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# 1.3 Photovoltaic panel.

When solar radiation falls on semi-conductor like silicon or copper oxide, electrons in the semiconductors are liberated, and the movement of these electrons develop a potential difference and thus a DC current. ( Randall, Rowell). To use the current for domestic purpose, an inverter is used for converting the DC current to AC current. The efficiency of an inverter might be about 90%. Buildings having photovoltaic panels (PV) are connected to the national power grid, so that surplus can be fed back to the grid and in such a case a fee is paid to the PV owner. Alternatively, the surplus energy can be stored in batteries. ( Randall ). To optimise energy gain from sun rays, PV panels are tilted at 30 to the horizontal and since Mauritius is located in the southern hemisphere, the panel- area receiving sun rays- should face the North. PV panels can be applied both in large scale and for individual domestic household. For analysis purpose, the application of PV panels on individual household would be considered. The following assumptions are taken into consideration: a) b) c) d) e) Peak Power = 5.5 KW and month energy consumption= 200 KWh Sunshine duration (T): 6 hours. Discount rate= 10% Life time of PV panels: 25 years. Life time of batteries: 10 years.

## Appendix A and F show the rationale behind assumption (a).

1.3.1 Cost of PV panels. The cost of PV panels is made up of three components: i. ii. iii. Cost of Inverter. Cost of Panels. Cost of Batteries.

Cost of Inverter. The cost of inverter is a function of the peak power demand. Via a desktop search, the average price obtained at beyond soil solar firm is Rs 19/W as such the cost of inverter required for the household is: = Cost of inverter per Watt * Peak Power demand. = 19 * 5500 = Rs 99000. Cost of Panel. The cost of Panel is a function of the energy used each day and it is estimated to be: ( 200/30) =6.67 KWh. -6667 WhVia an internet search, solarbuzz firm advertised the average price to be Rs 124/W. So the cost of panel: = Cost of Panel for household= ( Energy used per day/ T) * Cost of panel per Watt. = (6667/6) * 124 = Rs 137785. Cost of Batteries. The cost of battery depends on the amount of energy intended to store. For one day reserved, the energy stored would be twice energy used in one day. The average price of battery is estimated to be Rs 3100/KWh. ( sandia gov).To cater for one day reserved 2 batteries would be used and it costs : = ( 2 * Energy used) * Cost of battery per KWh. = (2*6.67)*3100 = Rs 41333. The total cost of PV for a typical household is estimated to be: = (99000 + 137785 + 41333) = Rs 278118.

1.3.2 Life cycle assessment of using PV panel for domestic household. For life cycle assessment, a life cycle of 25 years with a discount rate of 10 % is considered. During a life cycle, 3 battery exchanges would be done- the first one is at the beginning, the next two after 10 and 20 years respectively- The implementation of PV panel for domestic household is assessed on the following parameter: Life cycle cost of electricity obtained from PV panel. = (Total cost of using PV panel for 25 years)/(Total electrical energy consumed in 25 years) Pay-back period. = (Total cost of using PV panel for 25 years)/(Cost of electricity-grid-saved per annum) NPV and IRR for implementing PV panel for domestic household by considering saving done on electricity obtained from normal grid. = {(-Cost of PV panel Expenses: exchange of battery + (Cost of electricity-gridsaved per annum)} / (Total electrical energy generated in 25 years)

Life cycle cost of electricity obtained from PV panel. Table 7: Life cycle cost of electricity obtained from PV panel.
Electrical energy consumed per month (KWh) Electrical energy consumed per year (KWh) Life cycle time ( Year ) Electrical energy comsumed during one life cycle ( KWh ) Cost of PV panel including first battery ( Rs ) Cost of Battery exchange after 10 years ( Rs ) Cost of Battery exchange after 20 years ( Rs ) Life cycle cost of electrcity obtained from PV panel ( Rs /KWh) 200 2400 25 60000 278118 41333 41333 6.01

Pay back period. The cost of electricity obtained from grid is: = ( 3.16*25) + (4.38*25) + ( 4.74*25) + ( 5.45*100) = Rs 1060. per month. So in one year it costs: Rs 1060*12= Rs 12720. Pay Back: ((278118 + 41333 + 41333)/12720 = 29 years. NPV and IRR for implementing PV panel for domestic household by considering saving done on electricity obtained from normal grid. Table 8: NPV of PV Panel

Discount rate ( % ) Life cycle ( years) Annual saving: cost of electricity from gird ( Rs ) Cost of PV panel with first battery ( Rs ) Cost of Battery after 10 years ( Rs ) Cost of Battery after 20 years ( Rs )

## 10 25 12720 278118 15936 6144

The NPV remains always negative for lowest discount rate so the IRR is not valid in this case.