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A Summer Training Project On CITY MALL Pandya Group

Mall Mania
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of Master of Business Administration

Submitted by: Gaurav Garg MBA Part II

Submitted to: Mr. Jayesh Joshi

Year 2012 2013

Company Certificate

Faculty Certificate



I express my sincere thanks to my project guide, Mr. /Dr./Ms./Mrs. ________________________________. Designation

_________________, Deptt______________., for guiding me right from the inception till the successful completion of the project. I sincerely acknowledge him/her/them for extending their valuable guidance, support for literature, critical reviews of project and the report and above all the moral support he/she/they had provided to me with all stages of this project. I would also like to thank the supporting staff

___________________________ Department, for their help and cooperation throughout our project.

(Signature of Student)

Name of the Students

Executive Summary

1. Industry Profile
1.1 What is retailing?
Retailing is a distribution channel function, where one organization buys products from supplying firms or manufactures products themselves, and then sells these directly to consumers. In majority of retail situations, the organization, from whom a consumer buys, is a reseller of products obtained from others, and not the product manufacturer. However, some manufacturers do operate their own retail outlets in a corporate channel arrangement. Retailers offer many benefits to suppliers and customers as resellers. Consumers, for instance, are able to purchase small quantities of an assortment of products at a reasonably affordable price. Similarly, suppliers get an opportunity to reach their target market, build product demand through retail promotions, and provide consumer feedback to the product marketer.



The India Retail Industry is the largest among all the industries, accounting for over 10 per cent of the country GDP and around 8 per cent of the employment. The Retail Industry in India has come forth as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several players entering the market. But all of them have not yet tasted success because of the heavy initial investments that are required to break even with other companies and compete with them. The India Retail Industry is gradually inching its way towards becoming the next boom industry. The total concept and idea of shopping has undergone an attention drawing change in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. Modern retailing has entered into the Retail market in India as is observed in the form of

bustling shopping centers, multi-storied malls and the huge complexes that offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof. A large young working population with median age of 24 years, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing workingwomen population and emerging opportunities in the services sector are going to be the key factors in the growth of the organized Retail sector in India. The growth pattern in organized retailing and in the consumption made by the Indian population will follow a rising graph helping the newer businessmen to enter the India Retail Industry. In India the vast middle class and its almost untapped retail industry are the key attractive forces for global retail giants wanting to enter into newer markets, which in turn will help the India Retail Industry to grow faster. Indian retail is expected to grow 25 per cent annually. The Food Retail Industry in India dominates the shopping basket. The Mobile phone Retail Industry in India is already a US$ 16.7 billion business, growing at over 20 per cent per year. The future of the India Retail Industry looks promising with the growing of the market, with the government policies becoming more favorable and the emerging technologies facilitating operations.

1.3 The Indian retail scene

India is the country having the most unorganized retail market. The Indian retail sector is estimated at around Rs 900,000 crore, of which the organized sector accounts for a mere 2 per cent indicating a huge potential market opportunity that is lying in the waiting for the consumer-savvy organized retailer. Purchasing power of Indian urban consumer is growing and branded merchandise in categories like Apparels, Cosmetics, Shoes, Watches, Beverages, Food and even Jewelers, are slowly

becoming lifestyle products that are widely accepted by the urban Indian consumer. Indian retailers need to advantage of this growth and aiming to grow, diversify and introduce new formats have to pay more attention to the brand building process. The emphasis here is on retail as a brand rather than retailers selling brands. The focus should be on branding the retail business itself. In their preparation to face fierce competitive pressure, Indian retailers must come to recognize the value of building their own stores as brands to reinforce their marketing positioning, to communicate quality as well as value for money. Sustainable competitive advantage will be dependent on translating core values combining products, image and reputation into a coherent retail brand strategy. There is no doubt that the Indian retail scene is booming. A number of large corporate houses have already made their foray into this arena, with beauty and health stores, supermarkets, self-service music stores, new age book stores, every-day-low-price stores, computers and peripherals stores, office equipment stores and home/building construction stores. Today the organized players have attacked every retail category. The Indian retail scene has witnessed too many players in too short a time, crowding several categories without looking at their core competencies, or having a well thought out branding strategy.


Strategies Trends & Opportunities

Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward becoming the next boom industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in sprawling shopping centers, multi-storied malls and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one

roof. The Indian retailing sector is at an inflexion point where the growth of organized retailing and growth in the consumption by the Indian population is going to take a higher growth trajectory. The Indian population is witnessing a significant change in its demographics. A large young working population with median age of 24 years, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing workingwomen population and emerging opportunities in the services sector are going to be the key growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India.

1.5 Growth of Retail sector in India

Retail and real estate are the two booming sectors of India in the present times. And if industry experts are to be believed, the prospects of both the sectors are mutually dependent on each other. Retail, one of Indias largest industries, has presently emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries of our times with several players entering the market. Accounting for over 10 per cent of the countrys GDP and around eight per cent of the employment retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward becoming the next boom industry. As the contemporary retail sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. This has also contributed to large-scale investments in the real estate sector with major national and global players investing in developing the infrastructure and construction of the retailing business. The trends that are driving the growth of the retail sector in India are

Low share of organized retailing Falling real estate prices Increase in disposable income and customer aspiration Increase in expenditure for luxury items Another credible factor in the prospects of the retail sector in India is the increase in the young working population. In India, hefty pay packets, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing working-women population and emerging opportunities in the services sector. These key factors have been the growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India which now boast of retailing almost all the preferences of life - Apparel & Accessories, Appliances, Electronics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, Home & Office Products, Travel and Leisure and many more. With this the retail sector in India is witnessing rejuvenation as traditional markets make way for new formats such as departmental stores, hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialty stores. The retailing configuration in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly becoming familiar in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space specially the malls, the Tier II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development plans till 2007 is studied it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139 malls in metros and the remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. India is being seen as a potential goldmine for retail investors from over the world and latest research has rated India as the top destination for retailers for an attractive emerging retail market. Indias vast middle class and its almost untapped retail industry are key attractions for global retail giants wanting to enter newer markets. Even though India has well over 5 million retail outlets, the country sorely lacks anything that can resemble a retailing industry

in the modern sense of the term. This presents international retailing specialists with a great opportunity. The organized retail sector is expected to grow stronger than GDP growth in the next five years driven by changing lifestyles, burgeoning income and favorable demographic outline.


Industry Evolution

Traditionally retailing in India can be traced to:

The emergence of the neighborhood Kirana stores catering to the convenience of the consumers

Era of government support for rural retail: Indigenous franchise model of store chains run by Khadi & Village Industries Commission1980s experienced slow change as India began to open up economy.

Textiles sector with companies like Bombay Dyeing, Raymond's, S Kumar's and Grasim first saw the emergence of retail chains

Later Titan successfully created an organized retailing concept and established a series of showrooms for its premium watches

The latter half of the 1990s saw a fresh wave of entrants with a shift from Manufactures to Pure Retailers.

Post 1995 onwards saw an emergence of shopping centers mainly in urban areas, with facilities like car parking targeted to provide a complete destination experience for all segments of society

Emergence of hyper and super markets trying to provide customer with - Value, Variety and Volume

Expanding target consumer segment: The Sachet revolution example of reaching to the bottom of the pyramid.

At year end of 2000 the size of the Indian organized retail industry is estimated at Rs. 13,000 crore

1.7 Retailing format in India

Malls: The largest form of organized retailing today. Located mainly in metro cities, in proximity to urban outskirts. Ranges from 60,000 sq ft to 7,00,000 sq ft and above. They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of product, service and entertainment, all under a common roof. Department Stores: Large stores ranging from 20000-50000 sq. ft, catering to a variety of consumer needs. Further classified into localized departments such as clothing, toys, home, groceries, etc. Departmental Stores are expected to take over the apparel business from exclusive brand showrooms. Hyper marts/Supermarkets: Large self-service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are termed as Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential high streets. These stores today contribute to 30% of all food grocery organized retail sales. Super Markets can further be classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft to 2,000 sq ft and large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft. having a strong focus on food & grocery and personal sales.

Convenience Stores: These are relatively small stores 400-2,000 sq. feet located near residential areas. They stock a limited range of high-turnover convenience products and are usually open for extended periods during the day, seven days a week. Prices are slightly higher due to the convenience premium

1.8 Recent Trends

India is rated the fifth most attractive emerging retail market: a potential goldmine.

o o o o

Multiple drivers leading to a consumption boom: Favorable demographics Growth in income Increasing population of women Raising aspirations: Value added goods sales Food and apparel retailing key drivers of growth Organized retailing in India has been largely an urban Phenomenon with affluent classes and growing number of doubleincome households.

More successful in cities in the south and west of India. Reasons range from differences in consumer buying behavior to cost of real estate and taxation laws.

Rural markets emerging as a huge opportunity for retailers reflected in the share of the rural market across most categories of consumption

IT is a tool that has been used by retailers to radically change buying behavior across the globe.

1.9 Challenges & Opportunities

Retailing has seen such a transformation over the past decade that its very definition has undergone a sea change. No longer can a manufacturer rely on sales to take place by ensuring mere availability of his product. Today, retailing is about so much more than mere merchandising. Its about casting customers in a story, reflecting their desires and aspirations, and forging long-lasting relationships. As the Indian consumer evolves they expect more and more at each and every time when they steps into a store. Retail today has changed from selling a product or a service to

selling a hope, an aspiration and above all an experience that a consumer would like to repeat. For manufacturers and service providers the emerging opportunities in urban markets seem to lie in capturing and delivering better value to the customers through retail. However, manufacturers and service providers will also increasingly face a host of specialist retailers, who are characterized by use of modern management techniques, backed with seemingly unlimited financial resources. Organized retail appears inevitable. Retailing in India is currently estimated to be a US$ 200 billion industry, of which organized retailing makes up a paltry 3 percent or US$ 6.4 billion. By 2010, organized retail is projected to reach US$ 23 billion. For retail industry in India, things have never looked better and brighter. Challenges to the manufacturers and service providers would abound when market power shifts to organized retail.

1.10 Conclusion
The retail sector has played a phenomenal role throughout the world in increasing productivity of consumer goods and services. It is also the second largest industry in US in terms of numbers of employees and establishments. The India Retail Industry is the largest among all the industries, accounting for over 10 per cent of the countrys GDP and around 8 per cent of the employment. The Retail Industry in India has come forth as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several players entering the market. But all of them have not yet tasted success because of the heavy initial investments that are required to break even with other companies and compete with them. The India Retail Industry is gradually inching its way towards becoming the next boom industry.

1. Introduction
The retail sector in India, which is dominated by small and unorganized entrepreneurs consisting of standalone stores,

boutiques and kirana stores are radically changing its face. There has been a massive development of new retail formats such as malls, hypermarkets, supermarkets and lifestyle stores. As the spending power in the economy is growing fast, this Development has gained importance not only in the metropolitan cities but also in the Tier II and III towns. There is a need to understand the changing behavior of consumers towards shopping in this organized retail outlets. Also, due to the limited success of these outlets, it is necessary for retailers to be aware of shoppers motivations and to understand ways of attracting the consumers. In this project, I attempt to investigate the shopping behavior of the consumers, particularly with the new retail formats emerging. This study would concentrate on the behavior the consumer exhibits while visiting or making purchases in the newly opened malls. It would explore the purpose and motive behind the consumers visit to these newly established shopping malls, the values they derive from the shopping trip and their shopping behavior in terms of impulse purchases, time and money spent at the shopping mall, etc. A final objective is to establish a baseline for examining changing behavior in future as developments continue.

1.1 Definition of Shopping

It is considered as a household task as well as a form of recreation, relaxation and entertainment. Shopping can be a leisure pursuit and with the rapid development of shopping centers, both retailers and developers are trying to make it more of a pleasure activity.

1.2 Consumer Buying Behavior

The traditional shopping choice behavior of consumers was related to need recognition, when the consumer comes to know that he wants to purchase a product. Once the need has been recognized, then he moves on to search for information about the product and evaluates the alternatives available to him before finally makes a decision to purchase the product. He might visit certain outlets stocking that product, consult his friends, buying guides or store employees about it. Even after making the purchase, he might reevaluate it. Shopping behavior of different consumers is different in. The reasons of this varying shopping behavior are the diverse cultures and the changing economies. A study of the various kinds of shopping behaviors therefore needs to be done, covering the various shopping contexts. There are four types of purchase behaviors namely, planned, unplanned, impulse and compulsive buying behavior. Planned buying behavior involves information search about the product to be bought, evaluation of alternatives and then rational decision making. This is time consuming. Unplanned buying behavior does not involve this kind of an initial planning. It arises when the consumer is unfamiliar with the store layout, has a shortage of time or just remembers to buy the product when he sees it on the store shelf. Impulse buying behavior occurs when a consumer finds a product on the store shelf and is unable to resist the urge of buying it. It accounts for a large quantity of products sold that are bought every year and also covers a wide range of product categories. Repetitive and excessive shopping by consumers due to anxiety, boredom and tension is referred to as compulsive buying behavior. Many other factors may also affect purchase decisions. A person is likely to be influenced in making his/ her purchase decisions if he/ she are accompanied by another individual while making a

shopping trip. That a person will tend to shop more and spend more money when going out with someone. Other situational factors can also have an impact on shopping behavior and purchase decisions. They include task definition, antecedent states, social and physical surroundings and temporal perspectives. For example, scarcity of time, any pre-existing affects choice of the retail outlet. Shopping frequency is also a significant concept while studying consumer shopping behavior. It is defined as the number of incidences when a product is purchased by someone in person. The shopping frequency is subjective to the time and effort that is put by a person and his/ her gender and shopping responsibility for the household. It is also determined by the shopping context.

1.3 Shopping Malls

A shopping mall is typically, a shopping complex connected by walkways. It provides shopping as well as entertainment options to the target consumers. It generally, contains one anchor store, which consumes twenty five percent of its retail space. In addition a mall contains specialty stores for clothes, accessories, home needs, books, as well as food court, multiplexes and entertainment zones. A shopping mall is a place where a wide mix of retail outlets are situated under one roof, and is usually anchored by one or more stores like departmental stores, which also helps to attract consumer traffic to that place. Shopping malls have grown larger over the years and have expanded to include service outlets and entertainment providers. They are advertised as both shopping

and recreation centers. An added advantage of the shopping mall is that all merchandise, entertainment such as a theatre or amusement park, food, services and atmosphere in the mall are all available under one roof and it is environmentally protected. This

advantage also acts as a crowd puller. Moreover, the consumer can shop without the tensions of any traffic congestions or parking problems, security issues or crime districts. The collection of shops in the shopping mall is managed together and is taken as one single unit. Shopping malls are supposed to be a place where one goes to buy goods, people can stroll on the shiny floors of these shopping havens, peeping through the many glass windows and frequently ending up buying the things they like or need. But right here in the provinces mall hopping has become more than a favourite pastime for many; the air-conditioned centres are perfect places to escape the oppressive heat. People can not only spend time during the long opening hours for their customary shopping, but also watch movies, dine, play video games or just roam around with family and friends. However, a great number of people are trying to escape from their otherwise poor living conditions and are wandering around the crowded aisles and stores just following their nose and watch people and the world go by or only visit the place for the pleasure of window shopping. Glancing at the goods they cannot afford today but maybe one day when times are better. There are many youngsters, also known as mall rats, which are ra mbling about the malls after school, primarily to chum with schoolmates and cronies, spending three or more hours every day because the place is large, convenient, it is free, the food courts have various inexpensive eating opportunities, it is the ultimate place to find somebody to flirt with and the place is clean and safe. These juveniles feel free from harm; several armed security guards politely opening the entrance and exit doors, checking bags and patrolling the malls are providing safety and protection for their customers. Dozens of young boys are maintaining the malls, devotedly washing the store windows, sweeping and scrubbing the floors and

stairs, whipping the tables in the food court and collecting the garbage. The screaming children that are wildly playing unattended up and down the escalators give the impression not to be a hindrance to staff and visitors, these kids are caught up in their game; it looks like the mall around them does not exist anymore. Probably their roving parents are too pre-occupied and fascinated as well with all the awe-inspiring impressions that are present. The smell of new clothing, the fragrance of perfumes and leather goods makes many shopping addict heart beat faster, realizing that these oversized warehouses are ind eed a shoppers paradise on earth. The aroma of all kinds of mouth-watering food coming from the distinctive eating outlets is a strong reminder never to shop on an empty stomach.

All together these malls resemble a giant beehive that is full of activity and savour, with a cacophony of voices, music and machines now and then interfered by some squeaky murmur clanging out of the malls broadcasting system. On top of everything, customers will be pleasantly entertained from the beginning to the end with country-classical sweepstakes that are organised a couple of times a year. When spending a certain amount of money in the mall, raffle tickets are given to the buyers who can win a large sum of prize money and other fantastic gifts. At the end of the promotional period, the lottery draw is always attracting a large audience of contestants, all of them eager to win the main prize. Usually local artists will perform and show off their musical chops during the draw, additionally a singing contest is held for upcoming talent, making these kinds of competitions very popular among the general public. The many fascinating festivals that are organized in mall are a dynamic, integral part of daily life; these festivities are rooted

deeply within the people and their culture. With high spirits, enormous vitality and great enthusiasm, different kinds of creative activities, big or little ceremonies are held all year round.

1.4 Determinants for Choice of Shopping Mall

Store choice behavior of a consumer is considered a cognitive procedure. It is believed to be a process of information processing as the brand choice or any purchase decision is considered. It is very similar to the decision of making a brand choice except the fact that store choice is influenced by the location factor, which does not need to be considered when making a selection of brands. The choice of store by the consumer was differentiated by the nature of the task that had to be executed by him. The different tasks that were described by the respondents included urgent purchases, large quantity purchases, difficult job, regular purchases and getting ideas. Store choice decision is also driven by other tangible and intangible characteristics provided by the store. They include the store size, format, and distance from home and environment. Store choice can also be influenced by situational factors such as time constraints and gift versus self shopping, further which can be classified as the competitive setting, the individuals situational set and the shopping occasion. However, if store choice is evaluated by the nature of situational factors, then these factors need to be studied for each shopping visit of the consumers to the various stores, also looking into the costs incurred and the benefits made by them during the shopping task. The major determinants of store choice behavior to be external factors such as retail floor space distance, parking facilities, etc.

1.4.1 Location Location is an important aspect of marketing and a good location can be a source of competitive advantage for the retail outlet .Some researchers have even shown that, while good business practices may not compensate for poor location, good location may compensate for poor business practices. In relation to the location of the shopping mall, accessibility and visibility are the two determinants which need to be noted.

1.4.2 Shopping Experience The prime advantage of an experience product is the experience that the shopper goes through by purchasing that product or service. Consumers derive value from purchasing these goods or services because of their unique qualities and are ready to pay a little extra for them. Mall developers have also tried to cope up in the experience economy by providing the consumers with good store ambience as well as entertaining and amusing experiences apart from shopping. They have added movie theatres or keep organizing live performances for the consumers in which they can get engaged and enjoy their experience while shopping in the mall. The age group of teenagers also preferred going to a shopping mall whose atmosphere was friendly and made them feel welcomed. They wanted a mall which provided cool stores, entertainment options, attractive designing and a good place to spend time with friends, on the whole a good shopping experience. Consumers these days are becoming very variety seeking and searching for novel and unique experiences. They see malls as a source and venue for recreation. Thus the overall shopping experience which includes shopping, leisure as well as entertainment is a key determinant of mall attractiveness.

1.4.3 Shopping Mall Image The image of the shopping mall is also related to the frequency of customer visits to that mall. Shopping mall image has been defined as the total of consumers perceptions of a shopping mall based on functional and emotional attributes. Shopping mall developers should expend resources towards the communication of the right image of the shopping mall and this communication should be driven towards improving its image and thus frequency of visits. The image is also subject to the presence of anchor stores and other physical characteristics.

Conclusion After discussion of the factors influencing choice of shopping malls, it is worth mentioning that the effect of some of these factors like retail floor space, number of shops and distance weaken over time, whereas the effects of other factors like anchor stores, tourism site strengthen over time. A healthy assortment of all these factors increases the attractiveness of the shopping mall. However, studying individual choice decisions would not help us to understand the behavior of the market as a whole.

2. Research Methodology
Many attempts have been made to provide a formal definition of the research activity. Research is a collection of methods people use systematically to produce knowledge. Research has also been defined as an organized and deliberate effort to collect new information or to utilize existing knowledge for a new purpose, seeking to answer worthwhile and fundamental questions, by employing valid and reliable techniques. In addition, research involves the use of more appropriate tests to justify the methods employed, and provides logical and objective data collection where conclusions can be drawn. Ultimately, it contributes to the gaining of new knowledge and a better appreciation for the issues involved by the researcher. Every piece of research has its own aims. Keeping in mind those aims, the research objectives and the method to accomplish these objectives should be derived. It is necessary for the researcher to know the suitability and the limitations of choosing the appropriate method so as to be able to take necessary precautions for increased validity, reliability and generalizibility of the research

The use of appropriate methodology is very essential as it is an important part of a research investigation. A well-defined

methodology is a crucial step in activities that require concrete results as the process of achieving the result can both be studied and verified.

2.1 Objectives of the study

The study has the following objectives: How are the consumers shopping habits changing with upcoming retail formats, specifically malls? What are the determinants of consumers when choosing between a shopping mall and the unorganized market? To determine the relative importance of criteria which influence the overall attractiveness of mall To assess the reasons for visiting the mall and their expenditure pattern To propose a model depicting shopping mall Attractiveness

With the help of the data that I have collected, I would compare the past trend with the present trends with respect the gradual movement in the consumer shopping habits in the country and the factors leading to it. With the continuing drift in their shopping habits, the future prospects of organized retailing.


Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

Qualitative and quantitative research methods are two major approaches employed by researchers. These two methods are distinct from each other. Qualitative research seeks to describe and decode the meaning of naturally occurring phenomena in the social world through interpretative approaches, and thereby provides well-substantiated

conceptual insights that reveal how broad concepts and theories operate in particular cases. On the other hand, quantitative research emphasizes measurement and analysis of causal relations among variables and tests

general propositions using the hypothetical deductive model. Quantitative research imposes scientific meanings on members to explain a singular, presumed-to-be true reality. Qualitative research thus has an inherently literary and humanistic focus, whereas quantitative research is grounded in mathematical and statistical knowledge. The former uses richly descriptive words, talk, and texts as meaningful representations of concepts; the latter, in contrast, seeks significant representations of concepts through coding, counting, and quantifying phenomena. The choice of research methods is not always an either-or question, rather a careful evaluation of the suitability for research purpose and the type of questions posed. In effect, both of research methods can be used in a single piece of work to deal with different types of research questions. However, qualitative research methods have been used by me in order to conduct this research because qualitative research can provide in-depth understandings of research subjects in comparison with quantitative research. Quantitative research methods were also analyzed while choosing a method of research for this study, however the behavior of consumers cannot be quantified and thus it would be difficult to analyze. Thus qualitative research methods have been used.

2.3 Data Collection

Both primary and secondary data were used in order to conduct this research.

2.3.1 Secondary Data

Secondary data is very important in research because this can help the researcher to avoid duplication on research that has already been conducted. This saves the researchers time and cost in conducting repetitive work. By conducting secondary research prior to primary research, the researcher can assess the availability of information and use it as a basis to design the methods to collect the primary data. In addition this can only enable a researcher to develop a hypothesis or assumptions about the topic. Secondary research also has the benefit of being carried out in privacy without anyone knowing about it (Wright and Crimp, 2000). This is a cheap and impersonal form of research compared to primary research as this can be done at the researchers own convenience, either at home or at the university. The data sought from secondary forms of research are historical as they are from the past, thus meaning that comparisons can be made by comparing the past and current situations. This research was carried out by using news paper articles, internet reports, textbooks, industry reports, etc. Data from academic journals and textbooks was particularly useful in reviewing the existing literature on consumer buying behavior and their choice determinants for shopping malls. However, one of the major drawbacks of this method of research is that sometimes the information gathered may not directly fit into your research area and some data can also be out of date and not valid at the present moment (Kemp, 2002). The information gathered from the sources can have an impact on the level of bias and in addition may not be very accurate. Some research reports about companies or retailers can be confidential and thus not published and difficult to obtain.

2.3.2 Primary Data Primary research as Data collected specifically for the research project undertaken. The three main types of primary research that can be used are observation, interviews and surveys. For the purpose of this research I have used interviews as a form of primary research.


Interviewing has been one of the most widely used research approaches among a variety of qualitative methods. Interviews can be used conducting various techniques such as telephone interviews, face to face interviews and focus group interviews. Interviews are a very common and flexible form of gathering qualitative data and are an effective form of conducting exploratory research, which can allow opinion of those with expertise in areas related to the subject matter under investigation to be examined. In social research there are four main types of interviewing techniques. Firstly, fully structured interviews are where the situation is fully controlled by the questionnaire in terms of questions and potential answers. Secondly, semi structured interviews are where open ended questions are used and the interviews job is to probe for more depth answers. Thirdly, unstructured interviews are where neither the interviewer nor the interviewee has set questions. Instead, a topic guide forms the basis of the interview, and the interviewee is encouraged to explore his/ her thoughts on the topic of research. Finally, in the in depth interviews, the respondent is encouraged to go deeper and deeper into their levels of thinking to develop into the subject area.

For conducting the interviews, two different sample populations were chosen. The first sample consisted of retailers who had already opened their outlets in the shopping mall. For conducting these interviews, purposeful sampling was used. Purposeful sampling selects information rich cases for in depth study. This could be a help as most of these retailers already had their outlets in the unorganized markets before opening shop in the shopping mall. Thus, they could give their views on the consumers shopping habits in the mall and how was it different from the outlets in the markets. Qualitative research typically uses a relatively small sample yet focuses in depth on it. Therefore, a sample size of 15 respondents was chosen for taking the interviews of retailers. For choosing the second sample, a simple random sampling technique was used. A simple random sample is obtained by choosing elementary units in search a way that each unit in the population has an equal chance of being selected. A simple random sample is free from sampling bias. This sample consisted of consumers, who have seen a drastic change in the organization of the retail scenario and are familiar with it. Random people were chosen from family, friends and employees who are a part of the consumer group and are a witness to this transition. To get a wider view, the respondents that were chosen belonged to diverse age groups and income levels. The sample size for this was 20.

2.4 Research Procedure

In order to perform a successful research, it is very important to have a well defined procedure of carrying it out. To start this research I started reading a literature that was relevant to my area of study, which took a very long time. Reading that, I formulated the literature review which consisted mostly of consumer buying

behaviour and their choice determinants for choosing a shopping mall. After a careful examination of the literature, questionnaires were formulated for conducting the interviews from the retailers who had opened their outlets in the malls and the Indian consumers. Conducting the interviews from the retailers was not a very easy task to do. Even though I approached them in their non peak sale time of the day, they seemed to be busy and disagreed to give the interviews. Furthermore, most of the retailers who agreed to be interviewed by me were reluctant of giving recorded ones. However, I got hold of 15 retailers from mall and conducted their interviews and writing down their responses side by side. For the interviews of the consumers, approaching them was quite easy as most of them were familiar with my area of study. Face to face interviews with some and telephonic interviews with the others helped me complete my field research. Gaining trust was a crucial part of the whole process of conducting the interview because if the researcher is not trusted the interviewee may not refuse to give the interview but may desire and act such that the interview gets over as quickly as possible with enough detail to satisfy the researcher that she is getting something of value but without saying anything that touches the core of what is actually being believed and cared about in the research. Thus the purpose of the interview and the study was explained clearly too each interviewee before taking the interview the data that was collected was then analyzed and results were evaluated. Some recommendations for the future were then suggested for the developers and the retailers.

2.4.1 Sample size: Samples are devices for learning about large masses by observing a few individuals. A sample size of 15 respondents was chosen for taking the interviews of retailers. Random people were chosen from family, friends and employees who are a part of the consumer group and are a witness to this transition. To get a wider view, the respondents that were chosen belonged to diverse age groups and income levels. The sample size for this was 20. 2.4.2 Methods of Sampling: The method adopted here is random sampling method. A Random sample is one where each item in the universe has as an equal chance of known opportunity of being selected.

2.5 Scope of the study:

It will help the mall to understand the level of customer happiness. It will help the mall to retain the service. It will help the mall to evaluate strength and weakness. This study will also reveal the customers attitude towards mall.

2.6 Limitations of the study:

As no person is perfect in this world, in the same way no study can be considered as fully reliable at one glance. There are a number of uncontrollable factors acting as limitations in conducting the study. Some of such limitations encountered by me in our study are Time factor was the main limitation for the study as the project was restricted to small period.

The research was limited only to the Kota city so the result cant be generalized to the whole market. The sample taken for research was concerned only for few customers rather than millions of customers. Since the project has to be completed within a short period of time the information collected could be biased. Some of the premium segments could not be met due to time lack and by not obtaining prior appointment due to tight schedule of the respondents.

Non - availability of secondary data compelled me to start from the very minute information. Some respondents gave biased responses. This may have influenced the results. Some people were afraid and showed complete reluctance to give responses to some questions.

3. Analysis & Interpretation

The analysis and interpretation of the data that is collected has been carried out. The interviews have been broken down into themes aiming to carry out a comprehensive in-depth analysis. This part has been broken down into two sections the retailers point of view and the customers perspectives.

3.1 Retailers Perspective

The interviews that had been taken from the retailers who had already opened their retail outlets in the mall have been analyzed in the following section. The responses by the retailers have been listed below and then analyzed later.

Q1. How long has it been since you have opened the shop in this mall? Many retailers who were interviewed had opened their outlets in the malls since a period of less than 2 years except few. Q2. Why did you choose to open your outlet in the mall other than the unorganized market? Different retailers gave different responses to this question. The most common reasoning that was given by them was the upcoming trend of mall shopping and the changing customer preferences. As all their needs get fulfilled under one roof and they get the required quality, price and environment, they are attracted more towards the mall. Another reason for the customers getting fascinated to the mall is the hot and rainy weather conditions. Other responses included bigger retail space which is not available in the congested unorganized markets, and also for the separation of the commercial establishments from the residential areas.

Q3. Do you have another retail outlet other than in this mall? Some retailers had their outlets in unorganized markets of different areas and some retailers only had outlet in mall. Q4. Do you reach the targeted sales level in this outlet or as much as the other outlets? There was a mixed response of this question. Some of the interviewed retailers were happy with the amount of sales level that they were getting in their mall outlet as their target was being achieved. Some retailer was achieving the best sales level in that outlet out of all others. The reasoning that was given by them was that the customers were attracted by their brand name. However, the other retailers were not achieving as much sales as they did in the unorganized market outlets. Different explanations were given for it. They said that the outlets in the markets were very old and well known to the customers. Other reasons were mall specific such as not much foot fall in the mall. Q5. What do you do to attract customers to your outlet? A variety of promotional tools were being used by the retailers to get the customers attention towards their outlets in the mall. End of season sales was the most common form of the promotional schemes being used. Customer databases were maintained by most of the retailers and different schemes were provided to them by different retailers. These included informing the clients regularly about change of stock and in store promotions, coupon schemes, etc. Some of the bigger country wide known brands were also advertised in magazines, newspapers as well as television. Word of mouth and brand loyalty were also used as other modes of promotions. Q6. What do you think can be done to attract customers to a mall? Attraction of customers is the most important for the success of malls. According to the responses provided by various retailers,

location, having a good mix of brands within the mall, having an ambassador for promoting the mall or the various branded outlets present in it, timely promotions using banners and posters, economical prices of merchandise, provision of regular weekend and monthly schemes to keep the customers loyal, organization of events and programs within the mall, positive behaviour of the staff, cleanliness, promotion of the mall as a whole instead of the

different retail outlets present in the mall are the various methods of pulling the customers towards the mall. One of the retailers also held a fashion show within the mall to promote their outlet. Q7. What do you think of consumers perception of mall shopping? Majority of the retailers say that a major part of the customer base still perceives that the merchandise in the mall is highly priced. According to one of the retailers, 50 percent of the consumers think that products in the malls are expensive and so they just hang out in the mall and go. For shopping they go to the markets which they perceive to be cheaper. However, some of them also believe that the mindset of the consumers is changing and they are getting more convinced about the prices. Also, the prices of branded products are found to be similar in the mall as well as the unorganized markets. The customers also tend to receive many benefits if they come to the mall for shopping which compensates for the high price factor. These include better infrastructure, comfort of one stop shopping, good experience and ambience, protection from the harsh Indian weather conditions, etc. Q8. What benefits do consumers obtain from coming to a mall rather than the unorganized market? What effect do these benefits have on sales? Several facilities are made available to the consumers when they visit a mall. Firstly, they can shop for so many things at one place, they can eat and hang out and entertainment places like PVR are

available, all this can be done along with shopping. Other than this, comfort, security, parking facilities, air conditioned environment, neat and clean atmosphere and easier commuting are the other benefits that a customer can get when he/ she comes to a mall. Unlike the markets, this also saves time and the customers also get rid of traffic jams. All these factors affect sales becau se this is why people come to mall. If people dont have to shop then also they can come to just hang around with friends. This sometimes an ects sales as some people end up purchasing goods. According to another retailer, When people come to a mall, they are mentally prepared to spend money. Q9. If you have to open a new outlet, would you choose to open it in the upcoming malls? Few of the respondents have mentioned various criteria for this decision, the major being location of the mall or the market, foot fall of the mall, consumer preferences for the mall and government policy. However, a good number of the retailers would prefer to open their next outlet in the upcoming malls of the country as markets are doing better currently but in the future malls would be the only thing and the coming time will see an end of the markets. It will take time for the malls to develop and grow; patience is required to get sales in the malls however the future prospects are bright.

3.2 Consumers Perspective

To get the Indian consumers viewpoint on the upcoming trend of shopping in the malls, interviews that were taken from the consumers have to be analyzed. The respondents views have been generalized as the views of the consumer population in India. These interviews have been analyzed in the following section taking one question at a time and quoting consumer responses.

The current preferences of consumers between the shopping malls and the unorganized markets were asked. On the one hand, majority of the consumers preferences had now shifted from unorganized markets to shopping malls as development is taking place in diverse parts of the country including smaller lesser developed cities and in different areas within a city. Many respondents have also stated various criteria for choosing between the malls and the locality markets which have been stated in the following quotes listed below. The choice between unorganized and malls depends upon a number of other factors such as mood, type of shops etc. Price is the factor associated with the choice. For items priced equally in the malls I would prefer the malls or else the markets. It depends on the weather if it is really hot I would like to shop in a mall. It also depends on when I am looking to buy and what is my budget. If I am looking for something special then maybe I will prefer a mall but if I am looking for something which is available every where I would buy for the place which is nearest. Depends on the purpose, if I have time to spare and want to

spend an entire day shopping, eating, watching a flick then mall would be the preferred choice because it would be convenient, if only shopping for a particular item or grabbing a bite then local markets will be more convenient On the other hand, few of the respondents also preferred the unorganized markets over malls as they did not think that malls that have currently been opened in India can offer everything that a consumer needs and also a majority of the population stayed away from the malls due to high prices of the products. This mixed response indicates that the consumers in India are changing and are overall beginning to prefer the malls instead of the markets. Probably, it is dependent on the income group the consumers

belong to. A higher income group consumer would indicate a higher preference for mall and vice versa. A very mixed response was obtained when the consumers were questioned about the frequency of their mall visits for the purpose of shopping. Few of the respondents visited only the mall whenever they would move out with the intention of shopping. Others visited a mixture of both, which must be dependent on various factors. From the responses it can be analyzed that the customers who initially visited only the unorganized markets with the shopping motive in mind has also started to consider the malls for specific product categories or brands. This again indicates a gradual change in the consumer preference for mall. The following are some responses of the respondents. In a week I go around 3 to 4 times for shopping and all the time in malls. Once in a fortnight I go out for shopping. And alternatively I go to mall and markets. At least once a week in the unorganized market and once a month in malls. I go out for shopping five to six times a month - 80% to local markets and rest of the time to malls Around 4 times monthly, and twice to malls. There is also a difference in the kind of merchandise that a consumer buys from the mall and that he/ she buys from the unorganized markets. The Indian consumer has been very used to picking up products from the local markets which are proximity of their homes. Although, they are getting used to visiting the Mall for their shopping needs, they still shop for their daily needs from the

market itself. The respondents have also stated various advantages and disadvantages that they have associated with the visit to the malls. Branded items are bought from malls and day to day items from markets. Mall: because they are comfortable, you get everything under one roof, air-conditioned environment and non-tiring. Unorganized Markets: they too tiring, messy at times but they are good for getting little things which you normally dont get in the mall. In shopping malls everything is organized and a person does not have to face the terrible heat. Malls have a comfortable environment with a good parking facility and all brands are available under one roof. And unorganized markets are visited for fulfilling the daily requirements. Unorganized local markets provide all essential goods in a confined small area whereas mall only houses a few selected brand stores. Local Markets are more accessible, better priced & have a large variety. Almost all of the consumers associated leisure activities with malls. For many consumers, malls have become a destination where they can hang out and socialize with friends in coffee shops like Cafe Coffee Day. An entertainment factor has also been associated with shopping in the malls as many consumers have started to view shopping as an enjoyable pastime. All their purposes of shopping, entertainment, socializing with friends and eating out could be fulfilled by a single visit to the malls. It can be inferred from the respondents views that some of the visitors who come to a mall

can be categorized as serious shoppers who are attracted by the convenience of buying a wide variety of products under one roof. However, most of them are still overawed by the whole experience that they go through when they visit a shopping mall which includes gazing at luxurious branded products, cooling off in air conditioned comfort and enjoying an ambience that was never experienced while shopping in the markets but was only seen in Hollywood movies. Also, it has been seen that shoppers these days are also combining the shopping and leisure activities. They can do this by visiting the mall where they can get an environment where they are able to carry out their leisure activities along with shopping. I go to malls four to five times a week for a coffee, shopping is just as per the needs. Malls are visited once in a month, they are not as accessible as local markets so going to a mall is more of an outing than fulfilling the purpose of shopping. Oh yes, because apart from shopping, there are road shows, movies, trivia contests, lucky draw and all of the same can be associated to leisure. Yes malls are good for catching up with friends. Malls because of convenience of parking, everything is organized, combines leisure with shopping and better ambience. Considering the location factor, majority of the respondents did not care about the proximity of the shopping malls from their homes. The reason for this probably would be that there are only a few shopping malls currently and all the consumers want to experience this new way of shopping, therefore, they do not mind even if they have to travel a long distance to visit the shopping mall

occasionally. However, few of the interviewees associated their decision of their shopping destination with respect to its proximity from their home. Yes because it is very near to my house, I can go there any time when I feel like, even alone. As long as I get what I want in terms of the brands and variety, I dont mind shopping anywhere. However malls would be more convenient, if they are closer and have similar variety. If I have decided on the shop and know what exactly to buy, then I would consider proximity as a major factor that would affect my decision. Apart from this variety can also affect my decision making, for example due to availability of space, the shop in the mall would be bigger and would store more variety of the product, then in that case the mall shop would be a better option. In general consumers perception, there exists a pricing difference between merchandise in the mall and that in the unorganized markets. The products available in the malls are considered to be more expensive than those available in the markets. However, from the responses that were obtained, it was evident that the consumers outlook is completely changing and they are becoming more spend thrift. In addition, this difference in pricing does not seem to be affecting their shopping decisions. This is also a change that can be seen in the consumer population as a whole, as compared to a few years earlier. Well I dont think that there is any price difference and if it is then thats something a consumer wont mind spending for the leisure a consumer gets in the mall.

Generally, for some goods it is assumed that malls are expensive. But I buy mostly branded goods from malls, and they have the same process all over. So doesnt really make a difference. I think its a misconception that malls are more expensive that local markets. If the same shop is present in both the market types then pricing would be the same. It so happens that generally there are better quality shops present in the malls which can shoot up a price of a product, so its generally perceived that malls are more expensive, but if you put the same shops in local markets then the price would be just as expensive. After going through the literature, a question that was formulated for the interviewees enquiring them if going to the shopping mall has an effect on their image or status in the society. Almost all of the respondents denied this fact. They did not find any relation between image and visiting the shopping mall. Any image was not assumed to be associated with the shopping malls and the image factor was immaterial if they bought the products from the markets or the shopping malls. Shopping in the mall does not influence the status because status is related to the shop that you are shopping in, whether it be in the mall or market. As long as what you shop appeals to you and you have the confidence to carry it out it does not matter where you have bought it. However, shopping malls are characterized by branded stores. According to the findings of my research, the shopping experience is a very important factor for the consumers. In their views, shopping experience includes variety of stores within a mall and the collection within the stores, the gentry that comes to the mall; time that is saved by coming to the mall and getting everything under the

same roof is the biggest advantage. They are also considered to be easier and more sophisticated. Shopping experience is very important for me because if I am not satisfied from a place then I might not go there again. It is a very important criterion because not always do we go with a motive to shop. Sometimes it is for fun, or just time pass. In those cases shopping malls are a better option. As an experience malls would be rated higher because of the sheer variety of shops, and convenience of a multiplex, kids corner, eateries, all under one roof. When asked about their future shopping preferences, all of the respondents chose mall shopping over the unorganized market shopping where one could find all the brands, entertainment as well as food joints. If there is growth in the mall industry then it will eventually take over all forms of unorganized market. Malls are preferable. But there is no bargaining in malls and you at times dont get minute and little things, which you get from markets. So, both hold their own importance.

4. Facts & Findings

From the analysis above, it can be inferred that there is a slow and steady change that is taking place and the preferences of the Indian consumers are shifting from shopping in the unorganized markets to shopping in the newly developed mall. The vast Indian consumers population is varied among diverse income segments. According to secondary data, there exists a significant difference in the shopping patterns of consumers across these income segments and there are no uniform trends in their buying behaviour. Items such as milk, fruits, vegetables and a significant portion of through the month purchases seem to be done at traditional outlets. The middle income class prefers shopping for processed food and personal care in supermarkets and fall back on traditional outlets for bulk shopping. For them, organized retail outlets seem to be associated with branded items/special purchases. Organized retailing does not seem to have made an impact on the lower class, except for curiosity Mall shopping. This fact can also be supported by the findings of my study as it was conducted on consumers who belonged to varied income groups. On the whole this study has found out that a large number of consumers have started choosing the malls over the unorganized markets for the purpose of shopping which is also associated with leisure. The attributes of the malls, which attract the consumers towards it and are responsible for this change of choice of the consumers, have been represented in the form of a decision tree. In this chapter, the analysis has been done by comparing the findings with what has been said in the literature. A few extra points that came up in the findings have also been analyzed and this fills the gap in the studies that have been conducted. The significance of the various mall attributes has also been discussed below.

4.1 Choice Variables for Shopping Malls

4.1.1 Location Literature has stated that location is an important aspect of marketing and a good location can be a source of competitive advantage for the retail outlet. The factor of location of a shopping mall does not seem to affecting the consumers visits to the mall. They are still overawed by this new method of shopping, therefore they even travel long distances to capture the advantage of getting everything under one roof. However, their daily needs are still fulfilled by the unorganized markets that are situated close to their homes. 4.1.2 Shopping experience The literature has been backed up by the findings that consumers derive value from purchasing goods or services because of their unique qualities. Mall developers have also tried to cope up in the experience economy by providing the consumers with good store ambience as well as entertaining and amusing experiences apart from shopping. They have added movie theatres or keep organizing live performances for the consumers in which they can get engaged and enjoy their experience while shopping in the mall. Consumers these days are becoming very variety seeking and searching for novel and unique experiences. The shoppers in the market also tend to look at visits to stores and malls as an enjoyable experience, an outing for the family, receiving value for money while shopping and also as an entertainment available there. Thus the overall shopping experience which includes shopping, leisure as well as entertainment is a attractiveness. key determinant of mall

4.1.3 Image Shopping malls have an important role to play in the formation of the social identity of the shoppers as they are connected to particular societal groups. Self image is also exceptionally important for Indians, however, they do not tend to attach self image with shopping in a shopping mall. This factor has been falsified in the findings because India has not yet reached that stage of development that it tends to associate image with a shopping mall. The unorganized market in India still has a very significant proportion; therefore, all consumers have to visit the unorganized markets for the fulfillment of some or the other needs. It does not affect his/ her personality or status. Thus image has not been considered a substantial factor in the Indian context, when the consumer chooses between a shopping mall and the unorganized market for making purchases. 4.1.4 Price Sensitivity Not much has been said about price sensitivity of consumers in the existing literature. A large part of the population belongs to the middle income group who cannot afford these luxurious brands. Therefore, this was one of the additional major aspects that came up in the research. Although, from secondary data it has been found that the income level and the purchasing power of the Indian consumers is increasing, majority of the retailers are still in the perception that the most of the consumer population is still price sensitive. From the consumers perspective, it has also been seen that a high price level in the malls does not stop them from purchasing what they want. On the whole, there has been seen a slight positive change in the consumer spending habits with respect to the price. Thus, it can be concluded that the consumers shopping habits are changing slowly but surely.

5. Conclusion
It can be concluded from the research that the consumer markets in India have potential for the future development of the retail industry as the market is growing, government policies are becoming liberal and the technological developments in the country are favorable for operations in India. Due to these promising factors, more and more retail investors have been encouraged to invest into the Indian market which has further impelled investments in the real estate industry. However, the success of malls in the long run in the Indian market would involve attraction of diverse consumer segments towards the malls which includes diverse income groups, nuclear families, working women, etc. The provision of wide choice and the comfort of being able to shop everything under one roof would attract all these groups of buyers. The infrastructure and supply chain mechanisms of mall are getting organized and spreading across the country. This brought about a revolution in shopping in terms of the consumer buying behaviour. With consumer demographics becoming more and more favorable to the organized segment of the retail industry and the increase in the availability of retail space and a skilled workforce, there has been a complimenting growth in retail chains, multi brand outlets and integrated shopping malls. A variety of newer retail formats are being introduced.

6. Recommendation and Suggestions

The Indian and international brands are using these retail malls as a medium to spread themselves throughout the Indian cities in these high profile brand format. They get the required image for their brand, the environment and the clientele that they want in a shopping mall which is difficult to achieve if they open an outlet in the unorganized market. The most important activity for mall owner is to attract the maximum number of people and to convert them into buyers. A mix of attributes such as variety of stores in the mall, the location of the shopping mall, the shopping experience offered to the consumers in the shopping mall and the correct pricing of the available merchandise would make a shopping mall successful in the environment. Location, product mix, right footfall, right pricing, strong infrastructural support, circulation and differential pricing are the factors which will be sought and appreciated by the customers and would lead to the success of the mall. If these attributes are present in the shopping mall, they would further push the consumers, who are already in the transitional phase of shifting their preferences from the unorganized markets, towards shopping in these malls. In this section, recommendations for the shopping Pandya Group and the retailers have been suggested to further this development that is taking place in the real estate and the retail industries of India which will also drive the changes in the shopping habits of the consumers.

6.1 Recommendations for the Pandya Group

The Pandya Group have to realize that they have to create an entire shopping destination for the shoppers which has a mix of

retail outlets, eating joints, entertainment places which offers them the whole shopping experience. The promoters should take the help of retail experts to create a balanced tenant mix so that the shoppers are able to get everything they want under one roof, which will solve their purpose of coming to the shopping mall. The Pandya Group should try to create a specific image of the shopping mall by the process of segmentation and creation of a particular shopping environment. For example, the high end luxurious brands and the brands for price sensitive consumers should not be put under one roof. This will help them capture audience belonging to different customer segments.

6.2 Recommendations for the Retailers

The organized retailers can be suggested to target the untapped middle income group population. Another recommendation for the retailers would be that they should build relationships with their existing customer segments. The retailers should be well versed with the consumer preferences and they should also offer them additional services apart from the products. For developing loyal customers, the employees of the retail organizations would play an important role. Therefore, the must hire the right kind of employees and train them.

7. Appendix

7.1 Questionnaire for interview of the retailers in the mall

1. How long has it been since you have opened the shop in this mall?

2. Why did you choose to open your outlet in the mall other than the unorganized market?

3. Do you have another retail outlet other than in this mall?

4. Do you reach the targeted sales level in this outlet or as much as the other outlets?

5. What do you do to attract customers to your outlet?

6. What do you think can be done to attract customers to a mall?

7. What do you think of consumers perception of mall shopping?

8. What benefits do consumers obtain from coming to a mall rather than the unorganized market? What effect do these benefits have on sales?

9. If you have to open a new outlet, would you choose to open it in the upcoming malls?

7.2 Interview Questionnaire for Consumers

1. Given the choice of city mall and unorganized local markets in India, where do you go for shopping?

2. How frequently do you go for shopping and out of that how many times do you go to city mall?

3. Why do you shop in city mall/ unorganized market?

4. Do you associate leisure activities with the city mall?

5. Do you go to city mall for shopping, entertainment, eating out or socializing?

6. What all do you shop in city mall and what all from the market?

7. Given a choice to going to the same shop in the city mall and the unorganized market, where would you go and what factors would affect your decision?

8. Does proximity to the city mall affect your shopping decision?

9. Do you find a pricing difference in city mall and unorganized market and does it affect your shopping habits?

10. How important is the whole shopping experience, and how do you rate the shopping experience in city mall and in the unorganized markets?

11. Do you associate image with shopping in the city mall? Does it influence your personality/ status?

12. Eventually with the constant growth in the number of mall, where would you prefer to shop?

8. Bibliography

1. Marketing Management 2. Business Research Methods

Philip Kotler Cooper & Schindler

Magazine & Journal:

1. Business Line 2. Economic Times

1. WWW.Retail India.com 2. WWW.Google.com