a mainstream
issue, which has necessitated a need for redevelopment. This is evident by the Aalborg
Municipal Authority’s objective and aspirations to regenerate the harbour front and link it
with the city. This is due to the municipal authority’s vision of the role of Aalborg as the
city around the Limfjord, with the fjord being the central element [City of Aalborg
Municipality, 2005, p.5]. Redevelopment of the area is expected to add vitality to its
present infrastructure and also establish new ones as part of the municipality’s
development.

Geographically, the harbour front of Aalborg lies parallel along the banks of the Limfjord.
Over the years, the harbour front has been a location for multifunctional activities and has
benefited the inhabitants of the community and beyond in both social and economical
contexts. Aalborg has long been traditionally industrial with the harbour front as major
spatial area of operations. Specific activities at the harbour front are predominantly
commercial and industrial, which have contributed to what Aalborg is today.

Recent development however indicates a decline in the vibrant industrial activities in the
harbour area. The place is currently depressed and thus facing neglect. Most industries that
bore the hallmark of the city are out of operation; hence the area being under utilised and
also unattractive to the local people. There are currently less social and economic

1
See definition of concepts in chapter 2, page 19.
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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

activities, uneasy pedestrian access to area, and also the risk of environmental pollution
from the activities of some factories in the area.

“The Fjord Catalogue, adopted in 1999, is a strategic master plan prepared by Aalborg
City Municipality to govern the development of two waterfront areas near the city centre -
on the north and south banks of the Limfjord - which are owned by the Municipality and
several private landowners. These former industrial areas are designated to become a
multifunctional contemporary urban district”. [Porter, G. & Zidema, C. 2005. URL:
Liveable Cities Case Report - Aalborg Harbour front, Version: 6 December 2005 URL:
http://www.eurocities.org/liveablecities/IMG/doc/aalborg-case-06dec05__FINAL_.doc
(Date accessed 20/12/2005)]

Considering the spatial area for development, it implies the entire harbour front in Aalborg
is quite a large area that needs revitalisation. However, in this study we are interested in
the redevelopment of the Central Harbour Front, which has been under utilised in recent
times and also the inability of the municipality to create a physical link or amalgamate it
with the central district in terms of functions and activities.

Figure 1: Aerial Map and View of the Aalborg Central Harbour front
Source:[http://www.aalborg.dk/Borgerportal/Serviceomraader/Byen/Havnefront/Aalborg+Centrale+Havnefr
ont.htm & http://www.aalborg.dk/NR/rdonlyres/A4DAF3D1-3B01-40FA-A107-
484AB03B8340/2563/16aalborgslot.jpg Date accessed 29/12/2005]

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

This idea has been drawn from the fact that in 1993, the Aalborg municipality in
consultation with its citizens decided to embark on inner city revitalisation. This has
resulted in a number of urban revitalisation projects in the municipality in present times.
On the other hand, the Central Harbour Area happens to be close to the inner city and thus
redeveloping this area to link both places together would bridge uniformity and also pull
equal social and economic benefits for the community.

It is also important for us choose this area for study regarding the proposed plans for
regeneration by the Municipal Authority, which appears attractive and has the potential of
being unified with the city centre in terms of their closeness to each other and also could
generate social and economic benefits for the community.

1.2. Historical Development of Aalborg

Aalborg is a 1000-year-old city that emerged during the Viking age. The town used to be
identified with crafts production and tradesmen. The Limfjorden has always been
important for Aalborg. The ocean, land, ships gave good possibilities for trade and sea
transport in the past and present. The geometrical midpoint of the two territories
Himmerland and Vendsyssel, gave Aalborg an important role, when people were crossing
Limfjorden. These economic conditions have been in existence since the settlement and
development of Aalborg. [Bender, 1987, p.15-17, 20-22] The area around Limfjorden was
richly endowed with fish especially herring, and it was very important source of food for
the people in Aalborg and also as export commodity. [Bender, 1987, p. 27]

Aalborg has experienced big changes within the last 150 years. Population figures have
multiplied, and also the scope and physical look of the city have undergone dramatic
changes. Former social, economical and cultural conditions have been replaced with new
development. Basically these changes have been caused by the industrial development in
the town. [ibid. p.15 -17]

The genesis of industrialisation in Aalborg from 1850 dramatically changed the town step
by step; with new factories and buildings established. At the same time the population
growth, as illustrated in table 1.below also show a drastic change. At the start of Aalborg’s

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

industrialisation in 1850, there were 8000 inhabitants, and today the number is 15 times
bigger with a population of about 121,000.

1801 1845 1880 1901 1921 1950 2005


6.000 8.000 14.000 32.000 61.000 104.000 121.000
Table 1. Approximate population in Aalborg
[Bender, 1998, p. 26, 222] & [Porter, G. & Zidema, C. 2005. URL: Liveable Cities Case Report - Aalborg
Harbour front, Version: 6 December 2005 URL: http://www.eurocities.org/liveablecities/IMG/doc/aalborg-
case-06dec05__FINAL_.doc (Date accessed 20/12/2005)]

The results of the industrialisation can still be seen today in Aalborg. In the city of
Aalborg, one finds industrial areas, some of which are still active, and others closed down.
Some of the most important industries are Aalborg Portland Cement Factory, C.W. Obel
Tobacco Factory, the alcohol industry, textiles industry, metal industry, shipyard industry,
slaughterhouses, chemicals, building materials, cargo and freight. [Bender, 1998, p. 26-
222].

Many of these industries were located at the harbour front. There are some industries still
in operation, while others have presently moved their production to other places leaving
big empty areas in Aalborg and especially at the harbour front where many of them were
located. Some empty spaces along the harbour front have been developed for residential
and commercial purposes.

1.3. Research Rationale

This study has been chosen for assessment of the actual situation at the Central Harbour
Front and to formulate redevelopment measures to make it attractive to both local people
and visitors. To utilise the wasting spatial area at the harbour front, highlight on certain
revitalisation strategies that could give the area a new cultural, economic, social, and
environmental outlook and function for the benefit of the community.

In this regard, the functional outlook of the place is aimed at transforming the area from
industrial manufacturing to a service provision hub. These redevelopment measures would
be focused on establishment of mix infrastructure such as business recreational and
amusement centres, easy pedestrian access, and improved physical environment. This is

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

aimed at establishing an iconic stature, new socio-economic identity for Aalborg and
attractive centre for the local population and visitors. In this case, the spatial outlook of the
Central Harbour Front is expected to be elaborate in design, and have a new
multifunctional usage.

1.4. Problem Formulation

Considering the unattractive state of the Aalborg harbour front2, this project intends to
analyse how this situation could be improved. In view of this aim, the problem
formulation set for this project is: can regeneration of the Aalborg central harbour front
generate attractive and vibrant resources for the city? In addressing this hypothesis we
will assess the following:
• current Aalborg municipality plans to regenerating the central waterfront
• how can the central waterfront be physically linked with existing city centre
• the potentials for mixed uses of activities such as business, entertainment, sports,
and tourism attraction in the area
• how can an easy traffic access be established to link the harbours front with the
city centre.

2
See pictures in Appendix A.1.
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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

1.5. Structure and Research Methodology


1.5.1. Outline Structure of the Project

Chapter 1 1. Introduction:
Background
Research Rationale
Problem Formulation
Research Methodology
Chapter 2
2. Literature Review:
Definition of Concepts
Different scales and strategies for Waterfront
Redevelopment
Urban Waterside Regeneration
Chapter 3 Tourism & Harbour front Redevelopment

3. Theoretical Framework:
Keys for Waterfront Redevelopment plan in
Chapter 4 Aalborg
Tourism Development in Theory

4. Situation Analysis of Aalborg Waterfront:

5. Analysis of Aalborg Municipal Authority’s


Chapter 5 Strategies for the Central Harbour Front

Chapter 6 6. Conclusion

• Chapter One: Introduction


This chapter presents an introduction, which spells out the background situation of the
study area, historical development of Aalborg, problem formulation, structure and research
methodology and limitations of the project.

• Chapter Two: Literature Review


This is a literature review mainly based on various secondary data on waterfront
redevelopment, mixed uses, tourism and accessibility concepts. These concepts are applied
from a critical dimension to show different theoretical perceptions.

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

• Chapter Three: Theoretical Framework


It provides a theoretical framework on key strategies to waterfront redevelopment in
Aalborg, mixed uses of activities, and tourism as a catalyst for development. Mixed uses
and tourism concepts are viewed as incentive for attractions to achieve the goals of the
city’s waterfront regeneration.

• Chapter Four: Situation Analysis of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front


This is an empirical section of the project that presents the situation analysis of the
Aalborg central waterfront, the inner city, and municipal authorities’ general strategies for
inner city and waterfront redevelopment.

• Chapter Five: Analysis of Aalborg Municipal Authority’s Strategies for the


Central Harbour Front
This shows analysis of Aalborg Municipality’s redevelopment strategies for the central
harbour front in relation to urban planning, and the strategies’ feasible potentials of
attracting people to the waterfront and link with the city centre. Various suggestions are
given based on themes analysed.

• Chapter Six: Conclusion


This is a conclusion of the entire project work

1.5.2. Research Design

In view of the existing problem of the study area, we formulated a research question in
order to assess the situation at stake. In the quest to work on the research question we first
decided to apply a qualitative approach to this study. Then we went further to produce the
literature review. Based on the concepts reviewed from the various literature sources, we
collected relevant data related to the study in order to answer the research question. This
was mainly data pertaining to situation analysis of the study area, and strategies developed
by the Aalborg Municipal Authority to revitalise the central harbour front. The data was
then presented to serve as a tool for analysis. The next stage after the data collection was
analysis of strategies developed by the Aalborg Municipal Authority to revitalise the
central harbour front. The analysis helped us to identify certain loopholes within the
Municipality’s strategies and came out with certain concepts, which could be applied in
order to make the study area more attractive and also be used as a vibrant resource.
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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

1.5.3. Theoretical Source of Material

This project takes it main direction on waterfront front redevelopment and factors that
would make it attractive to the city. These concepts therefore provide the roots for
theoretical framework and analysis. In this regard, mixed uses of activities, traffic
accessibility and tourism have been outlined as main measures for creating an attractive
environment and linkage of the waterfront area with the inner city. The literature obtained
for this project were from secondary sources such as textbooks, published articles from the
library and internet websites including the official websites of Aalborg Municipality, and
Aalborg Tourism Information Office.

1.5.4. Empirical Information

The theoretical source of materials served as important tool for undertaken this project in
terms of presentation of issues, definition and analyses. However, in order to have a good
qualitative research and also concretise the various concepts and theories chosen for this
project, we conducted an empirical survey. The survey took the form of expert interviews.
The interviews conducted can be referenced in Appendix B.

The profiles of these experts were professionals from the Aalborg Municipal Authority
Office, Tourist Office, City Commercial Association (“Aalborg City”) and an academic
from the Aalborg University. Due to very limited time frame at our disposal and the
qualitative nature of this project, we chose a semi-structured interview instead of a
questionnaire.

INTERVIEW SUBJECTS
1. Name: Rie Malling
Organisation: Aalborg Municipal Authority
Title: Architect
Rie Malling has been with the Municipality for the past 6 years, and also has been
involved in the regeneration plans for the Aalborg waterfront since 2003. Her relevance to
this study is to give us an insight of the designed strategies for the Waterfront regeneration
by the municipal authority. The essence was basically to help in our analytical approach to
the study. Malling responded to series of questions about the importance of the waterfront
project for the city, its potentials of attracting people, the essence of the plans for the area,

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

the problem of having existing industries close to the new plans, and the time schedule for
the plans. Answers to all these questions can be found in the appendix B.1. of this study.

2. Name : Peter Hermansen


Organisation: Aalborg Tourist Information Office
Title: Development Officer
Hermansen is responsible for information technology, technical visits, sports tourism,
cruises, and development projects. He responded to questions on the importance of
tourism, tourism potentials, the potential of current waterfront regenerations to attract
tourist and also the potential of the waterfront area to attract tourist to the city of Aalborg.
His responses were personal ideas; others were based on facts in the city and also from his
professional point of view. Detailed questions and responses can be found in appendix
B.2. of this study.

3. Name : Niels Andersen


Organisation: The Inner City Commerce Organisation - “Aalborg City”
Title: Chairman
His association has 310 members the second largest in Denmark. Again he was former
chairman of the Aalborg harbour front regeneration committee for 5 years. He responded
to questions on his general opinion about the Municipal Authority’s plans for the
waterfront redevelopment on commerce; his view about how redevelopment of waterfront
will affect the inner city- mostly shops, restaurants, offices; the possibilities of bridging
the city centre with the central waterfront area; how will any alteration of the
Nyhavnsgaden3 affect economic aspect of the inner city and the harbour front. His
responses to these questions were from personal views and others mostly based on factual
issues from his organisation and the Municipal Authority’s policies and strategies. Details
of this interview are in appendix B.3.

4. Name : Bo Vagnby
Organisation: Department of Urban Planning & Management, Aalborg
University

3
The main street in front of Aalborg harbour front.
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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

Title: Assistant Professor

The main reason for this interview was to balance our information from both
academician’s point of view and that of other professionals to help us in our analysis from
both practice and theory. Prof. Vagnby has been an academic for over 30 years, and also a
practicing planner and consultant. He responded to the questions such his own impression
about the strategies for redeveloping the central waterfront area in Aalborg; the possibility
for the Municipal Authority to achieve the current strategies for waterfront regeneration;
personal views for possible alternative waterfront redevelopment strategies; the relevance
of the Music House project at the waterfront area; and effects of altering the original
architecture design of the Music House in attracting people. Extracts of this interview can
be found in Appendix B. 4.

1.6. Limitation of Work

Problems encountered through out this project were mainly lack of literature on the
Aalborg central harbour front, and differences among group members in terms of
academic and cultural backgrounds. It was a difficult to obtain more pertinent literature on
the study area.

The absence of this problem could have helped us to analyse the situation of the study area
in great depth. On the other hand, we managed to utilise significantly the few ones at our
disposal.

The differences in culture and academic backgrounds made it difficult to agree on some
individual ideas for the project. It takes a lot of time and explanations to agree on some
methodological approaches to the project, and also conflicting areas of interest. However,
we managed to compromise at the end of it all to get the project done.

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

“Cities undergo constant change. They are never static, never finished, always adjusting
to new circumstances” [Couch, C. et al. 2003, p. xv]. This explains the dynamics of cities
and hence the reason for redevelopment or regeneration in order to meet the needs of
present generation as well as the future in an urban context. This is more or less a global
phenomenon with regards to the changing social, economic and cultural trends of
societies. One of the causes to these dynamics in European cities within the last 30 years
has been attributed to the fast radical restructuring of the economic base of cities from
centres of manufacturing production to services and centres of consumption [ibid.].

This situation can be described as not different in the case of Aalborg, which has
experienced a downward trend of manufacturing production activities to services
production lately. This is also evident by the decline in manufacturing industrial activities
at the city’s harbour front. The present decline of manufacturing industrial activities in the
harbour area of Aalborg; and hence its central area calls for a redevelopment. That is to
adjust the present nature of the place to a new development of ‘mixed uses’ of activities
and to establish an attractive link with the inner city, and also to promote tourism. In this
regard, the redevelopment of the harbour front in this study shall focus on establishment of
physical structures for mixed uses that would serve a social, economic and cultural
purpose.

Based on these concepts, the essence of this chapter is to review from theoretical
perspective the redevelopment of the Aalborg central harbour front. The review is based
on various secondary sources that offer, similar and antithetical views on the subjects in
question, and also our personal stands on the subjects. The subjects are as follows:

• Definition of concepts.
• Different scales and strategies for waterfront redevelopment.
• Urban waterside regeneration; “The water’s edge: the space between
buildings and water”.

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Urban Planning and Management Regeneration of the Aalborg Central Harbour Front
The Complex City Aalborg University
Project Group 3

• Tourism and harbour front redevelopment.

2.2. Concepts

a) Harbour Front / Waterfront


‘Harbour front’ and ‘waterfront’ are used interchangeably in this study as well as other
literature sources at our disposal to mean the same thing. The reason has to do with the
fact that a harbour front or waterfront is a spatial area close to water or sea. However, it
can be distinguished that a spatial area close to water might not be close to a sea but a
river. The encyclopaedia Britannica defines a harbour as any part of a body of water and
the manmade structures surrounding it that sufficiently shelters a vessel from wind, waves,
and currents, enabling safe anchorage or the discharge and loading of cargo and
passengers. [URL: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9117293?query=definition%
20of% 20 harbour % 20front&ct (Date accessed 12/11/2005)]

On this premise, one can infer from this definition that, the manmade structures on the
water surroundings could be described as waterfront or harbour front. However these
structures in the context of this study do not serve as shelter for ships among others as
explained above, but rather structures that serve different purposes such as offices, cafes,
restaurants, festival venues etc. In other words have a direct function for social and
economic significance to people.

b) Mixed Uses
The term ‘mixed uses’ is used from theoretical point of view to a mean an application of
multifunctional establishment and usage of physical structures in a spatial area. The area
in question could be a city centre or waterfront area. With regards to waterfront
redevelopment, the term mixed uses is applied as utilisation of the area for activities such
as cultural centres, offices, shops, recreational and amusement centres. Several urban
redevelopment programmes have been initiated based on mixed uses. Regeneration
strategy of Duke Street/Bold street area, Liverpool in 1997 was based on mixed uses
‘creative industrial’ quarter. The same can be said of the first draft document in [1997,

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p.4] of the Cottonera, Malta waterfront regeneration programme4, which sought to apply
mixed uses concept.

c) Redevelopment / Regeneration
The above terms are also used in this study to serve the same purpose. According to
Couch, [2003, p. 2], regeneration concerns itself with regrowth of economic activity
where it has been lost; the restoration of social function where there has been dysfunction,
or social inclusion where there has been exclusion; and the restoration of environmental
quality or ecological balance where it has been lost. In this regard, Couch affirms that
urban regeneration is an aspect of the management and planning of existing urban areas
rather than the planning and development of new urbanisation [ibid.]. This explains the
concept of waterfront/ harbour front regeneration/ redevelopment as not establishing a new
harbour front area but managing the existing area by injecting vitality in terms of
functional usage.

2.3. Different Scales and Strategies for Waterfront


Redevelopment

The redevelopment of waterfronts is a highly complex task that involves professionals of


many disciplines. The exchange of knowledge in an international network between
contacts involved in waterfronts on different levels offers both individual support and
information about the most important projects completed or underway.5

The history of urban waterfront developments can be understood from a modified version
of the economic rent model [West, 1989]. The model was made based on the theory and
empirical data that suggest land use is determined by the economic possibilities in each
area.

4
See URL: www.mepa.org.mtplanningfactbkbriefscottonerra_waterfront.pdf.pdf (Date accessed
12/11/2005)
5
See URL: www.waterfrontexpo.com/portal/philosophy.shtml (Date accessed14/11/2005)
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2.3.1. Global Imperatives, Local Forces and Waterfront Redevelopment

Waterfront activities have traditionally been analysed within a least cost framework
concerned with evaluation of economic and sometimes political forces as they bear upon
particular port areas and in the waterfront redevelopment we can find different scales of
redevelopment.

A.- The International Scale

The global event is of great significance to maritime transport and therefore to ports is
widely accepted, but it is submitted that insufficient cognisance is taken of the sheer
breadth of each events. The international trade cycle of boom and recessions and
confirmed by product life cycle theory and international trade theory, goes some way to
explaining the timing of port expansion. [Riley,R. & Louis, S., 1988, p.37]

B.- The National Scale

Whatever the strength of international constraints, national governments undoubtedly


possess considerable room for manoeuvre. An example government in somewhere funds
have been devoted to motorway building, and although there has been a general reduction
in the friction of distance there has inevitably been spatial differential, with poorly served
ports tending to lose economic imputes and gain surplus space [ibid.].

C.- The Local Scale

It may appear that the scope for local initiatives may be attenuated, lending support for the
belief that spatial government and corporate polices, together with wider societal changes,
and developed between city management, local business interests [ibid.].

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Top – Down pressures.

(A) Port sites situation

(B) Bottom up pressures

Figure 2. A framework for the analysis of waterfront redevelopment


Source: [Hoyle, B. S. et al., 1988, p. 42]

This figure indicates schematically how site and situation are at the interface of position
between two forces. A (Local scale) and B (National scale) because in the first one have
differentiated between ports but in second one the former is proactive, is locally owned,
and a good working relationships exit between local actors.

The local scale is an exemplification of the power if bottom up forces is difficult if the aim
is to present a representative cross section of their influence.

The power of international and national forces in initiating change, more particularly in
generating redundant port space and in creating the possibility of redevelopment, is not in
dispute. At the local scale it is very important to link between local socio-economic and
political influences, local actors and site situation parameters. However, it does
demonstrate the analytical benefits to be derived from merging the (top down) and (bottom
up) influences to create a more balanced holistic framework and it is argued the wider
application of this approach will greatly increase our understanding of waterfront
revitalisation processes worldwide. [Riley, R. & Louis, S., 1988, p.42-45-46]

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2.3.2. Redevelopment Strategies

Schemes of waterfront redevelopment seldom become fully implemented as they were


first envisaged. As circumstances change, the emphases within the scheme become
modified to meet the new conditions.

The first strategy that is crystallising most clearly is perhaps the most obvious option, site
conversion for light industry, warehousing and other storage that will typically be
unrelated to port activity.

Once the site is cleared, physical conversion to alternative industrial uses is likely to be
technically straightforward [Hoyle, B.S. et al. 1988, p.237]. It is unlikely that planning
will impede the transition from refining to other industrial or commercial uses. The main
concept in this strategy, at protect the environment in the waterfront.

In the second strategy, the landscape is a main concept, if valued landscapes are involved
where creative park boundary bisects the site, commercial exploitation could be presumed
undesirable. But is not conversion to low density, informal recreation a viable option in
such cases particularly if sites or parts of sites are released to public authorities for
development [ibid. p.238-241].

About different policy impact in waterfront redevelopment is that urban development


ensues from a process of conflict resolution and waterfront is a very explicit and he found
problem when he wanted to do redevelopment to waterfront [Craig, S. & Fagence, M.,
1995 , p. xv].

Conflicts between government agencies, social versus commercial objectives, and


conservation versus redevelopment approaches. A universal problem is that friction when
past uses of land and water persist in juxtaposition to the newcomers. Although some
juxtaposing is often favoured and is becoming more accepted by newcomers traditional
uses may remain sufficiently active to raise concern about both competition and negative.

This kind of conflict is dealt with in the second strategy that we have mentioned before.
This strategy is more focused in specific issues, such as landscape design, different uses
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that should be combined and at the same time try to protect this area from different kinds
of pollution. But, which of these issues should be the most important one to consider when
a redevelopment waterfront plan has been implemented?

2.4. Urban Waterside Regeneration: “ the Water’s edge. The


Space between Buildings and Water”

Historically docks areas have been advantageous places where the commercial and
transport activity has favoured the development of the city, and the arrival of new cultural
flows. There are so many cities and towns that are based on water, and they have grown up
around ports or river crossing, in which sides they have focused commerce, industry and
transport.

Because of it, this kind of cities has been often economically and cultural leaders.
Nowadays, some of them have had a fast decline of the traditional industry located in the
harbour area, but they continue having large areas of waterfront that could turn to great
urban spaces if they are redeveloped. This can be demonstrated by several examples of
cities, such as Barcelona, Malmö6 or Rotterdam, where the regenerated waterfronts have
become one of the liveliest districts of the cities.

So, the role of planners is to try to increase the value of the harbour area and to revitalise it
in the correct way. When a redevelopment plan is carried out, different experts do not
always agree among themselves on what are the most important aspects of the urban space
to emphasize. Some ideas are exposed in this literature review.

Firstly, from a general point of view, Falk (1984) devotes himself to identify the most
important problems in a redevelopment plan and the methodology that, in his opinion,
should be followed.

The main important problems in a redevelopment plan are, according to Falk (1984) as in
White, K.N. et al, 1993 p. 24:
1. Provide infrastructures

6
See Appendix C
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2. Arrange finance.
3. Find time to reach agreement between the different groups of people that are
affected by the new plan.

“The successful regeneration follows a process called Balanced Incremental


Development, which satisfies three fundamental principles:
- Social justice, which is the idea that the existing community should not lose out
as a result of development, but should secure some benefit in terms of their most
pressing needs.
- Natural balance, the idea that development should be appropriate to the context
and not harmful to the environment, so that a sustainable place is created.
- Minimization of waste, the idea that existing resources should be fully used where
possible.” [ibid].

From a more specific point of view and more focused in the waterfront, according to
Owen (1993), the water’s edge, that is defined like “the space between buildings and
water”, [ibid., p.15], has had different treatment according to the relationship between
buildings and water, based on different widths of space, uses or heights of buildings. All
these variables are important and determinants for the quality of space that we can get in
the water’s edge.

In Owens’s opinion, currently, dock areas are being redeveloped with an emphasis on the
land uses rather than the use of water. So, the first step to know which uses could be
developed in the water’s edge is to distinguish that there is a wide variety of waterfront
forms, [ibid., p. 16] and after that, we will realize that the use of this variety of forms can
actually be commercially beneficial and can create greater quality of urban spaces.

This variety of forms differs mainly in the substantial space between buildings and water.
The palette of main forms is the one that it is possible to observe in Figure 3:

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Figure 3. Examples of types of water/ building interface and ground line analysis
of each. Source:[White, K.N. et al, 1993 , p. 17]

On the other hand, from an engineering point of view, Curll (1993) as in White, K.N. et
al. [1993, p.129] considers to be “essential ingredients for any waterside development-
project should be 'clean', 'alive' and 'accessible'” .

Logically, a clean place will be more attractive than other one that is not. But, cleanliness
in a waterfront includes not only the good quality of water, but also the land environment.
Currently, in many countries they are imposing increasingly stiff regulations over shore

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side discharges, and the redevelopment plans of the water’s edge also supports the high
quality of the land environment.

Ecologically, a clean environment will support an ‘alive’ ecosystem. But, according to


Curll (1993), ‘alive’ for the waterfront also means an active place with ship traffic and
active cargo handling, tourism, offices, public activities, even small investments as
binocular stands or tanks of live lobsters.

However, unless access is provided the effort for turning the waterfront an attractive place
will be for nought. “For people, accessible means being able to get the waterfront and
walk along it. (...) Good access is often a function of attention paid to engineering detail ”.
[ibid., p. 141].

Finally, another important item to consider in the urban waterside regeneration is the
design of the environment, especially if we are interested in promoting new economic
activities and investments like tourism. The relevance of the design in the waterfront plans
is clear. There are several examples of this importance in cities like Barcelona, London,
Genoa or Malmö7, where new and modern buildings, and new designed- walkways along
the water’s edge have been built. These do not only give to the city a high quality lifestyle,
but also make the place more attractive, especially for tourism.

We should not forget that tourism is one of the activities that can attract greater incomes,
especially if we consider the potential of the water’s edge cities.

2.5. Tourist Potentials in Relation to Harbour Front


Redevelopment

Waterfront developments in most cities of the world are in no doubt considered as


important aspects of urban development considering their benefits in terms of social and
economic gains including tourism. In Aalborg, redeveloping its harbour front could serve
as a potential attraction for tourist considering the transformation of the harbour’s
industrial manufacturing activities to the establishment of mixed uses of services at the
place. “The sights, the sound, the smell and the feeling of water have an attracting effect
7
See Appendix C
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on most people and contribute to the fact that utilisation of waterfronts stands as an
attractive strategy” [Vagnby, B., 2005, p.8].

The development strategy in urban planning, in the context of waterfront or harbour front
redevelopment have a potential of attracting tourist to experience such developments,
improve local economies through business and also the social life of people. This has been
the case in most cities and thus has been adopted in some waterfront redevelopment
strategies.

One of the objectives to redevelop the Cottonera waterfront, Malta, was to transform the
area into a thriving cultural, commercial and recreational area for tourist and locals.8

This strategy gives an indication that tourist attraction serves as a clue to bring about
developmental growth to the area, and hence show the benefits that could be borne from
redevelopment of the area. In this regard tourism attractions serve as a source of economic
gains due revenues that would be accrued from tourist. Karma, K. K. [1997, p.11],
describes the economic significance of tourism as being able to generate added value,
employment and foreign exchange.

The above emphasis is obvious in the sense that, various developmental infrastructure put
in place can bring about added value to the area in question; established organisations and
activities shall be manned by people, and that is employment; foreign visitors who come to
these places would bring foreign exchange which has the potential of helping the nation in
its international trade. The benefits of foreign exchange are much advantageous to
developing economies that depends largely on foreign exchange mostly for their import
trade.

Other urban redevelopment projects have become tourism attractions in areas such as
inner city, inner harbour redevelopment. Many of such redevelopment projects have been
established to improve physical image of cities, and have become popular tourist
destinations. Cities such as Liverpool, Baltimore, Rotterdam, Hamburg, and Barcelona
have had experiences of harbour redevelopments [Duursma, J., 2001, pp.11-12] that

8
See “Development brief for the Regeneration of the Cottonera Waterfront, First Draft, 1997. URL:
www.mepa.org.mtplanning factbkbriefsCottonera_Waterfront.pdf. Date Accessed 12/11/2005)
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currently serve as tourism destination. Some waterfront redevelopments projects have


been established with tourism focus. “Recent waterfront developments and
redevelopments schemes in the West Indies have been largely associated with tourism”
[Craig-Smith, S. J., & Fagence, M. (eds.) 1995, p. 93]. These redevelopments have been
done in Jamaica’s Montego Bay Freeport and St. Lucia’s Pointe Seraphine [ibid.] and
become beneficial to these communities.

Harbour front redevelopments have become necessary in communities after the decline of
industrial activities in inner harbour areas [ibid. pp.16-23]. In the case of Baltimore, it was
realised in a survey between 1977-1981 that after its inner waterfront redevelopment;
approximately one-half of all visitors to the waterside (52%) were tourist, and
approximately one-half of all visitors (48%) were day trippers [ibid. pp.21].

These statistics gives a positive indication of how tourism has a relation or role to play in
the redevelopment of harbour front areas. Harbour front redevelopment is therefore not all
about adding vitality to the spatial area but also a means to attract visitors. The main
important factor to tourism in this context is by establishing interesting activities at the
harbour front that would attract people to the place.

Some structures established at the Baltimore harbour project include a hotel, market
pavilion, pedestrian bridge and aquarium. These mixed uses of activities could also be put
up in Aalborg to make its current unattractive waterfront vibrant. That is when a new face
of development or skyline in harbour front area is established to attract both local people
and beyond to experience.

The Waterfront EXPO 2004 document, [p.10], also makes a claim about the potential of
tourism attractions to waterfront areas. The document states “nowadays, waterfront
developments keeping tourism in mind are crucial for the success of the waterfront
business”. This is based on the premise that development of waterfronts tends to attract
visitors to the areas to spend money, get a satisfaction worth the monies spent, and also the
opportunity for the area to accrue revenue for sustainable development and economic
growth. It has a wide range of multiplier effects for communities to benefit within space
and time. However, in general terms waterfronts or harbour fronts redevelopments are
considered with the aim of improving urban image of a place. [Craig-Smith, S. J. &

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Fagence, M. (eds.) 1995, p.97]. That is of great importance by providing new or


revitalising infrastructures to meet the needs of the local people. It therefore considers
social needs such as housing, shops and recreation. The environmental needs such as
environmental pollution among others are also taken in to considering.

Tourism can therefore be described as activity that attracts people to specific locations,
exhibits the cultural significance of a place and also a catalyst for economic development
with regards to its “potential to create employment, generate income for the local
economy, and provide opportunities for the growth of small business” [ibid.p.63].

On the other hand, one may question the profile of people attracted to tourist a destination.
In the case of Aalborg, is it the affluent or people from all social classes? That is from
upper, middle and lower classes of the people. The most important is for these people to
have the purchasing power for the services offered at the destination. Karma, K.K., [1997,
p.11] claims, “tourism is no longer the privilege of a few, it has become an accepted and
expected part of the lifestyles of a large and increasing number of people”. This claim is
for the reason that different factors such as increased leisure, high incomes, extending
mobility among others have been combined. These factors tend give all people of all social
classes the opportunity to take an expedition to tourism destinations.

In the light of this, the Central Harbour Front redevelopment project in Aalborg has the
above potentials to attract tourist. That is by viewing at the various structures that are
supposed to be established at the area, their social, cultural and economic significance, and
also an opportunity for people of all social classes to visit. The only problem might be
when the services provided at various areas attract only the affluent that might limit others
and cause cost of living to rise.

Though tourism has all those benefits described above, it has equally negative effects to
host environment and its people as well as visitors. Sharma, S.P. [2004, p.33] emphasises
on the negative effects of tourism; that is the possibility of having direct environmental
impacts on the water quality, air and noise levels. These problems are very essential with
regards to tourism in Aalborg. They question the possibility of getting the water at the
harbour polluted during redevelopment processes or by tourist; the possibility of noise and

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water pollution from high influx of tourist and transport to the waterfront area and the city
in general.

Apart from the environmental problems, there is also that of social problems. For instance
the Baltimore waterfront regeneration received criticism of creating a social problem in
the city. The gains of tourism prosperity led to the problem of increased cost of living and
the pressure of massive gentrification faced by the existing working class population.
[Chunsong, W., 2003, p.3. URL: www.planningsummerschool.
orgpapersyear20032003B017AU.pdf. pdf Date accessed 12/11/2005].

These problems are important for consideration in Aalborg’s waterfront tourism initiative.
From a critical point of view, there is also the question of whether all waterfront
redevelopment in general has an automatic attraction to tourist. In this regard, is there any
possibility of automatic attraction of tourist to Aalborg? The possibility of tourist
attraction shall definitely depend of how the city brands it self both locally and abroad to
attract tourist. These challenges could be analysed in subsequent chapters to ascertain
viability of tourist attraction to the waterfront in Aalborg. However, the success of tourism
could be achieved through sustainable tourism development. That is when it has been
planned and managed properly in a sustainable manner.

2.5.1. Sustainable Tourism Development

Harbour front redevelopment is known to encompass housing, recreation, entertainment


centres, transport, offices, shops, and hotels among others that have become tourism
attractions. However, in tourism context, the continuous existence of vibrant activities at
the harbour front will depend on sustainable tourism development.

The WTO, Guide for the Local Authorities on Sustainable Tourism Development, 1999;
stipulates that sustainable tourism development meets the needs of the present tourists and
host regions while protecting and enhancing the opportunity for the future. This implies a
complementary plan of action for meeting the present needs of present tourist and also
working towards the needs of future tourist. This calls for maintaining all tourism-led
development structures for the both present and future activities. In this case the social,
economic and environmental concerns of tourism should be considered to make the place

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always attractive. In this regard, the tourism potentials and activities that emerge from the
harbour front redevelopment in Aalborg should be conducted on a sustainable tourism
approach. That is taking cognisance of present and future tourist needs.

“Sustainable tourism is a positive approach intended to reduce tensions and friction


created by complex interactions between the tourism industry, the visitors, the
environment and the communities which are host to holiday-makers” [Karma, K. K., 1997,
p.103]. This implies that various interactions between visitors, the environment, and the
community in the name of tourism is taken care of to prevent any negative externality on
each other in both the present and future. This aims at sustaining all components of the
industry.

One of the key elements that would help uphold sustainable tourism development in the
area of harbour front redevelopment is the integration of local residents in the programme.
It is important that residents feel part of the process involved in this venture. [Dalager, C.
1997, p.113]. Local residents’ involvement in tourism planning initiative is considered to
be important in both theory and practice. That is by not giving all attention to the
economic gains from the project but also focusing on the social and environmental
concerns of local residents. Considering the problems of environmental sanitation, heavy
traffic, noise, water and pollution, it is essential to consider community participation in
decision-making. Through that local people can decide with policy makers to design good
strategies in the interest of the community.

There is also the question of whether the locals even like the presence of tourist? This
makes the involvement of locals in the planning stage important.

According to Kelly, M.E., [1998], “most planners are aware of the global magnitude of
tourism as an economic activity, but few recognise the urgency that exists in the world of
the 1990's and beyond to bring planning processes-public participation”. The use of
public participation in this case can be referred to as involving local residents in
sustainable tourism planning since the local or central government mostly does these
initiatives.

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In order to achieve successful tourism development in a sustainable manner with the


concern of local residents, Kelly again emphasis that “to accomplish this, planners need a
conceptual framework of tourism from which they can develop successful tourism
strategies; those which balance tourist demand with local human, cultural and natural
resources; those which respect the private lives of local residents. These strategies would
meet the needs of tourists without compromising local residents; in other words, inject a
quality of sustainability in the design”. As tourist needs are being met, it is important to
meet that of the local people, through that utilisation of facilities in the area.

The development should not be targeted only on visitors’ alone and also expected profits
of developers. The needs of the local people in the area must be given a high premium in
order to establish a balancing effect for all stakeholders. That is the local people, tourist
and developers. When such attitude or approach is adopted in the tourism focus of the
Aalborg harbour front redevelopment programme, it will go a long way in contributing
positively to the development of the area. This has the potential of making the area vibrant
and attractive to both local residents and visitors, also to perpetuate activities at the place.

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CHAPTER THREE: THEORETICAL FRAME WORK


3.1. Introduction

Theoretical construction with regards to waterfront redevelopment is prudent not


only for the subject in question but also catalyst for future research in this field.
This chapter is an attempt to explain in theory the earlier conceptualisation of the
keys to waterfront redevelopment in Aalborg; global scales and strategies of
waterfront redevelopment; and its social and economic gains from the perspective of
tourism attractions to the area.

3.2. Keys for a Redevelopment Waterfront Plan in Aalborg City

Historically dock areas have been economically advantageous due to their provision for
commercial trade and cultural exchange to the city. These areas have been characterized
for different trades and forms developed. These factors have been reflected in the shape
and size of the waterfront, in the different building structures, and of course, in the
different ways to treat the water’s edge.

If we observe different types of water- building interface in the literature review, Figure 39
“Examples of types of water/ building interface and ground line analysis of each” [White,
K .N. et al. 1993, p. 17], we can see that the waterfront part of Aalborg is like the form
called “Set Back Building”.

Maybe, “Set Back Building” is the most common form between building and water that
has ever been used. It has a historical and current perception.

“It comes in many shapes and forms with the spaces in-between building and water
ranging from narrow passage way along the dock edge to the provision of a quay so broad
that the presence of the water is all but forgotten” [ibid. p. 18]

The modern cargo handling containers demand this last form of quay. It means a large
space where logistics operation can be carried out. The open wharf system developed for

9
See Figure 3 in chapter 2, page 25 “Examples of types of water/ building interface and groundline analysis
of each” [White, K .N. et al. 1993, p. 17],
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bulkier trades required not only building storage but also, sometimes, to build railways
siding for loaded and empty trucks.

This form of urban structure can be accommodated to a variety of uses, not only industrial
one. But also some urban public spaces can take advantage of this wide quay space,
developing open spaces, leisure areas and attractive housing and waterfronts. And this
idea should be specially considered when a redeveloped harbour area plan in Aalborg is
been implemented.

This water’s edge form allows land side access and uses within and around the structures,
although with some restrictions. Obviously there are forms of development in spite of the
inconvenience, the value of the waterfront is perceived. According to Owen (1993), it
seems likely over and above the physical disadvantages; there are other factors that can
improve its value such as its proximity to the city centre, access to the water, even an
emotional response of being at the water’s edge,... It seems to be confirmed by the high
prices of properties that are immediately adjacent to the waterfront, or at least, have a good
view of it.

The large value difference between properties that have water view or not, makes planners
consider this item seriously, but always being aware of maximizing the quality of space
and environment that are being created. If a variety of forms of water’s edge space are
used, then the property frontage can quickly come to have a length up to the double of the
actual one, as long as retaining reasonable views of the water for all properties [White, K
.N. et al. 1993, p. 19], so a variety of different waterside spaces can be used to increase the
overall value of the development.

In Owen´s opinion (1993) these developments experience often stop at the edge of water
with a road or pedestrian route occupying the edge of the dock. Perhaps in the new plans
we could consider the water body as a part of the redevelopment plan; this is to create an
appropriate and high quality spaces. And in recent times, the modern engineering
constructions can help us to carry out this consideration.

Currently, this could be possible if it is made considering a variety of forms of water’s


edge that could increase the wealth of the area by the mixture of uses and structures, even

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though considering not only the part of the waterfront, but also the water body as a part of
the plan.

In this way the waterside redevelopment can be possible turning dead areas into lively and
sustainable places. Planning is necessary to deal with problems, especially when the uses
of the place will change, but the action plan should also be prevailed by rules and steps
from a general scale to a specific one.

The different scales of redevelopment play a big role in development system, because the
large scale redevelopment was only practical solution to very serious local problems [S,
Craig & M, Fagence, 1995 , p. 34]. In the case of Aalborg, whose waterfront is
unattractive, large scale improvement could be a chance for successful redevelopment.

Waterfronts should celebrate the water by offering a diversity of cultural, commercial and
housing uses. Those that require access to water should have priority. Housing
neighbourhoods should be mixed both functionally and socially.

New waterfronts should be conceived as an integral part of the existing city and contribute
to its vitality. Water is a part of the urban landscape and should be utilised for specific
functions such as waterborne transport, entertainment and culture [See URL:
www.waterfrontexpo.com/portal/philosophy.shtml (Date accessed14/11/2005)].

Waterfronts need to be redeveloped step by step so the entire city can benefit from their
potential. They are a challenge for more than one generation and need a variety of
characters both in architecture, public space and art. Public administration must give
impulses on a political level to ensure that the objectives are realised independently of
economic cycles or short-term interests.

Waterfronts should be both physically and visually accessible for locals and tourists of all
ages and income. Public spaces should be constructed in high quality to allow intensive
use [ibid.].

Cities should benefit from sustainable waterfront development not only in ecological and
economical terms but also socially. The community should be informed and involved in

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discussions continuously from the beginning of any urban plan, in this way it is made in
many countries as Denmark as it has been demostrated in some plans from Aalborg´s
Municipality like the regeneration of public spaces in small communities.10

Finally, according to the literature review and this theoretical part, we should emphasize
that the keys for a high quality waterfront plan here in Aalborg, are to get an attractive,
vibrant (through the mixture of uses with activities all the day), and accessible waterfront,
but this must be achieved without forgetting the social and economical perspective of the
project. So maybe, it is possible to get the aim to create diversity and wealth in the area
through the cooperation of the public and private sectors.

The public sector is usually more worried about the social effects; meanwhile the private
sector is interested in the economical aspects and the profits that it can obtain. Because of
this, an integrated approach between both would help to create an attractive area in the
waterfront and, for instance, to promote tourism. Tourism is one of the most interesting
activities for both, the public and private sectors. While the public sector would be in
charge of public spaces, the private sector could promote other leisure activities in the
waterfront, creating diversity and wealth, as it was mentioned before.

3.3. Tourism Development in Theory

Various theoretical perspectives on tourism do highlight on the industry as a catalyst for


economic development and also a source of community branding. According to Abram, S.
et al. (eds.) [1997, p.71], “the potential contribution of tourism to regeneration of
depressed urban areas has been increasingly emphasised”. Tourism opportunities
exploited from regeneration therefore becomes beneficial to both national and local
economies. Tourism activities within an urban area or other have a latent function of
attracting people to tourism destinations including waterfronts. Tourism attractions to
waterfront areas in theory are also arguably an avenue for social activities such as
recreation, amusement and largely the experience of culture.

The above emphases are being considered on the grounds that structures put in place in
the context waterfront redevelopment serves complementary functions. It implies that
redevelopment activities at the waterfront area serves a socio-cultural function, bring

10
In an interaction with Bo Vagnby during a lecture in the course Urban Development and Liveability in
Cities. 2005
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about visitors attraction, creates jobs and investment for both local and in some cases
foreign industries, thus in the nut shell becoming a catalyst for development for the host
area. These are apparently viewed from a positive dimension.

From a negative dimension as explained in the literature review, tourism is not only a
catalyst for economic development but also has the tendency to create environmental,
social and economic problems and hence calls for sustainable tourism development. In
view of that if tourism is to be given a priority in the redevelopment of the Aalborg
harbour front, the negative side of tourism should be given a premium. These negative
factors are to be taken into consideration and hence establish the necessary measure to
make the tourism industry sustainable in the municipality.

Taking an inference from the definition of sustainable development in the Brundtland


Commission, 1997, which states “development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising on the ability of the future…” It is therefore necessary to meet the needs of
present tourist without compromising the needs of the future tourist as emphasised in the
literature review. In this regard, the absence of a good comprehensive and sustainable
tourism management might become catastrophic for the area in question. That is the
environmental degradation or pollution that could be crated as a result of tourism
activities and the social and economic problems that is also associated with tourism.

Such negative developments rather become a disincentive for the community. It is


therefore a task for all stakeholders (community authorities, citizens, organisations,
opinion leaders, etc) within a community to consider these negative aspects of tourism in
planning and regeneration. The Municipal Authority and other stakeholders in Aalborg for
instance have the above task to consider if its waterfront redevelopment will thrive in the
tourism industry.

Mixed uses of activities as an attractive tool for tourism are worth for consideration from
a theoretical perspective in urban waterfront redevelopment. The obvious reason is that,
establishing mixed uses of activities in the context of regeneration serves as the main
function to attract people and specifically tourist to the area. In other words, the absence
of such regeneration structures gives no cause for vibrant attraction to the area. In this
regard visitors will not have one activity to concentrate on but different activities. A
single activity at a waterfront area could be very attractive but having more could be

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better. Mixed uses has become part of town planning philosophy and also from the early
days of the modern town planning movement [Grant, J., 2004. p. 2]. The adoptions of
mixed- use functions in urban waterfront regeneration tend to become legitimate initiative
and hence should be pursued to serve a good purpose. At the end of it all, the host society
benefits from such initiatives and also visitors get their monies worth for their visits.

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CHAPTER FOUR: SITUATION ANALYSIS IN THE


AALBORG CENTRAL HARBOUR FRONT

After a detailed study of the literature review and theoretical chapter, we can begin with to
describe and define the current situation in Aalborg waterfront. Once revised for why and
for what we want to revitalize the waterfront and studying in details the theoretical
strategies for it, we should realize a study about the present situation in the project area.

If we talk about attracting tourists to a new redeveloped harbour, we should assume that
tourism is defined like the activities of people travelling to and staying in places outside
their usual environments for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and
other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place
visited..Consequently, we should know what kinds of values are located in the Aalborg
waterfront and Aalborg Municipal Authority purpose for the area. We could for instance
notice that a cultural landscape tends to become an attracting mechanism for visitors; this
is especially when these cultural landscapes give an incomparable image to the area.
Western cities such as New York, London, Barcelona and Copenhagen among others are
well known tourism destinations characterised with interesting attractions, some of them
include waterfront developments.

Moreover, if we talk about solving local population’s needs we should detect the values of
the waterfront e.g. close connection to the city centre, access to the water11 or the
possibility to practise many recreational activities. At the end, we should be capable to
relate all these advantages with the needs of residents. As a result, we should find out a
good composition of activities (mixed uses) that allow us to create an attractive focus for
abroad visitors and citizens from Aalborg.

Hereby, we should make a study about the actual situation in the Aalborg waterfront to
know the current situation and so we can compare Aalborg Municipal Authority’s Plans
with our expectations. We have divided this chapter in three different parts: the first is a
general perception about Aalborg Municipality where we explain the Aalborg Municipal
Authority’s perspectives about Aalborg Municipality, Aalborg City and the most
11
See Literature Review. Chapter 2, p. 26-27
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important strategies that have been developed. In the second part, we focus on Aalborg
Waterfront; in this point we explain the major plans for revitalising the waterfront. In the
third part we explain the plans for the central harbour front.

4.1. General perception about Aalborg


4.1.1. City model

The city development in Aalborg Municipality is based on a concentrated city model with
Aalborg and Nørresundby central city as a strong focus for public, commercial and
recreational meetings. So in this area we can find several of activities that have originated
the city growth and its development, with transportation, housing, businesses,.etc. As a
result of the city model and development the inner city has become a strong and exciting
area with many different activities. The central harbour front is also part of the inner city
and has today become an unattractive area with inadequate infrastructure and only a few
activities.

This city model presents some goals that could be useful to develop new strategies at the
central harbour front:
• Limit use of virginal ground.
• Uses existing systems and infrastructure.
• Gives short distances.
• Marks the contrast between city and country.

Figure 4. The concentrated city model for Aalborg. Source. [Aalborg Municipal Authority, 2005]

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We can notice in Figure 4 that the major focal point in the city model is the inner city,
with a high density, and many activities. As longer we get away from the inner city the
density and number of activities will decrease.

Accordingly, Aalborg Municipal Authority wishes to unify the waterfront and the city
core, and so to take advantage to the nearness of both. They would notice it often would be
a good idea to localize it in the inner city which gives easy accessibility for a large number
of inhabitants and visitors.

4.1.2. Aalborg Municipal Authority’s strategy

Aalborg shall be a dynamic city and focus at sustainable city development. New areas for
redevelopment shall be avoided if they generate a negative impact, but Aalborg
Municipality shall also promote new areas for redevelopment that can create an interesting
and amazing focus in the city. The areas for city redevelopment will be categorized as
high priority prospective areas12, Prospective areas13 or gradually areas for
redevelopment14. The harbour areas in Aalborg and Nørresundby are categorized as high
priority areas for city redevelopment [Porter, G. & Zidema, C., 2005.. Liveable Cities
Case Report- Aalborg Harbour front, Version: 6 December 2005 URL:
http://www.eurocities.org/liveablecities/IMG/doc/aalborg-case-06dec05_FINAL_.doc
Date accessed 12/12/2005].

The principal idea is to create connections and coherence between city areas and the
harbour fronts. The areas for redevelopment at Aalborg and Nørresundby harbour fronts
shall be considered as one big area for city redevelopment.

The general goals and visions for city redevelopment and development from Aalborg
Municipal Authority are the following:
• City development must meet the demands of a modern knowledge society (a city
for the future).
• City growth shall happen primarily by reuse of old city areas.

12
Areas where redevelopment is important as soon as possible.
13
Areas where redevelopment is interesting in a long time horizon.
14
Areas where redevelopment will happen step by step.
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• New city area shall only be used when it is necessary to create a harmonious
development.

The actual strategy, which Aalborg Municipal Authority is working to implement, tries to
combine different aspects like:
• “Life and diversity. Activities, sports and festivals.
• New architecture and reuse of industrial buildings.
• New housing, supplementary alternatives to inhabitants” [Aalborg
Municipal Authority, 2005].

A.- Sustainable Mobility

Aalborg Municipal Authority has tried to base its transport policy on principles of
sustainable mobility. So, the Aalborg Municipal Authority’s objective is to reduce most of
the traffic problems like: accidents, visual intrusion, and noisy nuisance, emissions of
pollutants or energy consumption. Thus Action Plan was created in 1998-1999, reiterating
Aalborg's obligation to solve the environmental problems caused by traffic. The main
issues in the plan are:

ƒ To combine the need for mobility and the desire to minimise the environmental
traffic impact.
ƒ To reduce energy consumption and emissions.
ƒ To reduce the number of dwellings affected by traffic noise. [City of Aalborg
Technical Department, 2005, p.6]

In February 2005 a new Action Plan for Traffic and Environment was finalised; this plan
includes aims based on the Aalborg Commitments15. During the last 10 years, the City of
Aalborg has participated in several European projects to become a more sustainable city
(Jupiter 1993-1996, Quo Vadis 1994-1995, Jupiter-2 1997-1999, ALTEReco 1999-2002,
Viking 2000-2003 and Vivaldi 2002-2005). Some of them could be useful for our theme in
this project, like: Jupiter-2 or ALTEReco.

15
Aalborg Commitments is a local management strategy based on sustainable development. It includes
strategies of selecting appropriate priorities of local situations and needs, and also consider the global
impact of the city´s activities in development.
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Jupiter-2: This project began in 1996 and was completed at the end of 1999. The most
important questions developed were:

1.- (BICYCLE LANES). The principal purpose in this project was to develop a net for
bicycles. Consequently, many bicycle lanes were established in important roads like
Jyllandsgade or Prinsensgade. We can look at the figure below, and distinguish how
bicycle lanes were designed and integrated in the street. So, this plan improved the cycle
access and contributed to a sustainable mobility.

Figure 5: shows before and after bicycle lanes has been built in Jyllandsgade. [City of Aalborg
Technical Department, 2005, p.6]

2.- (CAR TRAFFIC RESTRAINT). The reconstruction of Østerågade (the most important
traffic road in the city centre) started at the beginning of 1998. From this moment,
Østerågade was restricted to public transport, bicycles and pedestrians; so, there has been a
clear reduction in emissions and energy use in this area in some years.

Figure 6 shows how car traffic in Østerågade has been restricted before the plan and after.
[City of Aalborg Technical Department, 2005, p.7]

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ALTEReco: “The ALTEReco project in Aalborg aimed to sustain the growth of the central
business area by establishing an environmentally-friendly city centre and thereby
attracting citizens.” [City of Aalborg Technical Department, 2005, P.8]
The central business district (CBD) and some residential areas in the surroundings have
been the focal point in this project. We can discover that in the CBD mostly of the streets
have serious environmental problems. In this case, the main focuses in this project were all
the interchanges between train, buses, cars and non-motorized traffic that were done. The
map of ALTEReco project area was presented like this one:

Figure 7 shows the map of the ALTEReco project area. [City of Aalborg Technical
Department, 2005, p.8]

We can distinguish the blue boundary in Figure 7, which delimits the most important
pedestrian area in Aalborg (Central Business District). This zone has become an important
focus to attract inhabitants, companies and visitors to Aalborg.

B.- Architectural Policy Aalborg

The principal issue of this policy is to protect and support qualities of all the urban areas
and landscapes in Aalborg. “In future, competition will increase between major cities –
both locally and globally. The aim of the Architectural Policy is to highlight and support
that which is unique in the city itself and within the municipality of Aalborg as a whole.”
[Arkitektur Forum in Aalborg, 2004, p.3].

The most important goals, which this particular policy talks about are: (i) Aalborg’s
identity, (ii) Landscape, (iii) Urban spaces, (iv)Traffic spaces, (v) The dense city, (vi) The
open city, and (vii) Architectural quality. In each one of them, the most significant values
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that can be found in the waterfront about different perspectives are defined and studied.
We propose to revise some of them:

I. Aalborg’s identity: Characteristic and value today

We can show several assessments that are located in Aalborg and can be useful to define
new attractive areas in the waterfront:
• Fjord landscape: Aalborg has a special location on the banks of the
Limfjorden where the fjord meets the city and countryside.
• Medieval structure: The city centre’s medieval structure allows observing a
city with deep historical heredity.
• Harbour environment: Actually, Aalborg does not present a good image of
its waterfront. For instance we can find mixed uses between industrial areas,
marina or waterfront dwellings. It is necessary to remove this unpleasant
image, and to create an attractive place for the benefit of this area.
• Elements creating identity: Aalborgtårnet (an observation tower), the Viking
settlement, the Congress and Culture Centre, Museum in Contemporary Art,
Aalborg Theatre, the Symphony Orchestra and Jomfru Ane Gade are all some
examples of references to spiritual and cultural life in North Jutland.

I.1. Aalborg’s identity: guidelines


• Aalborg shall make use of the attractiveness and quality of life consequential
from its proximity to the water.
• Aalborg shall express itself as a city rich in innovative energy and tolerant
urban environments.
• “On both sides of the Limfjord the harbour fronts shall reflect the energy of the
city centre and be laid out with public accessible urban spaces enabling
municipal recreational functions for local citizens, as well as facilitating
cultural development and various cultural institutions.” [Arkitektur Forum in
Aalborg, 2004, p.4]

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II. Landscape: Characteristic and value today


We could enumerate more than a few environmental values that are located in Aalborg
and could be helpful to define new recreational areas in the waterfront:
• Limfjord: Aalborg possesses exceptional topographical possibilities in the
distinctive character of the landscape.
• Stream delta: Traces of the original stream delta can still be found in the
urban landscape. Østerådalen and its interface with the city boundary are
particular qualities in this area.
• Hills: The profile of the hills, which looks like islands in the horizontal
landscape, gives emphasis to the environmental importance of the landscape
for development.

II.2. Landscape: guidelines


• Accessibility to the fjord shall be improved.
• Focus shall be concentrated on the interface between built-areas and
surrounding countryside –the interaction between rural and urban areas.
• Landscape concept shall be improved and applied everywhere so that nature
becomes a visible element. This also applies in the densely built-up areas of the
city where green areas can offer healthy benefits. [Arkitektur Forum in
Aalborg, 2004, p. 6 &7]

III. Urban spaces: Characteristic and value today


In the same way, we could pay attention on some urban spaces around of the central
harbour front like:
• The bridges: We can find a view over the water featuring ships and associated
activities and to have a nice view of the city and the surrounding landscape.
• Diverse activities: The city’s public spaces are used for different kinds of
activities related to consumption, social and cultural incentive, and other ones like
shopping, games, exhibitions, concerts, or the like.
• Green areas: Vegetation and topography are used in some cases as a
fundamental element in the configuration of the city’s recreational and active urban
spaces.

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III.1. Urban spaces: guidelines


ƒ Urban spaces shall be drawn up and will focus on a series of visual, functional,
recreational, cultural and social aspects.
ƒ Pay special attention in multifunctional urban spaces with great potential for
provisional use and spontaneous activities such as harbour bathing facilities, or
a skating rink.
ƒ The strategy shall be related to the new commercial areas as a new type of
public meeting area.
ƒ Materials, surfacing and urban furniture in public spaces shall be used and
contribute to improve the visual environment [Arkitektur Forum in Aalborg,
2004, p. 8 & 9].

IV. Traffic spaces: Characteristic and value today


We find out an enumeration of the most important traffic spaces in the city. We are going
to study them to know how the actual traffic situation in Aalborg is:
• Vesterbro: An attractive street, which includes a stretch over the bridge that
links Nørresundby and Aalborg.
• Boulevarden: Another nice-looking street that has great spatial qualities and
contains many beautiful details and materials.It has been renovated in 2005.
• The narrow mediaeval streets: Some narrow streets have been well-preserved
since they possess an event full charm.
• The bridges: The bridges make up a powerful image of Aalborg and
Nørresundby. At the same time, we can see an important bottleneck (special
traffic conditions) caused by the natural barrier when people are crossing the
Limfjorden.
• Cars: The motorway network, in particular, creates big barriers in the urban
landscape.

IV.1. Traffic spaces: guidelines


ƒ The infrastructure must be adapted to the city and the landscape.
ƒ The challenge lies in creating cohesion between infrastructure, urban and rural
spaces. [Arkitektur Forum in Aalborg, 2004, p. 10 &11]

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4.2. Focus on Aalborg Waterfront

As we know now, the general strategies that have been developed in Aalborg
Municipality, we can centre our study to the harbour front. Some activities that can still
be observed today are:

Some of the activities that still can be observed today are:


1. Commercial port; where products of the various industries along the waterfront are
transported to destinations within the country and abroad.
2. Industrial activities; shipyard; cement factory; fertilizer production; grain and feed
factories; and machine industry.

In recent times regenerating the harbour front has become a prominent issue. A number of
industries that represented the principal firms of the city are no longer in operation. This
effect calls for revitalization of the area. The strategic plan adopted by the Municipal
authorities of Aalborg has objective linking the city with harbour front, where the
Limfjorden becomes the central point. That is to improve and build certain structures that
would inject vitality to the area. This one would tend to increase economic activities, and
provide a social recreational environment. The municipal authorities also aspire at
establishing these developments in a more environmental friendly perspective, so as to
reduce considerably elements of pollution such as noise, dust and smell.

Nowadays, a part of the Harbour front is used by business enterprises that operate there. A
change of uses in the waterfront may be the objective for urban regeneration in the long
term but in this moment, industrial activity continues in its site. As a result, this one has
consequences for the environmental quality (mainly dust, smell and noise).

In this moment, it is necessary to define the existing circumstances in the waterfront. If we


try to explain the present situation in the Aalborg Harbour front, we could make a
distinction between different areas or focus where the Aalborg Municipal Authority is
planning currently, new redevelopment and development for the water's edge.

If we look at figure 8, we can notice that we have focused on the south side of the
Limfjorden in four different zones. Our case area is the Central Harbour Front, and we

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focus on it in the next third part of this fourth chapter. Now, we explain what it is
happening actually with the surroundings closer to the central waterfront like Marina
Fjordpark, The Spirit factory and Østre Havn.

Marina Fjord park The Spirit factory Central Harbour Front Østre Havn
Figure 8 illustrates some harbour areas in Aalborg City [Aalborg Kommune, 2005. URL:
http://www.aalborg.dk/]

We identify what is happening in each area illustrated in Figure 8:


A. Marina Fjordpark: We can find in this area a mixture between residential
apartments, a youth hostel, sailing club, marina and campsite. It also has some
environmental problems like noise from transport and repairing of boats near the
sailing club and from a small shipyard.
B. Vestre Havnepromenade (The Spirit factory): Municipality of Aalborg bought the
land for redevelopment, and sold it in separate parts to developers. As a result of that
nowadays, there is a bigger concentration of activities, a canal and a city garden.
C. The Central Harbour Front: This is our study area so it is interesting to know which
plans are being proposed from the Aalborg Municipal Authority to develop this area.
We are going to present information about these plans: Jomfru Ane Parken,
Slotspladsen, Utzonparken, The House of Music and Karolinelundskilen. All of them
will be explained in the next subchapter.
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D. Østre Havn / former shipyard site, (East Harbour): Situated in the middle of an
industrial zone, Aalborg Municipal Authority desires to regenerate this industrialized
area. Various environmental problems are located here such as noise, dust and smell
from the grain and feed enterprises, a floating dock, a fibreglass yard, a machinery
factory and from a paint factory [[Porter, G. & Zidema, C., 2005 p.4.. Liveable Cities
Case Report- Aalborg Harbour front, Version: 6 December 2005
URL:http://www.eurocities.org/liveablecities/IMG/doc/aalborg-case-
06dec05_FINAL_.doc Date accessed 12/12/2005].

The general goals for the area are to keep the current companies, but also if the conditions
are good to move them to another locality. If the companies are moved it would be
necessary to reuse all these empty areas with urban uses.

4.3. Study Area

It is important to stand out that we have chosen the central harbour front because firstly, it
is really near to the down town; secondly, it has more possibilities to link with the city
core, and the most important issue and thirdly, because this area will become a special
focus to attract inhabitants and visitors.

4.3.1. The inner city - Actual situation

At this moment, we need to know more about the concrete situation of the waterfront and
the neighbouring areas. Concerning our purposes, we should do a study of the present
situation in the inner city. We are looking for some links to connect the central harbour
front with the city core. We regard it as really important to know what kind of activities or
places we can find on the surroundings of the central harbour front.

Accordingly, we have decided to do a study of the most significant areas that could be
considered like potential focuses to link the inner city with the central harbour front. We
think these four areas are important because firstly, they are really close to the central
harbour front; secondly, they are related on different land uses, and finally, they attract
local population. So, we distinguish four zones where we can find social, historical,
cultural, and recreational activities.

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Figure 9: General map of Aalborg . Inner City.[ Aalborg Kommune, 2005. URL:
http://www.aalborg.dk/Borgerportal/ Serviceomraader/ Byen/ Havnefront/ default.htm
(Date accessed 14/11/2005)]

Zone 1:
1. Entertainment (Jomfru Ane Gade):

Aalborg is a festive city that never sleeps; this is the reason why it is called “The Little
Paris of the North”. Aalborg has more than 300 restaurants, pubs, bar, cafes; many of them
are located in the attractive street called Jomfru Ane Gade, and the side ways called Ved
Stranden and Borgergade also contains an important part of them. [www.visitaalborg.com,
2005 Date accessed12/12/2005].

Figure 10 illustrates Jomfru Ane Gade


[http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.control.auc.dk/~dthi02/Aalborg/Jomfru%2520
Ane%2520Gade%252001.jpg&imgrefurl. (Date accessed 12/12/2005)]

2. Commerce and business (Shopping area and Central Business District):


In the centre of the city there are a wide variety of streets to shop and walk in such as
Bispensgade, Nytorv or Algade. At the same time, we can find the Central Business
District (CBD), where mostly offices are located in. All of them together present the most
active area in the inner city. We shall remark that this is the major focal point where we
shall find the links to connect the central harbour front and the city core.

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Figure 11 illustrates Nytorv and Bispensgade


http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.control.auc.dk/~dthi02/Aalborg/Jomfru%2520A
ne%2520Gade%252001.jpg&imgrefurl. ( Date accessed 12/12/2005)]

Zone 2:

1. Historical part (Aalborghus Castle and medieval streets):


Aalborghus Castle is a very central historical point in Aalborg built by King Christian III
in 1539-55 as a residence for the local governor. Near by Aalborghus Castle you also find
Østerågade a very central and historical street in Aalborg, with some of the oldest houses
in the city. Østerågade has always been a central area in Aalborg because of the stream
“Østerå” that mouth in to Limfjorden, today Østerå has been moved and mouth in to
Limfjorden in Karolinelundskilen. [www.visitaalborg.com Date of accessed 10/12/2005]

Figure 12 shows Aalborghus castle


[http://users.cybercity.dk/~ida2730/historie/aalboslot.htm (Date accessed 12/12/2005) ]

Zone 3:
1. Cultural part (the community centre):
A central cultural institution in Aalborg inner city is the community centre
“Medborgerhuset”. It contains the city Municipality hall, lecture and meeting rooms, a

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local historical archive, and the central public library "Det Nordjyske Landsbibliotek".
“Medborgerhuset” is located in Rendsburggade in the inner city [www.njl.dk Date accesed
12/12/2005]. The location as the most central public library in Aalborg makes it a very
important public library in Northern Jutland.

Zone 4:
1. Recreational area.
Tivoliland is placed in Karolinelundskilen and it is the biggest amusement park in Aalborg
Municipality and the second biggest in the Northern Jutland. The recreational area
contains some amusement facilities, a restaurant and a garden. Tivoliland has in December
2005 been sold to a new owner named Torben Pedersen, a man that has experience of
running “Bakken” an amusement park in Copenhagen. He has new visions for Tivoliland
at first case he has decided to change the name back to the original name Karolinelund.
Until year 1972 Tivoliland was named Karolinelund and from year 2006 it will become
the name again. The visions for Karolinelund is to make it popular to local residents, by
creating new amusements, more live music, more restaurants, longer opening hours and
other initiatives. [Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 F]

Once finalizing the case area, it is also interesting to describe the actual situation about
“Limfjordsbroen”, the Limfjord´s Bridge. Actually, it connects Aalborg with
Nørresundby. Today mostly of the car users use the Limfjordstunnel, but the
Limfjordsbroen is still very important for the traffic and especially for the bus traffic.
[www.highways.dk Date of accessed 12/12/2005]

4.3.2. Future situation: Aalborg Municipal Authority’s plans

In this moment, we will explain the Aalborg Municipal Authority’s future urban strategy
for the central harbour front. It is necessary, because it will become the plan that shall be
implemented at the central harbour front in real life. The Aalborg Technical Department
have decided to divide the central waterfront in five different areas:

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Area 1 Area 5
Area 2 Area 3
Area 4

Figure 14: Municipality’s plan [www.aalborg.dk/havnefront Date accessed 26/11/2005]

Area 1: Jomfru Ane Parken (Entertainment)


Area 2: Slotspladsen (Historical)
Area 3: Utzon’s Parken (Cultural)
Area 4: Music House and Nordkraft (Cultural)
Area 5: Karolinelundskilen (Recreational)
[Malling (See Appendix B )]

Area 1: Jomfru Ane Parken (Entertainment area).


Jomfru Ane Parken is the western part of the central harbour front. The general plans for
the area are to create an attractive city area that directs to a wide target group with a
variation of activities and places to relax. Therefore the Aalborg Municipal Authority
wants to establish a promenade along the whole water front with shops, restaurants,
recreational, workshops and offices.

One suggestion is to build a swimming pool; another suggestion is the possibility to create
a guest harbour directly east from the Limfjords Bridge.16 [Municipalityplan tillæg 1.56,
2004 & www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 Date accessed 12/12/2005]

16
See Appendix B. Interview from the Aalborg Municipality.
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Figure 15: The illustration is a sketch of a possible building in Jomfru Ane Parken.
[Kommuneplan tillæg 1.56, 2004]

Area 2: Slotspladsen (Historical area).


Slotspladsen is the area in front of Aalborghus castle, it will be organized as a green
character for recreational functions. The visions are to create a palace square between the
building Toldboden and Fjordgade with basins that historical references back to middle
age. [Kommuneplan tillæg 1.56, 2004 & www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 12/12/2005]

Area 3: Utzon Parken (Cultural area).


A centre about the world famous architect Jørn Utzon will be build next to Slotspladsen; it
is expected to become a tourist attraction in Aalborg where Jørn Utzon was born. The
centre will contain all Jørn Utzon’s drawings and can be interesting for tourists and
students. The price is expected to be 40 million DKK and it is expected to be financed by
EU and different foundations [Nordjyske Stiftstidende A, 2005 & Nordjyske Stiftstidende
B, 2005]

Figure 16 shows a sketch of the Utzon House. [Nordjyske Stiftstidende A, 2005]

Area 3: Kvægtorvet and other existing buildings.


Today the area lies with singular houses named Strøybergs Palæ and Slotshotellet (The
castle hotel) and kvægtorvet (The cattle market). Aalborg Municipal Authority believes
that Strøybergs Palæ is a character full building. The Municipal Authority also think that
Slotshotellet in someway defaces with its architecture and choice of materials. The area in
front of those buildings is in the master plan named “Palæparken”, and can be used for
new buildings like residential, or more hotels.

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The outside area in front of Strøybergs Palæ og Slotshotellet, “Palæparken”, should have a
public accessible park area. [Kommuneplan tillæg1.56, 2004 & www. aalborg.dk/
havnefront, 2005 Date accessed 12/12/2005 ]

The cattle market was build in 1885; today it is unused and needs conservation and its
conservation started at 9. November 2005. Aalborg Municipal Authority sold the cattle
market to a rich man, Troels Holch Poulsen, under the premise that it would be conserved.
The conservation is expected to take one year and after that it is expected that the building
will be used for a restaurant, a shop and a market hall. [Nordjyske Stiftstidende C, 2005]

Figure 17 shows a sketch of the conserved Cattle Market. [Nordjyske Stiftstidende C, 2005]

Area 4: The Music House (Cultural area)


Musikkens Hus (The House of Music) will be build between Palæparken and
Karolinelundskilen. There was an architecture contest about the house of music and the
winner project drawn by Coop Himmelb(l)au was published in 2003. [Kommuneplan
tillæg 1.56, 2004].

The House of Music is a cooperative project between Aalborg Municipal Authority,


Aalborg University, and the County of Northern Jutland, with visions of creation a
landmark of the transformation of Aalborg from a city with heavy industries to a
contemporary, culturally diverse and vibrant city, and it will add to the strategy of making
Aalborg an attractive place in which to live and work. The centre shall become in active
focus for meetings between students, musicians and visitors. It shall contain a concert hall,
facilities for Aalborg Symphony Orchestra, educational facilities for a music academy and
an education in architecture and design. [Kommuneplan tillæg 1.56, 2004 &
www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 & www.musikkenshus.dk]

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The costs was in year 2003 expected to be 460 million DKK, today the expected price is
575 million DKK the main part will be paid by the state (National Government) (300
million DKK), Aalborg Municipal Authority (60 million DKK), County of Northern
Jutland (32 million DKK), European Union (28 million DKK), different foundations, and
other contributors. The architectural plans have been changed three times because the
price exceeded the 460 million DKK, in June 2006 the Music House Foundation17 expect a
new price of a tender. [Kommuneplan tillæg 1.56, 2004 & www.aalborg.dk/havnefront,
2005 & www. musikkenshus.dk & Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 D, E]

Figure 18: shows the three different sketches of the House of Music. Picture 1 shows the first sketch
from February 2003, picture 2 shows the second sketch from February 2004 and picture 3 shows the
third and newest sketch from December 2005 [www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 & Nordjyske
Stiftstidende, 2005 D, E]

Area 4: Nordkraft (Cultural area).


The most of Nordkraft (a former power plant) is today demolished. The area shall function as a
green passage between grain- and feed companies and the house of music and among other things

17
The Music House Foundation has been the main responsible for plans of The Music House until the 15. of
December 2005, where Aalborg Municipal Authority has overtaken the main responsibility for the plans.
[Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 D & www.musikkenshus.dk]
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contain parking places for the house of music (Karolinelundskilen). The halls on the south side of
Nyhavnsgade are expected kept for new cultural functions such as sports, theatre and concerts. A
specific planning will treat the redevelopment of this area and the architecture drawings will we
finished in January 2006. [Malling, 2005 (See appendix B) & Municipalityplan tillæg 1.56,
2004 & www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 Date accessed 16/12/2005]

Area 5: Karolinelundskilen (Recreational area)


Karolinelundskilen shall contain parking and a green area (involving the small river). The name
refers to the wish of creating a green connection from Tivoliland/Karolinelund to Limfjorden. In
long term perspective this place will become the only place at the central harbour front with
parking places, expect of a small number of parking places close to the house of music.
[Kommuneplan tillæg 1.56, 2004 & www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 Date accessed
17/12/2005]

Figure 19 shows the first sketch of Karolinelundskilen. Source:


[www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 . Date accessed 17/12/2005]

Considering the Aalborg Municipality Plan as shown in the five areas on figure 14, roads
and parking are very essential elements that are associated with them. Between the central
harbour front and the inner city there is an important traffic road called
Nyhavnsgade/Slotspladsen/Strandvejen that connects the areas to the rest of the city.

The road is a four lane road and creates in someway a barrier between the inner city and
the harbour front. Aalborg Municipal Authority wants to rebuild the road to a 2 lane road
with cycle paths. Along the whole central harbour front they also want to build a
promenade only for pedestrians and bicycles. [Municipalityplan tillæg 1.56, 2004 &
www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005 Date accessed 26/11/2005].

Aalborg Municipal Authority want a different area at harbour front, today there is a lot of
parking places, in the future plans they plan to build a parking house in Karolinelundskilen

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instead and rebuild the Metax parking house from 600 to 800 parking places. [Malling
(int.), 2005 & Andersen (int.), 2005)] In the area near the central harbour front you also
find parking houses At Føtex (everyday shop), Salling (department store) and Palads (near
Jomfru Ane Gade). After the rebuilding of the Metax parking house it becomes the biggest
parking house in Aalborg. [www.aalborg-trafikinfo.dk]

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CHAPTER FIVE: ANALYSIS OF AALBORG MUNICIPAL


AUTHORITY’S STRATEGIES FOR THE CENTRAL
HARBOUR FRONT

5.1. Introduction

The analysis of this project, the literature review and the theoretical part, is focused on two
main issues, firstly the urban planning and secondly, the economical aspect of
redevelopment plan for the Central Harbour Front in Aalborg.

The initial analysis is taken from an urban planning point of view. We are going to pay
special attention on aspects such as mixed uses, accessibility and urban design which are the
three main points on urban planning. These issues are related to each other. Effect on each
of them will have consequences on the other. In this way, to make the waterfront to
attractive people, there should be different implemented activities and services. At the same
time, both public and private spaces, should be developed in a nice way, paying special
attention on the design. So, if the waterfront is developed in a nice-looking way, the citizens
will like to go there. On the other hand, if the accessibility to this area in the city is not
improved, there will be always a ‘barrier effect’ and the integration of the waterfront in the
inner city will be not successful.

Secondly, we are going to analyse the economical aspect; this point of view is also related
to urban planning, because if a new urban plan is designed, different kinds of activities and
services will be created to attract people. If the redevelopment plan is successful, there will
be great effects for the city, especially in the economic aspects. Accordingly, one of the
most important economic activities that would take advantage of the new plan at the
waterfront is the tourism; it could increase in great manner being profitable for the city.
Hence, we are also going to focus our analysis on tourism results if the Municipality’s plans
are implemented.

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5.2. Urban Planning


5.2.1. Mixed Uses

Regarding our literature review, the theoretical chapter and also our objectives for this
project, we have decided to focus this part of the analysis on a new development of
“mixed uses” of activities to be established in the central waterfront. These “mixed uses”
are also aimed to create an attractive link between the central harbour front and the inner
city. Thus, the redevelopment of the harbour front in this study shall pay attention on the
evaluation of mixed uses that would serve as support for social and cultural activities.

Firstly, we should define the meaning of mixed uses. Therefore, we can use this term,
“mixed uses”, if we want to mean “an application of multifunctional establishment and
usage of physical structures in a spatial area”18, as described in the literature review. In
our case, the term mixed uses is applied as utilisation of the area for activities such as
offices, shops, cultural centres, recreational areas, historical and amusement centres.

The competition among potential uses, which are frequently incompatible like industry,
business, entertainment, residence or recreation, is one of the major difficulties of
waterfront planning. According to Vagnby, B. [2005. p.8-9], we could distinguish three
different kinds of land uses:

1. Water-dependent use: total dependence on the waterfront (marinas, ferry


terminals and ship building).
2. Water-connected use: it has a less dependence on the waterfront than the first
use, but it is benefited for its nearness to the water (meeting places, aquaria,
restaurants).
3. Water-attracted use: it has greater attraction power and value because of the
waterfront facilities (like hotels and owner-occupied residences).

A planner could ask himself or herself how much mixed uses are appropriate to be
established in the whole area. There should be a balance between them, while avoiding
adverse effects among themselves. We are going to identify three different methodologies
for mixed uses; according to Grant, [2004, p.9]:

18
See Literarure Review. Chapter 2, page24
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1.-Increasing intensity of land uses.


2.-Increasing diversity of uses.
3.-Integrating formerly segregated uses; (for instance, allowing light industry in
residential areas).

Currently, we can identify different uses in the whole central harbour front but not too
many, hence we should focus our study on increasing its diversity of land uses and
integration them better. Waterfront needs a new and attractive multifunctional space to
revitalise itself. Consequently, we have decided to implement these last two
methodologies.

A.- Why do we need to implement mixed uses in the Aalborg Waterfront?

Reading the previous chapters, we have verified that the Central Harbour Front needs a
new redesign of its land uses if we want to build up a new space to attract people from a
large range of ages. So, it is necessary (i) to implement a wide variety of activities and (ii)
to create a lively atmosphere around the central waterfront to revitalize this area and
subsequently having multiples choices to visit the harbour.

On the other hand, if we focus this question on economical point of view, we can argue
that the creation of clustering activities is a point of departure for successful economic
strategies since we are encouraging innovation, cooperation and competition between
networks, thus we could have a sustainable local economic development.

B.- Strategies that we can apply.

When planners are looking forward to design a new scheme of land uses, the first step they
should discuss is which uses could be developed in the water’s edge and after that, they
should decide the best choice to implement them and to create great quality of urban
spaces. The knowledge from the literature review and theoretical chapter, which we can
apply here, are different strategies to implement diverse land uses. As a result, we shall
distinguish between: (i) Physical conversion from industrial uses to commercial and
recreational uses. The main concept is to protect the environment in the waterfront. (ii)
The landscape is the most important concept. Different uses should be combined and, at
the same time, try to protect this area from different kinds of pollution.
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The planner’s role is trying to increase the value of the harbour area revitalizing it in the
correct way; thus, we should combine both protecting the environment and promoting a
landscape design in our analysis. This one is an aspect (landscape design) that we are
going to approach later. Consequently, we are trying to apply Falk’s19 theory and his
process called Balanced Incremental Development. These satisfies three fundamental
principles: firstly, social justice (to resolve population’s needs); secondly, natural balance
(to create a sustainable place) and thirdly, minimization of waste (to reuse existing
resources).

So, it is important to notice that we could propose: (i) preserve and rehabilitate historical
and industrial buildings (sustainable place and reusing existing resources), (ii) find a
balance between tourism’s needs and local population’s needs and try to combine them
(social justice and sustainable place). Thus, we think that these ones are the two tools that
we need to implement in our study.

C.- Analyses of current land uses at the Aalborg waterfront

Traditionally, the centre of the city has been the main location for shops and offices,
together with some institutional land uses such as the city hall, libraries and museums.
Thus, we are talking about central business district (CBD) that is city’s nucleus of
commercial land uses with a densely concentrations of shops, offices, stores and non-
residential buildings.

At the same time, we can find the focal point of most transportation routes such as bus
stations and railway terminals, and also hotels around of this CBD. Also, mixed land uses
like small factories and workshops, apartment buildings, and old residential
neighbourhoods are located in the surroundings. This zone is an area in transition, because
of its mixture of growth, changed, and declined land uses. So, it is important to study how
land uses could be within the future or long term. Some land uses could be changing all
the time or could be depressed in few years. If we try to design a Multiple Nuclei model20,
we can obtain the following image:

19
See Literature Review. Chapter 2, p.24
20
Multiple-nuclei model of urban land use: when cities reach a certain size, the traditional downtown is
no longer sufficient to serve the commercial needs of the whole city, and so additional nodes of shops and
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Fig 20.Multiple Nuclei Model

Central business district Heavy manufacturing


Wholesale light manufacturing Outlying business district
Low-income residential Residential suburb
Medium-income residential Industrial suburb
High-income residential

The implementation of this model is to show the CBD’s location and where the general
land uses are located. This scheme is based in the concept of functional clustering. “Some
activities are attracted to another, while others repel one another”. [Lecture 7,
Localisation and the development of cities and regions, p.455]. Looking at the above
image, it is interesting to notice that the Central Business District as described in chapter
4, is located next to the Limfjord and it is supposed to include the Central Harbour Front.
It is important to remark the area for medium income residential (red area), which is
around of the CBD.

Mostly urban land users want to maximize utility. The utility of a specific location refers
to its usefulness to population. In general, utility will be a function of accessibility, which
we are studying in another subchapter. For instance, commercial land users want to be
accessible to markets and workers; residents want to be accessible to jobs, services, and
friends; public institutions want to be accessible to their clients … and so on. Thus, we

offices emerge in outlying districts. Functional groupings of related activities of other kinds-manufacturing,
wholesaling, etc-also tend to develop, creating multiple nuclei of economic activities around which the city
is organized. [Lecture 7, Localisation and the development of cities and regions, p.455]
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should notice that the point of maximum accessibility is the city centre. In our case, the
inner city and also the central waterfront are the points of greatest accessibility in Aalborg,
and this means the area is really active.

If we observe again the image, we can distinguish other different land uses like wholesale
light manufacturing, high and low-income residential, outlying business district or heavy
manufacturing. It is important to detect that the heavy manufacturing is located in the
eastern part of the city. Firstly, it was placed in the central harbour front, but along the
years it has had to move to another place because the intensive social activity in the
waterfront was incompatible with industrial activity. Actually, it is great to know that we
can only find few industrial buildings in the central harbour, but also it is important to
notice that we should propose some plans to avoid this annoying situation. We can
perceive that the first strategy that we wanted to implement is currently being developed.

Furthermore, we present a detailed map of actual mixed uses in the central harbour front
and in the inner city:

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Figure 21 shows the actual land uses in the Central harbour front. Source: designed by authers.

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We are going to analyse which land uses we can be found in the inner city and in the
waterfront, and which ones should be implemented to revitalise the area according to local
population’s needs. We are going to achieve our analysis following this scheme:
• Recognition the whole land uses. We have done a study about all the different
activities that are located in both the central waterfront and the inner city, because
one of our objectives for this project is to link inner city and central harbour front.
So, we think that it is necessary to make an analysis of both of them.
• Evaluation of target group. We are going to define what kind of people could be
attracted to these different land uses.
• Evaluation of the location. We are going to establish, in this last part, all the
knowledge and strategies that we have decided to implement.

I. Recognition land uses


Historical land use: We are talking about the Aalborghus Slot and the medieval streets in
the historical city. We know that preservation of historical features is one important
advantage of the town centre planning. We can use it as an urban renewal tool;
preservation and rehabilitation could be profitable by the fact that most city centres
enclose a diversity of interesting architectural constructions, which attracts the attention of
most people.

If we study preservation concept, we can divide it into three categories: (i) restoration and
renovation of single houses, (ii) elaboration of preservation plans for entire housing or
neighbourhoods and (iii) transformation and reuse of buildings or building facilities for
new purposes [Vagnby, B. 2005, p.5]. Perhaps, the most used category is the third one and
also it is the most useful since we could recover an old and historical building and at the
same time, we could promote up to date activities inside.

Gardens and parks (green land use): We can mention, for instance, Tivoliland and
Østre Anlæg Park. They are located in the eastern part of the central harbour front. We
think that they are not enough for whole the inner city and central waterfront since they
only attract population from south-east part of the city. Maybe, it would be necessary to
have more green areas in the central waterfront, if we want (i) to create a sustainable
environment and (ii) to implement our second strategy. Trying to link these two parks with

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both inner city and central harbour front among green paths could be an interesting
solution to solve the landscape design.

Shopping area: We mentioned in the fourth chapter that an important number of


pedestrian streets are supporting the shopping activity. All the shops are concentrated in
the inner city and whole of them present a good quality image to attract local population
and other commercial activities. This zone is enclosed into the central business district that
we referred before, and it means that this one is the most active place in the inner city
during whole the week. It is important to pay special attention on this area, because
nowadays, it is the major focal point where people have social and economic meetings.
Thus, our principal objective shall be to link the central waterfront with the CDB.

Offices area: The development of trade life along the pedestrian streets attracts many
customers and visitors to the town centre. The banks especially have become aware of this
development, and have all established branches within a few years at the vicinities of best
shopping centres. It is difficult to predict what could happen with offices, shopping and
recreational areas. Currently, they encircle the most important social and economical
activity in the inner city.

Event area (recreational area): Jomfru Ane Gade is the part of the inner city where we
can find the night activity. Mostly bars, cafés and restaurants are located in this area. This
zone in the central business district also include shopping areas, but in this case recreation
is the most dominant activity at night. It could be a good idea to change the role of this
route to attract more activities at all periods of the day. Perhaps, it is not only mixed uses
but other activies because the popular nature of the area could accomodate these changes.

Sport land use: We find this kind of land use in the western part of the city, close to the
waterfront. Football stadium, and swimming bath support an important number of
sporting activities. These are not located too close to both the inner city and the central
harbour front, so we should consider if it could be possible to build a new sport area in our
study zone to be more accessible to sport persons.

Cultural land use: In the inner city we can find a public library, a congress centre,
conference halls and so on. These cultural facilities attract participants and visitors from a

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large hinterland. We can notice that actually, in the central harbour front and in
downtown, there are not many cultural places like these ones. In our opinion, the fourth
largest city in Denmark should have more cultural places and activities to offer to the local
citizens and tourists.

Parking land use: The Metax House21 , the largest parking area in the city that can
accomodate about 600 vehicles can be localised behind of Aalborghus Slot. We can find
other ones around the inner city (parking house). It is necessary to have a good distribution
of parking areas since we have already stated that the most active place in Aalborg is the
inner city. A large population usually walk on the pedestrian streets and nice boulevards,
but also sometimes they need to travel on cars. It is essential to have parking facilities.
This aspect is going to be explained in detail from an accessibility point of view later in
this chapter.

Industrial land use: We commented before that most industrial buildings are located in
the eastern part of the waterfront, but there is a small industrial area in the central
waterfront. We decided, at the beginning of this project, not to include this area in our
study zone because it meant that we had to do another study project about the effects, if
we decided to remove this industrial building.

Actually, we are not working on it, but we should considerer that we have an industrial
area next to the central harbour front. At the same time, this area encloses the cattle
market. Actually, it is a disused industrial building, so we could propose to reuse it for
different activity. This one will depend of the other kind of activities that could be offered
in the area. The Nordkraft is also a building on the waterfront. It was a power plant but has
been partly demolished.

II. Evaluation of target group


Young people: The principal focuses where we can find young people are whole of sport
buildings, sport infrastructures, event area and shopping zone. Perhaps they use gardens,
parks and green areas but only if the weather allows it. Thus, we should consider if it is a
good idea to implement a new design for green areas to attract people although the
weather conditions shall be good, or if it is not a good idea to create more green spaces.

21
See the Interview in Appendix B.3.
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Middle-aged people: Usually prefer quite spaces like gardens or walking in nice streets
and boulevards. They also used green areas and shopping streets. They can also go to the
event area but habitually, they prefer going to culture centres like theatres and cinemas or
restaurants. Their economical level is in general higher than young people’s level, so they
can afford to visit not public spaces. We have already talked about the few cultural places
that currently, we can find in Aalborg, so maybe it could be possible to implement new
cultural or educational areas in the central harbour front.

Senior citizens: Nowadays, they like walking and spending time in quite and pleasant
spaces, but also to visit historical and cultural places where they can learn and enjoy at the
same time. They often prefer spaces without noise and pollution, where everybody is
talking and walking; thus, we need to implement more open spaces and cultural places that
are not located near to industrial land uses, but also we should consider the principal
assumption: the Danish weather.

III. Evaluation of the location


If we try to divide the whole of land uses accordingly with Vagnby, we have:
Water-dependent use: Actually we cannot find any activity in the central harbour front
that depends totally to the water. We can observe the Marina in the western part in the
waterfront, maybe we can incorporate it in our purposes to attract people, but this area is
not included in our study zone.

Water-connected use: Currently, we can find some restaurants in western part in the
central waterfront, but there are any attractive meeting places to visit.

Water-attracted use: Some hotels are located in the waterfront, but actually the values
and facilities that the waterfront offers are not too much, so there are not many hotels and
other activities that use water attraction to locate. Perhaps the problem is the climate,
because we know that this port it is cold and dark in winter.

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D.- Analyses about the future land uses accordingly with the Municipality´s plan.

Once knowing the diverse Aalborg Municipality’s plans to develop the central harbour
front, we can start the analysis whole of uses of land that have been purposed by planners.
Firstly, we would like present a general map of the waterfront, where we have localized
the general uses that we shall find in a few years in Aalborg. We have divided the whole
area in 3 different land uses: Entertainment (Red and Green: sport, green
areas and open spaces), historical (Yellow) and cultural (Blue); but they are localized in
four different zones.

Figure 22: Shows the 4 different general land uses in the Municipality’s plan. The background map
from Aalborg Municipality. Source: scheme designed by authors.

In this way, the Municipality is going to follow the methodologies to mix uses that Grant
suggests [2004, p.9]: (i) increasing intensity of land uses, (ii) increasing diversity of uses
and (iii) integrating formerly segregated uses. They shall try to cover whole of central
harbour front placing different kinds of activities that can support local’s needs. Perhaps,
the most important municipal goal is to find a perfect diversity of uses. We can look the
Municipality’s plans in the following picture:

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Figure 23: Shows the 4 different general land uses in the Municipality’s plan. The background map
from Aalborg Municipality. Source: Map designed by authors.

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We are going to achieve this analysis following the same scheme that we have used to
analyse the current land uses map:
• Recognition the whole land uses. We have done a study about all the different
activities that shall be located in the central waterfront. We are going to describe
whole of these land uses, but in this point, we do not do any valuation.
• Evaluation of target group.
• Evaluation of the location. Combination with current land uses.

I. Recognition the whole land uses

Historical land use: It is going to be focused on attracting tourists. Its localisation in the
middle of the central waterfront becomes it in a strategic nodal point for pedestrian and
vehicular accesses. Municipality’s intention is to create a new symbol in Aalborg city; the
castle, Aalborghus Slot, represents Aalborg’s identity and its history. It is located next to
the Music House, another future icon for the city. This implementation of land uses
increases the value of both historical use and cultural use.

Gardens and parks (green land use) - Planners have designed some new green areas: (i)
In the western area (Jomfru Ane Parken), we can find a garden/park that is going to be the
connection between sport area and a new shipyard. (ii) Around the castle and in the Utzon
Parken, we shall find some green spaces to walk and nice corridors to cross the middle
central waterfront. (iii) Karolinelundskilen where we could find a new recreational area
added to a green path that shall link with the Tivoliland area (Karolinelund). Landscape
concept shall be improved and applied everywhere so that nature becomes a visible
element. In this way, a green corridor has been created across the waterfront, so all the
different uses shall link among green spaces. We can observe it in the last image.

Event area (recreational area): It is known that an original recreational area shall build
in the eastern part, Jomfru Ane Parken. Its nearness with Jomfru Ane Gade, the most
active street at night, could be its best strategy to attract local population. New restaurants
and small shops shall be implemented. In the eastern part, we could find another
entertainment22 area, Karolinelundskilen. The location of these two areas in opposed sides

22
We use recreational and entertainment land use with the same meaning.
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of the central harbour front could be a fine idea to avoid attract local people to only one
focus.

Housing: A new housing for students will be implemented next to Utzonparken, between
two cultural buildings, Music House and Utzon’s house. Actually, there is not a residential
area in the waterfront, so this one could be a new strategy to revitalize the harbour front.

Cultural land use: We can find two different icons: (i) Utzonparken where we could visit
Utzon’s house and at the same time we can enjoy in a new green area around of it. (ii)
Music House that will become in one of the most important symbols in Aalborg city.

Parking land use: We have read in previous chapters and in the interview from the
Municipality that a new big parking area shall be built inside of Karolinelundskilen. It will
be a barrier between the Music House and the small industrial zone, which is located in
the eastern part.

II. Evaluation of target group

Young people: Jomfru Ane Parken and Karolinelundskilen will be the principal focuses
where we can find young people. Sport buildings and infrastructures and other recreational
areas shall help to redesign a definitive harbour that it can link with the inner city to attract
young population. Student apartments and the new University in the Music House will
foment a juvenile use of whole central harbour front.

Middle-aged people: Jomfru Ane Parken, Utzon’s house and Music House and also
Karolinelundskilen shall be design to catch the attention of middle aged people among
others.

Senior Citizens: We could say that they can visit the same areas than middle-aged people.
Perhaps, they are not going to visit the event area and accordingly, Jomfru Ane Parken,
although the last one will include a quite area to walk and enjoy with the nature.

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III. Evaluation of the location. Combination with current land uses

Our principal objective in this project (problem formulation) has been to create a link
between the central harbour area and the inner city. We are going to compare the current
situation with future situation in the CDB in Aalborg; could be easier to present the results
in the following chart:

LAND USES INNER CITY CENTRAL HARBOUR


FRONT
Historical use Medieval streets Aalborghus Slot,
Green use Tivoliland, Ostre Anlaeg Jomfru Ane Parken, Aalborghus Slot
Park Utzon Parken, Karolinelundskilen,
Recreational Jomfru Ane Gade, shopping area Jomfru Ane Parken,
use Tivoliland, Karolinelundskilen,”Cattle market”
Sport use In the eastern part
Offices use Central business district
Housing use Around Central business district Utzon Parken
Cultural use Library Music House
Parking use Metax house Karolinelundskilen
Table 2. Implementation of land uses in Inner City and Central Harbour Front. Source: Table
designed by authors.

Now, we are trying to find some links between the actual land uses and whole the new
land uses that the Municipality presents. If we look the table, we can observe that Sport
land use and Offices land use do not have complementation among the inner city and the
central harbour front. In this case, it does not mean that the new plans do not resolve
population’s requirements with a sport and offices point of view. Sometimes we have to
decide where the best location for some land uses is. If we would have two different sport
uses located in the waterfront and in the inner city, the population would have to choose
between them. So, we could be dividing the attraction in these areas and subsequently,
decreasing the profits.

We should remember the inner city and the central waterfront are expected to become a
really active place. Thus, it is necessary to offer more parking areas for vehicles and to
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easy traffic. The Metax house and Karolinelundskilen’s parking are located closer, so it
would be necessary to localize another one at the extreme, preferably near Jomfru Ane
Parken.

The rest of land uses could have a fine link between themselves if at the same time; we
propose good quality access to combine these different activities.

In general, we could say that we have found almost all of our expectations in these new
plans for implementation in Aalborg. That is increasing intensity and diversity of land
uses; to solve population’s needs, to create a sustainable place and to reuse existing
resources.

5.2.2. Accessibility

Based on the Literature Review and Theoretical Chapter, we find out that many experts
consider, directly or indirectly, the accessibility one of the greatest issues to study and to
analyse at urbanism development.

Some experts, like Curll (1993), thinks directly on ‘accessibility’ as one of the three keys
words that are related to any waterside redevelopment project, (‘clean’, ‘alive’ and
‘accessible’) [White, K. N. et al. 1993 p.129]. But in many others’ opinions we could
understand the importance of this characteristic for the waterfront redevelopment,
although it is in an indirect way. Thus, Falk N. [White, K. N. et al. 1993, p.24] talks about
the necessity of providing infrastructures, and of course, one of the main function of these
infrastructures will be to improve the access; on the other hand, if we think on the mixed
uses as the main important issue [White, K. N. et al. 1993 p.16], not only to redevelop the
waterfront but also to attract economic activities, especially tourism, we should realize that
if it is not easy to access to these activities, it will be very difficult to encourage people to
go there, and therefore, to be successful in creating a liveable place.

Finally, we also should keep in mind that from our problem formulation point of view, to
make the waterfront more accessible is one of the most important strategies in order to
integrate this with the inner city, and it means many profits for both, local residents and
visitors.

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But, how could we define ‘accessibility’? And, what should we consider to make the
Aalborg´s waterfront accessible? Is it referred only to motor traffic or does it also include
pedestrian mobility?

“Accessibility is sometimes used as a ‘miracle’ word to explain the necessity for transport
infrastructure (investments) in political debates on all governmental levels” [Rietveld P. &
Bruinsma F.1998 p. 6].

Sometimes when we referred to infrastructures we confused it referring only to motor


traffic access, and most of the time we forget that the pedestrian access is the most directly
access that we should consider. In this regard, we also have to appreciate that “for people,
accessible means being able to get the waterfront and walk along it.” [White K. N. et al.
1993, p.141].

So “accessibility can be defined as the potential of opportunities for interaction. It is


based on both, the network features and the spatial distribution of activities” [Rietveld P.
& Bruinsma F.1998 p. 352]. Considering these definitions, we would combine both
meanings from motor traffic and pedestrian point of view, because both ways comprise of
the network that link the waterfront and the city.

Based on a dictionary definition, ‘accessibility’ is understood as the ability to approach to


something23. And according to the encyclopaedia Britannica ‘accessible’ means that is
capable of being reached, used or seen24. On this premise, we would like to understand
that the harbour front might be “accessible”, so we will be focused on the meaning as the
facility to approach from the city centre to the waterfront, and even, from any part of the
city.
After this, the analysis of the pedestrian and traffic accessibility is going to be developed.
This part of the chapter tries to compare and to evaluate the different ideas of people who
are affected or are implied in the redevelopment of harbour front plan. These opinions
have been known through the interviews25 that the group carried out, because according to

23
[URL: http://m-w.com/dictionary/accessibility. Data accessed 09/ 12/ 2005]
24
[URL: http://www.britannica.com/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=accessible&query=accessible. Data
accessed 09/ 12/ 2005]
25
See interviews in Appendix B.
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the literature review, when an urban plan is implemented, it is important to know the
opinion of the groups of people implied, in order to reach an agreement and the integration
of local residents’, visitors’ and developers’ expectations.

A.- Motor traffic Access

Nowadays, the main traffic road access to the Central Harbour Front is the four lanes road
called Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen. But, meanwhile it connects the area to the
rest of the city, it is at the same time, in someway, a barrier between the inner city and the
harbour front.

Historically, it has been the road that allowed the access to most of the industries that were
located in the waterfront, and because of that, it has become an industrial transport road
reflected on its lanes’ width, (four lanes), and on its narrow pavements for pedestrians.
Moreover, today it is one of the most important ways to cross the city from the east to the
west part or vice versa, although there are others like Jyllandsgade or Østre Alle, and of
course, it also leads the traffic to Nørresundby through the Limfjordsbroen. But the traffic
access from the city centre is more difficult, due to the main points to access to this road
are through Karolinelundsvej in the east and Vestrerbro in the west. Some connections to
the inner city like Østerågade have the traffic restricted to public transport and bicycles.

Currently, one of the main goals of the Municipality´s redevelopment plan for the
waterfront is to redesign this road and turn it from four lanes road into two lanes road,
turning it from “an industrial road” into “a city road”. The works on this road are expected
to star in March, 2006. The Municipality expects in this way to link the inner city and the
harbour front, and to minimise the environmental impact of the traffic, reducing energy
consumption, noise, dust and smell. But actually, this solution only would improve the
pedestrian access to the waterfront, because the traffic access will be maintained (focused
on Karolinelundsvej and Vestrerbro), even it could get worse the traffic problem. So, this
goal is quite polemic, because it seems that not all the groups implied and affected by the
new plan are in agreement with this new road design.

All the groups of people who are implied in the process of making a redevelopment plan,
(the Municipality, experts from the University, Aalborg City Association,...), agree that
the ideal solution to the traffic problem would be to build a tunnel under the current road

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Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen, so it could be separated the pedestrian from


vehicles. According to Bo Vagnby, [2005, p.3], this is one of the most useful means to
attract pedestrians to a determined area like the waterfront, because in this way people
would feel safety and would like to sit or walk on the extensions of pavements, enjoying
the urban life. But on the other hand, all these associations and experts also understand
that this solution, in addition to have a really difficult technical aspects and have risk of
pollution problems in the fiord during the building process, it is extremely expensive
compared with other solutions like changing the number of lanes or even building a
pedestrian bridge. In these solutions it is more difficult to get the integration of the
waterfront and the inner city because the road on surface acts as a barrier, but if it is
planned carefully, they would get similar effects related to the accessibility and the
Municipality could save also some money to invest in other issues.

The new road design from the Municipality could be considered as the easiest way to
improve the pedestrian access to the waterfront, because currently it is quite dangerous to
cross the road Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen due to the few traffic lights that
are and the high speed that cars are allowed to use. Also the lack of interesting activities in
the waterfront made it not attractive to citizens to cross this road. But maybe, this solution
only would transfer the traffic problem to another part of the city, or even to create other
new problems.

Firstly, the new two lanes- road design decreases the capacity of the road. So, according to
the Aalborg City’s sources of the traffic counting in this road, there will be capacity only
for 7,000 vehicles instead of the 20,000 ones that currently are driven through it.
Moreover, we should consider that the new activities in the Municipality´s plan will
hopefully attract more people, so it means that the amount of vehicles would be increase
too. If traffic was forced to use other roads as Karolinelundsvej and Jyllandsgade that are
already quite influenced by heavy traffic transport, (trucks and industrial transport), it
would also create traffic jams in these parts of the city.

But the main reason because of the Aalborg City Association, the Tourist Office and Bo
Vagnby, (an expert from Aalborg University), do not like the change of Nyhavnsgade/
Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen road is because it would have negative effects in the economic
activity of the city centre and waterfront. Since the road had less capacity, it made more

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difficult to get to the shops, restaurants and other activities at downtown and waterfront,
becoming an extremely congested place, hence, unattractive. This could encourage people
to go other places to go shopping, for instance, to the shopping centre locates in Skalborg
at the south of the city where there are less traffic jams and parking is also easier.

The problems related to parking are one of the main disadvantages that Bo Vagnby and the
"Aalborg City" indicate against the new road design. Currently, great part of the
waterfront is occupied by parking places, and these are going to be removed in the future,
because there also other parking houses at downtown. The big problem is that in the new
redevelopment plan, the Municipality would like to collect most of the parking places in
the east part of the waterfront, in the park that is going to be called Karolinelundskilen.
They have chosen this place, because it will be used as a barrier, between the feed factory
and the new cultural area of the city, and simultaneously it will provide enough parking
places for the Music House and the future Tivoli. Aalborg City and Bo Vagnby are afraid
that consumers could consider this parking place quite far from the city centre, where the
shops are located, and they would decide to go to other places. In addition, Bo Vagnby
considers that in this way, the park will never become a recreational area.

Usually, Aalborg Municipality is not too interested on building new parking houses at
downtown, because they do not earn too much money on it, so they have started to think
on making some collaborations with private investors. So maybe this is the way to try to
solve this problem, because it is not logical to try to attract more people to waterfront
through new cultural events, shops and restaurants and, at the same time, decrease the
capacity of the road that access to it, and decrease the parking places closer to downtown.
An alternative that has been studied is to reduce only Slotspladsen and Strandvejen to two
lanes, because they are the parts of the road that are closer to city centre and the historic
part. Thus, it could be improved the pedestrian accessibility that is the main reason for the
Municipality to reduce this road into two lanes, and it would encourage citizens to go to
the new leisure activities that are planned to develop at the harbour front. But this solution
is not accepted either by “Aalborg City” because it would create a bottleneck effect, and
therefore, traffic problems that could be annoying for citizens.

In this way, it seems that Aalborg Municipality is pretty sure that there will not be any
problem about traffic and parking areas with the new plan that it is proposed for the

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waterfront, although most of the associations and experts implied on it disagree


completely. Besides, it seems that the Municipal Authority does not consider the
possibility of being unsuccessful with the new plan and turn the current road
Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen into a congested place. But on the other hand,
this possibility would be probable because the reduction of the road’s capacity while
currently it is one of the most used ways to cross the city. Hence, if the Municipality does
not want to change the plan and wants to be successful in it not creating more traffic
problems, it should be careful and deal directly with the traffic, improving the public
transport or other alternatives traffic routes.

Our proposal to solve this traffic access problem is just to integrate the road as a
downtown street but maintaining the four lanes. It means to improve the “pedestrian
permeability” providing more traffic lights and traffic crossing, creating wider pavements
and bicycles lanes, decreasing the speed of the cars or avoiding the industrial transport.

B.- Pedestrian Access

Nowadays the pedestrian access to the waterfront is quite restricted and it owes to the
difficulty to cross the road Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen that acts as a barrier
between this area and the inner city. Besides, according to the Local Tourist Board most of
population does not find attractive to approach to this area because currently there are not
interesting activities or services, even they consider it as a symbol of the past time of the
city that has gone26. Perhaps, this lack of interest is due to they are not conscious of the
potential that it would have, and the profits that it could report to the city when it will be
revitalized.

26
See Interview to Peter Hermansen from Aalborg Tourist Information Office in the Appendix B.
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Figure 25 shows the main pedestrian accesses proposed by the Aalborg Municipality Plan. The
background map from Aalborg Municipality. Source: scheme designed by the authors

The Aalborg´s Municipality has tried to show the potential of the waterfront having
meeting with different local associations to imply them in the regeneration of the
waterfront, to let them know the ideas for the plan and asking their opinion. Besides, it has
a website where it shows the plans for regenerating the waterfront, although sometimes
these are not completely finished. However, the local authority has not made a really big
effort to make the population know all these plans, since they are not completely finished.
The work to implement these plans has just started in the waterfront, and it will need a
long time to be finished all the infrastructures and services designed. As it will be
explained later in this chapter27, sometimes the Municipal Authorities prefer not to allow
population to know everything about the future plans because they can be changed for
different reasons: political influences, economical problems,…

The current plan from the Municipality seeks chiefly to turn the waterfront into a lively
area that would become a part of the inner city. “Most city planners agree that a more
pedestrian- friendly shaping of the town centre will improve the traffic conditions,
contribute to improvement of the environment and development of the trade. The greatest
benefit from an improvement of the conditions of the pedestrians is, however, that the town
centre gets a more attractive image.” [Bo Vagnby, 2005, p.2] So in this way, the
27
See part called “Political Influence” in part 5.3.
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Municipality tries to get more people to the harbour front, and it will improve the
pedestrian access by the transformation of the four lanes road Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/
Strandvejen into two lanes road, as it has already been analysed. But there is a political
resistance from the city and the business community that think that the redesign of the
road instead of improving the pedestrian accessibility will get worse access to the inner
city and in consequence to the waterfront.

Maybe, currently, the most important access to the waterfront is through Østerågade. This
street was already transformed in 1998, so only public transport, bicycles and pedestrian
can circulate through it. It is considered the main pedestrian access, since it connects the
most commercials streets of the city, the historical part and the waterfront. Moreover, it
will connect the east part of the Central Harbour Front, that is aim to local people due to
the recreational activities, with the west part, (the historical and cultural one), that is aim
to both local people and visitors. Even, it is planned to improve this street with some new
fountains and pavements to encourage the citizens to approach to the waterfront.

But the new revitalized plan will improve other pedestrian accesses to the waterfront.
These would connect the harbour front with the most commercial streets of the city like:
Bispensgade, Algade/ Bredegade/ Nøorregade and Nytorv.

The Municipality proposes two different ways to approach from Østerågade to the new
Music House, which would be considered as the new icon of the city:

- Through the commercial streets as Algade/ Bredegade/ Nøorregade and Nytorv


where is possible to go shopping and for a walk at the same time. This option is
quite important, especially in a country like Denmark where usually the weather is
cold and windy, and sometimes is better no walk along the water’s edge. And
because of this, it is important to make the links mentioned before as nice as
possible, so in an indirectly way, they would encourage people to go to the
waterfront. Of course, there will be also accesses along these commercial streets to
the Utzonparken or the new architecture university.

- Through waterfront, thinking on it as a long area where it is possible to walk along,


next to the water, with the beautiful view of the Limfjorden, the Music House, and

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across attractive places as Slotspladse or Utzonparken. Aalborg City and Tourist


Office agree that the main characteristics to make this boulevard nice should be
the design focused on the light, the sense of warmth and security. On the other
hand, Bo Vagnby thinks that it will be quite difficult to get this qualities due to the
cold weather, and because in his opinion, the Music House will be a too high
building that will dominate the waterfront, even making difficult the view of the
water from different points of the city.

Perhaps, one issue that the Municipality´s plan does not consider too much is the access to
the new Slotsparken from Nytorv street. Currently, between this park and the commercial
street there are some shops and buildings that cause that the Aalborghus Slot, a historical
building that could be one of landmarks of the city, is not too visible, and therefore, not
attractive for most of the citizens of Aalborg. But this building should be remarkable in the
Municipality´s plan as part of the identity of the city. Of course, this broad access from
inner city to the waterside would cost a lot of money, and could mean some problems with
some entrepreneurs and Nytorv street.

Figure 26 shows a proposed of a broad access


from inner vity to the waterside. The
background map from Aalborg Municipality.
Source: scheme designed by the authors
The last access to link the city and the
waterfront is located in the east part of the
Central Harbour Front. This access would
join the new area with a future “green ring” around the whole town that the Municipality
is studying to develop. So in this way, the new recreational area, Karolinelundskilen, and
the future Tivoli would be linked. A new owner has recently acquired the Tivoli, and it is
expected that in the future it will extend its range of activities and its schedule, therefore,
increasing its attraction. In any case, Aalborg City and Bo Vagnby actually consider that
this pedestrian access would not be the most useful because they do not believe that the
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new park called Karolinelundskilen would become really attractive, because it is really
close to the feed factory and there will be too many parking places, although they admit
that the idea of opening again the canal in this part of the city is a really attractive.

Finally, it should be remarkable to indicate that all of these pedestrian accesses to the
waterfront will be done through traffic lights and pedestrian crossing that there will be in
the new two lanes road. Some organizations, as Aalborg City or the Tourism Office, and
local experts as Vo Bagnby do not believe that this would be the best solution. They think
that the motor traffic problem would get worse, so they would prefer to maintain the
current four lanes road and to create the pedestrian access through small bridges that
would cross this road making the pedestrian and motor traffic flows kept separated.

According to "Aalborg City’s" opinion is thought that the pedestrian access could be
supported enough if they were built two bridges across the road. Of course, they support
that these bridges should be nice, with elevators for old or handicapped people, benches,
or even with a small café. This association, “Aalborg City”, supports that the minimum
price of each bridge would be 1 million DKK, but it could increase depending on the
bridges` design. Bo Vagnby and Tourist Office agree this idea, but having the premise that
these bridges should be attractive, especial and stand out.

Aalborg City supports that the argument against the building of these bridges is the prices,
although in their opinion they would be cheaper than the change of the current road into
two lanes road.

However, the alternative of building two bridges could have several disadvantages, for
instance, only two bridges is not enough for supporting pedestrian access to the Central
Water Front through the whole road Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen. Even
building one or two more bridges would not solve the problem, and of course it could
increase the budget of the new plan. Moreover, if the pedestrian accesses were limited to
some bridges, it would join the pedestrian flows and not provide the wished accessibility
through whole waterfront.

Some more disadvantages that could be indicated in this alternative are, for instance, that
it is not too attractive to have a café just above a four lanes road, because the motor traffic

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is smelly, noisy and dusty. Besides, the physical room is limited to build all of this: cafés
and wide access to the bridges. Finally, these bridges could also obstruct the waterfront
view.

C.- Summary

As it has been analysed, we are aware of the difficulty to combine the main two goals
related to the accessibility to the waterfront in the new plan for revitalizing this area:
improve the pedestrian access, but at the same time, not getting worse the motor traffic
problem.

In this way, and after attending different opinions, it could be considered that turning the
four lanes road Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen into two lanes would create more
traffic problems and would decrease the accessibility to the waterfront and to downtown,
having negative effects especially in some economic activities.

But, on the other hand, the alternative related to building bridges for the pedestrian
accesses to the Harbour Water Front, it does not seem either to be the best solution
because it limits the pedestrian access instead of improve it.

So maybe, other solutions should be considered, for instance, to maintain the four lanes
road, but at the same time, to improve the pedestrian access. This could be done
decreasing the speed that is allowed in this road, leading the “heavy traffic” through other
roads around the inner city, increasing the number of traffic lights and pedestrian
crossings, providing wide pavements for pedestrians and bicycles lanes. In many cities of
Europe, similar street transformations have been made, for example, in Nice28 there is a
six lane road at the waterfront and people do not mind to cross it to go to the water’s edge,
because it is attractive and the pedestrian accesses have been improved. In this way, if the
four lanes road Nyhavnsgade/ Slotspladsen/ Strandvejen were improved appropriately, it
would be perceived like one more street at downtown instead as a road, and it could create
the complete integration of the waterfront in the inner city.

28
See Appendix C
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In this way, it could be possible to get a suistainable solution not getting worse any kind of
access, pedestrian or by car. There should be provided more traffic lights and traffic
crossing, wider pavements and bicycles lanes, avoid trucks and fast traffic. And, of course,
the points where the two flows of traffic cross each other, like the traffic crossing should
be designed carefully to make pedestrian feel safety and the traffic lights should be
coordinated to make the motor traffic fluid.

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5.2.3. Urban Design Analysis

Regarding our literature review, theoretical chapter and our objective for this project, we
have decided to focus on urban design analysis in part of the study. “Urban design is the
art of making places for people. This explains the dynamics of urban design in cities, and
its very concerns are the connections between people and places, movement and urban
form to processes for ensuring successful towns and cities. Urban design is a key to create
sustainable developments and the conditions for a flourishing economic life and social
progress. Good design can help to create lively places with distinctive character streets,
and public spaces that are safe accessibility, pleasant to use human in scale and places
that inspire because of the imagination and sensitivity of their design.” [Commission for
Architecture2000, p. Xv] .

The waterfront defines the identity, vitality and image of the people more than any other
urban places. It is a major tourist destination, working port, recreational area, cultural asset
and event venue.

In this part we try to analysis the proposed redevelopment from “Aalborg Municipality”
We chooses to work with subject, because when we first study the site and the relationship
between it and different issue. Secondly we study the Aalborg plan to analysis the
communities and different activity from urban design point of view. Thirdly we study
gateways, landmark to give a visual outlook for our site.

The subjects are as follows:


1. The site.
2. Aalborg Municipality plans redevelopment.
3. The gateway sites, Landmarks & Buffer zoning.
4. Paths & Connections.
5. A Visual perception to waterfront.

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Figure 27shows the waterfront site on the Aalborg city


[Debat om havnefront from Aalborg kommune 2004]

A.- The site

The waterfront site is offers one of the best development sites in the city of Aalborg. It is
located 2 kilometres off city centre, the site provides a dramatic setting overlooking to
water. The Aalborg Municipality commissioned and subsequently adopted a proposed for
the planning and redevelopment of the area, in an effort to control, coordinate and unifies
development the area. According with subchapter about mixes uses, we can divide the
future plan central harbour front plan to 4 different land uses.29

B.- The Aalborg Municipality Plan Redevelopment

The Aalborg Municipality tries to do construct between different uses, public spaces and
the Inner city.

We think, this point it is very important to mixed uses in this area, because the waterfront
in any city, it is important part to do redevelop.
1. Sport area and public space.

29
See chapter 5 .1 .Mixed uses.
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2. Historical part.
3. Education and culture part.
4. Buffer zoning area and park.

Impact and significance of the site at Aalborg waterfront to both local communities has
been traditional to all concerned in its redevelopment for a long time.

We try to explain the concept of redevelopment plan of the Municipality. The Aalborg
Municipality has designed the plan into four different parts; sport, historical, culture and
green area but the Municipality want to do:
• Create a comprehensive and viable regeneration plan which will help the Aalborg
waterfront role as a major waterfront city in the Northern part in Denmark.
• Promote a sufficient quantum of development to create high density urban living
and working environment which makes the waterfront more attract people to come
and life.
• Ensure that the redevelopment of Aalborg waterfront is fully integrated different
types of life socially as well as physically, with the neighbouring communities in
the inner city and, in the process, help to contribute regeneration
• The proposal of using this method for the central harbour area has been developed
in response to specific and real practical issues (public spaces, historical and
commercial) to achieve a realistic and fully development proposal in this part of
the city. 30

We accepted this, because the urban concept in redevelopment is a key to creating


sustainable developments and the conditions for a flourishing economic life and for social
progress. And we think this is a good design because this can help to create lively places
and public spaces. [Commission for Architecture & the Built Environment 2000, p. 8].

30
In relation to this concept, Hermansen said in the interview “the harbour swimming pool is a great idea; it
becomes popular during the summer especially for the young people and tourist. The green area is a positive
idea to have it close to the castle; however, the castle is not one of the impressive buildings in Denmark”.
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C.- The Gateways, Landmark and buffer Zoning

I. Gateway definition

“The gateways are entrance to the site from different direction and we can find two kinds
from gateways. Main gateways they have a direct vision to site and another kind is a
secondary gateways” [www.charlottesville.org, Date accessed 07/12/05]..

The first impressions gained by visitors and local people as they approach the town centre
are fundamental to them developing a positive sense of place. The quality of routes
approach and the presence of attractive ‘gateways’ and ‘edges’ are important aspects in
meeting the expectations of those arriving at the town centre.

The proposed development at the gateways site has several clear urban designs objectives:
• To create a landmark space and building at the entrance to the overall development.
• To establish a strong and clear urban edge along the western side to the inner of the
city.
• To create western part with deep pf the city thought gateway development area,
facilitating and encouraging connection with local communities.

Finally, the gateways is very important to the waterfront, because it as link between inside
waterfront and outside with the different parts of the city. The Aalborg Municipality
uses a lot of gateways to attract people to the waterfront.

II. Landmark space:Recognition land uses

“Landmarks are another type of point-reference. They are usually a rather simply defined
physical object: building, sign, store, or mountain. Their use involves the singling out of
one element from a host of possibilities. Some landmarks are distant ones, typically seen
from many angles and distances, over the tops of smaller elements, and used as radial
references. They may be within the city or at such a distance that for all practical
purposes they symbolize a constant direction. Such are isolated towers, golden domes, and
great hills” [www.charlottesville.org, 2005].

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Landmark is feature buildings creating architectural reference points to assist in creating a


cognitive map. The landmark in our case is the Slotspladsen, because it is a historical part
of old Aalborg. The area in front of Aalborghus castle and Slotspladsen will be organised
as a green character for recreational functions. [Kommuneplan tillæg 1.56, 2004 &
www.aalborg.dk/havnefront, 2005].31

Because the visions are to create a palace square between Toldboden and Fjordgade with
basins of historical references back to middle age, very big building, high and wide, the
buildings have dominate the waterfront and give a relationships between another
development in the area.

III. Buffer Zoning and Parking Area

“A "Buffer Zone" is the most fundamental form of land use control. Its purpose is to
accommodate shoreline fluctuations caused by storm erosion and swell wave rebuilding,
but it has severe shortcomings as a means of addressing high rates of coastal recession.
On receding coastlines, history has shown that many developments sited behind buffer
zones have been subject to major social, economic and political problems” [Garvin, A. &
Berens, G., 1998, p. xv].

The Aalborg Municipality used buffer zone area, because the municipality wants to give
less impact from dust and environment effects, which is coming from industry area. It is a
good idea to use the buffer zone and design more green and recreation areas in this part
eastern part.

31
See chapter 4,p.52

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Figure 28 shows the gateways, landmark and buffer zone in waterfront. The background map from
Aalborg Municipality. Source: scheme designed by the authors.

The main gateway The landmark Buffer zoning

D.- Paths & Connections

Paths are the channels along which the observer customarily, occasionally, or potentially
moves. They may be streets, walkways, transit lines, canals, and railroads. For many
people, these are the predominant elements in their image. People observe the city while
moving through it, and along these paths the other environmental elements are arranged
and related.

The Aalborg Municipality has planned a two round idea defining one for pedestrian and
cycle uses, and another for paths, walking and light traffic areas.

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Figure 29 shows different types of paths and roads on the waterfront. The background map from
Aalborg Municipality. Source: scheme designed by the authors.

Walking area Light traffic and Traffic road


Bicycle

In general the walk and public space is a main vehicular road distributor. The opportunity
has therefore been taken to route the vehicles to the central development of waterfront,
allowing a free connection between the walk, road and park. I think the municipality needs
to do this:
• It provides the opportunity to create a clear access for pedestrian and cyclist from
the gateways to the harbour front.
• To build more parking areas at the eastern part and recreation uses in harbour
front.32

E.- Visual Perception

“Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and
interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. Vision has a
specific sensory system, the visual system”.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Visual_perception 2005. (Date accessed:7/12/2005)].

In this point, I should explain the image perception in Aalborg waterfront, through urban
design development. The subjects are as follows:

32
See chapter 5.1. Accessibility.
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• Building high light (sky line).


• Image perception.

I. Building high

“A high-rise building is distinguished from other tall man-made structures by the


following guidelines:

1. It must be divided into multiple levels of at least 2


meters height;
2. If it has fewer than 12 such internal levels, then the
highest undivided portion must not exceed 50% of
the total height.

Indistinct divisions of levels such as stairways shall not be considered floors for purposes
of eligibility in this definition” [www.emporis.com/en/ab/ds/sg/ra/bu/de/hi/ 2005. (Date
accessed: 7/12/2005)].

In the harbour front the highest building is supposed to be the House of music, it is very
high building from 32 to 42 meter and the wide is 100 to 120 meter, and wider than any
other building in this site, but we think it is not a good view. This is because if we look
from the front of the House of Music to the city, we cannot see all other views. The
building is very high and wide. The above figure explains the relationship between high
buildings and waterfront view from the city centre. This building is very high and its
relationship to adjacent the character of urban space [Garvin, A & Berens, G 1998 p.84].
The proposed heights for buildings within the waterfront have been carefully considered to
help develop a system in this area. But we do not find it at the entire central of waterfront.
On the other hand, we do not find another building in the area with the same high. These
buildings will strengthen clearly, urban edges and civic spaces, and articulate the skyline.

We think if Aalborg Municipality should put up a high building at the waterfront, it may
discourage people from coming to there because they like to see an open view from the
inner city to the sea direction. However, our aim is to attract people to waterfront if the
Municipality do these develop. If we design this area we need to keep and see the
panorama (open view) from the city to waterfront. We know the waterfront need to do

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some open space, urban plaza and steps, we want to play with landscape art. .” [Marcus, C
and Francis, C.1998 p. xv]

II. Building and social benefits

A large proportion of the elderly live alone. Living near parks where they can take walk is
critical for the maintenance of health, and sitting to look at the view is an important asset
to an keep open view at the waterfront to keep a social felling in people [Marcus, C and
Francis, C.1998 p. 212]

III. Image perception

Models of scene understanding reveal how boundary contour, junction, and surface texture
elements are combined by the visual system into the patterns which we perceive when
looking at a scene. An area exhibits a fairly homogeneous visual quality. Types that are
present in the case study area include recreational, industrial, institutional, military,
historical, and open space
[www.dot.ca.gov/dist4/sfobb/appendixD.html. Date Accessed 07/12/2005].

Figure 30. Different Activities at WaterfrFigure 30ont URL: www.portclinton.com/finalreport.pdf


(Date Accessed 09/12/05)

This figure is a design to shows a different activity of waterfront and urban design which
the Municipality would like to develop for social and culture activities. [City of Port
Orange, Florida 12 URL: www.portclinton.com/finalreport.pd.( Date Accessed 09/12/05)]
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The image perception to waterfront in Aalborg city


Once urban design issues and redevelopment opportunities are identified, a group of
representative key elements to the study area are documented. These key elements are
identified by photographs on the figure below entitled “highlight important features for
consideration in the urban design analysis”. These photographs depict the actual situation
of the central harbour front. The areas concerned are as follows:

1- The bridge Ljmfjord


2- The parking area
3- The castle
4- The First hotel
5- The Nord Kraft
6- The Industry area

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Figure 31: Image perception of the waterfront. The background map from Aalborg Municipality.
Source: scheme designed by the authors.
F.- Summary
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At the regional scale, there are limits that prevent sprawling development from occurring.
On the western part of harbour front, conservation of efforts of an environmental corridor
separated this part of industrial area by buffer zone. And try to keep the cost line from a
dense barrier of the development. [City of Port Orange, Florida 12
URL:www.portclinton. com/ finalreport.pdf Date Accessed 09/12/05].

The main point in analysis is led to the identification throughout the waterfront. The
uniform and shape building heights throughout the waterfront create a sense of place as
visitors know when they can enter and exits the limits of the waterfront. The path used
like public space and throughout the waterfront has been designed to accommodate
activity along the waterfront public area, historical area, education area and green area.
The public space has been designed to connect the waterfront with the inner city, and the
waterfront redevelopment that has been designed from Aalborg Municipality will serves as
the centre of activity and commerce for the entire harbour front of Aalborg.

Figure 32. Designed proposed to attract people to the waterfront. [City of Port Orange, Florida 12
URL:www.portclinton. com/ finalreport.pdf Date Accessed 09/12/05].

The park and open space the Municipality are used as link between water and green area,
because the open space and parks deals with different elements of the district’s and seating
area for improving parks and places for people to recreate and interact with the city’s
natural landscape. This system used by the Municipality for waterfront redevelopment in
the city.

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The conclusion drawn from the urban design analysis led to the identification of the
conditions that make the site special to the Aalborg Municipality :

1. Historical, economical, public space, education and culture centre of


waterfront in the city.
2. The location of the waterfront allows a central focus that can provide the
community with an identity.
3. The waterfront redevelopment is an important potential public space,
education, culture and economic generator for revitalization.

5.3. Economical Aspects


5.3.1. Economical Analysis

This part of the analysis focus on the economical aspects of the planning at the Aalborg
central harbour front. In every aspect of planning economy is very important, with out any
economical resources no planning. At the same time planning always will be limited by
the economical resources to realize the plan.

In this analysis we analyse the general purpose of the plan to discover who there will
benefit from this redevelopment at the central harbour front in Aalborg. Afterwards we
analyze the different results we possible will get when redeveloping the central harbour
front depending on if we are using private or public investors and the risks that should be
considered with these two different types of investors. We also take a look at the political
power and agitators in planning and how it possible could influence the plans. Finally we
end with a detailed analysis of the tourist potential of the central harbour front.

A.- General Purpose

Before looking at the economics it is necessary to define the general purpose of the central
harbour front how are the plans and who are involved. How is the relation to the master
plan?

Aalborg Municipality are not satisfied with the central harbour front today, because the
area today only is used for parking, actually the areas could be very attractive if they are

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used for other purposes. So the area at the central harbour front posers a big land value but
a small utilized value, parking business in Aalborg is not a business with the biggest profit,
the area could give a better benefit used for other things. [Malling (int), 2005]

Rie Malling also believes it is very important to attract new citizen so that Aalborg not
will loose in competition with bigger cities as Aarhus and Copenhagen. She sees the whole
redevelopment of the central harbour front as an important thing to attract new people, but
also to create jobs and make the town more beautiful. Actually she mentions the area is the
most important area for Aalborg to develop at the moment. [Malling (int), 2005]

“This is a public area there are a lot of other areas along the harbour front but they are
private. So in these areas there will be developed firms and maybe offices. But this is a
public area, so here you can develop life, new activities, and new places for the whole
Aalborg and the whole region, so because of it, it is the most important area” [Malling
(int), 2005].

In general you can say that the main purpose is to make an attractive area as a common
good, the whole city can benefit from, at the same time our four interview persons
mentions what they do not want, all of them agree that the area that has been redeveloped
between the two bridges is a great example of what they not want. [Malling (int.),
Hermansen (int.), Vagnby (int.) & Andersen (int.)]

Figure 33: show Vestre Havne Promenade in the area between the two bridges [www.digifoto-nord.dk,
(Date accessed 03/01/2006)] and [www.tk-development.dk, (Date accessed 03/01/2006)]

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B.- Differences between public and private investors

If we go back to where we ended in last paragraph it was interesting to notice how all our
interview persons wanted something else then the areas between the bridges. So we will
now take a look at the differences. The area between the bridges is mainly new buildings
offices, housing and a few shops, many of the buildings are actually very attractive and
high quality but even then the citizens do not like the area. [www.aalborg.dk/havnefront]
The reason is simple people do not like the area because the density of the area is high,
there only is one green area and because you only find a few public accessible activities.
There are a lot of activities behind the private walls but only a few activities outside
people can access. This kind of planning benefits the people that work or live in the area,
but not people passing trough the area.

When we are talking about the central harbour front we should notice it is the most central
harbour area in Aalborg and maybe also the most visible harbour area in Aalborg, its
position near the inner city with e.g. shops and restaurants makes it an area many people
pass by and maybe they park there when they visit the inner city. This means it is
important to make it an area all citizens can benefit from and not only the people who life
or work in the area. So our interview persons finds it import the area is public accessible,
beautiful, nice and with many activities.

It also raises the question how should people access the area? Some people prefer going by
car, others use public transport and some go by bicycle or as pedestrians. When Rie
Malling is talking accessibility she mostly focuses on pedestrian access because currently
the Municipalty is really worried about the improvement of the pedestrian access, that it is
one of the main goal of its plan. When Niels Andersen is talking about accessibility he
mostly worried about car traffic, because it is usually the main transport used by customers
that go to downtown33 [Malling (int.), Andersen (int.)].

These visions for the central harbour front make it necessary to be carefully with the plans
for the area and find a good relation between public and private investors. When financing
the area with public resources it will in someway be all citizens in the municipality that

33
This question is discussed in the traffic analysis in chapter 5.2.2

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pay for the investment trough taxes. This kind of investment creates a public demand of
getting a result many people will benefit from and not wasting to much money. When
using private investors there is a risk that only a hard bounded group of people will
benefit. This creates a demand that private investment also should be in public interest. An
office or residential building for instance could be very interesting for a private investor
but for the majority of the citizen it would not be interesting. The opposite example could
be a bar or restaurant everybody eat and drink so if they can afford to buy food and drink
at the restaurant it could be in their interest.

If we are looking at the masterplan for the central harbour front we see that the main part
of the investment seems to be public, only a few investments are planned to be private.
The private investments are the new building in Jomfru Ane Parken with shops and
restaurants, Rosdahls and Isbryderen Elbjørn (restaurants) and in someway also the youth
residence and the cattle marked34. The shops and the restaurants will be 100 percent
private investment. The youth residence will be paid by a non profit private foundation
named Bikuben Foundation here the purpose is not directly profit but the building is still a
private investment. The situation about the cattle marked is very different than the others
here a rich man bought the building very cheep under the promise that he would renovate
the building. It is very expensive to renovate the building so maybe he will never get his
investment back; it is more a kind of gift [Vagnby (int.), 2005]. The rest of the planned
building is actually mainly public investments.

Aalborg Municipality is the biggest public investor at the harbour front and has decided to
spend 200 million DKK during the next 4-5 years. [Malling (int.), 2005] At the same time
Aalborg Municipality contributes with ground and running costs at many of the planned
buildings. Another big public investor is the state (National Government) that contributes
300 million DKK specificly in The House of Music. Also the Northern County contributes
with 32 million and the European Union with 28 million directly to The House of Music.
It is also possible that the EU will contribute to the Utzon House. Other investors are
different foundations e.g. Realdania Foundation, the common goal for these kinds of
foundations is to create things for the common good35. [www.musikkenshus.dk]

34
A description of these areas can be seen in Chapter 4.3, p.50
35
The Realdania Foundation is an organisation where everybody with real property can become members
and; the general purpose for the foundation is to create property for the common good.
[http://www.realdania.dk/AboutRealdania.aspx, Accessed 03/01-2005]
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When using these public investors, there is a risk that they will redefine their willingness
to pay, this could make it necessary to find new investors or that the others investors
contribute with bigger amounts. We will use The House of Music as an example.

In The House of Music project, the estimated amount was 460 million DKK in February
2003 paid by many different investors. As a big project, it also has a long time plan it
takes many years from idea to realisation and investors can change their mind in the
period. In December 2003 it was discovered that the first plans were around 200 million
DKK it was too expensive so Coop Himmelb(l)au changed the plans and came with the
second suggestion in February 2004, this project was criticised as being completely
different from the first. In June 2005 the result of the first tender was known, and it
showed that it would cost around 100 million DKK more than the budget. So the Music
House Foundation decided to ask the investors for more money. The budget was now 575
million DKK and at the same time they decided to let Coop Himmelb(l)au draw the third
sketch. 15th of December 2005 the third sketch was ready and before The House of Music
can be finished its second tender we will have June 2006 and more than three years have
gone since the first sketch and budget, it is unknown if the budget can be kept this time.
[Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 D] The general price level in society is increasing every
year so it is unknown if the project can be realised with 575 million DKK, perhaps the
price will be higher, but how much and who is going to pay?

The answer is still unknown, but if the price was higher, Aalborg Municipal Authority has
promised that they would conttribute with a two digit number of million DKK, some
foundations and private contributors have also promised to increase their contribution.
[Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 E]

It is difficult to argue that a project there has been fundamentally changed three times still
is the same (see the Figure 18 in chapter 4.3, page 57), some contributors might possible
argue that it not is the same project they agreed to support and might refuse to contribute
with more money and maybe, even refuse to support the project.

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C.- Political influence

In these kind of planning with many public investors, they also will be under big political
influence many of the public investors is a part of the political system, different political
opinions can change the projects radically if the political conviction is changing.
Politicians needs to be re-elected each four years in Denmark and if the political opinion
among the electors is changing politicians might possible feel they need to change their
mind in their hunt for votes.

There is many examples of this situation an actual example is at the Aalborg central
harbour front there is a debate about the road Nyhavnsgade last year 18 out of 31 city
council members voted yes to reduce the road from 4 lanes to 2 lanes. After this decision
different agitator tried to influence this decision and they have in someway succeeded
before the election in November 2005 some politicians changed their mind and in the new
city council 11 prefer 2 lanes, 10 prefer 4 lanes and 10 have not decided yet. [Andersen
(int.), 2005] One of the most visible agitators in this debate is the “Aalborg City” that is
using traffic and economical arguments trying to convince the city council that they made
a wrong decision. The advantages and disadvantages of the different alternatives are
explained in the traffic analysis in chapter 5.2.2.

Also the media and press has a big influence in the book rationality and power written by
professor Bent Flyvbjerg it is discovered that the only local newspaper Aalborg
Stiftstidende36 tries to influence the plans in a specific case with some plans about two
roads in Aalborg, the newspaper published a very critical article about the plans of closing
the two roads for car traffic and the newspapers opinion was very close related to the
Chamber of Industry and Commerce’s opinion. [Flyvbjerg, 1991, P.105-107]

“As for the Aalborg Stiftstidende a systematic review of more than a decade of the
Newspapers coverage of the Aalborg Project reveals a distinctive congruence between one
the one hand the newspapers views and the timing of their publication and on the other

36
Today the local newspaper Aalborg Stiftstidende is named Nordjyske Stiftstidende and owned by the
media company Nordjyske Medier.[www.nordjyske.dk]
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hand the chambers views and the timing of their being made public”.[Flyvbjerg, 1991, P.
107]

I this project we do not search if this also has been the fact about the central harbour front,
but we notice that Nordjyske Stiftstidende still is the only regional newspaper in Northern
Jutland and that the company behind “Nordjyske Medier” also owns an other regional
newspaper, two regional radio stations, a TV channel and some smaller weekly papers and
other regional and local medias [medie.nordjyske.dk]. Expect for the press and media
owned by Nordjyske Medier there only is a radio station “DR Nordjylland” and a
television channel “TV2 Nord” with regional media coverage in Northern Jutland.
[www.dr.dk/nord & www.tv2nord.dk] So Nordjyske Medier still has full control at the
regional press and some control with the regional media, which gives them a big
responsibility and influence, also with the plans for the central harbour front. Their
coverage of plans in Aalborg Municipality will definitely influence many people’s
opinions.

If we go back to our actual example with the road Nyhavnsgade this plan could possible
be changed after the debate in the public and Medias. The rational arguments might
possible speak for the plans but the debate can add more political point of views to the
debate, for instance about accessibility: Should be pedestrian accessibility more important
than the car traffic accessibility? Different people might have different opinion about that.
The answer will not be given in this economical analysis but we will give our own opinion
to improve both in the traffic analysis in chapter 5.2.2.

D.- Summary

In this economical analysis we discover that the economical purpose for the central
harbour front mainly is to create common good, the central harbour front will not directly
generate profit but will give Aalborg some common good the City, Municipality and the
Northern part of Jutland will benefit from. These plans make the redevelopment very
dependent of public investment it could be a possibility to let more private investors invest
in the area. Investments in e.g. restaurants, bars, shops and amusement could be good
private investments also for the common good. The House of Music is the most dominant
economical project at the central harbour front, the size of the investment makes it a very

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ambitious project. At the same time it is scaring that only the music house foundation has
known about the plans37, it is good to know that Aalborg Municipal Authority now are
main responsible for the project, but there is still a risk of making a planning disaster when
we the exact price of the project still is unknown. Today most of the plans are depending
on political good will, politicians need to do their economical priorities, which can cause a
risk to the plans. If the master plan for central harbour front still should be feasible as one
plan, it could be necessary to start most of the projects in a short time horizon. Otherwise
there is a risk that politicians will make other priorities.

5.3.2. Tourism: Potential and Attraction to Waterfront Regeneration in


Aalborg

The latter chapter of this study in retrospect shows plans initiated by the Aalborg
Municipal Authority to regenerate the central waterfront area in Aalborg. The plans are
categorised into culture, historic, economic and social functions in order to make the area
attractive These plans are not only designed as an urban planning measure to revitalise the
unattractive central waterfront, but also a general strategy for the city’s redevelopment.

Regeneration of the entire waterfront area is regarded as priority for the Aalborg
Municipal Authority. This could be inferred from the Municipal Authority’s plan of
linking the waterfront area with the central district in order to have an optimum utilisation
of this spatial area in the context of making it attractive to people. The idea is laudable
because it does not only inject vibrant life into the city but a source of promoting and
preserving the identity and heritage of Aalborg. The historical significance of every
society needs to be preserved for both present and future generations of people.

The plans for regeneration of the Aalborg central waterfront can be described as taking a
dimension of adaptive reuse. That is where the spatial area is not left to decay but rather
reusing for a worthy cause; in order to meet social, economic and cultural needs of the
citizens. In effect, having a regenerated area close to the city provides a face-lift for the
cultural heritage of the city and again a source of visitors’ attraction. This becomes
remarkable for the city’s image, citizens, the north Denmark region and the entire nation.

37
14. December 2005 the Music House Foundation decided to hand over the plans to Aalborg Municipality
and let them be main responsible for the further project. [www.nordjyske.dk]
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The distinctness of these plans when established has the tendency of adding value to the
physical fabric or ignites a new identity for the city and also could be a potential
destination for tourist to see these redevelopments. Attractive places in general terms have
long been associated with tourism, and this includes waterfront areas.

Implementation of the waterfront regeneration plans in the city would also imply an
important transformation of a traditional industrial manufacturing sector to a service
providing industry. This could be explained as following a global or western European
trend of social and economic change, wherein most industrial waterfronts have been
redeveloped into service oriented industrial waterfronts [Craig-Smith, S.J. & Fagence, M.,
1995, p.8]. Redevelopment in relation to tourism could also add to a new focus of
attention to tourism in the city. This is evident by the current “era of increased leisure,
recreational participation, and increased environmental and heritage concern, many of
the world’s major waterside city areas have been redeveloped with conservation,
recreation and tourism in mind”[ ibid.]. In this view, the Aalborg Municipality can always
take cue from these factors in order to benefit from its waterfront regeneration through
tourism.

Major cities within western countries have made attempts to widen the scope of their
tourism industry since the late 20th century, due to the increasing desires for product
varieties that has resulted in a perception of tourism as a growth industry to replace
economic activities at places that has been on the decline [Dalager, C., 1997, p.96].
Tourism industry in this sense has gained the recognition as important economic tool for
development of cities and countries in general.

Tourism potentials and attractions are expected in this study to emerge significantly out of
the implementation of the central waterfront area project, contribute to the Municipal
Authority’s dream of linking the city centre with the waterfront area, and also contribute to
the sustainable development of the area. However, it is imperative to critically assess the
current Municipality’s plan in order to ascertain the importance, potentials and attractions
of tourism to the central waterfront, and the city of Aalborg.

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A.- Importance of tourism to the city of Aalborg

A general review of the Aalborg Municipal Authority’s plans to regenerate the central
waterfront does not express any elaborate interest or incorporate tourism despite the
industry’s38 potential economic benefits. The proposed Music House and Utzonparken
projects are mentioned to be tourist attractions in the Municipality’s plans for the central
waterfront area, but little emphasis has been given to the entire area in terms of tourism
importance. This tends to question whether tourism in general is of importance to the city
of Aalborg and hence if any significant economic prospects could be obtained from the
waterfront area.

In general terms, “the positive side of tourism has been well-documented” [Kamra, K.K.,
1997, p.15] and it becomes interesting for one to question why much attention or interest
is not given to it with regards to the waterfront regeneration in Aalborg. In an economic
sense, the monies spent by tourists can enhance an area by generating wealth and acting as
a catalyst for employment, enterprise and infrastructure development [ibid.].

The second chapter of this study shows how waterfront redevelopment projects in places
such as Baltimore, Liverpool and Barcelona have gained significant benefits from tourism.
Such redevelopment projects have helped to shape the image of these cities and brought
about economic gains. Tourism is therefore an important industry to the economies of
these cities. According to the Maryland Department of Economic and Employment
Development report (1989), as in Craig-Smith, S.J & Fagence, M., [1995, p. 21]; by the
late 1980s direct, expenditure on tourism had increased to more than US$ 414 million and
exerted a total economic impact on the city worth US$ 1.2 billion. This achievement has
been possible through the waterfront regeneration of Baltimore. Tourism is hence a
lucrative business that can benefit communities with established waterfront regeneration.
It is therefore imperative for Aalborg to take a cue from such developments as a cue for its
waterfront redevelopment.

Judging from the waterfront regeneration success stories of Baltimore, Barcelona and
Liverpool, it could be concluded that implementation of the current plans for Aalborg

38
Referring to tourism industry.
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might achieve the same results. This depends on how the municipality attaches serious
importance to tourism in its redevelopment project for the waterfront.

To investigate how tourism could be seen as an important industry and benefit from
waterfront regeneration in the city of Aalborg, it is necessary to assess the views of Peter
Hermansen for our analysis. Hermansen, a Development Officer with the Aalborg Tourist
Information Office was chosen as a subject for interview, and thus offered us very useful
information.

In his response to the question “what is the importance of tourism to the city of Aalborg”.
He said “tourism is important to the City of Aalborg and more importantly the region of
north Denmark”. He substantiated this point with the fact that “Aalborg is the main city in
the north Denmark region and does have a lot of visitors. The city attracts approximately
450,000 visitors each year. They are made up of bed night and one day visitors. These
visitors lodge in summer quarters, hotels and others in holiday apartments”.

The weather condition also has an influence on tourist attraction. That is during the
summer season or when the weather is not too cold. Hermansen thus confirms “there are
more attractions to the city when there is a good weather condition and also people visit
the city centre for shopping”.

This information sounds impressive regarding the size and population of the city. It also
shows that the city has significant tourism activities to offer, and also infrastructure for
both visiting and prospective tourist.

However, Hermansen stated that despite the importance of tourism to the city of Aalborg,
it is not a primary sector or the number one business sector. This implies Aalborg does not
depend largely on tourism. He emphasised that “we have a large university, we have
traditional companies, and we have a lot of hotels, restaurants, conference centres etc”.
This statement might indicate why tourism is not given premium focus in the current plans
for waterfront regeneration in Aalborg.

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It is therefore not worth questioning whether the university and companies39 have a
significant economic contribution to the city because the answer becomes truism or
obvious.

Judging from the annual visitors attracted to Aalborg, it might be low when compared with
some popular tourism destinations in Europe such as Tenerife, Malaga, Barcelona,
Copenhagen, Munich, and Berlin among others. According to Cabrini, L., [2004, p.4]
annual overnight tourist in Barcelona in 1990 was 4 million and this figure doubled in
2001 to almost 8 million.40 The 1992 Olympic games held in Barcelona have contributed
enormously to this growth in tourist arrivals to the city, but its infrastructure such as the
waterfront area could also be considered as an attracting point for tourist and hence
increase visitor numbers.

Aalborg’s annual tourist arrivals figures given by Hermansen is remarkable compared to


certain areas of the world. For instance, the entire national tourist destinations to Ghana
attract less than 500, 000 people annually despite the nation’s numerous tourism sites.
International tourist arrivals to Ghana in the year 2002 were 482,643 people. [Ghana
Tourist Board 2004, p.4] This shows although Aalborg is not attracting a lot of visitors
compared to some cities in Europe, its tourist arrival figures are respectable in comparison
with a nation like Ghana, which depends heavily on tourism.

The above differences in tourist arrivals between the city of Aalborg and the nation of
Ghana give a clear indication of the industry’s importance in the city. Though tourism is
not the city’s economic backbone, but it obviously may contribute to the economic growth
of the city with regards to monies spent by tourists, and also various tourism-led jobs. This
cements Hermansen’s view of how important tourism is to the city.

It becomes very ironic from this point where the Municipality shows virtually no interest
in the waterfront redevelopment plans. However, when the waterfront regeneration project

39
The university is seen to play multiple roles in the sense that monies spent by students as cost of living
contributes to the city’s economy, and also students impact their technical skills in some companies of the
city, while the university embark on research activities to the benefit of these companies. At end of the day,
there are sustainable economic benefits for both the university and the city’s economy. The companies
provide services, pay taxes to the government and employ people in the community. These functions perhaps
have more economic significance to the community than tourism.
40
See http://www.world-tourism.org/regional/europe/PDF/SPEECHES/2004/Austria16-19June2004.pdf
(Date Accessed 06/12/2005)
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is established, it could be used to beef up the importance of tourism to the city and hence
raise the potential level of the place if it intends to make some of these infrastructures as
the city’s skyline.

It should be noted that tourism in present day and from a global perspective is a catalyst
for development as explained in the literature review. In this regard, tourism should be
given much importance to the city and its waterfront area to help increase the economic
growth of the city.

Sources of economic activities to boost the socio-economic growth of a city are unlimited
in present day of globalisation. There are so many areas or services that can be improved
to help achieve socio-economic growth of a city. Tourism in this regard could be a source
for Aalborg with regards to its importance to the city. This would become obvious when
those iconic plans designed by the municipal authorities have been implemented and given
an enormous branding from a national and international perspective.

I. Tourism Potentials of the Central Waterfront Regeneration in Aalborg

In general, the city of Aalborg is a potential source for tourism and this is evident by the
current statistics of annual number of visitor, and its infrastructure. Even though less
emphasis is placed on tourism regarding the current Municipality Authority’s plans for
regenerating the central waterfront, the plans have latent potential for tourism in the city.

Tourism is a business potential for the community of Aalborg. Business and leisure can be
considered as viable aspects of tourism that could be combined and taken advantage of
with regards to the Aalborg central waterfront regeneration project. Sharma [2004, p.38]
describes business tourism to constitute elements of incentive travel, conference tourism
and business travel. Leisure tourism also constitutes for example “visiting a museum”
[Swarbrooke, J. & Horner, S., 2001. p.10]. These two aspects are distinct or parallel to
each other but sometimes they do overlap. For instance both leisure and business tourist
could be housed in the same hotel, or travel from the same airport. However, business
tourists pay more for the use of the same hotels at airports used by the leisure traveller.
This is because business travellers often demand special or extra services than leisure
travellers [ibid].

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“The spending power of the business tourist is considerably higher than that of the leisure
tourist”. [Sharma, S.P. 2004, p.38]. In view of that, if the city of Aalborg depends more on
leisure tourist it might not yield more capital as compared to business tourist. However,
both sources are viable except that one has more advantage than the other, but it would be
better in the case of Aalborg to explore both ventures in it waterfront regeneration project.
Visitors should not be encouraged to go only on sight seeing but also institute other
activities to attract business travellers into the city.

With reference to Business Tourist Partnership (2003)41 report, “investments in business


tourism facilities lead to the regeneration of urban and inner city areas”. Having the
current plans for the waterfront already, some opportunities could be drawn from its
implementation through business tourism. Though the Music House and Utzonparken
buildings for instance are not meant for conferences and exhibitions, they could still be
used as venues for some business conferences or exhibitions that would be beneficial to
the city in economic sense. At the end of the day, the city would benefit economically
from the monies spent by these business persons in the city.

Hermansen also describes the potential of Aalborg as “quite positive” from a “global
scale”. This is taken from the position of people in the Western world, and some
developing countries who have ample free time, earn high income, and having access to
cheap airline fares that enable them travel around. This implies that restrictions to travel in
this context are minimal and therefore people can easily visit tourist destinations including
that of Aalborg.

With regards to the profile of nationals that come into the city as visitors, Hermansen
states they are “largely from Germany, Sweden, Norway and Denmark”. Looking at this
profile, the foreigners are all neighbours of Denmark and therefore would have the
psychological home feeling here in Aalborg and therefore have the desire visit.

Visitors have transport varieties such as the low fare airlines, ferries, trains, cars and buses
to travel into the city with. Therefore accessibility is easy for visitors to come into the

41
See [http://www.businesstourismpartnership.com/pubs/Tony%20Rogers.pdf Date accessed 02/01/2006]
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city. There is also good internal transport system which visitors can easily use to access
the waterfront.

However, Hermansen identifies some weaknesses that limit Aalborg’s tourism potentials.
This weakness in his opinion can affect the potential of visitors to the waterfront. We tend
to share the same opinion because if tourism should thrive in the city, then something
should be done about these problems.

The first is the cold weather condition in Aalborg and the waterfront area. This is however,
a natural phenomenon and thus in the words of Hermansen, “nothing can be done about
it”. The situation gives other European cities with less cold weather conditions an
advantage over Aalborg. On the contrary most of the proposed activities for the central
waterfront are in-door. For instance, the Music House, Jomfru Ane Parken, and
Utzonparken are places people could visit and enjoy some warmth as well. In this case, the
coldness will not affect the plans so much.

The second weakness, which is a bit serious, is the airport authorities in Aalborg being
more “interested in organising chartered flights to other destinations including New
York”. The air transport situation may be a disadvantage to tourism in the city. However, a
school of thought might not see the problem described by Hermansen as a disincentive to
tourism in the city. This is because the city does not depend heavily tourism and also the
number of tourist arrivals to the city may not merit special attention from the airport
authorities as of now.

Visitors are not coming into the city in millions where the airport authorities could be
compelled to organise special tourist flights. The available supply will certainly depend on
demand when it is profitable in this sense. In this regard, when the need arises for a high
demand for such services to be offered by the airport authorities, they might response to
the call.

As stated earlier this might be possible so long as it will be a profitable venture to the
airport authority. It will therefore be necessary for one to criticise when the airport
authority still hold on to their policy in the wake of high influx of tourist which might be
disincentive to the city’s development.

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Judging from the fact that most visitors come from neighbouring countries, the airline
issue in Aalborg will not affect the city’s tourism potentials significantly because it is not
the only source of transport, and thus visitors could patronise other sources.

Tourism would always be part of human social activities because the “driving forces
behind the development of tourism were curiosity about the world to satisfy human desire
for knowledge and needs and to escape the stress of urban life” [Sharma, S. P., 2004.
p.151]. Though the airline issue at the Aalborg remains an operational policy for the
airport authorities, the situation might change when the city begins to attract more tourists,
which the waterfront redevelopment could be a potential source.

II. Tourism Attractions to Waterfront Regeneration in Aalborg

Tourism attractions to the central waterfront with regards to plans for the area look very
impressive in both theory and practice. This is due to the multi-functional or mix-uses of
activities that have been proposed. It also provides the city to present a blend of historic
properties with modern ones. This implies to the historic fabric of the inner city and also
the new multi-functional activities at the waterfront front. This gives the potential tourist
variety of things to experience in the city.

More so, the idea of linking the place to the central district makes it more attractive.
Visitors who come to the central district are likely to be attracted to the waterfront out of
curiosity; the branding and good public relations given to the area might be fruitful in
attracting people.

On the contrary it is a bit murky to point out if these plans will achieve its intended
purpose. That is whether the citizens will be attracted to the sorts of activities meant for
the place and also visitors from other parts of the country and abroad. Such threats become
less when those activities are managed properly and made interesting to all.

Looking at the multi functional nature of the plan citizens will not be bored with a
particular activity. The entertainment, sports and leisure activities for instance serve as an

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attraction for the youth of the city, and definitely it will also serve a similar purpose for
visitors who come from outside Aalborg.

Tourism as said before is all about attractions and uniqueness of places. Sharma, S.P.
[2004, p.40] states, “one of the prerequisites for attracting tourist to an area is the beauty
of the natural environment”. The present environment at the waterfront is not beautiful
enough to make it attractive. Now, looking at the current plans it is supposed to make the
area beautiful but it all depends on when they have been established, and how special it
will be for people.

Hermansen in his view sees the waterfront area as unattractive to tourist and with regards
to its current state and also some aspects of the current plans for regeneration. He takes
duo dimensional stand on his point. The first is about the citizens. He thinks the first
priority for regenerating the area should be for the citizens of Aalborg. This is important
and therefore no question about that.

However, when one thinks about the economic progress of the city, then tourism should be
part of one’s thoughts of generating revenue to help improve and provide social needs of
citizens. Demark and Aalborg per se is not a poor or developing community but it
necessary to progress further not only for today but the future as well. There has to be
more avenues for job creation; and tourism should be one of such opportunities in
Aalborg. In our opinion, citizens’ interest should always be first with urban regeneration
activities. On the other hand tourism development should be given a good attention to
attract people; and utilise their presence for economic development.

If the city of Aalborg should thrive economically its citizens will be the best beneficiaries.
As citizens interest are being considered, it will be prudent as well to look at tourism
benefits as one of the avenues that could help in the sustainable provision of social and
economin need to the socity.

The second aspect of Hermansen’s problem with the plans not making the area attractive
is the Music House. The original plans for the Music House are known to have caught the
eye of many people in the city. For mainly financial reasons, some features of the original

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design have been altered creating a lot of miss feelings among the citizens of Aalborg
including Hermansen.

From Hermansen’s professional point of view as a tourist development officer, he thinks


“taking off some of the exciting architectural features end up with a building not as a
potential of being a symbol for the city”. He is of the view that waterfront areas should
have “special architectural features that instantly creates intriguing feeling in people”. He
gives the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain as one of such special architectural piece
that stands as a skyline in the city.

Beauty and spectacular architectural features of buildings is paramount for attracting


visitors with regards to the above point of view. Hermansen did clarify on this point: “as a
tourist you don’t go behind the façade, you get a glimpse of the destination you are
visiting. That glimpse is powerful enough; you like to go there again. It is important that
we have an attractive harbour front for instance”.

We tend to share this view holistically in the sense that, it is not only activities in the
building that attracts people but the spectacular nature of the architecture contributes
significantly to draw people. That is both local residents of the city and beyond. It is all
about the sights and sound of the place that shows it value.

Most skylines at waterfronts areas have such spectacular buildings that attract people. For
instance, the Turning Torso in Malmo, Sweden is a spectacular architectural piece at the
western waterfront of the city, which started attracting many visitors even before
completion. The International Finance Centre (IFC) building in Hong Kong is located at a
waterfront; it is the tallest building in the province, and the sixth tallest building in the
world. There is so much significance to this building and thus it is considered as one of 18
buildings involved in the Hong Kong Tourism Commission's Victoria Harbour lighting
plan.42 The Aalborg central waterfront needs a similar skyline to ignite the image of the
place and the city as a whole and also attract people.

One the contrary, having such tall buildings as the Turning Torso and IFC building, will
contradict the uniformity of structures in the city in terms of height and width. With

42
See http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=100614 (Date accessed 20/12/2005)
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regards to urban design concepts analysed earlier in this chapter, there is case against the
proposed height and width for the Music House, which is seen to obstruct the panoramic
view between the city centre and the waterfront. Ironically, the height of the Music House
is far below that of the Turning Torso and IFC buildings. Despite these contradictions the
need for a spectacular building is very much important not only for its function but also to
attract people to see the place. The best solution is make sure the design creates a
panoramic view between the city centre and the waterfront, but since the Music House
plan has been done already its establishment might not be much of a problem as perceived
now. The building will not be too imposing compared with that of other cities, which
stands over 60 metres and above.

The alterations to the original plan of the Aalborg Music House are known to have been
due to lack of finance, because the Municipality cannot fund the original project. This
calls for private sector funding. If the municipality can attract substantial private
investment to co-finance the project with regards to the original design, then it will serve a
good purpose. It will also help in making the area attractive. As private sector gets involve
in the funding of such project, it may encourage good working relationship between these
entrepreneurs and the public sector. It also creates and opportunity for more city branding
and hence help in boosting the business climate of the area.

Other items on the Aalborg Municipality’s plans for the waterfront regeneration look
satisfactory again due to their multi-functional nature, which Hermansen also sees as an
attractive for tourism. However, he thinks there is one thing missing on the regeneration
plans for the area, which is the Limfjord Bridge. He describes the bridge as “ugly and not
illuminating” to attract visitors. He recommended that the bridge should be “redecorated,
futuristic, stainless steel and with lights”. He also criticised the bridge for not having a
good functional connection with Nørresundby, the other part of the city. He substantiates
this with the Millennium Bridge in London that links with the Tate Gallery, St. Paul’s
Cathedral and also illuminates over the River Thames.

He again sounded philosophical by saying having lights around the Limfjord Bridge bring
warmth to the area, and that architecture must work with light. In this regard, the light
brings sense of security for people who visit the area; it also welcomes the creation of

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many fine buildings, restaurants, cultural centres, and swimming pools. Such
developments welcome people in both summer and winter seasons.

These criticisms and recommendations from Hermansen are very positive and objective.
One may argue that they are individual’s opinion, but they are facts. These factors are all
missing in the plans and needs remedy in order to create a tourist environment. For
instance the lightening of the Limfjord Bridge is very important not only for tourist alone
but for the citizens of Aalborg. Community development and redevelopment should have
security concern for all people. Lights do not only give one a good vision but also a
protective tool for people at night. The lights may also contribute to having a good
nightlife in the waterfront area, making it a “24 hour” attractive environment.

This will contribute to make the area and the city in general lively. A personal observation
of the city shows less movement of people and activities at night. Having an illuminating
bridge, coupled with the establishment of the planned activities at the waterfront will bring
some warmth at night to the city. This would not improve social life at night alone but also
generate economic revenues due the influx of people to the waterfront.

B.- Sustainable Tourism Development of the Central Waterfront Area

The Aalborg Kommune has this statement on its website; “our vision is to preserve and
enhance the distinctive character of the City and District, making it an outstanding place
in which to live and work and to visit, where everyone enjoys a range of quality and
efficient services in a progressive community”.43 In this regard the proposed regeneration
of the central waterfront which forms part of the city’s distinctive character and also as a
potential tourist site must be preserved in order to make it outstanding for regular usage.

Part of the Alborg Municipality’s statement above includes making the city an outstanding
place to visit. This implies the existing infrastructure of the city must be preserved and
regenerated if necessary in order to attract visitors to the municipality.

43 See http://www.aalborg.dk/NR/rdonlyres/9E1A41DF-3BA8-469F-B690
4A92A04E36C6/2674/Aalborginfigures2005.pdf

(Date accessed 15/12/2005

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The general strategy for city redevelopment of Aalborg has been made clear to
concentrate on sustainable development. In this strategy, the Aalborg Municipal Authority
intends to avoid any new areas of redevelopment that generate negative development. 44 In
this regard, areas of redevelopment must function efficiently in order not create waste in
community development.

It can be inferred from the above strategy that the sustainability of waterfront regeneration
and tourism should be of prime importance. Generally, existence of the waterfront should
be perpetual with regards its value as the city’s heritage. Maintaining the waterfront area
in terms of its infrastructure means sustainability in both time and space.

On the other hand, if the redevelopment of the Aalborg central harbour front should
become a popular tourist attraction as perceived in this study, the sustainability of the
place must be a must for the community in order to have perpetual functioning area. In
both theory and practice, when many tourists visit a place, there is a probability of
damaging the natural state of the place. Such a situation will tend to destroy the essence of
creating that area.

In the case of Aalborg, the rationale for regenerating the central harbour front has not been
categorically stated for tourism. However, should tourist visit the place in large numbers,
the onus still lies on all stakeholders45 to protect the environment and all other facilities
associated with the place.

The environment is very important in the context of sustainable tourism. The level of
carrying capacity must be in check in order not having too much stress on the physical
environment of the waterfront. Agreeing with, Sharma, S. P. [2004. p. 41] there has to be
sustainable development indicators that can help to determine if tourism development is
damaging the natural environment or not. He gives examples of such indicators as quality
of air, quality of water surface, noise pollution and the natural landscape

The current plans for the waterfront area does not throw light on this issue of sustainable
tourism, even though it refers of some assets in the area as tourist attraction. Sustainable

44
See Chapter 4, p of this study.
45
This implies the Municipal Authority and tourism related organisations at the waterfront area.
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tourism should therefore be a priority in the case of Aalborg in order to have a thriving
tourism industry. These indicators needs to be targeted at central waterfront area should
the place becomes a popular tourist destination. The landscape for the designated green
area and water itself should be given much attention regarding these indicators.

In retrospect, the importance, potentials, and attractiveness of the tourism with regards to
regeneration of the central waterfront have been laid bare and assessed. The plans initiated
by the Aalborg Municipality are good in with regards to tourism, although it has not been
aimed to address tourism development. This is due to the various sets of activities
designed for the area. The plans, with regards to its tourism potentials have a tendency of
creating a positive social and economic growth of the city, preserving the heritage and
promoting the city’s image and possible source of helping to unify the central district the
central waterfront.

Tourism activities can also help in sustaining the existence of the proposed properties
planned for the central waterfront. However, if the city would like to have an attractive
skyline as proposed in the plans of the municipality, then the initial design for the Music
House should be maintained. On the other hand tourism at the waterfront should not be a
one sided development but be complemented with sustainable development.

More so, apart from those technical factors such as easy human and vehicular access,
which has a tendency of attracting people to the waterfront, the city’s Authority should
intensify its branding and promotional strategies for the central waterfront to attract both
local people and visitors in order to obtain optimum usage of the place and hence make
economic gains. At the end of it all tourism can be regarded as a vibrant resource for the
central harbour front of Aalborg.

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CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION

Considering the unattractive state of the Aalborg central harbour front, analysis of this
study indicates regeneration of the area is possible and has the potential of generating
attractive and vibrant resources for the city. The results of this anlysis has been drawned
from the current Alborg Municipality plans for regenerating the central waterfront as well
as other empirical and theorectical information at our disposal.

The current Aalborg municipality plans for regenerating the central waterfront provides a
framework of instituting different service activities as a replacement of the old unattractive
industrial infrastucture. The plan also provides a platform for linking the central waterfront
with the city centre.

We examined the potentials of the Aalborg Municipality plans to attract people to the
waterfront and establish a link with the inner city. We found out that the strategies are not
monotonous, but rather multifunctional. It has the tendency of attrracting local residents
and visitors, both young and old to both the waterfront and city centre. More so, the plans
create an avenue to increase intensity of uses for both waterfront and city centre, diversity
of land uses, reuse of existing resources, and sustainable development to meet local
population needs. The plans provides attractive landmarks, identity, and gateways between
the waterfront and inner city, and also improve social life within an urban area.

We believe the city centre and the central waterfront can be better linked by the
establishment of mixed uses of activities. The potentials for mixed uses of activities such
as business, entertainment, sports, and tourism attraction in the area has the tendency of
making both places vibrant. The locational proximity of both places, and variety of
activities tend to increase the potential of linking both places.

Easy traffic access can also be established to link the harbour front with the city centre.
This is possible by converting the waterfront road from an “industrial” to a “city” road.
Here, the traffic lights are increased on the roads to reduce speed of cars to enhance easy
pedestrian access from the city centre to the central waterfront. However the improvement
of the pedestrian access does not imply a reduction in the easy flow of vehicular traffic.

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Having additional parking areas around the city centre and waterfront also enhances the
link between these areas.

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REFERENCES
Books

1. Aalborg Municipal Authority, 2005. Master Plan,


2. City Spaces: Urban Structure. Course in localisation and the development of
cities and regions. UPM7 2005.
3. Commission for Architecture & the Built Environment 2000.By Design, Urban
design in the Planning System: Towards Better Practice Thomas Telford
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4. Craig-Smith, S. J. & Fagence, M. (eds.) 1995. Recreation as a Catalyst for
Urban Waterfront Redevelopment: An International Survey. Praeger
Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, and London
5. City of Aalborg Technical Department, 2005 . Sustainable Mobility: What has
happened in Aalborg during the last 10 years.
6. Dalager, C., 1997. Urban Tourism: An Analysis of its Role within Regeneration
of Inner City Areas (MA Thesis Work in English and International Relations).
Department of Languages and Intercultural Studies. Aalborg University
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Publishers, Rotterdam, Holland.
8. Ghana Tourist Board, 2004. Statistical Handbook on Tourism, Prepared by
Research, Statistical Information Department. 2003 Edition. Ghana.
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10. Hoyle, B.S. et al. 1988. Revitalizing the waterfront. International dimensions of
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11. Hoyle, B. 1996. City ports, coastal zones and regional change. International
Perspectives on Planning and Management. Chichester, Wet West Sussex,
England. Editorial Wiley.
12. White, K. N., Bellinger, E. G., et al 1993, Urban Waterside Regeneration,
problems and prospects, Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference.
13. Karma, K. K., 1997. Tourism: Theory, Planning and Practice, Indus
Publishing Company, New Delhi.

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14. Rietveld P. & Bruinsma F., 1998. Is Transport Infrastructure Effective?


Springer Publishers. Germany.

15. Sharma, S.P., 2004. Tourism Education: Principles, Theories and Practices,
Kanishka Publishers, New Delhi
16. Vagnby, B., 2005, Town Centre Redevelopment Strategies: A Retrospective
View of Danish Experience. Department of Development and Planning,
Aalborg University.

Newspapers sources

1. Nordjyske A, 2005, Utzon en ny attraktion for Aalborg, 19/08/2005


2. Nordjyske B, 2005, Opbakning til Utzoncenter, Jesper Ramsing, 3/10/2005
3. Nordjyske C, 2005, Kvægtorv, Jesper Schouenberg, 9/11/2005
4. Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 F Tilbage til Karolinelund, Anders Sønderup,
9/12 /2005
5. Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 D Nordjylland redder Musikkens Hus, Ritzau,
15/12/2005
6. Nordjyske Stiftstidende, 2005 E Langt forspil, Teil & Tino, 15/12/2005

Internet sources

1. Chunsong, W., 2003, Waterfront Regeneration, Cardiff University.: URL


www.planningsummerschool.orgpapersyear20032003B017AU.pdf.pdf (Date
accessed 12/11/2005)
2. Kelly, M.E., 1998. Tourism Planning: What to Consider in Tourism Plan
Making, Revolutionary Ideas in Planning – Proceedings of the 1998 National
Planning Conference. AICP Press.
URL:http://www.asu.edu/caed/proceedings98/Kelly/kelly.html (Date accessed
2/11/2005)
3. Porter, G. & Zidema, C. 2005. Liveable Cities Case Report - Aalborg Harbour
front, Version: 6 December 2005 URL:
http://www.eurocities.org/liveablecities/IMG/doc/aalborg-case-
06dec05__FINAL_.doc

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4. Waterfront Expo, 2004. The waterfront philosophy, and the Global Forum for
waterfront Development-Conference and Exhibition Handbook. Media
Generation Events Ltd, URL:
http://waterfrontexpo.com/portal/2004amsterdam/docs/wex2004prog.pdf
www.waterfrontexpo.com/portal/philosophy.shtml (Date accessed
18/10/2005).
5. http://www.aalborg.dk/engelsk/information+about+aalborg/sustainable+mobilit
y.htm
6. http://www.aalborg.dk/engelsk/information+about+aalborg/sdstrategy.htm
7. http://www.aalborg.dk/kommuneplan/hovedstruktur/1-
03_byudvikling_byomdannelse.htm
8. http://www.detmusiskehus.dk
9. Development brief for the Regeneration of the Cottonera Waterfront, First
Draft, 1997. URL: www.mepa.org.mtplanning
factbkbriefsCottonera_Waterfront.pdf. (Date Accessed 12/11/2005)
10. Kommuneplantillæg 1.56, 2004, Aalborg Kommune, Found 1-11-2005 on
http://www.aalborg.dk/images/teknisk/B&M/PDF/PlanVis/stadark/komplan/Til
laeg1_56.pdf#pagemode=none&nameddest=1.3.C1
11. www.waterfront-net.org/europa/index.htm. (Date Accessed 19/ 12/ 2005)
12. www.apb.es/es/PORT/Port_Vell (Date Acessed 18/ 11/ 2005)
13. http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niza (Date Acessed 30/ 12/ 2005)

14. www.cafedelasciudades.com.ar/politica_21.htm (Date Acessed 18/ 11/ 2005)


15. http://www.ciao.es/Niza__Opinion_779578 (Date Acessed 30/ 12/ 2005)
16. http://www.urbanplanet.org/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t1148.html (Date
Acessed 30/ 12/ 2005)
17. http://www.emich.edu/public/geo/557book/d370.innerharbor.html (Date
Acessed 31/ 12/ 2005)
18. http://www.hernandezrabal.com/europa/francia/provence/nice.htm (Date
Acessed 30/ 12/ 2005).
19.www.malmo.se/servicemeny/cityofmalmo.4.33aee30d103b8f15916800021923.
html (Date Acessed 18/ 11/ 2005)

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APPENDIX A: PICTURES & MAP


APPENDIX A.1: PICTURES

The Limfjords Bridge

Rosdahls restaurant from the waterfront

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The restaurant Isbryderen Elbjörn

Parking area at the waterfront in Jomfru Ane Parken

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Parking places in waterfront area

Slotspladsen Street

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The Aalborghus Castle

Nyhavnsgade Street, and the Metax parking house

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Metax parking house

Utzonparken area, infront of the hotel

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Utzonparken area

The Music House area

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Nord Kraft

Nyhavnsgade Street

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APPENDIX A.2.

The map shows Aalborg Municipal Authority’s plans for the central harbour front in Aalborg City. [www.aalborg.dk/havnefront]
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APPENDIX B: INTERVIEWS
APPENDIX B.1: INTERVIEW WITH RIE MALLING (Architect)
FROM AALBORG MUNICIPALITY

QUESTION: My name is Jacob. I am the person who made the appointment for the
interview. We are working on a project about the Central Harbour Front and our initial
purpose is to study a new redevelopment in the area and to unify the waterfront with the
Aalborg City. So, this is the reason because we would like to know some details about the
future plans that the Municipality is designing. Also, we are interested in some specific
themes like urban design, the integration with the inner city, the traffic and the tourism.

ANSWER: Those are your main goals?

Q: Yes, they are. These are the most important issues that we want to discuss. I think that
we should start with the questions.

A: Yes.

Q: First, we would like to know what is the general purpose for the regeneration in the
Central Waterfront.?

A: I am not quite sure about understanding the question, so I have to ask you what the
question is: the main idea or the reason why we are regenerating all?

Q: We think both, it could be great.

A: You can say that this area was historically a farmer- industrial area, but nowadays, the
industry has moved out town to the eastern harbour. So, now we have three old industrial
areas in the waterfront, but today they are only used to park. When you have to develop a
town, you have to create attractions, to make the town attractive for new citizens, and I
think that is the main problem for Aalborg right now: we have to try to attract new
citizens.

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It can be difficult in competition with Aarhus or Copenhagen because we are a small town
and we are far away from them, and the transport system is not very well developed and so
on. So, I think it might be a way to attract new citizens and new places to work, and to
make the town more beautiful, of course, but that is a design question.

Q: What about the importance of this project? How much is it important for the city?

A: I think it is very important. I think it is the most important area (Central Harbour Front)
right now, to develop. The City Municipality has decided to use 200 million DKK during
the next 4-5 years to develop all the waterfront, the different townscapes, parks, and
places, and activities areas, and of course, the road Nyhavnsgade. But it is also very
important for the cityscape to make it transferring into another different design.

Q: So this Central Harbour Front is one of the most important areas here, in Aalborg?

A: Yes, it is the most important, right now.

Q: Why do you think this is the most important area and not, for example, other areas in
Aalborg?

A: Because this is a public area. There are a lot of other areas along the whole of the
Harbour Front, but those are private. So, these are developed firms and maybe offices. But
the Central Harbour Front is a public area, so here, you can develop life, and new activities
and new places for whole of Aalborg and whole of the region, so because of it, it is the
most important area.

Q: What is the Aalborg Municipality’s position to attract people to the waterfront?.

A: Opinion? Or what do you mean about position?

Q: It means how do you want to attract people to the harbour front? and what kind of
people would you like to attract?

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A: This is a quite big area and it is going to be integrated in the whole city. So the guests
here shall be all kind of citizens: young people, old people and children. But, of course,
there will be different places. We have made in this plan places for activities and active
events, but also places where you can be very quite and where there will be no activities.
There will be changes between “activities” and “no activities places”.

First, we have analysed the city. Where do we have different activities in the city
currently? We can find: Jomfru Ane Gade that is the “event city”, and here, Aalborghus
Slot that is the historical part of the city. And here (in the middle of the waterfront), there
will be the new Music House and Nordkraft; this will be the cultural city. And then, you
have something between them, where the new Utzon Centre is going to be built. You can
notice how this long area has been divided in different places.

And how are they going to be connected with the city? You could read a lot about
Nyhavnsgade in the papers and newspapers. This is one of the main goals; it is to make the
road into two lanes, instead of four lanes. I think it is very important to make the redesign
of the city, to make another road that is not going to use for industrial transport. We look
for a road to be integrated in the city. And of course, it will be possible to cross the city at
all. Today it is not possible, it is too dangerous, and this is the reason because it is very
important to change the road.

But you can discuss if there will be some problems to get the cars into the town. I do not
think it is, because the traffic-driven will find another ways. It is only the traffic that wants
to go into the town I think it is run enough.

And, of course, there are other different places. For instance, this place that is Østerågade,
we are also trying to regenerate this place. This is very important for Aalborg, because it is
as an historical element, and we try to connect the inner city and the harbour front with
these elements. Toldboden is very central and very important place. So it is very important
to have these connections between the “event city”, Jomfru Ane Gade, to this area
(Østerågade). In this area, we are working with the pedestrian area to connect the inner
city and the Music House. And as well, in Fjordgade there will be a very important
connected line between the city and Utzonparken.

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It is quite important to think on the waterfront as a long area where you can walk along,
but at the same time it is very important to have others connections with the inner city.
The purpose here is to make it for pedestrian, and cycling and rollers, but not for cars at
all. You could not park at the harbour front when all these plans are developing. The car
parks will be collected in a parking house here (east part- Karolinelundskilen), and of
course, you have the park houses in town. And we are going to make parking here
(western part) as well.

Q: So, we can think that it is only one area but with some more specific and interested
sub-areas.

A: Yes, of course, it is one big area connected with Nyhavnsgade and the Harbour
promenade but the activities will change, so that is why we are going to make different
kind of roles and cityscapes.

Q: But are you going to link all this three different areas in the waterfront with a
pedestrian access?

A: Yes, this is the Harbour promenade and it is only for pedestrians.

Q: So, if we talk about the target group, have you been thinking on any special group or
just people in general?

A: Of course, here (western part) we have planned to make an area with activities that
could be, for instance, ice skating in winter time, or others different sports, so because of
it, most people will be young people here.

Here (western part) we are planning a swimming pool. And it will attract different people,
maybe small children in the morning and young people in the afternoon; so, during the day
there will be different groups and then, we are planning a “little garden”, with flowers and
it is going to be more quite to stay for people who are 50 years old. Actually, you can see
this group of people here, at Rosdahls, right now.

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There will be another house where there will be restaurants and different small shops and I
think it is going to attract more middle- aged people. I think you have to see the area
during a day, because then the groups can change, so that is why we are trying to think
how a day will be here in the harbour and who will visit it at all.

Slotspladsen is the historical place. It is going to be a big, beautiful and green place,
where sometimes there will be a lot of people, and sometimes nobody. The historical
building (Castle) here, can just tell us the story about the city.

The Music House there will be for student and young people. It depends on the audience;
so maybe, middle-aged people too. It will be a mixture. Nordkraft, for young people, but it
depends, because there will be many different theatres and many different activities, so it
depends how they will be organised. I think this could be both for young and middle-aged
people as well. I see this area (eastern area), as a place where you could do wild things and
this other (western area) is quieter. This is a big room where you can make crazy things,
maybe without organisation. Maybe here, (western area), you have organisations in
different houses so you can make bigger arrangements. This is just when you walk in
town, to Jomfru Ane Gade; you can play tennis, running or in the way home just to take a
brake there.

Q: You have not mentioned old people. Is there any particular reason?

A: When I say middle-aged, I am thinking on old people, because of course old people can
go there with their grandchildren.

Q: But, if you look where all these people come from, if they could be tourist or local
people, people from the municipality or from the north part of Denmark. Where do you
think that most of the people will come from?

A: Maybe these activities will attract people from whole region (Music House and eastern
area). Maybe this area (Jomfru Ane Parken) is more for local people, because you will go
there because you know it and you can make an appointment with friends and you will go
there to play football, or tennis, or have a swim. Maybe, there will be differences with
Utzon Centre whose guests are going to be for whole region and whole country.

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Q: We have talked about the general purpose, but if we think in the social-economic
benefits in more detail, what do you think about the benefits that the Aalborg Municipality
will have in this area?

A: That is a difficult question. Really I do not know, but I am quite sure that it will have a
benefit. But it is really difficult to guess what is going to be the benefit, because who earns
the money? Is it the town or are the shops that pay taxes? It is very difficult to answer that
question. But I am sure that more activity will make more money.

Q: About linking the city centre and the waterfront, you have mentioned Nyhavnsgade
you want to turn the road into a two lanes road. But are there any other things that the
Municipality wants to do to link the inner city and the harbour front?

A: Yes, actually this is what I was trying to explain. We have joint others activities and so
there is going to be a specific link between the town and these areas. It is going to be a link
with new surfaces and fountains and so, to make it possible to walk from the inner city to
the harbour or the opposite around.

Q: Maybe the historical part and this part (the Music House area) will be the most
important part for the tourist people, for example. The reason is because for local people is
more important to go to the place where they are going to play sports or other things. So, I
suppose it should be quite easy to go from the city centre to the Music House, but is it
going to be any especial link? Is the Municipality interested in creating an easy
connection?. How are they going to do this link easier going on foot?

A: Actually, it is really easy coming from the town going there (east part). For instance,
through a boulevard where you can walk or you can walk through the city also.

Q: But are they going to try to make this path more attractive?

A: Yes this is going to be new surfaces. All this area will be new.

Q: So are they going to try that people go through the waterfront or the inner city?

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A: I think it will depend on the weather, because some days are very windy, so you could
choose other ways. The most directly way is this one (through Østerågade) because you
can see the water and how the Music House is next to it, and then you walk.

Q: About this road, Nyhavnsgade, there have been some debates about this, about making
this road into a two lanes road. What it is the reason because you are turning it into a two
lanes road and what do you think about the arguments that support it should be a four
lanes road? Do you think that it is possible to make the two lanes road and to solve the
traffic problems?

A: Yes, it is possible … but the discussion has failed, that is a pity; because you only read
and you only heard the bad story about it, because there is nothing in the harbour front
right now. People cannot imagine what it is going to be, and how it can be in the future.
We can imagine it because we are working on it, but if you go and ask Mr Johnson and
Mrs Nelson, they cannot imagine. They can only see the pictures that they have in their
head right now, that the area here is only parking areas, and why is that attractive?

So what have we missed? I think that to make information and communication about the
real reasons why you have to do these things if you want to develop a town, because
without changing from the four lanes to two lanes you can not make these things. For
instance, in this area (Jomfru Ane Parken) there will be nothing…and this area
(Slotspladsen) there will also be nothing. So you have to do it, if you want something. So,
it is very important when you are walking into this area and I think we have failed there,
because we have not told any information about the harbour front in the future. Because
you know that it is the part of city with all shops, and they have been very much against it.
But they should really make a big effort because they will have new customers, but you
have to tell the good story about it, telling the best story about it.

Q: I think that if you change the road and you turn into two lanes, you have to move the
heavy trucks; you have to change this traffic from Nyhavnsgade and maybe, you can
remove to another road. I mean, if you want a more accessible road to cross and you want
to change it into only two lanes you have to move the heavy tracks traffic to another road,
isn’t it?

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A: Yes, but I am not sure what you mean as “the heavy traffic”. Do you mean the
transport for the industry? Because there is not much industry in the other area (western
part) and into the town. You have the heavy industry in the Eastern part and it is out of the
town. But this road (Nyhavnsgade) is also built for picking up people in the city, so the
traffic can move from here (Nyhavnsgade) and go down (through Hadsundvej).

Q: Yes, about the Music House and the plans to establish its location, what are the reasons
to choose the location for the Music House?

A: Specially, this one (in the Eastern part of the waterfront) instead of others.

Q: Yes. This one (in the Eastern part of the waterfront) is closer to the industry. What is
the reason?

A: Because of different reasons. There was a discussion three years ago, about if also it
would be possible to place it in another part of the Limfjord. Actually, I think the
arguments are that this is not just only the Music House, it is also the University and it is
very important that the University was in the town; it was one of the main arguments. And
other argument was also that we needed to make a balance in town, not placing every
things in the same place but also to make the possibility to develop them in different areas
in the town.

Q: But you do not explain any problems about the location that is closer to the industry,
like it is dusty, smelly ...and so on.

A: Yes, but there is a buffer between them and that would be except for this industrial
area…It is disgusting a lot, but there was a very long discussion about it. I think that you
have to do it, although there is a political decision that allows the industry to stay here as
long as they want.

Q: Is it too expensive to move them? or what is the reason?

A: They do not want to do it.

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Q: It is a private company so the Municipality cannot do anything. Maybe can they


encourage them to move to another place?

A: No. I think there is a big material authority in the city house and they do not want to do
anything to carry it now. I think that maybe in not too many years there will not be any
industrial area at the inner city.

Q: Yes, I think that we have found a lot of answers for the most of the questions, so now
we just would like to get a little update of the different areas because we have not seen a
lot of them. We could see some in the web page but most of them were not updated. So, it
could be nice if you give us a little update of the different areas.

A: Of course! In this area, (Jomfru Ane Parken), one of the first things that we want to do
it is to start to build this road (Strandvejen), at least it will start in March in 2006. This is
the first part of the plan that we want to build, (Jomfru Ane Parken). And the parks are
going to be built in 2006 / 2007. If you see here it is the same plan (Jomfru Ane Parken
Plan), but this is not updated (swimming pool). We do not know the financial plan of the
swimming pool, we do not know yet. We are going to make an area with sports activities.

Q: We could understand that the existing buildings in this area that stay here (Eastern part
of Jomfru Ane Parken )and Toldboden, it would be throw down, is that correct?

A: Yes.

Q: What about the update? It is going to stay here, ok…it is a bad of quality of building or
… because it is a restaurant or ...?

A: I think it is because it is already a restaurant, this already started this area, and this
shipyard is also important for the area. But there are many buildings in line so you could
not see the water. There were demand to make green areas, to make public areas and not to
make too many buildings.

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Q: So, the plan is to build some restaurants here (western part), mostly restaurants or we
will find also some shops?

A: Yes, also small shops.

Q: Yes, so they could be shops and restaurants?

A: Yes, but we do not know exactly, because part of this area is a private investment; so,
we do not know exactly what is going to be, but that is a detail ...if you see the plan you
can see what they can make here, like small restaurants and shops. Yes, this area
(Slotspladsen), the pier is not going to be built, and in this whole area look like this
(Castle)….and here (Utzonparken), it looks totally different right now, but I have not got
any updated sketches that I could give you. Have you seen drawings from Utzonparken?

Q: Yes, we have seen one or two from the newspapers, but there was just only one
drawing.

A: Because I am not sure if I can give you it, because we are still working on it. So, if you
want the new one you will have to ask by phone (Municipality) if they would give you
some drawings. We have not finished the discussion about this area (Utzonparken) yet;
maybe when we finish to talk about this I will had a model and I could let you see it.

Music House, we do not know about this, exactly about the plans and when it is going to
go built, but hopefully it will be built.

Q: Who is working on that? The Foundation of the Music House?

A: Yes, the Foundation and maybe some politicians. I do not know.

Q: So, we have notice that they do not show many sketches in the public and so.

A: We have not seen anything.

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Q: We have just seen a small sketch, this is the last one…and so it is getting smaller and
smaller.

A: Yes, but I do not know, I have not seen anything before…But, I have read in the
newspapers that the fourteenth of December and then they will tell us about the future of
it…

I think in Nordkraft, there are seven architectural firms working on ideas and how to make
these designs. The delivery date is in January, in the middle of January, so it is very
exciting.

Q: So, you also do not know much updates of this area, now.

A: No, I know what they could put in… I do not know …

Q: Yes, but how do the sketches look like and so on?

A: No, I do not.

Q: And then, I think that we need to talk about the last area, Karolinelundskilen.

A: The idea was to make a big, we can call, industrial park with a big room and basin
called Kulhavnen. Kulhavnen was used for the Nordkraft area. I think what we are going
to do now, because otherwise it could be very expensive; it is to make a park and a big
parking. And then, you have to develop waste this parking house…

According to Malling in the interview, the problem with parking houses is that it generates
less income. Plans are underway to have collaborations between the Municipality and
private investors to make these parking areas. This could be done now or soon. This idea
also involves making connections with the green way around the whole town and the
Tivoliland, Kildeparken, Godsbanearealerne. It is hence a green connection from the town
to the waterfront.

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And this is Østerågade. Formally here, this is actually now, under the road here in
Karolinelundskilen, and we would like to open it again. It is expensive and it is difficult
because there are a lot of pipes under the road here, and it is very difficult to get through,
but we are still working with the water element, and the water idea.

So you can say what the idea is, because there are a lot of water here (waterfront, but it is
very different the water from here (Kulhavnen) and the water from here (fiord). There is a
lot stream in this water, so if you want to make, maybe, some sports there are facilities,
like canoeing what you have to do it in more close basins, because there is too stream here.

Q: And then, I think, in the area here, behind the Utzon Houses, there are a hotel and
Administration buildings, and they plant to leave these two buildings stay in the area.

A: Yes.

Q: And do they allow building more apartments for the hotel?

A: No, they are not interested on it. I am just working on this plan and maybe we will put
some possibilities to build another house here (Utzonparken). There is private owner here
(Cattle Market), there is also a private owner here, in Jomfru Ane Parken and they are not
very interested in it.

Q: No, but are they allowed building more hotels?

A: No, actually there are a lot of hotels in Aalborg, it said that maybe we have one or two
many hotels, so they are not interested in it at all.

Q: What is the time schedule for the whole plans?

A: For the whole area 2008/2009. This is 2006, (Jomfru Ane Parken), this (Slotspladsen)
is in 2007, this is maybe in 2007 (Utzonparken), this is (Music House) in 2008, I think this
is 2007 (Nyhavnsgade) as well, because it was planning to build it and finish it in 2007.
And this one will be (Karolinelundskilen) in 2008/2009, maybe.
Q: I think it is very few time.

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A: Yes, it is quite tough. It is too much time.

Q: So, we do not have any more questions. So we have to say you thank you very much.

APPENDIX B.2: INTERVIEW WITH PETER HERMANSEN FROM


TOURIST INFORMATION OFFICE

QUESTION: What is the importance of tourism to the city of Aalborg?

ANSWER: Of cause I am bound to say yes but actually it is very important to Aalborg
and more important to the region of North Denmark. The region of north Denmark is the
largest tourist region in Scandinavia. Summer cultures, it is also beach resorts. It is very
popular. These resorts in the old days were fishing areas. The only way of life was either
farming or fisherman. Later industry, tourism grew rapidly also. In the region tourism is
major growth sector that are being focused on.

For Aalborg, it is the main town or city in the region. We do have a lot of visitors. The city
attracts approximately 450,000 (bed night) visitors each year. We have 1 day visitors; we
call them bed nights. Some stay in summer quarters, others stay in holiday apartments.
There are bed night visitors. There are more attractions when there is a good weather
condition. On rainy days, some people visit the city centre for shopping and see the
attractions of the city.

For the city of Aalborg tourism is not a primary sector. We have large university, we have
traditional companies, and we have a lot of hotels, restaurants, conference centres etc.
They live not from hotels, traditional businesses but also from tourist. It is quite important
but not the number1 business sector.

Q: What are the tourism potentials for city of Aalborg?

A: Well, they are quite positive if you look at tourism on a global scale, it is this sector
that is growing the most. In the western world, we work less and less; more and more-free

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time and we earn more money. When you look at my parent’s generation, when they were
my age they would go on a week’s holiday in Denmark. Now I have 6wks of holidays and
can afford to go abroad for an entire 6wks but I can take 2 or 3 days holiday during a year
and can do some short break holidays as well. That is a trend we see growing in Europe
US, and of cause a lot of developing countries. They do better and better, and tourism is
growing in both parts of the world as well.

So from that point of view, the potential is quite good and on a more sort of subtle level
you can say that tourist in Aalborg, largely come from Germany, Sweden, Norway and
Denmark. People from Sweden and Norway normally come by ferry to Denmark. We
have a lot of traffic from people coming to north Denmark and it’s very popular for
Swedes and Norwegians to come to Denmark because they feel it is a developed country.
We also see a change in the way people travel. We don’t go as much by train, cars, and
ferries.

The air traffic market is growing a lot. We have a lot of low cost airlines available to offer
cheap tickets to travellers to travel to the areas such as France and Spain that would cost as
much as you could go by train or ferry to Denmark. The Scandinavian would like to jump
on the plane and go to France or Spain where it is warmer than Denmark.

The potential is there, we do see some growth but in Aalborg there is some weakness. The
low cost airlines would like to fly in to Aalborg but the local airport has a different
strategy. It would rather be interested in organising chartered flights to destinations like
New York.

Q: Is the present central harbour front a tourism potential to Aalborg?


i. Do you think the proposed redevelopment of the central harbour front has the
potential of attracting more tourists?
ii. If yes: What are the potentials?
iii. If no: what are the possible solutions to make it attractive to tourist?

A: You mean the central harbour front? Well, not really. We have a hotel, few restaurants.
They are some tourist and locals coming there. But the harbour front as it is today is a
symbol of time gone past in the city. Industrial harbour, not well coming, it is cold but you

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cannot do much about, the layout and services are virtually none existence. So it is not
something we are proud of and the local people are also not proud of the place. I know that
is why they are trying to plan and revitalise the place

From tourism point of view, the office tries to market the city. For tourist when we pick a
destination we often do that by beautiful view, through brochure, programs, TV, etc. Let
us take a Spanish example the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is so beautiful. Bilbao from
tourism point of view, it second to none in European history. The city has not changed
much but the museum is there and you see it everywhere all over southern Bilbao, and it is
a great city. As a tourist you don’t go behind the façade, you get a glimpse of the
destination you are visiting. That glimpse is powerful enough you like to go there again. It
is important that we have an attractive harbour front for instance.

Q: What are your impressions about the proposed central waterfront redevelopment plans
by the Aalborg municipality? Are these plans capable of making the area more attractive
for tourism?

A: It is hard to say especially when you are doing something like that in the city of
Aalborg you have to think of cause, the citizens. They come first. We’ve been involved
and our director is involved in an advisory committee but when you do it, your prime
focus should be on the citizens. But whether this would make a huge difference to help in
the potential of attracting visitors to Aalborg, that the tourist board thinks as a great area is
hard to say. I think one of the important things is the music house. It is important. I know
they do not stick to the original plans but they are cutting the budget. What they did was
taking off some of the most exciting architectural features. If you do that, you risk ending
up with a building not as a potential of being a symbol for the city. I’m not going to
compare the first time, original design to the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao because it is
not that category.

The Bilbao museum is a fine example of a special architecture that instantly people feel
intrigued by it. It is very exciting; it is a brilliant opportunity. If we end up with
architecture with the same style like the university or Aalborg congress or cultural centre,
it is rather not have the music house .It is important that they do something special,

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something unique. As for the housing, well I have not much about that as long as they do
it at the left side of the bridge.

The harbour swimming pool is a great idea; it becomes popular during the summer
especially for the young people and tourist. The green area is a positive idea to have it
close to the castle; however, the castle is not one of the impressive buildings in Denmark.
Of cause it is a historical building and it is important to open it up. It is a bit squeezed as it
is today.

The Utzonparken project is also a good idea. Utzon is popular in Denmark; this city is his
birthplace, and also being the mastermind of the Sydney opera house. However, Utzon is
not too popular among foreigners in Denmark.

However, there is one thing missing on the harbour front and that is the Limfjord Bridge.
It is very ugly. It is important to have lights at the whole area. With that you work with
architectural light. You turn it to a safe area because it dark and we want to attract people
not only in summer but also in winter. With the water, when you are in Ghana, Egypt the
water could be warm but we don’t have it like that in Denmark. When you have the winter
chills, the wind, when you have the darkness you can build as many fine buildings,
restaurants, cultural centres, swimming pools when it is welcoming. It is not welcoming
when there is no light, when it is cold you cannot do nothing, but architectural light can
create life, a sense of warmth, and sense of fear and security. It is important in the whole
layout that you work in, you can make surprising light when you walk there. The option of
lights that you could create should not be another Tivoli atmosphere but an intelligent
area.

The bridge is ugly and from its construction in 1932 though it has gone through many
paintings over the years. When it was first created the then Prime Minister of Denmark
said during its inauguration he gave a speech and said “ I would like to congratulate the
city of Aalborg for making a bridge like this but I just don’t know what a hell u want with
a bridge like this because of Nørresundby. Is the end of the world? There is nothing there”
there is nothing there to connect with that part of the city. It has to be illuminating. For
instance the most cities have illuminating bridges. Not to compare Aalborg with London.
The Millennium Bridge in London is an example of such bridges. It has link with the Tate

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Museum, St. Paul’s cathedral and illuminated over the Thames. The Limfjord Bridge
should be redecorated, futuristic, stainless steel and with light. We have discussed that
with the technical department not our idea, the idea has been there already to give the
bridge a good look but the issue is cost. It cost 4million Euros to do that but the bridge is
ugly in the day and scary at night. There has to something special close to nature.

An example of such can be referred to the regenerating one of the poor areas in Paris to an
exclusive museum deconstructive stairs. They wanted people to feel secure so they had
lights everywhere. The lights, plants are all illumination. They have different music, the
music also changes people feel safe, and crime is virtually zero. You need to create
something special, untraditional, especially when you have the nature against you. The
water, the cold, etc.

Q: What does the central waterfront area need to attract tourist from your point of view?
And what should be the plans to attract tourists in an urban area? What is your opinion
about the industry being next to those planned area.

A: Standing on the bridge is not a beautiful view, but the harbour front is currently not
beautiful but an industrial skyline. There are no pretty buildings. The presence of the feed
factory is a problem and the city Mayor would like to have this industry move to the new
harbour 5km east of the city. Moving the factory out is however, costly. The Director of
the company has assured the Mayor that the company is ever prepared to move out when it
is asked but not to the East of Aalborg but to South East Asia. It a lot of money, they pay
a lot of taxes, a lot of people working there, a lot of money to the city it is important for
the city. It does not do much good to the harbour but its there and I don’t think the
presence of the factory is really a problem. If they can just agree on doing something there
it would be a long step further than we are today.

Q: You said citizens should be taking into consideration in the redevelopment of the
harbour front. Would the citizens welcome the presence of more tourists in the city?

A: I do not think we will see any two-figure growth rates in tourism for even when it is
built Aalborg. It is not something you should do for tourist; you want an attractive city, for

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the companies attracting students, not tourist of cause tourism is important but not the
primary factor.

Q: Would you suggest a path to create a pedestrian access for the waterfront from the
city?

A: What we preferred was a tunnel, so you have a road on one side and the tunnel on the
other side but that was too costly. They would stick to 4 lanes because that would cause
traffic chaos when they have 2 Lanes. What may be done is to have some little bridges to
connect the area together. It is still important to connect the historical part of the city with
the cultural area.

Q: Would the bridge be important for the city to connect the city centre with the
waterfront?

A: It depends on how you build those bridges; that is when you make them attractive,
Having 2 lanes might create traffic chaos. Perhaps have a small bridge to link the area
together. There should be a traditional bridge but attractive, special, or one that stands out.

Q: So, we do not have more questions. Thank you very much for your time.

APPENDIX B.3: INTERVIEW WITH NIELS ANDERSEN (Chairman)


FROM “AALBORG CITY”

Niels Andersen has been chairman for the Harbour Front Committee in the last 5 years and
now he is chairman for the inner City Commerce Organisation “Aalborg City”, with 310
members, the second largest in Denmark. Aalborg City has also made its own suggestions
for the plans in the harbour front.

QUESTION: What is your general opinion about the Municipal Authority’s plans for the
waterfront redevelopment on commerce?

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ANSWER: When we are talking about the Harbour front is important to split into the
already revitalized area between the two bridges: the area between the Limfjordsbroen and
until the House of Music. This area should be opened like a green area and sea views to
the Limfjord.

The renewal of the street Boulevarden is also important for Aalborg City, which is just
now finalised. Aalborg City supports the plans for the harbour front.

Aalborg Municipality liked to change the road from 4 to 2 lanes. 18 members voted “yes”
and 11 members voted “no”. Actually, there is new Municipality Municipality and 10 of
them prefer 4 lanes and 10 members do not know yet. We know that we need to convince
these 10 people that do not know to do.

Today there are 20.000 cars in Nyhavnsgade; after the change, there will only be capacity
for 7.000 cars in Nyhavnsgade. The rest of the cars (13.000) should use other roads, but
7.000 cars are not enough for Aalborg City, because the 13.000 cars are forced to use other
roads as Karolinelundsvej Æ Jyllandsgade. The problem is that Jyllandsgade is already
influenced by heavy traffic. Where should people park when they go fore shopping?

Q: The cars should go by KarolinelundsvejÆ Sønderbro Æ Østre Alle. That is the plan;
otherwise they can park in a new parking house in Karolinelundskilen or in the Metax
house.

A: In the Metax house there will be 52 new shops and the Metax parking house will be
expanded from 600 to 800 parking places, so the traffic will increase and the road capacity
will decrease. It is possible to park in a new parking house in Karolinelundskilen, but not
many people like to do that and walk the 800 meter to go to the city centre. For instance, if
you buy a television, it is hard to carry it 800 meters. They want to park in the central part
of the inner city, so we are forced to have a four lane road to support this traffic.

Q: When we are talking about four lanes is only for Nyhavnsgade or also the followings
roads: Slotspladsen and Strandvejen?

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A: Aalborg City wishes a four-lane road the whole way trough. We told Aalborg
Municipality that this size was good; all of us wanted to keep the four lanes. Then, the
Municipality said that it was not possible because of the Cattle market and the bicycle
path. We argued that there was not any problem because the bicycle trail could just be at
the other side of the cattle marked. So that problem was solved.

Q: It could also be a possibility only to reduce Slotspladsen and Strandvejen until two
lanes, so there would be no problems for people enters into the city centre, only for the
traffic through the area.

A: That’s right, but it is not our plans for the moment, but we do not know what the
compromise will be. We believe that four lanes are necessary to give people access to the
inner city and the Central Harbour Front. It is proved by some people from the traffic
department at Aalborg University that changing the road to two lanes will cause that
people drove to the Metax parking house on Thursday, Friday and Saturday. So, they were
forced to wait 15 minutes when they went for shopping. But, population do not want to do
that. Then you can say that people just go by Østre Alle and Vesterbro when they go for
parking, but at Vesterbro we also have heavy traffic. If you put all these activities in this
area, it needs accessibility to come in and come out. It will really cause problems, so if the
Aalborg Municipality implements this idea (making this road into two lanes road), it will
mean that they will shoot their own foot.

We have other areas in the inner city without cars, like Algade, Bispensgade, Nytorv and
the newly renewed Boulevarden, so we have nice areas without cars.

Q: What is the reason because of the Municipality wants this change? Is it because of the
current road creates a barrier, so not too many people will use these areas?

A: That’s not true. You can avoid that by making some traffic light and pedestrian
crossing. I have been in Nice three times and they have a six lane road at the water front; it
is a big city and a big road and it is working fine. Try to go there and take a look!!

Q: Other argument is that turning it into two lanes road will generate more space fore
activities at the harbour front.

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A: Yes, but that is not much space only 3 or 4 meters; if you go there and take a look
today, you will see there is not enough space. About crossing of the road we also have a
suggestion of building two bridges across the road. The bridges will also have elevators
for old or handicapped people and a nice café at the top, and benches where people can sit
enjoying the view.

Q: How much will it cost?

A: The minimum price for each bridge will be 1 million. DKK, but it could also be more
expensive depending how you want these bridges look. But comparing to changing the
road it could be cheaper; renovating the current road will maybe cost 20 million DKK, and
the changing the road to two lanes might cost 65 million DKK. We could for instance
spend this difference in the House of Music instead.

Q: That is enough about the traffic situation. What is our general opinion about the
general plans for the central harbour front?

A: I have been in the group that has worked with the plans. I think that it is a good plan, it
would really give us a nice and beautiful harbour front. It is really important to make a
really beautiful promenade along the whole harbour front with the same kind of light and
so on. In the western part, there will be small cafes and view to Limfjord. I really like the
plans but please, let me get the House of Music, if not we will just have wasted 22 or 28
million. It is better if the Central Harbour Front has more opened areas than closed. All
these opened spaces could be built like parking areas places, but eventually could be also
used for outdoor concerts.

Q: Are there any plans to link the city centre with the harbour area?

A: Yes, we have just suggested that Nytorv will be renewed from Østerågade to the Metax
parking house; especially Nørregade could be an interesting walking street when we got to
the Music House. I believe that we should make a flat parking place instead of a parking
house at Karolinelundskilen, many people do not like to park in a parking house. We
would like green areas and parking places but we also know that we cannot get everything,

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so we are satisfied with the current number of parking places. Today the situation is
different. Miss. Petersen has her own car and she wants to use it.

Previously, it was a two-lanes road, and it was decided to make a four-lanes road.
Actually, they want to make a 2-lanes road again, but the number of cars has been
doubled.

Q: The plans at the central harbour front only seem to contain a little commerce (e.g.
shops, restaurants). Is it enough?

A: Yes, it is enough; it is a good idea to collect commerce, culture and so on in specific


areas. There are fine plans for Jomfru Ane Parken and good ideas about the restaurants
Elbjørn and Rosdahls. We need to get people to the city that is all that we need.

Q: That is all. We do not have more questions. Thank you very much.

APPENDIX B.4: INTERVIEW WITH BO VAGNBY (Professor) FROM


AALBORG UNIVERSITY

A: I think that before starting we have to look firstly how the plans are, if they are fine or
they need an improvement. And if they do, why?

Q: That is our first question.

A: I thought that you are going to determine what you think that a good plan is? Or do you
want to reserve your professional opinion?

Q: We are doing some researches about it to find different opinions about this plan.

A: Have you found your own opinion about this plan?

Q: In some way ‘yes’, and in some way ‘no’, because the meaning of this process is to
find out what these plans are about and why to make these plans. So it is easier for us to

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get our own opinion listening to the planners in this project with their own opinion about
this first....

A: That can be O.K. But also it can be risky because at the end of this semester you should
have been able to have your own opinion. Otherwise, it is going to be too easy for the
person to give you a specific direction. I will give you this kind of general advice that you
have also to find your independent professionally opinion because. Who has a very
different opinion and maybe very critical opinion?

Q: Yes, but the interview in this process is also a way to get information.

A: It is only, that I think that as a part of your training and education, you should
definitively develop the ability to make your own professional opinion.

Q: Of course, we have some opinions about this. We have had an interview with a person
from Aalborg Municipality, because it is easier for us to understand the plans, and because
most of the information is in Danish, so it is quite difficult for us.

A: Who have you seen to discuss about this in the Municipality?

Q: An architect that has a well knowledge about the plans, because she is involved on
them. We have also talked to someone from the Tourist Association and to someone from
Aalborg City.

A: What are your specific expectations to me? Is that a planning view or is it a planning
theoretical view, or is it about the process?

Q: Mainly, we would like to know your opinion about the actual plans that the
Municipality is developing.

A: But does it regard to their functions, or what?

Q: Maybe it is referred about their functions, their design and the process that they are
carrying out. Here you can see most of the strategies that they want to develop (Master

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plan from Aalborg Municipality). You could find something that is not correct in your
opinion, or on the other hand something that was nice.

A: So design, the function, the context, and the process. Then, you have to guide me.

Q: So as you know, here in this part (western part of the waterfront), they are trying to
build a place for practicing sports and a swimming pool. This is a focus for local people
specially, because it is next to the city centre. (Middle part of the waterfront) This is the
historical part and here, there is the Music House. Between of them, there is a museum, in
Utzonparken. There is also a park here (eastern part), where they also want to build a
parking area because they are trying to use it as a barrier between the feed factory and the
Music House.

A: I think that the plan is large for whole of the Central Harbour Front. I think that after
many, many years of discussions, after many proposals as results of different competitions
and after many years of public debate, among people living in Aalborg and among people
having an opinion about the future of the harbour front, I think that the result was
materialised last year, 2004. I think that after all, these proposals reflect very well many of
the ideas that have appeared overtime.

I think this is the result of a communicative process between the planners, the decisions
makers and also ant the actors giving their opinion about the future of Harbour Front.
There have been many different opinions about this theme and all of them have received a
lot of attention in the recent local elections. The Aalborg Municipality’s idea allows seeing
behind the Central Harbour Front an entertainment and recreational part near Jomfru Ane
Gade. This is a logical purpose to attract a lot of tourists and local people. Also, there will
have a more representative cultural part along the castle. I think it is quite good. And I
think that is going to be a mixture between cultural facilities and functions and some
public functions as well.

The House of Music and the Museum in honour of Utzon is quite a good idea. The details
seen from this proposal are fairly regard scale and also regard how it can actually be
complemented the Music House and Utzon Parken. The last part to the east is to combine
the buffer zone and the industrial area. It is a potential recreational area. But also the local

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plan draws a parking area. This is the most controversial and problematic contribution,
because its location near to the entertainment area shall not allow developing an attractive
recreational area in Karolinelundskilen.

Also, they try to design a green space with a small harbour or basin in this area. Actually,
Aarhus has been quite successfully in open some of its rivers and some of its streams;
there was a competition in the Municipality to develop the Central Harbour Port and
opening the streams was proposed. I think it is a good idea, because, probably it is the only
place in Aalborg where still the water is fluid. Several times these streams have been
covered so, that idea could be a great plan.

Q: When we are talking about this plan and this strategy, do you think that is possible for
the Aalborg Municipality to achieve this plan?

B: The problem is found in everywhere. But, probably it especially is in Aalborg because


of it is relatively small city, 200.000 people. It is very easy for local, critical and
professional opinion and people from the University to read the newspaper and look a
fantastic presentation and to create a public opinion. My personal view regards to produce
a good plan in Aalborg is that politicians think about the population’s needs. If you read a
critical letter or if you arrange a meeting with 2, 3, 4 people and you listen series of things
that they would like to have in the city, in that moment you are participating in a public
debate. If we attack in this part maybe it could be designed different and innovative ideas.
That is funny situation but I would say that they have to participate in public debates in
Aalborg for quite many years and so we could compare, for instance, with Copenhagen,
Aarhus and Odense. I would say that in not many time, we could see that the Municipality
or planner find consensual solutions.

Sometimes the best architectural result or the best functional result or whatever is not
enough; and I think that we need an automatic debate to find the best solution. That is an
observation to start working. Recently, maybe it is too easy to manipulate the politician’s
opinion through public opinion. Sometimes it is not necessary give the best professional
solution; it is more important to solve the citizens’ needs.

Q: Do you have any alternative for this strategy about the waterfront?

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A: Yes, I think that the large plan and in this context it is better a public investment, public
functions or public infrastructures. So, we need an important public investment. Here, we
have a park around the Castle, a lot of green area spaces, Utzon’s Parken, (middle harbour
front), ..., all of them are public investment. The Music House is 100% public investment;
it is a contribution from Aalborg University, School of music, and local authorities like
Northern of Jutland. 40 million DKK could come from private firm, but there are only 2
private foundations, because the money they have processed is supposed to make
impossible to design a better architecture appearance of building. So, we can call it like
public or semi-public money.

Q: Yes, I think that the Cattle Market is a private investment. And here (western part) we
can find some hotels that are also private investments but that is all.

A: Yes, the private investment here (Cattle Market) is the best investment at waterfront. It
is not really a private investment. The owner is a clever business man, and he is doing a
kind of culture contribution in the city because he bought it for one million DKK and now
he is renovating for 32 million DKK. We don’t know yet when it is going to be operative.

Firstly, the Municipality wanted to demolish the Cattle Market, but a benevolent and
heritage enthusiastic man (rich and high status person who helps the new artists) was
interested to redevelop it and reuse as a cultural centre. He is also a kind of a public figure
who is interested to make profit on this venture, but for sheer interest in the property. So,
this is a part of all this business.

Q: do you agree with the fact that mostly of the investment is public?

A: Yes, I think so. If you go through waterfront and sit down in a public space and think
who has built this and which kind of investment it has received; you can find that it could
be a closed or an opened space. You can wonder yourself what kind of people is able to go
into there, because if it has been built with private investments, perhaps only few people is
able to visit it. In brief, if we want the best recreational and entertainment areas with the
best equipments and infrastructures also, we need a stronger investments. Sometimes,
these investments have to be privatised in order to generate more income from them. This

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is due to the belief that private investment yields more money than public owned. The
authorities can build better parks, hotels, parking areas...and so on.

Q: In generally you agree with this plan, but do you have any agreement or opinion that
you would want to say or any specific area you want to concert in?

A: I have a kind of objection about the House of Music; I exposed an objection last year to
local plan with my colleges at University. I don’t like the architecture and I think the
building is going to dominate the surrounded in the harbour waterfront, because it is very
high construction, around 32 to 42 meters long, and this plan does not sure full contact
with closer buildings. Façade is almost 120 m long, and if you stand in the city and regard
the water, you cannot see it because you shall pay your attention in this building since its
width shall be around 30 and 40 meters and its height shall be approximately 120 meters.
So, in that way, I think that the new Music House is going to dominate the whole city.

Q: What is your opinion about the design or the criteria in order to build the Music
House?

A: You can make icons in many ways, and the Music House I think is one of these
powerful icons because the building will dominate the most of the area. I think from the
architectural point of view, this construction is going to break the see sight of the
landscape. However, when they present the project on 14th of this month, we will know all
the details about it at last. I think that who have designed the building, have wanted to
create a spectacular, awe inspiring building, in order to citizens identify city with it, but
most of them have forgotten that the main issue in a new building is that this must
integrate itself in the environment of the area and the rest of the constructions. In this way,
all of them will be useful for the community. I am sure this plan obeys to the fact that the
Music House is a first class building, because in other situation, others constructions do
not need so fine architectural design or luxurious façade.

Q: Do you think Music House should keep the local laws about construction, avoiding
differences among buildings?

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A: No, I think they should be kept. It is certain that there are lots of opinions about this
issue; there are many people who have put their personal ambitions on it but if I had to
accept completing this building. I think it would be a good point to divide it in 2 steadies
and should be developed with the proposal to make a fantastic plan, but it is not possible
to make a fantastic house with this account of money. It is a pity, because it is the biggest
public investment in the building in the city.

Q: The architecture plan for the music house has been changed many times. What are its
effects on attracting people to the waterfront area and the Aalborg city in your point of
view?

A: I think the original plans must be kept from the beginning to the end, and the result will
be a building harmonic and functional that can satisfy the needs of the community. If the
construction has been changing, the causes have been the different interests of the groups
that had to develop the initial project: local and central Government, educative community
and other institutions, and the decreasing amount of money along the months. I hope the
actual design was successful in order to attract people.

Q: What do you think about the location of the Music House in the central waterfront? Is
it placed here (in the waterfront) because it is the only public space in the city? Or is it
placed in the harbour, because during the last years, it has been considered the most
important place to develop in port cities?

A: I think actually is quite good idea to locate in the harbour front, because the water and
its properties attract local and tourists people. Maybe nowadays it is not important in
Aalborg, but in others places in Europe or U.S, Turkey or definitely also in Denmark the
waterfronts are really attractive for the population. The location near the water is very
attractive; there are many reasons for that: water is always closer to green areas, parks or
gardens, paths to walk... and so on. So, I think that for these reasons is quite ok. Secondly,
we can also find the Power Station in this place, but after they started to develop the plans
for Music House, it was decided to recycle and reuse this station like a recreational or
cultural area. I think this location in the eastern part in the waterfront is going to contribute
for an urban regeneration in this part of Aalborg. So it could be a good idea to find some

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kind of synergy between the Music House and the others buildings that are located in the
surroundings to create an interesting area.

Q: We know that the Music House is located next to a factory (Nordkraft). And also we
know that the planners have included a parking area between the Music House and this
industrial area to create a barrier among them. Do you think that is a good idea to locate
here the House of Music in this situation? Do you think that is enough this parking area to
separate these different land uses?

A: Actually the Environment Regulation says that you can locate a buffer zone between a
civic functional area and an industrial functional area if they are going to be a problem. In
this case, we are talking about parking spaces but we can talk about different uses that can
offer some facilities if you locate them in these areas. In the other hand you should also
notice that in whole the cities the concept about the harbour front is changing and also, all
the business districts are changing their location all the time. Actually, urban planners
have to recognize the opportunities in the city and to define new strategies to foment a city
development. We find a different kind of development 20 or 30 years ago, because the
principal objective for people in Aalborg was to maintain the jobs and they did not think
about the development in the waterfront. Actually, we have a worried situation. The
politicians only think about their next elections, so they want a hurry urban solution for the
following years. So, the planners should think that an urban plan is going to be lively
during 10, 20 or 25 years.

Q: The architecture from the Municipality told us that this parking area would be enough
to disconnect the Music House with the industrial area. But we think that it is not enough
to do that. We know that to remove this factory is really expensive, but maybe they could
have planned others land uses for this space.

A: No, this area is not enough. We have already said that it is going to be a parking area.
The reason for that is the future change in Nyhavnsgade Street. They are going to return it
into two lanes road, so they need a parking space to locate all the cars that cannot enter to
the downtown. I think that we shall find a very big functional problem with the traffic. But
this question has been a political question; it is not an urban question.

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We are talking about regeneration plans. It is important to mention the Central Business
District in Aalborg, C.B.D. We can find another important competitor, Skalborg, where
you can shop and do others activities because it offers some facilities that we cannot find
in the inner city, like a lot of free parking.

Q: Do you think that if they return the road into two lanes, this one will create more
functional problems?

A: Yes, I think so. Probably it will be easier to cross it but we move the traffic problem to
another road. It is important to do a traffic study to know how one road is working. You
need to know what its capacity is, what kind of vehicular traffic it has because it is not the
same to have cars, public transport, bicycles or tracks. In this case, we have to notice that
we are removing tracks and a lot of cars to other roads that are also collapsed. Maybe, this
is not the solution.

Q: Now it is difficult to cross the road. We know that some bridges have been proposed.
But we think that is enough if we create good access to cross the road.

A: Actually, we have a plan with different purposes and different interests (Municipality,
Aalborg City, population). Aalborg Organization of shops and industry (Aalborg City)
does not want to change the road from 4 lines to 2 lines, so they propose to build a bridge
over the road for creating a better access; but of course, Aalborg City does not want to
spend a lot of money on it.

I think that we can find others alternatives like to design a new boulevard alongside the
harbour front. You can find this in different places, especially in the South of Europe. I
think that is a good solution because they have a good weather and sun. But in Denmark
we have not good weather. The weather in Aalborg is cold and windy, so it is not
attractive if you want to walk and spend a lot of time in the waterfront. We need to
improve the solution for this problem.

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APPENDIX C: OTHER CASE STUDIES

Through this project it has been mentioned different examples of redevelopment plans and
urban strategies that have been implemented in different cities around the world and that
have been useful for us as examples and comparative case studies.

In this appendix we try to show some general concepts that have been useful for us in a
few of the case studies that we have used. The different case studies are not really deeply
because it could be another different project, and because we have mentioned so many
several examples, that we have chosen the most significant.

APPENDIX C.1: BARCELONA- PORT VELL (SPAIN)


Barcelona is the second most important city in Spain. Its metropolitan population is 4
million people. Since the 19th century it has been always an example of modern urbanism
strategies, especially when it was created an important urban development widening by
Cerdá. Nowadays it is a cosmopolitan city which is known internationally for its
wonderful architecture, charming streets and modern landscape.

The city has not always


considered the powerful item of
being a coast city, but through 20th
century it got conscious of its
great potential. Currently, the
central city is extended along 12.7
km. of coast, (6km. are occupied
by the commercial port and the
rest are beaches)
[www.waterfront-
net.org/europa/index.htm46].
Figure. Port Vell. Source: [www. apb.es/es/PORT/Port_Vell. Date accessed 18/ 11/ 2005]

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Through the 90´s several modifications of the coast and the port were implemented,
especially at the beginning of the decade due to the Celebration of the Olympic Games in
1992. It meant the origin of a great urbanism change for the city that also experimented a
fast international projection. The city became also aware of the importance and potential
of its harbour front and since that tries to live “looking at the sea”.

This urban transformation was reflected by the reform of old equipments in the harbour
front and the installation of new ones as a shopping centre, leisure services, a new big
sporting port and a new maritime walk that serve as integration elements between the city
and the water body.

Currently, one of the most important areas in Barcelona’s Waterfront, that has changed
more, is Port Vell. It has an area of nearly 55.6 hectares. It is the oldest area of
Barcelona’s waterfront, and in 1995 it was an obsolete commercial district, even
considered as “a grimy working seaport” [www.waterfront-net.org/europa/index.htm]. So
the council decided to redevelop it turning into a new port district integrated in the city
structure becoming a recreational, commercial, and entertainment centre.

It has not only great public opened spaces, but also has cultural, sports supplies, business
centres and leisure areas, like: museums, an aquarium, an 3D cinema, shops, pubs, ... All
of these are in a modern and cosmopolitan environment. This is an ideal place because it is
next to the sea, and really closed to the city centre. “Among its landmarks is its timber
wharf, (…) that serves as a long waterfront promenade lined by restaurants and terraces.
[www.waterfront-net.org/europa/index.htm.]

This area has become a vibrant place for citizens, tourist, and firms, by day and night,
especially for young people. Each year, more than 16 millions people visited it, and
any event that is celebrated around it is successful. [www.
apb.es/es/PORT/Port_Vell47]

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Figure La Ramble Del Mar, pedestrian connection between Port Vell aand the inner city Source:
[www.cafedelasciudades.com.ar/politica_21.htm Date accessed 18/ 11/ 2005]

After the Olympic Games the city has tried to improve continuously; in this way, in 2004
it was organized an important cultural event, “FORUM 2004”. The aims of it were not
only promoting internationally the image of the city but also getting investment for the
redevelopment of another parts of the harbour area.

We should notice that the “urban


model of Barcelona”, can not be
completely applied for other cities.
Each city is different and has its own
circumstances. But also we can
realize that today, Barcelona is known
as a desirable city so we should try to
find out what has turned it in this way

Figure Forum 2004 Source:


[www.cafedelasciudades.com.ar/politica_21.htm
Date accessed 18/ 11/ 2005]

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Some “clues” of the successful urban strategies carried out in Barcelona could be,
according to: www.cafedelasciudades.com.ar/politica_21.htm48 and www.waterfront-
net.org/europa/index.htm.

- The mixed uses of the projects. It means that behind an urban plan it is
looked for not only the improving of the environment, but also attracting new
investment and new firms, decrease the unemployment, ...
- The high quality of the urban design. It tries to turn Barcelona in a
“different place”, giving it cultural and modern symbolic attributes. This gets a
social recognition with respect to the set of the city.
- The link between the city and the waterfront by ensuring the pedestrian
access, maintaining the traffic flow along an important coastal road.
- Another strategic element, and really important is the international
promotion of the city. It has been promoted, at international level, the urban
design and architecture, the citizen animation, the leisure and cultural supply.

All of these have made of Barcelona a city of conferences, fairs and congresses, and, of
course, one of the most important tourist points in Spain and Europe.

APPENDIX C.2: MALMÖ (SWEDEN)

Malmö, is the third more important city in Sweden. It is the link between Denmark and
south Sweden, since it was built the Øresund Bridge. This city has changed in a really
short period of time, transforming from an industrial city to an attractive business
environment, a cultural centre and a sustainable city.

The city has approximately 270,000 residents, and in the last few years has developed an
important university, has changed the old industry by high technology, logistics and digital
media firms. The cooperation between university and firms has created a new attracting
point for entrepreneurs, creative development and investment. The infrastructures and the

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well communicated location of the city are also helping.


[www.malmo.se/servicemeny/cityofmalmo.4.33aee30d103b8f15916800021923.html49 ]

Malmö is becoming an attractive business and creative centre, and this is shown in its
urban plans and in its constructions that are built at record speed. The waterfront of the
city is been transformed quite fast and it is being developed as a new district called Västra
Hamnen.

In this Malmö harbour area there was a shipyard area that closed up, and now in its
location is built a new business centre and some buildings of the university. Thanks to this
new strategy the city is more conscious of the potential of its harbour area, so Västra
Hamnen district is becoming a place aimed to a wide target group of people like students,
business people, some residents and even tourists.

“The area of the new urban plan covers about 140


hectares, and currently has several projects which
are at the planning and construction stages”
[www.malmo.se/servicemeny/cityofmalmo/
westernharbour.4.33aee3
0d103b8f15916800024235.html].
Figure Turning Torso Building. Source:[
http://www.malmo.se/servicemeny/cityofmalmo.4.33aee30d103b8f15916800021923.html. Data
accessed: 18/ 11/ 2005]

For instance, one of the projects that have been finished some months ago is the
spectacular “Turning Torso” building that it, it is not only a business centre and a
residential building, but also it is an important tourist attraction. In this way the Malmö
waterfront is becoming a mixture of the city, the business centre and the outdoor life.

This could be a good example of how a city should take advantages of its location, its
university and try to become a singular place, combining economic, social and landscape
items.

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accessed18/11/2005)

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APPENDIX C.3: BALTIMORE (USA)

Baltimore is a city in the eastern coast of US. According to


www.planningsummerschool.orgpapersyear20032003B01Fau.pdf.pdf, it is considered
with New York and Boston, as one of the model cities of waterfront regeneration..

Historically, Baltimore has been a seaside commercial district that suffered economic
problems due to the Second World War. These problems caused even that the population
moved to other cities as New York or Boston. In 1954, a group of entrepreneurs concerned
over the disinvestment in the city decided to create a group to try to solve the economical
problems together and to try to attract some investments again to the city. In this way, they
created a Committee for Downtown including members from utilities, banks and other
property owners. [http://www.emich.edu/public/geo/557book/d370.innerharbor.html (Date
accesses. 30/ 12/ 2005)]

This Committee realised that downtown revitalisation was a priority and the best way to
try to attract new investments to the city. So in this way, "Baltimore has been seen as the
earliest example of urban renewal, especially the area of the inner city”
[www.planningsummerschool.orgpapersyear20032003B01Fau.pdf.pdf]

The Baltimore revitalisation process was divided into threes stages: “The fist project stage
(Charles Centre) may be characterised as ´assistant development´, the second (Inner
Harbour) as ´directed development´, and final one (market centre) as ´collaborative
development´” [ibid].

The successful revitalization of the Inner Harbour Front caused the renaissance of the city.
And it demonstrated how involving public and private organisations on urban regeneration
is possible to come to an agreement and to be successful, although the process is not easy
due to the different ideas and expectations.

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APPENDIX C.4: NICE (FRANCE)

Nice is a city in the Mediterranean coast of France. Its metropolitan population is around 1
million people, but it is widely increased during the summer time. Its main source of
revenue is tourism, especially luxury one that comes from the north of Europe and from
United States.

This city is aware of the importance of the waterfront for its image and for attracting
people. On the contrary of what could have been expected, next to the waterfront there is a
six lane road and just close to the pedestrian promenade called “Promenade des Anglais”
that is the most attractive avenue of the city. This avenue is nearly 6 km. long and 40 m.
width and allows the car access to the coast along all its length.
[www.hernandezrabal.com/europa/francia/provence/nice.htm (Date accessed: 30/ 12/
2005 )]

Figure Promenade du Anglais. [Source:


http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niza (Date accessed: 30/ 12/
2005)]

In spite of the six lanes road, people is attracted to go to the waterfront because of the
nearness of the water, the nice environment created by great palms, old buildings,
restaurants and hotels. [ibid.].

In this way it is demonstrated that it is possible to make the waterfront attractive although
there is a four or six lanes road next to it. The important issue is to make nice urban design
and establish multifunctional land uses that will produce the attractive environment to
people. Also it is very important to do an appropriate urban plan that allows coexisting
pedestrian and motor traffic because these traffics should be separated and coordinated at
the same time. It means that they should flow without any danger for the users but when

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they interact should be coordinated to avoid these dangers. This is possible to get with
appropriate traffic crossing, traffic lights, pedestrian pavements or the adequate speed for
vehicles.

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