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Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur

Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
1

Chapitre II : Thorie des machines synchrones
-Alternateur-


II-1. Classification des machines synchrones
On peut classer les machines synchrones daprs le mode de construction utilis pour la
fabrication des rotors ; mais quelque soit le type utilis, sa vitesse est constante (n
s
=
constante).

II-1-1. Machines ples saillants
Elles utilisent des pices polaires sur une culasse avec des enroulements dexcitation
constitues par des bobines.

On utilise ce type de machines dans les centrales
hydrauliques, le rotor comporte 2p ples, sa vitesse de
rotation se calcule par la formule suivante :
p
f
n
s
=
[tr/s]
ou encore :
p
f
. 60 n
s
=
[tr/mn]

Remarque
La vitesse de rotation des turbines hydrauliques est faible (moins de 1000 tr/mn : pour une
frquence de 50 Hz, p est suprieur 3).

II-1-2. Machines ples lisses (entrefer constant)
A la diffrence des prcdents, ces machines ont un entrefer constant, lenroulement
dexcitation tant place dans des rainures longitudinales usines sur un cylindre dacier
massif. Le rotor peut comporter plusieurs encoches, autrement dit les bobines peuvent tre
loges dans plusieurs encoches.
Ce type de machines est utilis surtout pour les grandes vitesses, donc elles ont 3, 2 ou 1 pair
de ples.
Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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Ces machines ncessitent un moteur dentranement rapide qui se spcifie par les turbines
vapeur dans les centrales thermiques par exemple ; ces machines gnratrices de courant
portent le nom de turbo-alternateur.

II-2. Rpartition du champ magntique dans lentrefer
La rpartition du flux dans lentrefer dpend de la forme des ples inducteurs dans le cas des
machines ples saillants ; et de lcartement des encoches ainsi que le nombre de
conducteurs par encoches dans le cas des machines ples lisses, donc pour rendre
linduction de forme sinusodale, on envisage les deux cas suivants :
a- Ples saillants








On donne aux panouissements polaires un rayon de courbure de telle faon faire accrotre
ou dcrotre progressivement linduction c'est--dire suivant une forme sinusodale ; cela
revient faire varier lentrefer car :
J N dl H =

.
J N e H l H l H
s r s s
= + +
0
2
Puisque H
s
= H
r
= 0 (car la permabilit du fer
r
) ; on peut crire :
e
NJ
H
2
0
= do :
e
J N
H B
a
2
0

= =
Daprs la formule prcdente, on peut faire varier lentrefer de telle faon faire varier
linduction de faon sinusodal (figure prcdente).
b- Ples lisses
On agit sur lcartement entre les encoches et le nombre de conducteurs par encoche ;
tudions les cas suivants :
1 encoche /ple.




2 encoche /ple.



Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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Si on multiplie davantage le nombre dencoches par pole, on obtient une courbe en forme
descalier qui se rapproche de plus en plus dune sinusode.

II-3. Constitution de lalternateur
Un alternateur est une machine synchrone qui comporte un inducteur (rotor) et un induit
(stator).
II-3-1. Induit (stator)
Le stator est toujours soigneusement feuillet, il est constitu par une couronne de disques
dacier doux, isols les uns des autres par du vernis.
La couronne du stator a la mme longueur axiale que les pices polaires, elle porte des
encoches dans lesquels loge lenroulement dinduit.
Enroulement statorique (induit) :
Un enroulement est constitu de tranches gnralement prpares davance et que lon relie
ensuite entre elles par des connexions extrieures, ce sont les sections . Chaque section
comporte un certain nombre de spires et par consquent 02 paquets de brins actifs appel
faisceaux . Lensemble par pole de sections dune mme phase sappelle bobine .
Les parties frontales (extrieures aux encoche) des bobines constituent les ttes de bobines ,
elles sont inactives.
Les brins actifs entre lentre et la sortie sont connects de telle faon que leur f.e.m
sajoutent.
Il existe 2 types denroulement :
Enroulement bobines spares.
Enroulement enchevtres.
a- Enroulement bobines spares.
Ce type denroulement peut tre appel bobines concentriques caractrises par le fait que
les sections dune mme bobine sont concentriques mais de dimensions diffrentes.












Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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b- Enroulement enchevtres.






Constitution de lenroulement statorique :
Dfinitions :
Pas polaire : cest langle ou larc entre 2 ples successif de noms contraires (N et
S) ; on utilise les formules suivantes :

p

=
en rd

p
D
. 2
.
=
en m avec D : diamtre de la machine

p
Z
. 2
=
en encoche, Z : le nombre total dencoches

Pas dencoche : cest la distance entre 2 encoches successifs :
Z
D
e
.
=
en m

Pas de la bobine : cest la largeur de la bobine
(une section)
Si y= lenroulement est pas diamtral
Si y< lenroulement est pas raccourci

Nombre dencoche par ple et par phase :
m p
Z
q
. . 2
=

Avec m : le nombre de phases
II-3-2. Inducteur (rotor)
Le rotor peut tre ples lisses ou ples saillants ; dans le premier cas, il comporte un
nombre rduit de ples (2 ou 4) ; dans le deuxime cas, il peut comporter un trs grand
nombre.
Le circuit magntique est ferm par le stator, sa forme a t choisi de manire diminuer la
longueur des lignes de champ et viter les fuites magntiques. Comme le champ
magntique est fixe par rapport au rotor, on na pas de pertes par courant de Foucault dans
Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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le rotor, pour cette raison le rotor ples lisses est toujours massif. Aprs sa sortie de
fonderie sous forme de cylindre, on y pratique des rainures pour loger les conducteurs des
enroulements. Par contre le rotor ples saillants est gnralement feuillet pour faciliter sa
construction.
Bobines de linducteur
Les bobines magntisantes entranes par le rotor doivent tre alimentes en courant continu
et ce, par lun des procds suivants :
a- Utilisation dune gnratrice courant continu (dynamo)










Cette gnratrice appele excitatrice est monte en bout de larbre, son rle est de
transmettre du courant continu au rotor par lintermdiaire de 2 bagues en bronze.
Le rglage de lintensit de ce courant dexcitation tant obtenu par le rglage du courant de
linducteur de la gnratrice excitatrice.

b- Utilisation dune excitatrice statique
La dynamo est remplace par un alternateur dit auxiliaire auquel on adjoint un redressement
de courant qui fournit un courant continu au rotor de lalternateur principal. Ce procd est
surtout utilis pour lexcitation des turbo-alternateurs modernes. Il prsente lavantage de ne
pas utiliser le collecteur, les bagues, ni les charbons, qui, cause des tincelles et en prsence
de lhydrogne prsente un danger permanent.
Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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Le rglage du courant dexcitation de lalternateur principal est assur par lintermdiaire de
linducteur fixe de lalternateur auxiliaire.

II-4. Calcul de la f.e.m vide thorique
On prend une machine bipolaire, on suppose que les f.e.m sont en phase de tout les brins
dune mme phase et de forme sinusodale.

bobinage
du stator
.
. .
I e
N
S
roue
polaire


Le sens de courant est arbitraire
Soit 2N : le nombre de brins actifs/phase =N spires/phase
Si on suppose que linducteur tourne dans le sens horaire du point de vue lectrique tout se
passe comme si linducteur est immobile et le stator tourne dans le sens inverse (sens
trigonomtrique).
Pour une position quelconque de la normale le flux est sinusodal :
t cos .
0
=
t N N e sin .
dt
d
0
=

= , Avec f 2 = donc t fN e sin . 2


0
=
La valeur efficace sera alors :
0
2
2
= fN E

; ce qui donne :
= . . . 44 , 4 f N E avec N : le nombre de spires/phase
On peut utiliser : = . '. . 22 , 2 f N E avec N : le nombre de brins (conducteurs)/phase

II-5. Calcul de la f.e.m vide relle
En ralit le flux n'est pas vraiment sinusodale et les diffrentes f.e.m ne sont pas en phase.
La rsultante de la f.e.m e(t) est le module d'une somme vectorielle. Pour traduire ces
imperfections, on introduit un coefficient K (facteur de correction) qui caractrise la
machine. La valeur efficace relle de la f.e.m vide s'exprime par la relation :
u ph
N f K E = . . . . 44 , 4

Le facteur K dpend de type denroulement et de la forme de la courbe de la f.e.m (ou du flux).

II-5-1. Facteur denroulement (bobinage) K
1

Dans la pratique, pour diffrentes raisons (facilit de construction, rduction des
harmoniques, .), on ne dispose pas la totalit de lenroulement dune mme phase du
stator dans 2 encoches diamtralement opposs. Ce qui entraine une rduction de la f.e.m
Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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par rapport la valeur thorique, donc elle doit tre corrige par un facteur denroulement
qui dpend de la distribution (rpartition), de raccourcissement et dinclinaison de encoches.
Le facteur denroulement K
1
peut tre calcul par la formule suivante :
i r d
K K K K . .
1
=

O K
d
: le facteur de distribution
K
r
: le facteur de raccourcissement
K
i
: le facteur dinclinaison

a- Facteur de distribution K
d












Les spires dune mme phase sont dcales dun angle lectrique
e
, par exemple les f.e.m
engendres par le champ tournant dans les brins actifs qui occupent les encoches (2-2) sont
en retard de
e
par rapport celles engendres dans les brins actifs des encoches (1-1)
Si q est le nombre dencoche par ple et par phase, le facteur de distribution est calcul par :
2
sin .
2
sin
e
e
d
q
q
K

=

O langle lectrique
Z
p p
e
360
. . = =

b- Facteur de raccourcissement K
r













Dans ce cas louverture de diffrentes spires est infrieure au pas plaire, si langle lectrique
douverture dune spire est ) (
e
les f.e.m induites dans les brins actifs disposs dans les
encoches 1-1 seront diminues donc la f.e.m est corrige par le facteur de raccourcissement
calcul par :
2
. cos
e
r
B
K =
ou
2
. . sin

y
K
r
=

Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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si ( ) = y ; K
r
=1

Le pas polaire :
p
D
. 2
.
= avec D : diamtre moyen de la machine

c- Facteur dinclinaison K
i

Pour les encoches inclines, le facteur dinclinaison se
calcule par :
2
.
2
sin
e
e
i
p
p
K

=

O p : le nombre de paire de ples, langle dinclinaison
e
(voir la figure prcdente).
II-5-2. Facteur de forme K
2

Pour le calcul thorique de la f.e.m, nous avons suppos que le champ radial dans lentrefer
est sinusodal, mais en ralit, cette condition nest pas ralise, donc la f.e.m induite nest
pas tout fait sinusodale. Par dfinition le facteur de forme est calcul par :
moy
eff
E
E
K =
2

9 Pour bien comprendre linfluence de facteur de forme calculons ce facteur pour une
f.e.m sinusodale :
11 , 1
2
2
2
= = =
m
m
moy
eff
E
E
E
E
K


9 Pour une forme non sinusodale, on procde de la manire suivante :
- On divise lintervalle OC en n parties gales
- On mesure les ordonnes e
1,
e
2,
e
3,
e
4, .
e
n

- On calcule respectivement la f.e.m moyenne et efficace :

n
e e e e
E
n
moy
.......
3 2 1
+ + +
=
et
n
e e e e
E
n
eff
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
....... + + +
=


- On en dduit le facteur de forme :

11 , 1
2
=
moy
eff
E
E
K




II-5-3. Expression globale de la f.e.m relle
Aprs correction, la f.e.m relle se calcule par :
u ph
N f K K E = . . . . 4
2 1

Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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II-6. Harmoniques suprieurs de la f.e.m
II-6-1. Causes des harmoniques
En ralit la f.e.m nest pas sinusodale cause des harmoniques qui sont dus :
a- Rpartition non sinusodale de linduction dans lentrefer : la forme des ples dans le
cas des ples saillants et le nombre dencoches par ple dans le cas des machines
ples lisses.
b- Dformations supplmentaires dues la raction dinduit.
c- Ondulations priodiques sous laction de la denture de linduit ou de linducteur, la
variation de la reluctance de la denture. La figure montre que suivant la position de la
pice polaire par rapport aux dents, la reluctance de lentrefer est modifie et par
consquent le flux et la f.e.m seront modifis. La courbe des f.e.m comporte alors des
dformations.








Etude dune courbe priodique mais non sinusodale
Soit la fonction B une fonction priodique de frquence f :
Daprs la dcomposition de Fourier une courbe priodique est la somme de plusieurs
courbes sinusodales dordre impaire (1, 3, 5, 7 etc.)



















Harmonique fondamental
T =T
1
T
3
T
5
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
harmonique
B
Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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+ = ......... 5 cos
5
1
3 cos
3
1
cos
1

M
B B
Coubre rouge : courbe relle
Soit 1 2 ...... 5 , 3 , 1 + = = k rang (ordre) de lharmonique

Pour : 1 = la courbe B
1
(courbe sinusodale bleue) cest lharmonique dordre 1, on
lappelle lharmonique fondamental de mme priode et de mme frquence que la
courbe relle f
1
=f

Pour : 3 = la courbe B
3
(courbe sinusodale verte) cest lharmonique dordre 3.
Cest une fonction sinusodale de frquence f
3
=3f
Pour : 5 = la courbe B
5
(courbe sinusodale noire) cest lharmonique dordre 5.
Cest une fonction sinusodale de frquence f
5
=5f
Donc pour une fonction dordre , la frquence est de
f f .

=

De mme

= =
1


Calcul de la f.e.m induite par un harmonique suprieur
La f.e.m des harmoniques est donne par:

= . . . . 44 , 4
, 1
f K N E

11 , 1
, 2
=

K
car les harmoniques sont de forme sinusodale

Facteur de bobinage :
, , , 1
.
r d
K K K =


2
. . sin
,

y
K
r
=
, (Si le pas est diamtral 1
,
=
r
K )

2
. sin .
2
. sin
,
e
e
d
q
q
K

=

Aprs avoir calcul les f.e.m des harmoniques, la f.e.m totale (relle) sera alors :
.......
2
5
2
3
2
1
+ + + = E E E E

Calcul de la distorsion harmonique (dformation):
( ) 100
.......
%
1
2
5
2
3
X
E
E E
D
+ +
=

II-6-2. Inconvnients des harmoniques
a- Pour les harmoniques suprieurs 3, le courant induit produit plus de pertes par
effet Joules dans le cuivres et par courant de Foucault dans le circuit magntique,
donc plus de pertes supplmentaires.
b- Les harmoniques donnent lieu des perturbations radiofrquences puisquils
atteignent des HF.
Chapitre 2 Thorie des machines synchrones- Alternateur
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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II-6-3. Attnuations et suppression des harmoniques
Si on ne peut pas liminer totalement les harmoniques, par contre on peut les rduire leur
valeur minimales :

1-Etude de lharmonique dordre 3 :
Considrons 3 f.e.m induites triphases en un systme quilibr :

Comme le pas plaire de lharmonique 3 est le tiers du pas plaire du fondamental, avec les
mmes conventions, on aura :


Alors que les tensions induites constituent, pour le fondamental, un systme triphas
quilibr, les trois tensions induites par lharmonique 3sont en phase.
Dans les cas dun montage en toile , ces 3 tensions disparaissent totalement car elles
squilibrent deux deux. Mais si le montage est en triangle, ces 3 tensions ajoutent leurs
effets , ce qui provoquent un courant de circulation entre les phases, donc il produit plus de
pertes supplmentaires.
Consquence : pour liminer les harmoniques 3 et multiple de 3, il suffit que le
montage (couplage) soit en toile.

2- Pour les machines ples saillants, on donne aux panouissement un rayon de courbure
plus faible que larmature dinduit, ce qui a pour effet de faire varier linduction de faon
sinusodale.

3- Pour les machines ples lisses, on agit sur le nombre dencoches de telle faon
obtenir une courbe se rapprochant de lharmonique fondamentale.

4- On emploi un pas raccourci bien dtermin

Exemple : si le pas est diamtral : 1
,
=
r
K , donc les harmoniques se sont pas nuls.
Si on prend par exemple :
5
4
= =

y
,
2
.
5
4
. sin
,

=
r
K , pour les harmoniques 5 et
multiples de 5 : 0
,
=
r
K , ce qui donne les f.e.m des harmoniques 5 et multiples de 5
nuls. Donc on choisissant un pas raccourci de
5
4
= =

y
, on a pu liminer les
harmoniques 5 et multiples de 5

5- On limine les harmoniques de denture en inclinant par rapport laxe
du rotor, de telle faon rendre la reluctance constante dans lentrefer
quelque soit la position de linducteur.

Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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Chapitre III. ALTERNATEUR AUTONOME


III-1. Dfinitions
a- Un alternateur est dit Autonome, sil est seul fournir de lnergie lectrique un
rcepteur donn (exemple : groupe lectrogne).
b- La frquence des tensions de lalternateur tant impos par la frquence du rseau
(exemple : f=50 Hz), pour cette raison, il faut maintenir constante la vitesse du
groupe qui est la vitesse de synchronisme n
S
.
Notations : (dans tout le chapitre, on adopte les notations suivantes)
- Tension simple : V
- Tension compose : U
- Courant induit par phase : I quelque soit le couplage (toile ou triangle)
- Courant dexcitation : J

III-2. Marche vide dun alternateur
On entend par marche vide dun alternateur, le stator ne dbite aucun courant (I=0).
La f.e.m vide E
0
, mesure entre les bornes du stator est donne par la relation suivante :
u ph
N f K E = . . .

N : le nombre de spires/phase
: le flux utile par ple qui est d la F.M.M de linducteur seul.
Remarque : cette f.e.m vide est mesure entre une phase et le neutre (tension simple)









III-2-1. Caractristique vide
Cet la courbe de E
0
en fonction du courant dexcitation J (E
0
=f(J)) la vitesse de
synchronisme maintenue constante.
Le relev de cette courbe seffectue comme suit :
On entraine lalternateur vide la vitesse de synchronisme, et on relve les mesures des
tensions entre les bornes du stator (induit) E
0
correspondantes aux diffrents courant
dexcitation J (la variation du courant dexcitation est assure par le rhostat dexcitation.,
puis on trace la courbe E
0
=f(J) : cest ce quon appelle caractristique vide dun alternateur.
J
J
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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III-2-2. Interprtation de la courbe de la caractristique vide
u
N f K E = . . .
0

S B N f K E . . . .
0
=
J N dl H =

.
J N e H l H l H
s r s s
= + +
0
2
Puisque H
s
= H
r
= 0 (car la permabilit du fer
r
) ; on peut crire :
e
NJ
H
2
=
- Lorsque la machine nest pas sature H B
r
. .
0
= ; on peut crire alors:
e
J N
H B
a
2
0

= = donc : J K S
e
J N
N f K E '. .
2
. . .
0
0
= =


Cest lquation dune droite qui passe par lorigine, avec comme pente K
- Si le courant dexcitation continue augmenter, E
0
augmente moins vite et
lquation J K E '.
0
= nest plus une droite car K nest plus constante, ce qui donne
une courbe qui suit la courbe daimantation car H B
r
. .
0
et on dit alors que la
machine est sature.

III-3. Marche en charge dun alternateur
Lalternateur est entrain sa frquence de
synchronisme n
S
excit par le courant
dexcitation J, il fournit alors une f.e.m E
0

aux bornes du stator (induit) ; si ce dernier
est branch sur une charge triphase
quilibre, il dlivre un courant induit I,
quon appelle courant induit (dans la figure
I=I
a
=I
b
=I
c
).

J

J
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
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Remarque : la charge peut tre un rhostat triphas, une inductance triphas, ou une
batterie de condensateurs triphase ou encore une charge quelconque. Pour cette raison, on
peut donner diffrentes valeurs du facteur de puissance.

III-3-1. Raction dinduit
Quand un courant I circule dans lenroulement du stator, le flux utile nest plus
engendr uniquement par la F.M.M de linducteur seul, laction de celle-ci vient se
superposer la F.M.M due lenroulement induit pour donner un nouveau flux utile rsultant
qui est d laction simultane de ces 2 F.M.M.
Ce phnomne sappelle : raction magntique dinduit.

III-3-2. Etude dun alternateur bipolaire ples lisses
Supposons que lenroulement statorique est sans rsistances et sans fuites magntiques.
On dsigne par

le dphasage du courant I dans une phase statorique par rapport la
f.e.m E
0
induite par le flux
J
de linducteur seul.
Ce dphasage dpend de la nature du rcepteur branch aux bornes de lalternateur ;
tudions pour cela les cas suivants :
a- Charge purement rsistive


0 =

Dans cette figure on a un champ induit maximal donc la
f.e.m induite sera maximal, ce qui entraine un courant induit
maximal. On voit que le champ produit par le rotor est
perpendiculaire au champ produit par le stator, pour cette
raison la raction dinduit est dite transversale.
= 90 ) , (
J i
B B
Daprs le lignes de champ de la figure (a), on remarque quil y a une dissymtrie du champ
rsultant dans lentrefer ; on dit quil y a distorsion du champ par consquent : la raction
transversale provoque une distorsion du champ dans lentrefer.
b- Charge purement inductive

+ = 90


Si le rotor occupe la position de la figure (a), la f.e.m est
maximale mais le courant est en retard de 90 ; donc il faut que
le rotor tourne de 90 pour que ce courant atteigne sa valeur
maximale. Dans cette position fig. (b), le champ tournant
(b)
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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statorique et le champ tournant rotorique sont opposs. Pour cette raison la raction dinduit
est dite longitudinale ou directe. =180 ) , (
J i
B B
Pour un courant dexcitation J donn, le flux a diminu cause du flux d linduit ; pour
laugmenter sa valeur initiale, il faut augmenter le courant J. On dit alors que cette raction
dinduit est dmagntisante.

c. Charge purement capacitive

= 90


Si le rotor occupe la position de la figure (a), la f.e.m est
maximale mais le courant est en avance de 90 ; donc il faut
que le rotor tourne 270 pour que ce courant atteigne sa
valeur maximale. Dans cette position (fig. c), le champ
tournant statorique et le champ tournant rotorique sont en
phase. Pour cette raison la raction dinduit est dite aussi
longitudinale ou directe. = 0 ) , (
J i
B B
Pour un courant dexcitation J donn, le flux a augment cause du flux d linduit ; pour
le diminuer sa valeur initiale, il faut diminuer le courant J. On dit alors que cette raction
dinduit est magntisante.

d- Charge quelconque
Soit : le retard du courant sur la f.e.m vide.
Si le rotor occupe la position de la figure (a), la f.e.m est maximale
mais le courant est en retard de ; donc il faut que le rotor tourne un angle de

pour que
ce courant atteigne sa valeur maximale.
Cas rsistif : + = 90 0 ) , (
J i
B B pour = 0
Cas inductif : + = 90 90 ) , (
J i
B B pour = 90
Cas capacitif : = + = 0 90 270 ) , (
J i
B B pour = = 270 90
Daprs les cas prcdents, on peut gnraliser pour le cas
gnral :
+ = 90 ) , (
J i
B B pour quelconque.
Le champ induit B
i
est dphas de + 90 en arrire par
rapport au champ B
J
et par consquent on aura le champ
rsultant B
r
:
i J r
B B B + =

On peut crire aussi pour le flux rsultant:
i J r
+ =


(c)
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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5
Remarque : on peut dcomposer le courant I en une composante en phase avec la f.e.m E
0

( = cos . I I
a
), ce qui provoque une raction dinduit transversale et une composante dphase de
90 sur E
0
( = cos . I I
a
), ce qui provoque une raction dinduit longitudinale.




III-4. Diagramme vectoriel et circuit quivalent de lalternateur
III-4-1. Diagramme de Fresnel
On choisit le courant induit I comme origine des phases, le flux
i

produit par le champ
statorique B
i
sera en phase. Le champ rotorique B
J
produit le flux
J
qui sera en avance de
+ 90 sur
i
.
Si on suppose que le flux est sinusodal : t cos .
0
=
)
2
cos( . sin .
dt
d
0 0

= =

= t N t N N e
Sous forme de complexe, on peut crire : = . . . N j E

Donc la f.e.m est toujours en retard de
2

par rapport au flux qui la produit.


Pour dessiner le diagramme de Fresnel, on dtermine :
1) La f.e.m vide E
0
en arrire de 90 par rapport au flux
J

2) La f.e.m induite E
i
produite par le flux induit seul
i
, elle est en arrire de 90
par rapport au flux
i


Dtermination de la f.e.m E
i
due la raction dinduit:

On suppose le flux est sinusodal : t
i
cos .
0
= , ce qui donne un courant sinusodal
dans linduit : t I I cos .
0
=

A cause de ce flux ou de ce courant une f.e.m sera induite au stator
)
2
cos( . sin .
dt
d
0 0

= = =

= t I L t I L
dt
dI
L N E
i i i
i
i

En posant
i i
L X = : ractance dinduit, on peut crire sous forme complexe : I X j E
i i
. . =


3) La f.e.m rsultante E
C
(quon appelle f.e.m en
charge) est produite par le flux rsultant
i J r
+ = , elle est en arrire de 90 par rapport
au flux
r
:
I
E
0

I.cos
I.sin

Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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6
i C
E E E + =
0

Donc
i C
E E E =
0
,
comme I X j E
i i
. . = , on peut crire:
I X j E E
i C
. .
0
+ =

Si on nglige la rsistance et le flux de fuites statorique,
V E
C
, on peut reprsenter le rsultat prcdent par
circuit quivalent

III-4-2. Etude du flux de fuites statorique et rsistance statorique
Dans ltude de la raction dinduit, on a suppos lenroulement statorique sans
rsistances et sans fuites magntiques mais dans la pratique, il est ncessaire de tenir
compte de ces 2 grandeurs savoir :
1- La rsistance R dune phase statorique (facile mesurer) qui donne une chute
de tension R.I.
2- Lexistence de fuites magntiques donne une ractance de fuites x dune
phase statorique, ce qui donne une chute de tension jxI.
Soit
f
le flux de fuites magntiques, une f.e.m e sera induite cause de ce flux :
Soit le courant sinusodal : t I I cos .
0
=
)
2
cos( . sin .
dt
d
0 0

= = =

= t I l t I l
dt
dI
l N e
f

En posant l x = : ractance de fuites, on peut crire sous forme complexe : I x j e . . =
En tenant compte de la rsistance du stator et la ractance de stator E
c
ne sera plus
gale V ( V E
c
) et on aura pour la convention gnrateur I R V e E
c
. + = + , ce qui permet
dcrire:
I x j I R V E
c
. . . + + =

Comme : I X j E E
i c
. .
0
+ = , on peut crire :
I X j I x j I R V E
i
. . . . .
0
+ + + =


Cette dernire relation est appel lquation de lalternateur, elle permet de tracer le circuit
quivalent de lalternateur :







Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
7
III-5. Diagramme de Behn-Escenburg
III-5-1. Circuit quivalent
On suppose que lalternateur nest pas satur :
X
i
: ractance dinduit est constante
x : ractance de fuites (elle est toujours constante)
On peut poser : X= X
i
+x : sappelle ractance
synchrone de lalternateur (elle est constante si lalternateur
nest pas satur)
La f.e.m vide sera alors : I X j I R V E . . .
0
+ + = et le
circuit quivalent sera :

On pose Z=R+jX qui est limpdance
synchrone de lalternateur, la f.e.m vide peut tre
mise sous la forme suivante : I Z V E .
0
+ = et le circuit
quivalent sera :

III-5-2. Diagramme vectoriel
I X j I x j I R V E
i
. . . . .
0
+ + + =

On trace le courant induit I comme origine des phases, puis on trace la tension
V OA= dphas de langle par rapport au courant (il dpend de la charge branche
au

stator) . On trace ensuite I R AB . = en phase avec I, puis I x j BC . . = en avant de 90
par rapport au courant , aussi I X j CD
i
. . = pour trouver enfin la rsultante
0
E OD =
C
E OC = reprsente la f.e.m en charge.








Mthode analytique : Daprs la figure prcdente on peut calculer la f.e.m vide.
On peut crire gomtriquement :
( ) ( )
2 2 2
0
sin cos XI V RI V E + + + =


R
E
0

Z
I
E
0
V
I
O
A
B
C
D
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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8
III-5-3. Dtermination de la ractance synchrone
La ractance L X = sobtient laide de 2 essais :
1- Lessai vide ce qui donne le relev de la caractristique vide.
2- Lessai en court circuit qui seffectue comme suit : le stator de lalternateur est
mis en court-circuit sur un ampremtre qui sert mesurer le courant de
court-circuit I
CC.
On excite lalternateur faiblement pour que le courant I
CC

soit de lordre du courant nominal, puis on trace le graphe de la courbe
I
CC
=f(J) qui sera une droite passant par lorigine.








Aprs avoir effectu les 2 essais on reprsente sur le mme graphe les
caractristiques : vide et en court-circuit.















Pour une excitation donn J lorsque la machine est non sature, la caractristique
vide J K E .
0
= et la caractristique de court circuit : J K I
cc
'. = ,
La f.e.m vide de lalternateur est: I Z V E .
0
+ = , en court-circuit V=0, ce qui donne
limpdance synchrone calcule par
OA
OB
I
E
Z
cc
= =
0
, par consquent, on peut calculer la
ractance synchrone :
2 2
R Z X =


J

E
0
= f(J)
I
CC
= f(J)
O
A
B
C
o
u
r
a
n
t

d
e

c
o
u
r
t
-
c
i
r
c
u
i
t

I
C
C

Courant dexcitation J
I
CC
= f(J)
al No CC
I I
min

I
C
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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9
III-5-4. Avantage et inconvnients du diagramme de Behn-Escenburg
Ce diagramme est trs simplifi qui donne des rsultats exacts pour les machines
synchrones non saturs. Si on applique ce diagramme pour les machines synchrones
satures, on trouve des chutes de tensions trop grande et si loignes de la ralit.

III-6. Diagramme de Potier
III-6-1. Principe
Quand lalternateur dbite un courant I, il faut pour maintenir constante la
tension U entre ses bornes, lui fournir par lexcitation, un supplment de F.M.M parce
que 3 phnomnes rentrent en jeux :
1- La chute de tension dans lenroulement dinduit RI .
2- La raction dinduit (gnralement soustractive) ; qui a pour effet de diminuer
le flux utile donc de diminuer la f.e.m.
3- Les fuites magntiques.
6-2. Coefficient dquivalence entre J et I
Ce diagramme tient compte de la saturation de la machine ; cest ainsi quil ne
rassemble pas en une seule ractance X, celle de la raction dinduit X
i
et celle des
fuites magntiques x.






On admet que la machine nest jamais satur cause du flux de fuites (permabilit du
vide est trs faible).
La ractance due la raction dinduit diminue avec des proportions importantes en
fonction de la saturation (la ractance est en fonction de linductance).
Potier considre que la F.M.M longitudinale de la raction dinduit sajoute la F.M.M due
lenroulement inducteur ; pour donner une F.M.M rsultante
i J r
F F F + =







Soit m : le nombre de spires inductrices pour ple, la F.M.M due lenroulement
inducteur est : J m F
J
. =
La F.M.M dinduit est proportionnelle au courant dinduit I.
soit .I : le courant, qui , passant dans les m spires de linducteur produirait la mme
F.M.M que pourrait produire le courant I dans linduit ; et la FMM dinduit est donne
par : I m F
i
. . =
I
F
i
F
J
F
r
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10
Soit
r
F la F.M.M rsultante due un courant rsultat dexcitation
r
J circulant dans les
mmes spires, cette F.M.M est donne par :
r r
J m F . =
Comme
i J r
F F F + = , on peut crire : I J J
r
. + = .
: sappelle coefficient dquivalence entre J et I .




6-3. Equation et reprsentation du diagramme de Potier
Ce diagramme permet de rsoudre directement le problme de la chute de tension sous
la forme suivante : on considre V ; I et donnes, et il faut trouver indirectement le
courant dexcitation correspondant J qui est ncessaire pour maintenir une tension constante
aux bornes du stator une valeur V donne .
Supposons dj dtermins les coefficients et x (ractance de fuites).
Prenons le courant dinduit I comme origine des phases ; puis on trace la tension V OA=
dphas de langle par rapport au courant (il dpend de la charge branche au

stator). On trace ensuite I R AB . = en phase avec I, puis I x j BC . . = en avant de 90 par
rapport au courant, ce qui donne I x j I R V E OC
C
. . . + + = = qui reprsente la f.e.m en
charge.

Remarque
On peut pas tracer I X j
i
. . , car X
i
nest pas constante puisque la machine est sature, ce
qui ne nous permet pas de dterminer E
0
.
La F.M.M rsultante
r r
J m F . = est en phase avec le flux qui produit la f.e.m interne E
c
, le
courant
r
J est reprsent par OC OD en avant de
2

.
Par lextrmit de D traons I FD . . = en phase avec le courant I. Comme I J J
r
. + = ,
le vecteur OF reprsente le courant inducteur J qui est ncessaire pour obtenir les
conditions V , I et .
Daprs la caractristique vide E
0
(J) ; connaissant J, on en dduit E
0
.













I
.I

J

J
r
E
0
.I

J

J
r
I
O
A
B
C
D
90
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
11
Remarque
Si la machine ntait pas satur la f.e.m vide E
0
est reprsente par OH (ce qui
correspond au diagramme de Behn-Escunburg)
.

6-4. Dtermination des coefficients de Potier ( et x)
a-lessai en dwatt :
Cet essai seffectue comme suit : lalternateur dbite sur un rcepteur purement
inductif une vitesse normale : on agit sur le rcepteur Z (purement inductif) de faon
obtenir pour diffrents valeurs de courant dexcitation J, les valeurs des tensions
correspondantes V un courant dinduit I= constant ; ensuite, on trace la courbe
reprsentant V en fonction de J.












b- digramme vectoriel :
Pour lessai en dwatt, en ngligeant RI, on peut crire : I x j V E . . + =








Ce diagramme vectoriel a lavantage de conduire des relations arithmtiques ; soit :
E=V+x.I et J=J
r
+.I

c- dtermination des coefficients (, x) :
On reprsente sur le mme graphe les 2
caractristiques E
0
(J) et V(J) en dwatt.
Pour un courant dexcitation donn J
r
on a le
point A sur E
0
(J) do lon titre E .
Pour un courant dexcitions donn J on le point
A sur V(J) do lon titre V.
Donc E=V+AH et J=Jr+AH, ce qui
donne :
I
AH
x = et
I
H A'
=
I .
I x j . .
J

r
J

V
E
I
=90
O
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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12
Conclusion : On en dduit que lon passe de la caractristique vide la courbe en dwatt
par une translation de A vers A tel que : une diminution de x.I de la f.e.m et une
augmentation de .I du courant dexcitation.

d-Dtermination pratique de et x : (figure prcdente)
1- On relve la caractristique vide E
0
(J)
2- On dtermine exprimentale un point A de la caractristique en dwatt pour un
courant donn I
1
et pour une valeur quelconque de J
3- On reprsente la caractristique I
cc
(J) et grce I
1
on dtermine le courant dexcitation
du court circuit (point :B de la courbe )
4- On trace par A la parallle OB ; puis on dtermine O tel que OA = OB
5- On mne de O la parallle OB (la pente de la caractristique vide), qui coupe la
caractristique vide en A .
6- On trace AH perpendiculaire OA et on mesure : AH et AH.
7- Calculons les coefficients : x =
AH
I1
et =
AH
I1


III-7. Diagramme de Blondel
III-7-1. Principe
Le diagramme de Blondel est utilis pour les machines ples saillants.
Dans la mthode de Potier, les fuites magntiques de linduit (termes X
i
.I) ne
dpendent pas du dphasage entre I et la f.e.m de lalternateur. Cela est vrai pour les
alternateurs ples lisses, mais il ne lest pas pour les machines ples saillants, pour cela
tudions les 2 cas suivants lorsque le courant est maximal dans la bobine .










Dans la figure (a) : les lignes dinduction de fuites de linduit ont beaucoup dair (donc la
ractance dinduit est constante ne dpendant pas de la saturation)
Dans la figure (b) : les lignes dinduction de fuites de linduit comportent beaucoup de
fer ; (donc la ractance dpend de ltat de saturation de la machine).
Dans le cas o la machine est saturable, on peut dcomposer la F.M.M rsultante F
r
en 2
autres composants :
L T i J r
F F F F F + = + =
1- Une composante longitudinale F

L
due laction conjugue de la F.M.M due
linducteur et de la composante ractive du courant dinduit (I
r
=I sin)
Les lignes dinductions produites par cette F.M.M ont des trajets identiques ceux dune
machine ples lisses. Sa ractance interne X
iL
dite ractance longitudinale dinduit est donc
saturable qui se calcule par la mthode de Potier.
2- Une composante transversale F
1

due uniquement la composante active du courant


dinduit (I
a
=I cos )
figure (a) figure (b)
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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13
Les lignes dinduction produites par cette F.M.M ont des trajets dans lair importants, cest
pourquoi sa ractance interne X
iT
dite ractance transversale dinduit nest jamais saturable .













III-7-2. Equation de Blondel
Pour tenir compte de linfluence du dphasage sur les fuites magntiques, Blondel
considre que la composante active du courant dinduit I
a
=I cos en phase avec E (f.e.m
interne) ajoute encore des fuites, il en rsulte une chute inductrice supplmentaire de fuites
soit X
iT
.Ia

= X
iT
.I.cos ; dautre part la composante ractive du courant dinduit I
r
= I.sin
produit une F.M.M longitudinale dont leffet est de modifier le flux rsultant (raction
dinduit) .
Donc lquation de Blondel (f.e.m de Blondel), scrit :
E

= I

+RI

+[. xI

+[X
1
I

u
cest la f.e.m interne de Blondel.

III-7-2. Construction du diagramme de Blondel
Prenons le courant dinduit I comme origine des phases ; puis on trace la tension
V OA= dphas de langle par rapport au courant (il dpend de la charge branche
au

stator). On trace ensuite I R AB . = en phase avec I, puis I x j BC . . = en avant de 90
par rapport au courant.
Dans le prolongement de BC portons CF

= X
1
. I

, puis joignons O et F et par le point


C , menons CD perpendiculaire OF.
On mesure OD : 0

reprsente la f.e.m interne E de Blondel et 0C

: reprsente la
f.e.m en charge ( I x j I R V E OC
C
. . . + + = = : f.e.m de Potier)
C

= ]x
1
I
u


Daprs le diagramme : 0

= 0A

+AB

+BC

+C

= I

+RI

+]xI

+]X
1
I
u

:cest lquation de Blondel (cest une f.e.m longitudinale)


Cette f.e.m interne existe toujours, elle ne dpend pas de la saturation.
Pour tenir compte de la saturation, examinons les 2 cas suivants :

a- Machine ples saillants non sature :
Dans

ce cas X
iT
= constante

et X
iL
=constante, on trace : 0

= ]x
L
I

et la f.e.m vide sera


reprsente par 00

: E
0

= 00

= I

+RI

+]xI

+]x
1
I
u

+]x
L
I



I
I
a
I
r

I
F
i
F
J
F
r
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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14














b- Machines ples saillants sature :
Dans ce cas X
iT
est toujours constante, mais X
iL
diminue avec la saturation ; donc la partie
[OABCD] du diagramme ne change pas avec la saturation .
Comme pour le diagramme de Potier, on a besoin de dterminer le courant dexcitation J
avec V, I et donnes ; pour cela, on dtermine E de Blondel (vecteur OD) puis, en se
reportant la caractristique vide on dtermine le courant dexcitation longitudinale [
L
qui
doit tre perpendiculaire E de Blondel.
Laction longitudinale des F.M.M sexprime par la relation arithmtique : J =J
L
+I
r


III-8. Fonctionnement en charge de lalternateur
On entraine lalternateur une vitesse de synchronisme et on la maintient constante
(n
S
=Constante ; sa tension V ( par phase ) sera fonction de 3 paramtres : V = f(I, J, ).
Dans la pratique on se limite la reprsentation de 2 familles de courbes :
1- Caractristiques externes : V =f(I) J =constante et cos =constante.
2- Courbes de rglages : J = f(I) V = constante et cos =constante.

III-8-1. Caractristiques externes
Pour simplifier, on prend le cas dune machine non sature (diagramme de Behn
Eschenburg) et en ngligeant la rsistance dinduit on aura le diagramme suivant :







( ) ( )
2 2 2
0
sin cos XI V V E + + =

( ) sin . . . 2
2 2 2
0
V I X XI V E + + =

( ) sin . . . 2
2 2
0
2
V I X XI E V =

Etudions cette fonction V=f(I) en prenant comme paramtre :

I
O
A
B
C
D
90
G
F
.I
r
J

J
L
I
O
B
D
]XI


E
0

90
Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
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15
a- Pour Cos =1, la courbe est une ellipse dont les axes
concident avec les axes de coordonnes.
b- Pour Cos =0, la courbe est une droite de pente -X, qui
coupe laxe des intensits au point I=E/X
c- Pour les dphasages du courant en arrire sur la tension
V, les courbes sont des arcs dellipses compris entre les
courbes prcdentes.
d- Pour les dphasages du courant en avant sur la tension
V, les arcs dellipses sont lextrieur, dans ce cas on
observe un phnomne de surtension (V> E).

III-8-2. Courbes de rglages : J=f(I)

Pour une machine non sature E
0
= K[ lquation :
E
0
2
= I
2
+(XI)
2
+2IXIsin la courbe reprsentative est une
hyperbole.
a- Pour Cos =0 : cest une droite de pente positif.
b- Pour Cos =1, lhyperbole est symtrique par rapport laxe E
c- Pour des dphasages quelconque on aura de hyperboles.


III-9. Rendement de lalternateur
III-9-1. Dfinition
Le rendement est le rapport de la puissance utile (P
u
) fournie au circuit dutilisation et
la puissance absorbe P
a
: p =
P
u
P
c

O P
a
: est la puissance mcanique absorbe + puissance ncessaire lexcitation.
P
u
: est la puissance lectrique fournie au stator.
On distingue 2 mthodes pour la dtermination du rendement :

a- Mthode directe :
Cette mthode a lavantage de donner le vrai rendement mais elle prsente
linconvnient suivant : ncessit des essais en charge et mesure de la puissance mcanique.

b- Mthode indirecte :
Cette mthode donne un rendement approch, mais malgr cet inconvnient, elle est
plus utilise car elle permet dobtenir le rendement pleine charge.
La mthode indirecte consiste mesurer toutes les pertes et de calculer le rendement par la
formule : p =
P
u
P
u
+pctcs mcsuubIcs


Remarque
P
u
: la puissance lectrique active fournie un stator P
u
= SII Cos = S u. I. Cos
(Couplage en toile ou en triangle)
P
a
=p
u
+ pertes


Chapitre 3 Alternateur Autonome
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
16
III-9-2. Enumration et dtermination des pertes

a- Pertes constantes :
1-pertes mcaniques (p
m
): ces pertes dpendent de la vitesse de rotation n
S
. On
dtermine ces pertes par la mthode suivante : on manchonne lalternateur, un moteur
lectrique dont on connait son rendement. On fait tourner lalternateur sa vitesse de
synchronisme, sans excitation puis, on mesure la puissance mcanique W
1
que le moteur
fournit lalternateur qui sera : p
m
= W
1

2-pertes fer : (p
f
) :
On excite lalternateur vide et on mesure la puissance mcanique W
2
que le moteur fournit
lalternateur et qui sera gale W
2
=p
m
+p
f

3-pertes par effet Joule (dans linducteur) : elles se calculent par : P
exc
=U. J= c
tr

U : la tension dalimentation de linducteur en courant continu (elle est constante).

b-Pertes variables : elles dpendent de la charge donc du courant dinduit I ; ce sont les
pertes par effet Joules : P
j
=3.R.I
2

I : courant dune phase (le courant simple) ; R : rsistance dune phase.

III-9-3. Expression du rendement : (systme triphas)

P
u
=3.V.I. cos ; P
J
=3.R.I
2
=. I
2

= P
m
+P
f
+P
exc
le rendement se calcule par :

p =
3vI Cos
3vI cos+u+[I
2


Remarque:
Pour obtenir le rendement maximal, on calcule :
dq
dI
= u,
ce qui donne : =I
2
C'est--dire quon a un rendement maximal lorsque :











pertes constantes = pertes joules
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
1

Chapitre V. THEORIE DES MACHINES ASYNCHRONES
(MACHINES A INDUCTION)

V-1. Dfinition
On appelle machine asynchrone, une machine lectrique de vitesse variable, courant
alternatif, qui 2 enroulements dont un seul (le primaire) est aliment par un rseau
lectrique de pulsation ; alors que la 2
me
(le secondaire) est ferm sur lui-mme ou sur des
rsistances lectriques, gnralement ce type de machines est plus utilise en moteur
asynchrone (en triphas).

V-2. Constitution du moteur asynchrone
Ce type de moteur est bas sur lenroulement dune masse mtallique par laction dun
champ tournant et comportant 2 armatures coaxiales lune est fixe appele stator et lautre est
mobile appele rotor ; entre les 2 armatures il y a lentrefer.

V-2-1. Stator (inducteur)
Cest un anneau de tles encoch lintrieur et portant un enroulement triphas
semblable celui dune machine synchrone. Cet enroulement est presque toujours reli la
source dalimentation, il constitue le primaire. Lenroulement est aliment en triphas par
lintermdiaire de la plaque bornes de la machine, ce qui le permet de lalimenter en
couplage d ou en (figure suivante).





















Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
2
V-2-2. Rotor (induit)
Cest un anneau de tles rainur lextrieur, concentrique au stator et spar de lui par
un entrefer constant. Le rotor porte un enroulement polyphas mis en court-circuit
constituant ainsi le secondaire. Le courant dans ses enroulements est induit uniquement par
le champ statorique, car le rotor nest li aucune source lectrique extrieure ; on distingue
2 types de rotor :

a- Rotor bagues (rotor bobin)
Cest un rotor ples lisses qui comporte dans ses rainures, un enroulement identique
celui du stator. Le couplage de cet enroulement est toujours en toile, le centre de ltoile
nest pas accessible mais les 3 extrmits libres sont relies 3 bagues cales sur larbre
(bobinage triphas) sur laquelle appuyant 03 balais (charbon) pour avoir accs aux phases
rotoriques par lintermdiaire dun rhostat qui est utilis pour assurer les meilleures
conditions du dmarrage.











b- Rotor cage dcureuil (rotor en court-circuit)
Lenroulement est remplac par des barres en cuivre ou en aluminium loges dans des
encoches et runies leurs extrmits par 2 couronnes en cuivre ou en Aluminium.
Gnralement, ces barres sont inclines afin de rduire les harmoniques de dentures.
Le courant qui passe par une barre revient par la barre situ une distance polaire et il
nest pas ncessaire disoler les barres de la masse du rotor, car les courants induits
stablissent surtout dans les barres (rsistivits diffrentes : beaucoup plus faible pour le
cuivre).
Par comparaison avec les moteurs bagues, les moteurs cage ont lavantage dtre
robuste et de cot beaucoup plus faible ; mais ils prsentent linconvnient qui est
limpossibilit de faire varier la rsistance du rotor, ce qui rend dfavorable les conditions de
dmarrages avec la tension du rseau.












Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
3
V-3. Principe de fonctionnement
Lenroulement statorique (primaire) reoit de lnergie lectrique du rseau de pulsation
, ce qui cre un champ tournant la vitesse angulaire synchrone 0 =
m
P
(voir thorme
de Maurice Leblanc) ; ce champ, en balayant les enroulements rotoriques (secondaires) y
induit des f.e.m et donc des courants, car les spires sont fermes sur elles-mmes. Ces
courants induits produiront leur tour un champ qui sera de sens oppos au champ du
stator (daprs la loi de Lenz : la f.e.m induite tend sopposer la cause qui la produite).
La raction du courant secondaire sur le champ primaire provoquera un couple moteur
qui entrainera la mise en mouvement du rotor dans les sens du champ tournant primaire. A
fin et mesure que le rotor augmentera sa vitesse de rotation, la diffrence entre la vitesse
angulaire du champ tournant et la vitesse angulaire du rotor diminuera. Et la pulsation des
courants secondaires diminuera aussi :
=-
1
: pulsation du champ statorique.

1
: vitesse (mcanique) de rotor.














V-4. Bobinages du stator et du rotor
Pour le rotor bagues, lenroulement du rotor ne diffre pas de lenroulement du stator.
La diffrence cest que les extrmits de lenroulement stator aboutissent des bornes, par
contre les extrmits de lenroulement rotoriques aboutissent des bagues.

Remarque :
Tous les modes denroulements que nous avons dcrits propos des machines
synchrones sont valables et applicables aux enroulements statoriques et rotoriques des
machines asynchrones.

V-5. Vitesse du moteur asynchrone
V-5-1. Dfinition du glissement
Soit n
S
: la vitesse de rotation du champ tournant ou vitesse de synchronisme :
n
S
=
60]
P

n : la vitesse de rotation du rotor (mcanique) ; le glissement est dfinit par :
g =
n
s
-n
n
s
x100 [%]
Cette valeur relative prcise la rapidit du glissement de londe de champ statorique par
rapport au rotor.
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
4
V-5-2. Rgime de fonctionnement dune machine asynchrone
a- Fonctionnement en moteur :
g =
n
s
-n
n
s

Cas limites :
- au synchronisme n
s
= n donc : g = u
- au dmarrage n = u donc : g = 1
Ce qui donne : 1 > g > u

Pour le fonctionnement moteur n est en retard par rapport n
s
(n<n
s
)

b- Fonctionnement gnratrice :
g =
n
s
-n
n
s

Cas limites :
- au synchronisme n
s
= n donc : g = u
- lorsque la vitesse dpasse la vitesse de synchronisme n - + donc : g - -
n sera en avance par rapport n
s
car le rotor est entrain par un moteur dentrainement.
n>n
s
donc g < u


c- Fonctionnement en frein lectrique :
La machine fonctionne en frein, lorsque la vitesse n est ngative par rapport n
s
; c'est--dire
que le rotor tourne dans le sens inverse par rapport au champ tournant statorique.

Cas limites :
- larrt n = u donc : g = 1
- lorsque la vitesse dpasse la vitesse de synchronisme n - - donc : g - +
ce qui donne :

g 1


On peut rsumer ce qui suit :







V-6. Fonctionnement vide
V-6-1. Courant vide
Raisonnons sur un moteur asynchrone triphas bagues. Supposons que le rotor est
larrt et les bagues sont ouvertes. En dmarrant le stator, on aura un champ tournant
statorique, prlevant du rseau un courant trs faible quon appelle courant vide I
0
; qui
sera en phase avec le flux : (N
1
I
0

= R

)
Soient : V
1
: la tension du rseau (simple).
I
0
: courant vide par phase.
L
1
: inductance cyclique du moteur X=L
Si on nglige les pertes on aura : V
1
=L
1
I
0
donc : I
0
=
v
1
L
1


Glissement (g)
1 0
Moteur Gnratrice
Frein
n
n
n
S
n
S
n
S
n
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
5
V-6-2. f.e.m induite par phase du stator :
Soit =
0
sin t : le flux qui traverse chaque spire du stator ; la f.e.m induite par
phase a pour expression :
c = -
Ndq
dt
= -N
1
cos t avec N
1
: nombre de spires statorique.
E
1
=
N
1
q
2
=
21
2
N
1
- E
1
= 4,44N
1
.

Remarque :
1- Cest la mme formule que pour le primaire dun transformateur.
2- Cette f.e.m est thorique, si on veut calculer la f.e.m relle on doit la multiplier par le
coefficient de bobinage. (tudi pour les machines synchrones).

V-6-3. f.e.m induite dans le rotor par le champ tournant du stator
Etudions les 2 cas suivants:
a- Rotor immobile :
Cette f.e.m est identique celle qui est induite au stator, elle aura pour expression :
E
20
=4,44 N
2
f avec : N
2
=nombre de spires dans le rotor.
Dans ces conditions le moteur asynchrone se comporte exactement comme un
transformateur parfait dont le rapport de transformation est : m =
L
20
L
1
=
N
2
N
1


b- Rotor en rotation (mouvement) :
Soient :
- f
1
: la frquence du rseau (donc du champ statorique) n
S
=
60]
1
P

- f
2
: la frquence du courant induit dans le rotor (donc du champ rotorique)
n
2
=
60]
2
P

Si n : la vitesse de rotation du rotor (mcanique)
n
2
= n
s
-n : vitesse relative du champ tournant par rapport au rotor.
Le glissement est : g =
n
s
-n
n
s
=
n
2
n
s
, donc : n
2
= gn
s
, ce qui donne :
60]
2
P
= g
60]
1
P

Do :
2
= g
1

La f.e.m sera alors : E
2
=4,44 f
2
.N
2
=4,44gf
1
N
2
uo : E
2
=gE
20


Remarque :
Rotor est immobile : g = 1, donc :
2
=
1
= , on aura : E
2
=

4,44 N
2
f= E
20


V-7. Fonctionnement en charge
Mettons les bagues du rotor en court circuit ; le rotor est entrain sa vitesse normale.
La tension induite E
2
par le champ tournant statorique B
1

va engendrer dans le rotor des


courants de frquence gf
1
; ces courants vont engendrer leur tour un champ tournant
rotorique B
2

de frquence gf
1
par rapport au rotor, ou bien de frquence f
1
par rapport au
stator.
n
s
=
60]
1
P
donc : g =
n
s
-n
n
s
=
n
2
n
s

n : vitesse du rotor par rapport au stator.
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
6
n
s
: vitesse du champ statorique.
n
2
: vitesse du champ rotorique par rapport au rotor.
La vitesse du champ B
2

par rapport au stator sera : n


2
+n=n
s
-n+n=n
s
.
Donc le champ B
2

tourne avec la mme vitesse n


s
par rapport au stator (condition pour
avoir un couple).
Les 2 champs B
1

ct B
2

se superposent et on aura un champ rsultant B

= B
1

+B
2

,
ce champ produit dans chacune des spires du stator et du rotor un flux alternatif .
En ngligeant la rsistance et linductance de fuites dans les phases du stator on aura :
V
1
=E
1
=4,44fN
1
.

Conclusion :
Quelle que soit la charge de la machine, et pour une tension statorique V
1
=constante ; le flux
est toujours constant.

Relation entre courant vide et le courant en charge
F.M.M vide F
0
=R=N
1
I
0

N
1
: nombre de spire du stator et I
0
: courant vide circulant dans lenroulement
statorique.
F.M.M en charge F=R=N
1
I
1
+N
2
I
2
(mme flux car V=Constante donc =constante).
I
1
: courant circulant dans lenroulement statorique en charge, N
2
: nombre de spires du
rotor du moteur et I
2
: courant circulant dans lenroulement rotorique
R=constante donc : F

0
= F

, ce qui donne : N
1
I
0

= N
1
I
1

+N
2
I

2


I
0

= I
1

+
N
2
N
1
I
2

do : I
1

= I
0

-
N
2
N
1
I

2
;
Si nous posons
N
2
N
1
= m et I'
2

= -mI
2

; ce qui donne :
I
1

= I
0

+I'
2

cest la mme relation dun transformateur.



V-8. Circuit quivalent
V-8-1. Machine larrt
A larrt un moteur asynchrone se comporte exactement comme un transformateur
dont lenroulement secondaire a comme rsistance R
2
et une ractance X
2
=L
2

1
=
2
=2f.



E
20
= Z
2
I
2



V-8-2. Machine en marche normale
- La frquence des courants statoriques f.
- La frquence des courants rotoriques f
2
=gf
En charge, il ya un courant qui circule dans lenroulement rotorique I
2
qui se calcule par
I
2
=
L
2
z
2
avec Z
2
=R
2
+jL
2

2
=R
2
+jx
2

E
2

= Z
2

I
2

: E
2

: f.e.m en charge dans le rotor (rotor en mouvement).


Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
7
x
2
=L
2

2
=L
2
.2f
2
=L
2
2gf
1
=gX
2
avec : X
2
=L
2

On a E
2
=gE
20,
ce qui donne :
I
2
=
L
2
_R
2
2
+(x
2
)
2
=
gL
20
_R
2
2
+(gX
2
)
2
ce qui donne: I
2
=
L
20
_(
R
2
g
)
2
+X
2
2


Conclusion :
Le moteur asynchrone est quivalent un transformateur statique dont le secondaire
est suppos sans rsistance et de ractance X
2
alimentant une charge variable (
R
2
g
)





Remarque :
Si on tient couple de la rsistance rotorique, la charge sera : [
R
2
g
-R
2
= R
2
(
1-g
g
)






V-8-3. Rappel du circuit quivalent dun transformateur :
Les quations du transformateur :
Primaire (rcepteur) : u

1
= -E

1
+Z
1
I
1


Secondaire (gnrateur) : E
2

= u
2

+Z
2
I
2

on a I
1

= I
0

+I'

2
I'
2

= -mI
2


m =
N
2
N
1
=
L
2
L
1
E
1

=
L
2

m

En combinant les deux quations du transformateur, et en posant : u
i
2

= -
1
m
u
2

;
R
i
2
=
R
2
m
2
et I'
2
=
L
2
m
2
, on aura :

u
1

= u'

2
+(R
1
+]I
1
)I
0

+(R
1
+R
i
2
)I
i
2

+](I
1
+I
i
2
). I'
2

, ce qui donne :
u
1

= u'
2

+(R
1
+]I
1
)I
1

+(R
i
2
+I
i
2
)I'
2

Le circuit quivalent correspondant cette dernire quation c'est--dire le secondaire
ramen au primaire est le suivant :







Le courant vide I
0
se divise en 2 branches, lune R
F
absorbe la composante active qui
est due aux pertes dans le fer ; lautre X
m
absorbe la composante ractive qui est ncessaire
pour entretenir le flux.
R
2
(
1 -g
g
)
U
2
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
8
V-8-4. Circuit quivalent du moteur asynchrone
Le moteur asynchrone est quivalent un transformateur dont le circuit quivalent est
tablie de telle faon ramener les lments rotoriques au stator avec :
R
i
2
=
R
2
m
2
rsistance rotorique ramene au stator avec : m =
N
2
N
1

I'
2
=
L
2
m
2
inductance rotorique ramene au stator
E
20
= -
1
m
E
20
f.e.m induite dans le rotor ramene au stator :
Le circuit quivalent sera alors :







V-9. Bilan nergtique dun moteur asynchrone
V-9-1. Puissances








Le moteur absorbe du rseau la puissance P
a
=3.V.I
1
.cos
1
; travers les bornes
statoriques ; une partie de cette puissance(1 2 %) est perdue dans le stator sous forme de
pertes fer (pertes magntiques) P
f
et de pertes dans le cuivre due leffet joules P
jst

(P
js
=3RI
2
).
La puissance restante (P
e.
) est alors transmise au rotor par le champ tournant sous forme de
puissance lectromagntique.
P
c
= P
u
-(P
]st
+P
]st
) = P
u

Le rotor utilise cette puissance P
e
pour 2 utilisations :
Une partie est gaspille sous forme de pertes par effet joules rotoriques (P
rot
).
Lautre partie se retrouve sous forme de puissance mcanique, quon appelle
puissance utile (P
u
) disponible larbre du moteur
P
e
=P
u
+P
rot

On peut ngliger dune part, les pertes fer rotoriques car elles dpendent de la frquence
rotorique qui est trs faible et dautres part les pertes mcaniques.

V-9-2. Pertes rotoriques dun moteur asynchrone
Soit C : couple utile sur larbre du moteur qui est d laction des champs statoriques
et rotoriques.
Soit n : la vitesse mcanique du rotor P
u
= 2nnc la puissance lectromagntique P
e
= 2n
s
c
les pertes dans le rotor :p
rot
=P
e
-P
u
=2c(n
s
-n)
g =
n
s
-n
n
s
n
s
-n = gn
s
; on remplace dans p
ot
= 2ncgn
s
= g. P
c
do : p
ot
= gP
c

Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
9
V-9-3. Calcul du rendement dun moteur asynchrone
Comme le rendement est calcul daprs : =
P
U
P
c
=
P
U
P
c
(pertes statoriques
ngligeables)
=
P
U
P
c
=
2nnc
2nn
s
c
=
n
n
s

g =
n
s
-n
n
s
donc : g = 1 -
n
n
s
do : = 1 -g

V-10. Caractristiques mcanique
Pour simplifier posons I
0
=0, comme I
1

= I
0

+I'
2

donc : I
1

= I'
2








Daprs le schma prcdant : I
1
=I
2
=
v
1
_(R
1
+
R
|
2
g
)
2
+(X
1
+X
|
2
)
2


Analyse du circuit quivalent simplifi :
Daprs le schma, on peut considrer les pertes dans le rotor par P
rot
=3R
2
I
2
2

La puissance utile P
u
(puissance mcanique) P
u
=
3R
|
2
(1-g)
g
I'
2
2

La puissance lectromagntique transmise P
e
=P
u
+P
rot

P
c
= S[
R
|
2
(1-g)
g
+R
i
2
I'
2
2
ce qui entraine : P
c
=
3Ri
2
g
I'
2
2


V-10-1. Calcul du couple
C
c
=
pP
c

=
p

.
3Ri
2
g
I'
2
2
, comme I'
2
=
v
1
_(R
1
+
R
|
2
g
)
2
+(X
1
+X
|
2
)
2

C
c
=
3pRi
2
g
.
v
1
2
{_R
1
+
R
|
2
g
]
2
+(X
1
+X
|
2
)
2
]


Posons X
1
+X
2
=X : ractance cyclique de fuites total ramene au primaire.
Ngligeons R
1
=0 car
Ri
2
g
>> R
1

Ce qui donne : c =
3p.
R|
2
g
v
1
2
|_
R
|
2
g
]
2
+X
|
2
]

Daprs cette relation prcdente, on voit que le couple c varie en fonction du glissement g
(donc de la vitesse n) et la caractristique mcanique sera C=f(g) ou C=f(n).
- Au dmarrage n=0 donc : g=1, le couple de dmarrage ou de dcollage peut tre calcul
par : C
d
=
3pRi
2
v
1
2
|R
|
2
2
+X
|
2
]
= ctc
- On peut calculer le couple maximal par :
dc
dg
= u, ce qui donne : g
ctquc
=
Ri
2
Xi
, le couple
maximal sera alors : C
M
=
3pv
1
2
2Xi

Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
10










Remarques :
1- La courbe c(g) prsente 2 branches, lune stable comprise entre g=0 et g
crit
; lautre partie
est instable g
crit
g1
Si le couple dpasse C
M
; le moteur sarrte (il dcroche).
2- Le moteur asynchrone peut supporter des surcharges de courtes dure qui correspond
un couple normal 0,2 C
M
C
M
0,4 C
M

3- Puisque C
M
=
3pv
1
2
2X
est indpendant de la rsistance R
2
; on peut augmenter g
crit
en
augmentant la rsistance R
2
sans faire changer ce couple maximal (g
ct
=
R

2
X

).
4- Le couple C
M
=
3pv
1
2
2X
est proportionnel directement (sensible) la tension dalimentation
V
1
; par contre pour le moteur synchrone C
M
=
3pL
0
v
X
sjn

5- On peut reprsenter la caractristique mcanique par n=f(c), ou encore C=f(n).












6- Formule de Kloss :
Lexpression du couple en fonction du glissement : c =
3p.
R|
2
g
v
1
2
|_
R
|
2
g
]
2
+X
|
2
]
,
le couple maximal a comme expression : C
M
=
3pv
1
2
2Xi


X
X
X
Couple
V
i
t
e
s
s
e

d
e

r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n


C
M
C
d
Vitesse de rotation
n
S
C
d
C
M
C
N
n
N
n
crit
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
11
C
C
M
=
Sp.
R'
2
g
I
1
2
|_
R
i
2
g
]
2
+X
i
2
]
.
2X'
SpI
1
2
=
2
R'
2
g
X'
|_
R
i
2
g
]
2
+X
i
2
]

Puisque : g
crIt
=
Ri
2
Xi
, on aura :
crit
crit
M
m
g
g
g
g
C
C
K
+
= =
2
: cest la formule de Kloss.

V-11. Diagramme du cercle
V-11-1. Diagramme de cercle simplifi
Soit le circuit quivalent simplifi ;(circuit rotorique ramen au primaire). On nglige R
1

et X
1
I
0
et les pertes fer (R
F
=0).







I
1
: courant statorique
I
2
= -mI
2
(m=
N
2
N
1
) courant de travail (rotorique).
I
0
: courant statorique de magntisation (courant vide)
Daprs la figure prcdente, on peut crire : v
1

= _
R
|
2
g
+]X
i
_. I'
2

; on peut dterminer le
dphasage
2
entre V
1
et le courant

I
2
:
sin
2
=
XiIi
2
v
1
ou bien : tg
2
=
Xig
Ri
2

Daprs langle
2
; on peut tracer le diagramme vectoriel de I
1
=I
0
+I
2











Comme v
1

= _
R
|
2
g
+]X
i
_. I'
2

, la valeur du courant de travail (I


2
) se calcule par :
I
2
=
v
1
_(
R
|
2
g
)
2
+(Xi)
2


Daprs la relation prcdente on voit que le courant I
2
est en fonction du glissement (donc
de la vitesse).
En gardant I
0
constant ; le point M de la figure prcdente change de position en fonction de
la vitesse ; et avec plusieurs points de fonctionnement ; le point M dcrit un cercle.
R'
2
g

X

X
0
V
1
I
1
I
0
I
2
V
1
I
0
I
1
I
2
M

2
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
12
















Daprs la figure prcdente : sin
2
=
M
0
M
M
0
M
1
=
Ii
2
M
0
M
1
et dautre part : sin
2
=
XiIi
2
v

donc :
Ii
2
M
0
M
1
=
Xi
2
Ii
2
v
1
; ce qui donne : H
0
H
1
=
v
1
Xi
= Constontc
M
0
M
1
sont fixer ; M charge de position sur le cercle de diamtre M
0
M
1


Conclusion :
Lensemble de point M sappelle diagramme de cercle qui nous renseigne sur toutes les
grandeurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement du moteur asynchrone ; savoir :

1- Courant statorique :
I
1
: valeur efficace I
1
=0H

et
1
= (0H
1

, I

1
)

2- Couple lectromagntique Ce
P
e
=2n
s
C
e
en ngligeant les pertes statoriques P
a
=P
e
on peut crire :
SI
1
I
1
cos
1
= 2nnsC
c
ce qui donne :
C
c
=
3v
1
2nn
s
I
1
cos
1
= KI
u

Dans la figure prcdente : I
a
=OC ; pour dterminer ce couple lectromagntique ; on
mesure OC lchelle, et on multiplie par la constante K.

3- Glissement g :
Daprs la figure prcdente : (dans le tringle :M
0
M
1
G) :
tg
2
=
M
0
u
M
0
M
1

dautre part : tg
2
=
Xig
Ri
2
ce qui donne :
M
0
u
M
0
M
1
=
gXi
Ri
2

H
0
0 = H
0
H
1
.
gXi
Ri
2
=
v
1
Xi
.
gXi
Ri
2
do : H
0
0

=
v
1
Ri
2
g = Kg
Il suffit de mesurer H
0
0

lchelle pour dterminer g.



4- Courant rotorique I
2
:
H
0
H

= I
i
2
on peut calcule I
2
=
Ii
2
m
avec m =
N
2
N
1


Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
13
5- Droite des puissances :
La puissance utile sur larbre du moteur est nulle au dmarrage (vitesse nulle g=1) point M
d

(sur la figure) et au synchronisme (g=0 n
s
) point M
0
(sur la figure)
Donc la droite M
0
M
d
reprsente la droite des puissances utiles .
On peut dterminer la puissance utile pour nimporte quel point M de fonctionnement et
cela en mesurant MN (sur la figure) lchelle.

V-11-2. Diagramme de cercle normalis par lU.T.E (Union technique des lectriques).
a- Etapes suivre pour tracer le diagramme :
1. On choisit une chelle de courant : 1mm - a A

2. On effectue un essai vide :
Le moteur tourne vide la vitesse de synchronisme, ou relve lintensit I
0
et la
puissance P
0
; puis on calcule le facteur de puissance par :
cos
0
=
P
0
3v
1
I
0

On reprsente le point M
0
tel que 0H
0

= I
0

Avec :
0
= (I
0

, I
1

)






















3. On pratique un essai en circuit larrt (g=1) tension rduite :
Supposons quon alimente sous sa tension normale V
1
; le moteur asynchrone aprs
avoir court-circuit et caler le rotor ; le moteur est alors un vritable transformateur avec son
secondaire en CC. Dsignons par :
P
cc
: puissance absorbe en cc.
I
1cc
: courant absorbe en cc.
V
1cc
: tension statorique pour lessai en cc.
On calcule alors le facteur de puissance par : cos
cc
=
P
cc
3v
1cc
I
1cc

Si le courant de court-circuit I
d
pour la tension V
1
.
Et le courant de court-circuit I
1cc
pour la tension V
1cc
.
On admet que
v
1
I
d
=
v
1cc
I
1cc
ce qui donne : I
d
=
v
1
v
1cc
. I
1cc
: cest le courant de dmarrage.
Chapitre 5 Thorie des Machines Asynchrones
Dr. Bendaoud- Universit de Sidi Bel Abbs Machines lectriques courant alternatif
14
On peut reprsenter le point M
1
tel que _
I
d

= 0H
1

cc
= (I
1

, I
1

)
_

4. Le centre du cercle est dcal par rapport lhorizontale passant par M
0
dun
petit angle donn par la relation suivant :sin = tg =
2R
1
I
0
snq
0
v
1

R
1
: rsistance statorique.
Remarque :
Langle est ngligeable pour les moteurs de grandes puissances.(P15kW)

5. Dtermination du centre de cercle () :
Cest lintersection entre la mdiatrice de M
0
M
1
et la droite dcal de langle par rapport
lhorizontale passant par M
0
.

6. On reprsente la droite des puissances utiles par la droite M
0
M
1
M
0
(g=0
synchronisme) et M
1
(g=1 dmarrage).

7. On reprsente la droite des couples par la droite M
0
M

M
0
(g=0 et c=0) et
M

(g - ).
Dtermination de cette droite :
On trace la verticale passant par M
1
; lintersection de cette verticale avec lhorizontale
passant par M
0
est K
1
.
On calcule L
1
K
1
tel que L
1
appartient la droite des couples : I
1
K
1
=
R
1
I
d
2
v
1

On joint le point M
0
avec L
1
ce qui donne la droite des couples.

8. Reprsentation de la droite des glissements :
Toute droite parallle M
0
M

(droite des couples) peut tre gradu linairement en


glissement ; en commenant par g=0 appartenant la tangente au point M
0
.


b- Exploitation du diagramme de cercle :
On trace une verticale passant par un point de fonctionnement quelconque M :

MH : reprsente la puissance absorbe Pa.
MN : reprsente la puissance utile Pu.
ML : reprsente la puissance lectromagntique Pe.
NL=ML-MN=Pe-Pu=pertes rotoriques.
KH : pertes mcaniques.
LK : pertes statoriques.
=
Pu
Pu
=
MN
MH


Chapitre VI : Performances des moteurs asynchrones
1. Introduction :
Les performances des moteurs asynchrones concernent les domaines suivants :
Dmarrage, variation de la vitesse, freinage et inversion de sens de rotation. Si
lon compare le moteur asynchrone au moteur shunt, on constate que les caractristiques
mcaniques dans leurs parties stables sont identiques, ce qui conduit aux mmes
applications industrielles.
2. Avantages du moteur asynchrone :
Le moteur asynchrone compar au moteur shunt a lavantage dtre aliment directement
par le rseau triphas, son cot est moins lev, il est beaucoup plus robuste car il ne
ncessite pas pratiquement dentretien.
Si on compare les 2 types de moteur asynchrone, le moteur bagues a plus de possibilit
car il peut tre aliment par son stator ou son rotor. Mais malgr cet avantage cest le
moteur) cage en raison de sa trs grande robustesse qui est le plus utilis dans lindustrie.
3. Inversion de sens de rotation
Il suffit de croiser 2 des 3 fils dalimentation au stator, ce qui inverse le sens de rotation
du champ tournant et par la suite le sens de rotation du moteur.





4. Dmarrage des moteurs asynchrones triphass
Au dmarrage des moteurs asynchrones se posent 2 problmes :
- Un faible couple de dmarrage c
d

- un fort courant de dmarrage I
d

a- Dmarrage direct
Ce type de dmarrage est rserv aux moteurs de faible puissance devant celle du
rseau, ne ncessitant pas une mise en vitesse progressive. Le couple est nergique,
l'appel de courant est important ( 5 8 fois le courant nominal ).
2
2
3 3
1

b- Dmarrage toile - triangle
Ce type de dmarrage est rserv aux machines dmarrant vide ou dont le couple
rsistant est faible. L'intensit de dmarrage est divise par 3, mais le couple de
dmarrage aussi (proportionnel au carr de la tension d'alimentation des enroulements).






2
c. Dmarrage statorique
Ce type de dmarrage a des caractristiques comparables au dmarrage toile - triangle.
Il n'y a pas de coupure de l'alimentation du moteur entre les deux temps de dmarrage.


d. Dmarrage rotorique
Le courant de dmarrage est limit, sans que le couple soit rduit. Ce type de dmarrage
ncessite un moteur bagues (rotor bobin).













3






Le couple peut tre calcul par lexpression suivante : le couple ne dpend que du rapport R
2
/g.

=
2
'
2
'
2
'
2 2
1
3
X
g
R
g
R
V p
C


Au couple maximal constant (C
max
= 2 C
N
), on peut crire :
1 2
1
2
3
1
2 1
..........
1

= = = = =
n
n
n
n
g
R
g
R
g
R
g
R R
, ce qui donne :
m
rotor
n
n
g
R
g
R
R = =
1
1












Pour la mme rsistance on peut crire :
n
n
n
n
N
M
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g C
C
K
1
1
2
3
2
2
1
1
..........
1

= = = = = = =
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
4
R
2
R
5
=R
rot
R
4
R
3
R
1
Moteur
asynchrone
Rhostat
4
n n
n
n
n n
g g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
K
1
. ......... . .
1
1
1
2
3
2
2
1
1
= =

, ce qui donne le nombre de plots


k Log
g Log
n
n
=
Au couple nominal constant (C
N
), on peut crire :
n
n
n
n
g
R
g
R
g
R
g
R
= = = =

1
1
2
2
1
1
.......... , ce qui donne :
K
R
R
g
g
R
n
n
n
n
n
1
1
1

= =
Remarques :
1- C
max
et C
min
sont fixs par le cahier des charges, g
2
et g
3
sont dtermins sur la
caractristique " naturelle " du moteur. Connaissant la valeur de la rsistance du bobinage
rotorique R
rot
, on dtermine les valeurs des rsistances de dmarrage.
2- Si le nombre de plots nest pas un entier naturel, on prend le nombre entier naturel suprieur
puis on recalcule la constante K et on continu le calcul pour le rhostat du dmarrage par la
mme mthode.
e. Constructions spciales

Moteur double cage
La cage externe est plus " rsistive " (laiton) R
ext
>R
int
et R
ext
>X
ext
, la cage interne prsente
une inductance plus leve X
int
>X
ext
(qui dpend de la longueur des lignes magntiques). Au
dmarrage, le moteur se comporte comme un transformateur : la frquence des courants
rotoriques est leve (50Hz). Le courant circule essentiellement dans la cage externe, car
l'impdance de la cage interne (L.w ) est plus leve.
Au fur et mesure que la vitesse du moteur augmente, la frquence des courants rotoriques
diminue, le courant circule progressivement dans la cage interne.
Car X
int
>R
int




5
5. Freinage
a. Freinage par contre - courant
Lors du freinage, il y a ouverture de KM1 puis fermeture de KM2 : le moteur est aliment par
un champ statorique inverse. Les pointes de courant sont trs importantes et il est conseill
d'insrer un jeu de rsistances pour limiter ce courant. KM2 doit s'ouvrir ds l'arrt du moteur,
pour viter un redmarrage en sens inverse : il est donc ncessaire de prvoir un capteur dtectant
l'absence de rotation (capteur centrifuge).

b. Freinage par injection de courant continu
Au moment du freinage, KM1 s'ouvre puis KM2 se ferme. Un courant continu est envoy
dans le stator. Le moteur se comporte comme un alternateur dont l'inducteur est constitu
par le stator, l'induit par le rotor en court - circuit.

c. Moteur frein
Le moteur est muni d'un frein lectromagntique disque mont du ct oppos l'arbre
6
de sortie. En l'absence de courant (ouverture de KM1 ou coupure du rseau), un ressort de
rappel permet d'assurer le freinage. C'est un lment important de scurit, en particulier
dans les applications de levage.


6. Rglage de la vitesse de rotation des moteurs asynchrones triphass
Introduction
La pulsation du rotor d'un moteur asynchrone est :

avec
g : glissement
p : nombre de paires de ples
: pulsation du rotor (en rd/s)
s : pulsation de synchronisme(en rd/s)
f : frquence de la tension (Hz)
: pulsation de la tension (rd/s)

Le rglage de la vitesse de rotation du moteur peut donc tre obtenu par :
1-Action sur le nombre de paires de ples
machines bobinage primaire unique
machines plusieurs bobinages primaires (machines enroulements spars)

2- Action sur la frquence de la tension d'alimentation statorique
convertisseurs de frquence lectromcaniques (gros alternateur pilotant plusieurs moteurs
asynchrones tournant la mme vitesse)
convertisseurs statiques (onduleurs de courant, de tension, M.L.I, contrle vectoriel de flux,
cycloconvertisseurs)
7

3- Action sur le glissement
action sur la tension d'alimentation statorique (autotransformateur, gradateur)
rhostat de glissement au rotor
cascade de rcupration (cascade hyposynchrone)

Ce rsultat montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir le couple maximal, pour diffrentes vitesses de
rotation, condition que le rapport tension d'alimentation / frquence de la tension soit constant ( U
/ f constant).


a- Action sur le nombre de paires de ples

Couplage d'enroulements
Principe : ce type de moteur possde 2 bobinages distincts par phase, qui peuvent tre coupls
en srie (4 ples) ou en parallle (2 ples).


b. Action sur la frquence de la tension statorique

Le convertisseur statique de type " onduleur " permet un fonctionnement du moteur avec un
couple maximal, par action simultane sur la frquence et sur l'amplitude de la tension
statorique, avec conservation du rapport U/f
8


Convertisseur onde de tension

Le filtre L-C, associ au pont redresseur diodes constitue une source de tension. L'onduleur
transistors gnre une succession d'impulsions de tension, le moteur, inductif par nature, lisse le
courant. Ce dernier est pratiquement sinusodal.


9
Ce type de pilotage permet un excellent contrle des paramtres couple et vitesse. Le couple est
trs lev (suprieur au couple nominal) mme vitesse nulle.
Cycloconvertisseur :
C'est un convertisseur de frquence, dont la frquence de sortie est faible devant celle du rseau
d'alimentation (1/3 maximum). Le montage complet ncessite 36 thyristors pour une machine
triphase.
Etude simplifie pour une phase du moteur :


c. Action sur le glissement
Gradateur :
L' action se fait sur la tension statorique.

Du fait de sa faible plage de variation de vitesse sur moteur cage standard, le gradateur statorique
est surtout utilis comme procd de dmarrage sur des machines dont le couple rsistant est de
type parabolique.
Rhostat de glissement rotorique :
Cette technique est utilise sur moteur rotor bobin.
10

Le couple peut tre maximal dans toute la plage de variation de vitesse, mais les pertes dans le
rhostat rotorique sont d'autant plus importantes que la vitesse du moteur est faible.

Cascade hyposynchrone :
Cette technique est utilise sur moteur rotor bobin.


Le transformateur est choisi avec un rapport de transformation permettant le glissement maximal
souhait.
La rcupration de l'nergie rotorique assure un excellent rendement, voisin de celui du moteur
seul.
Le facteur de puissance de la cascade est plus faible que celui du moteur seul et il y a ncessit de le
relever avec une batterie de condensateurs.
La cascade ne peut dmarrer seule : il est ncessaire de prvoir un dispositif annexe de dmarrage
par rsistances rotoriques.
11
Chapter 3 Electromechanical-Energy-Conversion
Principles

The electromechanical-energy-conversion process takes place through the medium of the
electric or magnetic field of the conversion device of which the structures depend on their
respective functions.
Transducers: microphone, pickup, sensor, loudspeaker
Force producing devices: solenoid, relay, electromagnet
Continuous energy conversion equipment: motor, generator

This chapter is devoted to the principles of electromechanical energy conversion and the
analysis of the devices accomplishing this function. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of
systems that use magnetic fields as the conversion medium.
The concepts and techniques can be applied to a wide range of engineering situations
involving electromechanical energy conversion.
Based on the energy method, we are to develop expressions for forces and torques in
magnetic-field-based electromechanical systems.

3.1 Forces and Torques in Magnetic Field Systems

The Lorentz Force Law gives the force on a particle of charge in the presence of
electric and magnetic fields.
F q
( ) B v E q F + = (3.1)
F : newtons, : coulombs, : volts/meter, q E B : telsas, : meters/second v

In a pure electric-field system,
qE F = (3.2)
In pure magnetic-field systems,
( ) B v q F = (3.3)

Figure 3.1 Right-hand rule for ( ) B v q F = .

For situations where large numbers of charged particles are in motion,
( ) B v E F
v
+ = (3.4)
v J = (3.5)
B J F
v
= (3.6)
(charge density): coulombs/m
3
, (force density): newtons/m
v
F
3
,
J v = (current density): amperes/m
2
.
1



Figure 3.2 Single-coil rotor for Example 3.1.


Unlike the case in Example 3.1, most electromechanical-energy-conversion devices contain
magnetic material.
Forces act directly on the magnetic material of these devices which are constructed of
rigid, nondeforming structures.
The performance of these devices is typically determined by the net force, or torque,
acting on the moving component. It is rarely necessary to calculate the details of the
internal force distribution.
J ust as a compass needle tries to align with the earths magnetic field, the two sets of
fields associated with the rotor and the stator of rotating machinery attempt to align, and
torque is associated with their displacement from alignment.
In a motor, the stator magnetic field rotates ahead of that of the rotor, pulling on it
and performing work.
For a generator, the rotor does the work on the stator.

2
The Energy Method
Based on the principle of conservation of energy: energy is neither created nor destroyed;
it is merely changed in form.
Fig. 3.3(a): a magnetic-field-based electromechanical-energy-conversion device.
A lossless magnetic-energy-storage system with two terminals
The electric terminal has two terminal variables: (voltage), (current). e i
The mechanical terminal has two terminal variables:
fld
f (force), x (position)
The loss mechanism is separated from the energy-storage mechanism.
Electrical losses: ohmic losses
Mechanical losses: friction, windage
Fig. 3.3(b): a simple force-producing device with a single coil forming the electric
terminal, and a movable plunger serving as the mechanical terminal.
The interaction between the electric and mechanical terminals, i.e. the
electromechanical energy conversion, occurs through the medium of the magnetic
stored energy.



Figure 3.3 (a) Schematic magnetic-field electromechanical-energy-conversion device;
(b) simple force-producing device.

: the stored energy in the magnetic field
fld
W

dt
dx
f ei
dt
W d
fld
fld
= (3.7)
dt
d
e

= (3.8)
dx f id W d
fld fld
= (3.9)

Equation (3.9) permits us to solve for the force simply as a function of the flux
and the mechanical terminal position x .
Equations (3.7) and (3.9) form the basis for the energy method.

3
3.2 Energy Balance

Consider the electromechanical systems whose predominant energy-storage mechanism is in
magnetic fields. For motor action, we can account for the energy transfer as

heat into
converted
Energy
field
magnetic in stored
energy in Increase
output
energy
Mechanical
sources
electric form
input Energy
(3.10)
Note the generator action.

The ability to identify a lossless-energy-storage system is the essence of the energy method.
This is done mathematically as part of the modeling process.
For the lossless magnetic-energy-storage system of Fig. 3.3(a), rearranging (3.9) in form
of (3.10) gives
fld mech elec
dW dW dW + = (3.11)
where

elec
dW id = =differential electric energy input
=differential mechanical energy output
mech fld
dW f dx =
=differential change in magnetic stored energy
fld
dW
Here is the voltage induced in the electric terminals by the changing magnetic stored
energy. It is through this reaction voltage that the external electric circuit supplies power
to the coupling magnetic field and hence to the mechanical output terminals.
e
dt ei dW =
elec
(3.12)
The basic energy-conversion process is one involving the coupling field and its action and
reaction on the electric and mechanical systems.
Combining (3.11) and (3.12) results in
fld mech elec
dW dW dt ei dW + = = (3.13)

3.3 Energy in Singly-Excited Magnetic Field Systems

We are to deal energy-conversion systems: the magnetic circuits have air gaps between the
stationary and moving members in which considerable energy is stored in the magnetic field.
This field acts as the energy-conversion medium, and its energy is the reservoir between
the electric and mechanical system.
Fig. 3.4 shows an electromagnetic relay schematically. The predominant energy storage
occurs in the air gap, and the properties of the magnetic circuit are determined by the
dimensions of the air gap.

Figure 3.4 Schematic of an electromagnetic relay.
4
( )i x L = (3.14)
dx f dW
fld mech
= (3.15)
dx f id dW
fld fld
= (3.16)

is uniquely specified by the values of
fld
W and x . Therefore, and x are
referred to as state variables.
Since the magnetic energy storage system is lossless, it is a conservative system. is
the same regardless of how
fld
W
and x are brought to their final values. See Fig. 3.5
where tow separate paths are shown.



Figure 3.5 Integration paths for .
fld
W

( )

+ =
2b path
fld
2a path
fld 0 0 fld
, dW dW x W (3.17)

On path 2a, 0 d = and
fld
0 f = . Thus,
fld
0 dW = on path 2a.
On path 2b, 0 dx = .
Therefore, (3.17) reduces to the integral of id over path 2b.
( ) ( )

d x i x W

=
0
0
0 0 0 fld
, , (3.18)
For a linear system in which is proportional to , (3.18) gives i
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

=

= =


0
2
0
fld
2
1
, ,
x L
d
x L
d x i x W (3.19)
: the volume of the magnetic field V
( ) fld
0
B
V
W H dB dV =

(3.20)
If B H = ,
2
fld
2
V
B
W

dV (3.21)


5


Figure 3.6 (a) Relay with movable plunger for Example 3.2.
(b) Detail showing air-gap configuration with the plunger partially removed.





6
3.4 Determination of Magnetic Force and Torque form Energy

The magnetic stored energy is a state function, determined uniquely by the values of the
independent state variables
fld
W
and x .

( ) dx f id x dW
fld fld
, = (3.22)
( )
2 1
1 2 1 2
1 2
,
x x
F F
dF x x dx dx
x x

= +

(3.23)
( ) dx
x
W
d
W
x dW
x

=
fld fld
fld
, (3.24)

Comparing (3.22) with (3.24) gives (3.25) and (3.26):

( )
x
x W
i

=
,
fld
(3.25)
( )

x
x W
f

=
,
fld
fld
(3.26)

Once we know as a function of
fld
W and x , (3.25) can be used to solve for ( , ) i x .
Equation (3.26) can be used to solve for the mechanical force
fld
( , ) f x . The partial
derivative is taken while holding the flux linkages constant.
For linear magnetic systems for which ( ) L x i = , the force can be found as
( )
( )
( )
dx
x dL
x L
x L x
f
2
2 2
fld
2
2
1

= (3.27)
( )
dx
x dL i
f
2
2
fld
= (3.28)
7


Figure 3.7 Example 3.3. (a) Polynomial curve fit of inductance.
(b) Force as a function of position x for i =0.75 A.

For a system with a rotating mechanical terminal, the mechanical terminal variables become
the angular displacement and the torque .
fld
T
( ) d T id dW
fld fld
, = (3.29)
( )

=
,
fld
fld
W
T (3.30)
For linear magnetic systems for which ( ) L i = :
( )
( )


L
W
2
fld
2
1
, = (3.31)
( )
( )
( )


d
dL
L
L
T
2
2 2
fld
2
1
2
1
=

= (3.32)
(3.33)
( )

d
dL i
T
2
2
fld
= (3.34)

Figure 3.9 Magnetic circuit for Example 3.4.
8


3.5 Determination of Magnetic Force and Torque from Coenergy

Recall that in 3.4, the magnetic stored energy is a state function, determined uniquely
by the values of the independent state variables
fld
W
and x .
( ) dx f id x dW
fld fld
, = (3.22)
( ) dx
x
W
d
W
x dW
x

=
fld fld
fld
, (3.24)
( )
x
x W
i

=
,
fld
(3.25)
( )

x
x W
f

=
,
fld
fld
(3.26)

Coenergy: from which the force can be obtained directly as a function of the current. The
selection of energy or coenergy as the state function is purely a matter of convenience.
The coenergy is defined as a function of and ) , ( x i W
fld
i x such that
( ) ( ) x W i x i W , ,
fld fld
= (3.34)
( ) di id i d + = (3.35)
( ) ) , ( ) ( ,
fld
x dW i d x i W d
fld
= (3.36)
( ) dx f di x i W d
fld fld
, + = (3.37)
From (3.37), the coenergy ) , ( x i W
fld
can be seen to be a state function of the two
independent variables and i x .
( ) dx
x
W
di
i
W
x i W d
i
fld
x
fld


= ,
fld
(3.38)
( )
x
i
x i W


=
,
fld
(3.39)
( )
i
x
x i W
f


=
,
fld
fld
(3.40)
For any given system, (3.26) and (3.40) will give the same result.
9
By analogy to (3.18) in 3.3, the coenergy can be found as (3.41)
( ) ( )

d x i x W

=
0
0
0 0 0 fld
, , (3.18)
( ) ( )

=
i
i d x i x i W
0
fld
, , (3.41)
For linear magnetic systems for which i x L ) ( = ,
( ) ( )
2
fld
2
1
, i x L x i W = (3.42)
( )
dx
x dL i
f
2
2
fld
= (3.43)
(3.43) is identical to the expression given by (3.28).
For a system with a rotating mechanical displacement,
( ) ( ) i d i i W
i
=

0
fld
, , (3.44)
( )
i
i W
T


=
,
fld
fld
(3.45)
If the system is magnetically linear,
( ) ( )
2
fld
2
1
, i L i W = (3.46)
( )

d
dL i
T
2
2
fld
= (3.47)
(3.47) is identical to the expression given by (3.33).
In field-theory terms, for soft magnetic materials

=
V
H
dV dH B W
0
0
fld
(3.48)
dV
H
W
v

=
2
2
fld

(3.49)
For permanent-magnet (hard) materials

=
V
H
H
dV dH B W
c
0
fld
(3.50)
10

For a magnetically-linear system, the energy and coenergy (densities) are numerically equal:
2 2
2
1
/
2
1
Li L = ,
2 2
2
1
/
2
1
H B = . For a nonlinear system in which and i or B and
H are not linearly proportional, the two functions are not even numerically equal.
i W W = +
fld fld
(3.51)


Figure 3.10 Graphical interpretation of energy and coenergy in a singly-excited system.

Consider the relay in Fig. 3.4. Assume the relay armature is at position x so that the
device operating at point a in Fig. 3.11. Note that

( )

x
W
x
x W
f
x

=

fld
0
fld
fld
lim
,
and
( )
i
x
i
x
W
x
x i W
f


=

fld
0
fld
fld
lim
,


Figure 3.11 Effect of x on the energy and coenergy of a singly-excited device:
(a) change of energy with held constant; (b) change of coenergy with i held constant.

11
The force acts in a direction to decrease the magnetic field stored energy at constant flux
or to increase the coenergy at constant current.
In a singly-excited device, the force acts to increase the inductance by pulling on
members so as to reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path linking the winding.




Figure 3.12 Magnetic system of Example 3.6.
12


3.6 Multiply-Excited Magnetic Field Systems

Many electromechanical devices have multiple electrical terminals.
Measurement systems: torque proportional to two electric signals; power as the product of
voltage and current.
Energy conversion devices: multiply-excited magnetic field system.
A simple system with two electrical terminals and one mechanical terminal: Fig. 3.13.
Three independent variables: } , , {
2 1
, } , , {
2 1
i i , } , , {
2 1
i , or } , , {
2 1
i .
( ) d T d i d i dW
fld 2 2 1 1 2 1 fld
, , + = (3.52)

Figure 3.13 Multiply-excited magnetic energy storage system.

( )


,
1
2 1 fld
1
2
, ,

=
W
i (3.53)
( )


,
2
2 1 fld
2
1
, ,

=
W
i (3.54)
( )
2 1
,
2 1 fld
fld
, ,

=
W
T (3.55)
To find , use the path of integration in Fig. 3.14.
fld
W
( ) ( ) ( )
1 0 2 2 1
0
1 2 0 2 1
0
2 0 2 1 fld
, , , , 0 , ,
0
0
1
0
2
0 0


d i d i W = = + = = =

(3.56)


Figure 3.14 Integration path to obtain ( )
0 2 1 fld
, ,
0 0
W .
13
In a magnetically-linear system,
2 12 1 11 1
i L i L + = (3.57)
2 22 1 21 2
i L i L + = (3.58)
21 12
L L = (3.59)
Note that ) (
ij ij
L L = .
D
L L
i
2 12 1 22
1

= (3.60)
D
L L
i
2 11 1 21
2
+
= (3.61)
21 12 22 11
L L L L D = (3.62)
The energy for this linear system is
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0 0 0
0
1
0
0
2
0 0
2 1
0
0 12
2
1 0 22
0
2
2 0 11
0
0
1
0
2 0 12 1 0 22
0
2
0
2 0 11
0 2 1 fld
2
1
2
1
, ,




D
L
L
D
L
D
d
D
L L
d
D
L
W
+ =

+ =

(3.63)
Coenergy function for a system with two windings can be defined as (3.46)
( )
fld 2 2 1 1 2 1 fld
, , W i i i i W + = (3.64)
( ) d T di di i i W d
fld 2 2 1 1 2 1 fld
, , + + = (3.65)
( )

,
1
2 1 fld
1
2
, ,
i
i
i i W

= (3.66)
( )

,
2
2 1 fld
2
1
, ,
i
i
i i W

= (3.67)
( )
2 1
,
2 1 fld
fld
, ,
i i
i i W
T


= (3.68)
( ) ( ) ( )
1 0 2 2 1
0
1 2 0 2 1
0
2 0 2 1 fld
, , , , 0 , ,
0
0
1
0
2
di i i i di i i i i W
i


= = + = = =

(3.69)
For the linear system described as (3.57) to (3.59)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 12
2
2 22
2
1 11 0 2 1 fld
2
1
2
1
, , i i L i L i L i i W + + = (3.70)
( )
( ) ( ) ( )


d
dL
i i
d
dL
i
d
dL
i i i W
T
i i
12
2 1
22
2
2
11
2
1
,
0 2 1 fld
fld
2 2
, ,
2 1
+ + =


= (3.71)
Note that (3.70) is simpler than (3.63). That is, the coenergy function is a relatively
simple function of displacement.
The use of a coenergy function of the terminal currents simplifies the determination of
torque or force.
Systems with more than two electrical terminals are handled in analogous fashion.
14




Figure 3.15 Multiply-excited magnetic system for Example 3.7.


Figure 3.16 Plot of torque components for the multiply-excited system of Example 3.7.

15
Practice Problem 3.7

Find an expression for the torque of a symmetrical two-winding system whose
inductances vary as

4 cos 27 . 0 8 . 0
22 11
+ = = L L
2 cos 65 . 0
12
= L
for the condition that A 37 . 0
2 1
= = i i .
Solution: 2 sin 178 . 0 4 sin 296 . 0
fld
+ = T
___________________________________________________________________


System with linear displacement:

( ) ( ) ( )
1 0 2 2 1
0
1 2 0 2 1
0
2 0 2 1 fld
, , , , 0 , ,
0
0
1
0
2
0 0


d x x i d x x i x W = = + = = =

(3.72)
( ) ( ) ( )
1 0 2 2 1
0
1 2 0 2 1
0
2 0 2 1 fld
, , , , 0 , ,
0
0
1
0
2
0 0
di x x i i i di x x i i x i i W = = + = = =


(3.73)
( )
2 1
,
2 1 fld
fld
, ,


x
x W
f

= (3.74)
( )
2 1
,
2 1 fld
fld
, ,
i i
x
x i i W
f


= (3.75)

For a magnetically-linear system,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 12
2
2 22
2
1 11 2 1 fld
2
1
2
1
, , i i x L i x L i x L x i i W + + = (3.76)
( ) ( ) ( )
dx
x dL
i i
dx
x dL
i
dx
x dL
i
f
12
2 1
22
2
2
11
2
1
fld
2 2
+ + = (3.77)



16

Prime Faraday Technology Watch



ISBN 1-84402-020-7 An Introduction to MEMS January 2002



An Introduction to MEMS (Micro-electromechanical Systems)



MEMS has been identified as one of the most promising technologies for
the 21
st
Century and has the potential to revolutionize both industrial and
consumer products by combining silicon-based microelectronics with
micromachining technology. Its techniques and microsystem-based
devices have the potential to dramatically affect of all of our lives and the
way we live.

This report presents a general introduction to the field of MEMS, with
emphasis on its commercial applications and device fabrication methods.
It also describes the range of MEMS sensors and actuators, the
phenomena that can be sensed or acted upon with MEMS devices, and
outlines the major challenges facing the industry.
PRIME Faraday Partnership






PRIME Faraday Partnership


This title is for sale in paperback at Amazon.co.uk
http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1844020207

Technology Watch titles are written for managers, especially in small
and medium-sized manufacturing companies. They offer a practical
introduction to cutting-edge developments that affect or likely soon
will affect the design, development, manufacture and marketing of
PRIME products products with interdependent mechanical and
electronic (and possibly software) parts.
All Technology Watch titles can be downloaded free of charge from
the Prime Faraday Partnerships Technology Watch website
http://www.primetechnologywatch.org.uk/. Selected titles can be
purchased in paperback from Amazon.co.uk.
In addition to market and technology reviews, the Technology Watch
website also provides news cuttings, case studies, an events diary and
details of funding opportunities. The service is sponsored by the DTI
and managed by the PRIME Faraday Partnership, which marries the
academic strengths of Loughborough University and the University of
Nottingham to the technology-transfer expertise of Pera.

An Introduction to MEMS

Prime Faraday Technology Watch January 2002

Published in 2002 by
PRIME Faraday Partnership
Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics LE11 3TU
http://www.primetechnologywatch.org.uk
2002 Loughborough University
ISBN 1-84402-020-7
Whilst the advice and information in this publication is believed to be
true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the author nor the
publisher assume any legal responsibility or liability for any error or
omission that may have been made.
Comments on this publication are welcomed. Please send them to
<feedback@primetechnologywatch.org.uk>

An Introduction to MEMS

Prime Faraday Technology Watch January 2002
iii

Contents
Page

1. Introduction.. 1

2. Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS)... 1
2.1 What is MEMS?... 1
2.2 Definitions and Classifications 3
2.3 History 4
2.4 Applications. 6
2.4.1 Established MEMS Applications.. 7
2.4.2 New MEMS Applications11
2.5 MEMS Market14
2.6 Miniaturization Issues 16

3. MEMS Fabrication Methods.. 17
3.1 Photolithography 17
3.2 Materials for Micromachining18
3.2.1 Substrates 18
3.2.2 Additive Films and Materials..19
3.3 Bulk Micromachining.20
3.3.1 Wet Etching.20
3.3.2 Dry Etching. 21
3.4 Surface Micromachining 21
3.4.1 Fusion Bonding23
3.5 High-Aspect-Ratio-Micromachining. 23
3.5.1 LIGA... 23
3.5.2 Laser Micromachining 24
3.6 Computer Aided Design.24
3.7 Assembly and System Integration.. 25
3.8 Packaging... 27
3.8.1 Multi-Chip Modules28
3.8.2 Passivation and Encapsulation 29
3.9 Foundry Services29

4. MEMS Transducers 30
4.1 Mechanical Transducers.31
4.1.1 Mechanical Sensors.31
4.1.2 Mechanical Actuators. 32
4.2 Radiation Transducers 34
4.2.1 Radiation Sensors... 34
4.2.2 Radiation (Optical) Actuators. 34
4.3 Thermal Transducers..35
4.3.1 Thermal Sensors..35
4.3.2 Thermal Actuators...35
4.4 Magnetic Transducers 36
4.4.1 Magnetic Sensors 36
4.4.2 Magnetic Actuators. 37
4.5 Chemical and Biological Transducers 37
4.5.1 Chemical and Biological Sensors... 37
4.5.2 Chemical Actuators.39
4.6 Microfluidic Devices. 39


An Introduction to MEMS

Prime Faraday Technology Watch January 2002
iv


5. Future of MEMS. 41
5.1 Industry Challenges.. 41
5.2 The Way Ahead 43


References. 44
Appendix A Glossary of Terms.. 47
Appendix B Sources of MEMS Information and Advice 49
An Introduction to MEMS

Prime Faraday Technology Watch January 2002
1

1. Introduction

This report deals with the emerging field of micro-electromechanical systems, or MEMS.
MEMS is a process technology used to create tiny integrated devices or systems that combine
mechanical and electrical components. They are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) batch
processing techniques and can range in size from a few micrometers to millimetres. These
devices (or systems) have the ability to sense, control and actuate on the micro scale, and
generate effects on the macro scale.

The interdisciplinary nature of MEMS utilizes design, engineering and manufacturing
expertise from a wide and diverse range of technical areas including integrated circuit
fabrication technology, mechanical engineering, materials science, electrical engineering,
chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as fluid engineering, optics, instrumentation and
packaging. The complexity of MEMS is also shown in the extensive range of markets and
applications that incorporate MEMS devices. MEMS can be found in systems ranging across
automotive, medical, electronic, communication and defence applications. Current MEMS
devices include accelerometers for airbag sensors, inkjet printer heads, computer disk drive
read/write heads, projection display chips, blood pressure sensors, optical switches,
microvalves, biosensors and many other products that are all manufactured and shipped in
high commercial volumes.

MEMS has been identified as one of the most promising technologies for the 21
st
Century and
has the potential to revolutionize both industrial and consumer products by combining silicon-
based microelectronics with micromachining technology. Its techniques and microsystem-
based devices have the potential to dramatically affect of all of our lives and the way we live.
If semiconductor microfabrication was seen to be the first micromanufacturing revolution,
MEMS is the second revolution.

This report introduces the field of MEMS and is divided into four main sections. In the first
section, the reader is introduced to MEMS, its definitions, history, current and potential
applications, as well as the state of the MEMS market and issues concerning miniaturization.
The second section deals with the fundamental fabrication methods of MEMS including
photolithography, bulk micromachining, surface micromachining and high-aspect-ratio
micromachining; assembly, system integration and packaging of MEMS devices is also
described here. The third section reviews the range of MEMS sensors and actuators, the
phenomena that can be sensed or acted upon with MEMS devices, and a brief description of
the basic sensing and actuation mechanisms. The final section illustrates the challenges
facing the MEMS industry for the commercialisation and success of MEMS.



2. Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS)
2.1 What is MEMS?

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is a process technology used to create tiny
integrated devices or systems that combine mechanical and electrical components. They are
fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) batch processing techniques and can range in size from
a few micrometers to millimetres. These devices (or systems) have the ability to sense,
control and actuate on the micro scale, and generate effects on the macro scale.
An Introduction to MEMS

Prime Faraday Technology Watch January 2002
2

MEMS, an acronym that originated in the United States, is also referred to as Microsystems
Technology (MST) in Europe and Micromachines in J apan. Regardless of terminology, the
uniting factor of a MEMS device is in the way it is made. While the device electronics are
fabricated using computer chip IC technology, the micromechanical components are
fabricated by sophisticated manipulations of silicon and other substrates using
micromachining processes. Processes such as bulk and surface micromachining, as well as
high-aspect-ratio micromachining (HARM) selectively remove parts of the silicon or add
additional structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical components. While
integrated circuits are designed to exploit the electrical properties of silicon, MEMS takes
advantage of either silicons mechanical properties or both its electrical and mechanical
properties.
In the most general form, MEMS consist of
mechanical microstructures, microsensors,
microactuators and microelectronics, all integrated
onto the same silicon chip. This is shown
schematically in Figure 1.
Microsensors detect changes in the systems
environment by measuring mechanical, thermal,
magnetic, chemical or electromagnetic information
or phenomena. Microelectronics process this
information and signal the microactuators to react
and create some form of changes to the environment.

MEMS devices are very small; their components are usually microscopic. Levers, gears,
pistons, as well as motors and even steam engines have all been fabricated by MEMS (Figure
2). However, MEMS is not just about the miniaturization of mechanical components or
making things out of silicon (in fact, the term MEMS is actually misleading as many
micromachined devices are not mechanical in any sense). MEMS is a manufacturing
technology; a paradigm for designing and creating complex mechanical devices and systems
as well as their integrated electronics using batch fabrication techniques.










Figure 1. Schematic illustration of
MEMS components.
Figure 2. (a) A MEMS silicon motor together with a strand of human hair [1], and (b)
the legs of a spider mite standing on gears from a micro-engine [2 - Sandia National
Labs, SUMMiT *Technology, http://mems.sandia.gov].
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From a very early vision in the early 1950s, MEMS has gradually made its way out of
research laboratories and into everyday products. In the mid-1990s, MEMS components
began appearing in numerous commercial products and applications including accelerometers
used to control airbag deployment in vehicles, pressure sensors for medical applications, and
inkjet printer heads. Today, MEMS devices are also found in projection displays and for
micropositioners in data storage systems. However, the greatest potential for MEMS devices
lies in new applications within telecommunications (optical and wireless), biomedical and
process control areas.
MEMS has several distinct advantages as a manufacturing technology. In the first place, the
interdisciplinary nature of MEMS technology and its micromachining techniques, as well as
its diversity of applications has resulted in an unprecedented range of devices and synergies
across previously unrelated fields (for example biology and microelectronics). Secondly,
MEMS with its batch fabrication techniques enables components and devices to be
manufactured with increased performance and reliability, combined with the obvious
advantages of reduced physical size, volume, weight and cost. Thirdly, MEMS provides the
basis for the manufacture of products that cannot be made by other methods. These factors
make MEMS potentially a far more pervasive technology than integrated circuit microchips.
However, there are many challenges and technological obstacles associated with
miniaturization that need to be addressed and overcome before MEMS can realize its
overwhelming potential.


2.2 Definitions and Classifications

This section defines some of the key terminology and classifications associated with MEMS.
It is intended to help the reader and newcomers to the field of micromachining become
familiar with some of the more common terms. A more detailed glossary of terms has been
included in Appendix A.

Figure 3 illustrates the classifications of microsystems technology (MST). Although MEMS
is also referred to as MST, strictly speaking, MEMS is a process technology used to create
these tiny mechanical devices or systems, and as a result, it is a subset of MST.




Figure 3. Classifications of microsystems technology [3].

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Micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) is also a subset of MST and together with
MEMS forms the specialized technology fields using miniaturized combinations of optics,
electronics and mechanics. Both their microsystems incorporate the use of microelectronics
batch processing techniques for their design and fabrication. There are considerable overlaps
between fields in terms of their integrating technology and their applications and hence it is
extremely difficult to categorise MEMS devices in terms of sensing domain and/or their
subset of MST. The real difference between MEMS and MST is that MEMS tends to use
semiconductor processes to create a mechanical part. In contrast, the deposition of a material
on silicon for example, does not constitute MEMS but is an application of MST.

Transducer
A transducer is a device that transforms one form of signal or energy into another form. The
term transducer can therefore be used to include both sensors and actuators and is the most
generic and widely used term in MEMS.

Sensor
A sensor is a device that measures information from a surrounding environment and provides
an electrical output signal in response to the parameter it measured. Over the years, this
information (or phenomenon) has been categorized in terms of the type of energy domains but
MEMS devices generally overlap several domains or do not even belong in any one category.
These energy domains include:

Mechanical - force, pressure, velocity, acceleration, position
Thermal - temperature, entropy, heat, heat flow
Chemical - concentration, composition, reaction rate
Radiant - electromagnetic wave intensity, phase, wavelength, polarization
reflectance, refractive index, transmittance
Magnetic - field intensity, flux density, magnetic moment, permeability
Electrical - voltage, current, charge, resistance, capacitance, polarization [4,5,6,7]

Actuator
An actuator is a device that converts an electrical signal into an action. It can create a force to
manipulate itself, other mechanical devices, or the surrounding environment to perform some
useful function.


2.3 History

The history of MEMS is useful to illustrate its diversity, challenges and applications. The
following list summarizes some of the key MEMS milestones [8].

1950s
1958 Silicon strain gauges commercially available

1959 Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom Richard Feynman gives a milestone
presentation at California Institute of Technology. He issues a public challenge by
offering $1000 to the first person to create an electrical motor smaller than 1/64
th

of an inch.

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1960s
1961 First silicon pressure sensor demonstrated

1967 Invention of surface micromachining. Westinghouse creates the Resonant Gate
Field Effect Transistor, (RGT). Description of use of sacrificial material to free
micromechanical devices from the silicon substrate.

1970s
1970 First silicon accelerometer demonstrated

1979 First micromachined inkjet nozzle

1980s
Early 1980s: first experiments in surface micromachined silicon. Late 1980s:
micromachining leverages microelectronics industry and widespread
experimentation and documentation increases public interest.

1982 Disposable blood pressure transducer

1982 Silicon as a Mechanical Material [9]. Instrumental paper to entice the scientific
community reference for material properties and etching data for silicon.

1982 LIGA Process

1988 First MEMS conference

1990s
Methods of micromachining aimed towards improving sensors.

1992 MCNC starts the Multi-User MEMS Process (MUMPS) sponsored by Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

1992 First micromachined hinge

1993 First surface micromachined accelerometer sold (Analog Devices, ADXL50)

1994 Deep Reactive Ion Etching is patented

1995 BioMEMS rapidly develops

2000 MEMS optical-networking components become big business


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2.4 Applications

Today, high volume MEMS can be found in a diversity of applications across multiple
markets (Table 1).

Table 1. Applications of MEMS [10].

Automotive Electronics Medical Communications Defence
Internal
navigation
sensors
Disk drive heads
Blood pressure
sensor
Fibre-optic
network
components
Munitions
guidance
Air conditioning
compressor
sensor
Inkjet printer
heads
Muscle
stimulators & drug
delivery systems
RF Relays,
switches and
filters
Surveillance
Brake force
sensors &
suspension
control
accelerometers
Projection
screen
televisions
Implanted
pressure sensors
Projection
displays in
portable
communications
devices and
instrumentation
Arming systems
Fuel level and
vapour pressure
sensors
Earthquake
sensors
Prosthetics
Voltage controlled
oscillators (VCOs)
Embedded
sensors
Airbag sensors
Avionics
pressure
sensors
Miniature
analytical
instruments
Splitters and
couplers
Data storage
"Intelligent" tyres
Mass data
storage systems
Pacemakers Tuneable lasers Aircraft control

As an emerging technology MEMS products are centred around technology-product
paradigms rather than product-market paradigms. Consequently, a MEMS device may find
numerous applications across a diversity of industries. For example, the MEMS inkjet printer
head nozzle in widespread use today has developed from a nozzle originally used in nuclear
separation. The commercialisation of selected MEMS devices is illustrated in Table 2.

Table 2. Commercialisation of selected MEMS devices [11].

Product
Discovery
Evolution
Cost Reduction/
Appli cation
Expansion
Full
Commerciali sation
Pressure sensors 1954-1960 1960-1975 1975-1990 1990-present
Accelerometers 1974-1985 1985-1990 1990-1998 1998
Gas sensors 1986-1994 1994-1998 1998-2005 2005
Valves 1980-1988 1988-1996 1996-2002 2002
Nozzles 1972-1984 1984-1990 1990-1998 1998
Photonics/displays 1980-1986 1986-1998 1998-2004 2004
Bio/Chemical sensors 1980-1994 1994-1999 1999-2004 2004
RF switches 1994-1998 1998-2001 2001-2005 2005
Rate (rotation) sensors 1982-1990 1990-1996 1996-2002 2002
Micro relays 1977-1982 1993-1998 1998-2006 2006

It is not within the scope of this report to detail all the current and potential applications
within each market segment. Instead, a selection of the most established MEMS devices is
detailed along with the most potentially significant future applications.

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2.4.1 Established MEMS Applications

i) Automotive airbag sensor
Automotive airbag sensors were one of the first commercial devices using MEMS. They are
in widespread use today in the form of a single chip containing a smart sensor, or
accelerometer, which measures the rapid deceleration of a vehicle on hitting an object. The
deceleration is sensed by a change in voltage. An electronic control unit subsequently sends a
signal to trigger and explosively fill the airbag.

Initial air bag technology used conventional mechanical ball and tube type devices which
were relatively complex, weighed several pounds and cost several hundred dollars. They
were usually mounted in the front of the vehicle with separate electronics near the airbag.
MEMS has enabled the same function to be accomplished by integrating an accelerometer and
the electronics into a single silicon chip, resulting in a tiny device that can be housed within
the steering wheel column and costs only a few dollars (Figures 4 and 5).

The accelerometer is essentially a capacitive or piezoresistive device consisting of a
suspended pendulum proof mass/plate assembly. As acceleration acts on the proof mass,
micromachined capacitive or piezoresistive plates sense a change in acceleration from
deflection of the plates. The sense plates can be seen in Figure 4.











The airbag sensor is fundamental to the success of MEMS and micromachining technology.
With over 60 million devices sold and in operation over the last 10 years and operating in
such a challenging environment as that found within a vehicle, the reliability of the
technology has been proven. An example of this success is todays vehicles the BMW 740i
has over 70 MEMS devices including anti-lock braking systems, active suspension, appliance
Figure 4. (a) The first commercial accelerometer from Analog
Devices (1990); its size is less than 1 cm
2
(left) [12], and (b)
capacitive sense plates, 60 microns deep (right) [13].


Figure 5. Modern day MEMS accelerometer (left), and
the fully packaged device (right) [12].
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and navigation control systems, vibration monitoring, fuel sensors, noise reduction, rollover
detection, seatbelt restraint and tensioning etc. As a result, the automotive industry has
become one of the main drivers for the development of MEMS for other equally demanding
environments. Some of the leading airbag accelerometer manufacturers include Analog
Devices, Motorola, SensorNor and Nippondenso.

Accelerometers are not just limited to automotive applications. Earthquake detection, virtual
reality video games and joysticks, pacemakers, high performance disk drives and weapon
systems arming are some of the many potential uses for accelerometers.

ii) Medical pressure sensor
Another example of an extremely successful MEMS application is the miniature disposable
pressure sensor used to monitor blood pressure in hospitals. These sensors connect to a
patients intravenous (IV) line and monitor the blood pressure through the IV solution. For a
fraction of their cost ($10), they replace the early external blood pressure sensors that cost
over $600 and had to be sterilized and recalibrated for reuse. These expensive devices
measure blood pressure with a saline-filled tube and diaphragm arrangement that has to be
connected to an artery with a needle.


Figure 6. Schematic illustration of a piezoresistive pressure sensor.

The disposable sensor consists of a silicon substrate which is etched to produce a membrane
and is bonded to a substrate (Figure 6). A piezoresistive layer is applied on the membrane
surface near the edges to convert the mechanical stress into an electrical voltage. Pressure
corresponds to deflection of the membrane. The sensing element is mounted on a plastic or
ceramic base with a plastic cap over it, designed to fit into a manufacturers housing (Figure
7). A gel is used to separate the saline solution from the sensing element.

As in the case of the MEMS airbag sensor, the disposable blood pressure sensor has been one
of the strongest MEMS success stories to date. The principal manufacturers being Lucas
Novasensor, EG & G IC Sensors and Motorola with over 17 millions units per year. More
recently, the technology from the blood pressure sensor has been taken a step further in the
development of the catheter-tip pressure sensor. This considerably smaller MEMS device is
designed to fit on the tip of a catheter and measure intravascular pressure (its size being only
0.15 mm x 0.40 mm x 0.90 mm).

Pressure sensors are the biggest medical MEMS application to date with the accelerometer
MEMS a distant second. Although the majority of these accelerometer applications remain
under development, advanced pacemaker designs include a MEMS accelerometer device that
measures the patients activity. The technology, similar to that found in the airbag sensor,
enables the patients motion and activity to be monitored and signals the pacemaker to adjust
its rate accordingly.

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iii) Inkjet printer head
One of the most successful MEMS applications is the inkjet printer head, superseding even
automotive and medical pressure sensors. Inkjet printers use a series of nozzles to spray
drops of ink directly on to a printing medium. Depending on the type of inkjet printer the
droplets of ink are formed in different ways; thermally or piezoelectrically.

Invented in 1979 by Hewlett-Packard, MEMS thermal inkjet printer head technology uses
thermal expansion of ink vapour. Within the printer head there is an array of tiny resistors
known as heaters. These resistors can be fired under microprocessor control with electronic
pulses of a few milliseconds (usually less than 3 microseconds). Ink flows over each resistor,
which when fired, heat up at 100 million C per second, vaporizing the ink to form a bubble.
As the bubble expands, some of the ink is pushed out of a nozzle within a nozzle plate,
landing on the paper and solidifying almost instantaneously. When the bubble collapses, a
vacuum is created which pulls more ink into the print head from the reservoir in the cartridge
(Figure 8). It is worth noting there are no moving parts in this system (apart from the ink
itself) illustrating that not all MEMS devices are mechanical.


Figure 8. Thermal inkjet print technology [16].
Figure 7. (a) Disposable blood pressure sensor connected to an IV line [14],
(b) disposable blood pressure sensors (as shipped) [15], and (c) intracardial
catheter-tip sensors for monitoring blood pressure during cardiac
catheterisation, shown on the head of a pin [13].
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A piezoelectric element can also be used to force the ink through the nozzles (Figure 9). In
this case, a piezoelectric crystal is located at the back of the ink reservoir of each nozzle. The
piezoelectric crystal element receives a very small electric charge causing it to vibrate. When
it vibrates inwards it forces a tiny amount of ink out of the nozzle. As the element vibrates
back out, it pulls some more ink into the reservoir to replace the ink that was sprayed out.
Epson patented this technology but it is also used by the majority of the other leading printer
companies.

MEMS has enabled more and more heating elements and piezoelectric crystals to be
incorporated into a printer head. Early printers had 12 nozzles with resolutions of up to 92
dpi possible. Today, modern inkjet printers have up to 600 nozzles which can all fire a
droplet simultaneously enabling 1200 dpi. Epson, Lexmark, Hewlett-Packard, Olivetti, Xerox
and Canon all use a form of these MEMS in their inkjet printers. Over 350 million units were
sold in 2000.

Figure 9. Thermal inkjet print technology [16].
iv) Overhead projection display
One of the early MEMS devices used for a variety of display applications is the Digital
Micromirror Device (DMD) from Texas Instruments. The device contains over a million tiny
pixel-mirrors each measuring 16 m by 16 m and capable of rotating by 10, over 1000
times a second (Figure 10). Light from a projection source impinges on the pupil of the lens
(or mirror) and is reflected brightly onto a projection screen. DMDs are used for displays for
PC projectors, high definition televisions (HDTVs) and for large venues such as digital
cinemas where traditional liquid crystal technology cannot compete. MEMS has enabled the
micromirrors to be only 1 m apart, resulting in an image taking up a larger percentage (89
percent) of space on the DMD chip's reflective surface, as compared to a typical LCD (12 to
50 percent). This reduces the pixelation and produces an overall sharper and brighter image.
Today over 30 manufacturers use the DMD (Kodak being the largest) and over 500,000
systems have been shipped.

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2.4.2 New MEMS Applications

The experience gained from these early MEMS applications has made it an enabling
technology for new biomedical applications (often referred to as bioMEMS) and wireless
communications comprised of both optical, also referred to as micro-optoelectromechanical
systems (MOEMS), and radio frequency (RF) MEMS.

i) BioMEMS
Over the past few years some highly innovative products have emerged from bioMEMS
companies for revolutionary applications that support major societal issues including DNA
sequencing, drug discovery, and water and environmental monitoring. The technology
focuses on microfluidic systems as well as chemical testing and processing and has enabled
devices and applications such as lab-on-a-chip, chemical sensors, flow controllers,
micronozzles and microvalves to be produced. Although many devices are still under
development, microfluidic systems typically contain silicon micromachined pumps, flow
sensors and chemical sensors. They enable fast and relatively convenient manipulation and
analysis of small volumes of liquids, an area of particular interest in home-based medical
applications where patients can use devices to monitor their own conditions, such as blood
and urine analysis.

One example of a new bioMEMS device is the microtitreplate on which a number of cavities
can be simultaneously filled accurately and repeatably by capillary force (Figure 11a). This is
a relatively simple MEMS product in the form of a piece of plastic with high-aspect-ratio
micromachined microchannels and is classified as a lab-on-a-chip product. Its dimensions
are only 20 mm x 37 mm x 3 mm and enables automatic filling of 96 microwells by the use
of capillary action.
Figure 10. The MEMS Digital Micromirror Device
(DMD) [17].
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Future lab-on-a-chip technology may include implantable pharmacy-on-a-chip devices to
carefully release drugs into the body from tiny chambers embedded in a MEMS device,
eliminating the need for needles or injections. The delivery of insulin is one such application,
as is the delivery of hormones, chemotherapy drugs and painkillers. First generation devices
are being developed which release their medication upon signals from an outside source,
wired through the skin. Proposed second generation devices may be wireless and third
generation MEMS chips could interact with MEMS sensors embedded in the body to respond
to the bodys own internal signals.

One of the most recent MEMS microfluidic devices to emerge from development laboratories
incorporates a Pac-Man-like microstructure that interacts with red blood cells (Figure 11b).
The device from Sandia National Laboratories, U.S.A, contains silicon microteeth that open
and close like jaws trapping and releasing a single red blood cell unharmed as it is pumped
through a 20 m channel. The ultimate goal of this device is to puncture cells and inject them
with DNA, proteins, or pharmaceuticals to counter biological or chemical attacks, gene
imbalances and natural bacterial or viral infections.

ii) MOEMS
Optical communications has emerged as the only practical means to address the network
scaling issues created by the tremendous growth in data traffic caused by the rapid rise of the
Internet. Current routing technology slows the information (or bit) flow by transforming
optical signals into electronic information and then back into light before redirecting it. All
optical networks offer far superior throughput capabilities and performance over traditional
electronic systems.

The most significant MOEMS device products include waveguides, optical switches, cross
connects, multiplexers, filters, modulators, detectors, attenuators and equalizers. Their small
size, low cost, low power consumption, mechanical durability, high accuracy, high switching
density and low cost batch processing of these MEMS-based devices make them a perfect
solution to the problems of the control and switching of optical signals in telephone networks.
An example of a MEMS optical connect is shown in Figure 12. Here a network of 256
MEMS micromirrors route information in the form of photons (the elementary particle that
corresponds to an electromagnetic wave) to and from any of 256 input/output optical fibres.


Figure 11. (a) Micromachined microtitreplate with 96 cavities filled by capillary
force [18,19], and (b) a bioMEMS device actuated with microteeth to trap,
hold and release single red blood cells (unharmed). The little balls in the
channels are red blood cells [2].
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MEMS fabrication processes have reached the stage where mass manufacture of such devices
is now practical. A typical optical switch can cost over $1000, but using MEMS, the same
level of functionality can be achieved for less than a dollar. Agere Systems (previously
known as the microelectronics division of Lucent Technologies), Corning, J DS Uniphase and
Sycamore Networks are some of the leading companies in this field.

iii) RF MEMS
RF MEMS is one of the fastest growing areas in commercial MEMS technology. RF MEMS
are designed specifically for electronics in mobile phones and other wireless communication
applications such as radar, global positioning satellite systems (GPS) and steerable antennae.
MEMS has enabled the performance, reliability and function of these devices to be increased
while driving down their size and cost at the same time (Figure 13).



The technology includes circuit tuning elements (capacitors/inductors, resonators, filters,
microphones and switches). These low-loss ultra-miniature and highly integrative RF
functions can and will eventually replace classical RF elements and enable a new generation
of RF devices. As it can be seen today, if RF MEMS components continue to replace
traditional components in todays mobile phones, then phones could become extremely small
(the size of wristwatch is not too far away), require little battery power and may even be
cheaper.


Figure 12. A MEMS optical cross connect consisting of an array of microscopic mirrors, each the size
of a pin head and able to tilt in various directions to steer light [20,21].
Figure 13. (a) A miniature acoustic resonator, shown in the
foreground, is one-fifth the size of a traditional component used in
mobile phones and other wireless communications devices [22],
and (b) on-chip micro-microphones may make it possible to build
radios on a chip [20,21].
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2.5 MEMS Market

The three most well known market studies are the Network of Excellence in Multifunctional
Microsystems (NEXUS) study (1998), the System Planning Corporation (SPC) study (1999)
and the Battelle study (1990) and there is discrepancy between each study [23, 24, 25
respectively]. The size of the MEMS market (M
3
) is contingent on how MEMS is defined
(M
3
is shorthand for MEMS, Microsystems and Micromachining and although it is not yet
common, it is used as a reference for the entire MEMS market. Smaller M
3
figures are
obtained if MEMS is considered as just micromachining, which is more elemental and at the
device level. Alternatively, much larger M
3
figures arise if MEMS is examined at the system
or subsystem level (as in the case of NEXUS). Depending on the study under review, the M
3

market today ranges from $4.2 billion to $14.2 billion. Much of the current market centres on
read/write heads for computer disk drives, pressure sensors, inkjet printer heads and
accelerometers. Table 3 provides the NEXUS worldwide M
3
market size in 1996 and
forecasts for 2002 for existing MEMS product types.


Product Types
1996
Units
(millions)
$
(millions)
2002 Units
(millions)
$
(millions)
HDD heads 530 4500 1500 12000
Inkjet print heads 100 4400 500 10000
Heart pacemakers 0.5 1000 0.8 3700
In vitro diagnostics 700 450 4000 2800
Hearing aids 4 1150 7 2000
Pressure sensors 115 600 309 1300
Chemical sensors 100 300 400 800
Infrared imagers 0.01 220 0.4 800
Accelerometers 24 240 90 430
Gyroscopes 6 150 30 360
Magnetoresistive sensors 15 20 60 60
Microspectrometers 0.006 3 0.15 40
TOTAL 1595 $13,033 6807 $34,290

In the area of emerging MEMS products, Table 4 provides the NEXUS worldwide M
3
market
size in 1996 and forecasts for 2002. Drug delivery systems (microfluidic microdosing
systems), lab-on-a-chip devices and MEMS-based optical switches are predicted to reach
billion dollar market segments by 2002.
Table 3. Worldwide M
3
market size in 1996 and 2002 for existing MEMS product types
in $US millions [23].
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Product Types
1996
Units
(millions)
$
(millions)
2002 Units
(millions)
$ (millions)
Drug delivery systems 1 10 100 1000
Optical switches 1 50 40 1000
Lab on ship 0 0 100 1000
Magneto optical heads 0.01 1 100 500
Projection valves 0.1 10 1 300
Coil on chip 20 10 600 100
Micro relays 0.1 50 100
Micromotors 0.1 5 2 80
Inclinometers 1 10 20 70
Injection nozzles 10 10 30 30
Anti-collision sensors 0.01 0.5 2 20
Electronic noses 0.001 0.1 0.05 5
TOTAL 33 $107 1045 $4,205


A more recent market study by NEXUS/Roger Grace Associates, shown in Table 5, estimated
the M
3
market to be $14.2 billion in 2000, increasing to $30.4 billion by 2004. This
corresponds to a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21%. Telecommunications is
forecast to be the major growth area, comprised of both optical MEMS and RF MEMS-based
devices.


Appli cation Sector 2000 2004 CAGR(%)
IT/Peripheral $ 8,700 $13,400 11.5
Medical/Biochemical 2,400 7,400 32.5
Industrial/Automation 1,190 1,850 11.6
Telecommunications 130 3,650 128.1
Automotive 1,260 2,350 16.9
Environmental Monitoring 520 1,750 35.4
TOTAL $14,200 $30,400 21.0%


2.6 Miniaturization Issues

As previously stated, MEMS is not about miniaturization; it is a manufacturing technology
used to create tiny integrated microdevices and systems using IC batch fabrication techniques.
Similarly, miniaturization is not just about shrinking down existing devices (although there
have been some classic examples, namely the DENSO Micro-Car as shown in Figure 14); its
about completely rethinking the structure of a microsystem.

Table 4. Worldwide M
3
market size in 1996 and 2002 for emerging MEMS product types
in $US millions [23].
Table 5. Worldwide shipment of M
3
products by application sector for
2000-2004 in $US millions [23,26].
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In order to manufacture a successful MEMS device basic physics and operating principles
including scaling laws need to be fully understood and appreciated at both a macro and
microlevel. Sometimes no advantages in terms of performance, size/weight, reliability and
cost can be gained with a MEMS device. Increased surface area (S) to volume (V) ratios at
microscales have both considerable advantages and disadvantages (Figure 15).


Figure 15. Effect of miniaturization on surface area and volume.

Some of these microlevel issues include:

Friction is greater than inertia. Capillary, electrostatic and atomic forces as well as
stiction at a micro-level can be significant.

Heat dissipation is greater than heat storage and consequently thermal transport
properties could be a problem or, conversely, a great benefit.

Fluidic or mass transport properties are extremely important. Tiny flow spaces are
prone to blockages but can conversely regulate fluid movement.

Material properties (Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, grain structure) and
mechanical theory (residual stress, wear and fatigue etc.) may be size dependent.

Integration with on-chip circuitry is complex and device/domain specific. Lab-on-a-
chip systems components may not scale down comparably.

Miniature device packaging and testing is not straightforward. Certain MEMS sensors
require environmental access as well as protection from other external influences.
Testing is not rapid and is expensive in comparison with conventional IC devices.

Cost for the success of a MEMS device, it needs to leverage its IC batch fabrication
resources and be mass-produced. Hence mass-market drivers must be found to
generate the high volume production.
Figure 14. The DENSO Micro-Car is a miniature version of Toyotas first passenger car. Fabricated
using MEMS, at 1/1000
th
the size of the original, it consists of a 0.67 mm magnetic-type working
motor and when supplied with 3 V 20 mA of alternating current through a 18 m copper wire, the
engine runs at 600 rpm equivalent to 5-6 mm/s [27].
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3. MEMS Fabrication Methods

MEMS fall into three general classifications; bulk micromachining, surface micromachining
and high-aspect-ratio micromachining (HARM), which includes technology such as LIGA (a
German acronym from Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung translated as lithography,
electroforming and moulding).

Conventional macroscale manufacturing techniques e.g. injection moulding, turning, drilling
etc, are good for producing three dimensional (3D) shapes and objects, but can be limited in
terms of low complexity for small size applications. MEMS fabrication, by comparison, uses
high volume IC style batch processing that involves the addition or subtraction of two
dimensional layers on a substrate (usually silicon) based on photolithography and chemical
etching. As a result, the 3D aspect of MEMS devices is due to patterning and interaction of
the 2D layers. Additional layers can be added using a variety of thin-film and bonding
techniques as well as by etching through sacrificial spacer layers. Figure 16 shows the
potential complexity of a MEMS system by the addition of independent structural layers.


Figure 16. MEMS device complexity by structural layers [2].

3.1 Photolithography

Photolithography is the photographic technique to transfer copies of a master pattern, usually
a circuit layout in IC applications, onto the surface of a substrate of some material (usually a
silicon wafer).

The substrate is covered with a thin film of some material, usually silicon dioxide (SiO
2
), in
the case of silicon wafers, on which a pattern of holes will be formed (Figure 17). A thin
layer of an organic polymer, which is sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, is then deposited on
the oxide layer; this is called a photoresist. A photomask, consisting of a glass plate
(transparent) coated with a chromium pattern (opaque), is then placed in contact with the
photoresist coated surface. The wafer is exposed to the ultraviolet radiation transferring the
pattern on the mask to the photoresist which is then developed in a way very similar to the
process used for developing photographic films. The radiation causes a chemical reaction in
the exposed areas of the photoresist of which there are two types; positive and negative.
Positive photoresist is strengthened by UV radiation whereas negative photoresists are
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weakened. On developing, the rinsing solution removes either the exposed areas or the
unexposed areas of photoresist leaving a pattern of bare and photoresist-coated oxides on the
wafer surface. The resulting photoresist pattern is either the positive or negative image of the
original pattern of the photomask.


Figure 17. Photoresist and silicon dioxide patterns following photolithography [28].

A chemical (usually hydrochloric acid) is used to attack and remove the uncovered oxide
from the exposed areas of the photoresist. The remaining photoresist is subsequently
removed, usually with hot sulphuric acid which attacks the photoresist but not the oxide layer
on the silicon, leaving a pattern of oxide on the silicon surface. The final oxide pattern is
either a positive or negative copy of the photomask pattern and serves as a mask in
subsequent processing steps.

At this point MEMS diverges from traditional IC fabrication. In processing IC devices, the
oxide pattern serves as a mask during the doping of the wafer with impurities (such as boron
or phosphorous) that alter the local conduction necessary for microelectronic devices. In
MEMS, the oxide serves as a subsequent mask for either further additional chemical etching
creating deeper 3D pits or new layers on which to build further layers, resulting in an overall
3D structure or device.


3.2 Materials for Micromachining

3.2.1 Substrates
The most common substrate material for micromachining is silicon. It has been successful in
the microelectronics industry and will continue to be in areas of miniaturization for several
reasons:

i) silicon is abundant, inexpensive, and can be processed to unparalleled purity

ii) silicons ability to be deposited in thin films is very amenable to MEMS

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iii) high definition and reproduction of silicon device shapes using photolithography are
perfect for high levels of MEMS precision

iv) silicon microelectronics circuits are batch fabricated (a silicon wafer contains
hundreds of identical chips not just one)

Other crystalline semiconductors including germanium (Ge) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are
used as substrate materials due to similar inherent features, but silicon is distinguished from
other semiconductors in that it can be readily oxidized to form a chemically inert and
electrically insulating surface layer of SiO
2
on exposure to steam.

The homogeneous crystal structure of silicon gives it the electrical properties needed in
microelectronic circuits, but in this form silicon also has desirable mechanical properties.
Silicon forms the same type of crystal structure as diamond, and although the interatomic
bonds are much weaker, it is harder than most metals. In addition, it is surprisingly resistant
to mechanical stress, having a higher elastic limit than steel in both tension and compression.
Single crystal silicon also remains strong under repeated cycles of tension and compression.

The crystalline orientation of silicon is important in the fabrication of MEMS devices because
some of the etchants used attack the crystal at different rates in different directions (Figure
18).

Figure 18. Low crystallographic index planes of silicon [29].

Silicon is dominant as a substrate for MEMS but research and development is ongoing with
other non-semiconductor substrate materials including metals, glasses, quartz, crystalline
insulators, ceramics and polymers. The ability to integrate circuitry directly onto the substrate
is currently the underlying issue with todays MEMS substrate materials; hence the success of
silicon.


3.2.2 Additive Films and Materials
The range of additive films and materials for MEMS devices is much larger than the types of
possible substrates and includes conductors, semiconductors and insulators such as:

silicon - single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous
silicon compounds (Si
x
N
y
, SiO
2
, SiC etc.)
metals and metallic compounds (Au, Cu, Al, ZnO, GaAs, IrO
x
, CdS)
ceramics (Al
2
0
3
and more complex ceramic compounds)
organics (diamond, polymers, enzymes, antibodies, DNA etc.) [4]


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3.3 Bulk Micromachining

Bulk micromachining involves the removal of part of the bulk substrate. It is a subtractive
process that uses wet anisotropic etching or a dry etching method such as reactive ion etching
(RIE), to create large pits, grooves and channels. Materials typically used for wet etching
include silicon and quartz, while dry etching is typically used with silicon, metals, plastics
and ceramics.

3.3.1 Wet Etching
Wet etching describes the removal of material through the immersion of a material (typically
a silicon wafer) in a liquid bath of a chemical etchant. These etchants can be isotropic or
anisotropic.

Isotropic etchants etch the material at the same rate in all directions, and consequently remove
material under the etch masks at the same rate as they etch through the material; this is known
as undercutting (Figure 19 a and b). The most common form of isotropic silicon etch is HNA,
which comprises a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF), nitric acid (HNO
3
) and acetic acid
(CH
3
COOH). Isotropic etchants are limited by the geometry of the structure to be etched.
Etch rates can slow down and in some cases (for example, in deep and narrow channels) they
can stop due to diffusion limiting factors. However, this effect can be minimized by agitation
of the etchant, resulting in structures with near perfect and rounded surfaces (Figure 19a) [4].







Anisotropic etchants etch faster in a preferred direction. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) is the
most common anisotropic etchant as it is relatively safe to use. Structures formed in the
substrate are dependent on the crystal orientation of the substrate or wafer. Most such
anisotropic etchants progress rapidly in the crystal direction perpendicular to the (110) plane
and less rapidly in the direction perpendicular to the (100) plane. The direction perpendicular
to the (111) plane etches very slowly if at all. Figures 19c and 19d shows examples of
anisotropic etching in (100) and (110) silicon. Silicon wafers, originally cut from a large
ingot of silicon grown from single seed silicon, are cut according to the crystallographic
plane. They can be supplied in terms of the orientation of the surface plane.

Dopant levels within the substrate can affect the etch rate by KOH, and if levels are high
enough, can effectively stop it. Boron is one such dopant and is implanted into the silicon by
a diffusion process. This can be used to selectively etch regions in the silicon leaving doped
areas unaffected.

Figure 19. Isotropic etching with (a) and without (b)
agitation, and anisotropic wet etching of (100) and (110)
silicon (c and d respectively) [9].
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3.3.2 Dry Etching
Dry etching relies on vapour phase or plasma-based methods of etching using suitably
reactive gases or vapours usually at high temperatures. The most common form for MEMS is
reactive ion etching (RIE) which utilizes additional energy in the form of radio frequency
(RF) power to drive the chemical reaction. Energetic ions are accelerated towards the
material to be etched within a plasma phase supplying the additional energy needed for the
reaction; as a result the etching can occur at much lower temperatures (typically 150 - 250C,
sometimes room temperature) than those usually needed (above 1000C). RIE is not limited
by the crystal planes in the silicon, and as a result, deep trenches and pits, or arbitrary shapes
with vertical walls can be etched [4].

Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) is a much higher-aspect-ratio etching method that involves
an alternating process of high-density plasma etching (as in RIE) and protective polymer
deposition to achieve greater aspect ratios (Figure 20).


Figure 20. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) [2,3].

Etch rates depend on time, concentration, temperature and material to be etched. To date
there are no universally accepted master equations to predict etch performance and behaviour.



3.4 Surface Micromachining

Surface micromachining involves processing above the substrate, mainly using it as a
foundation layer on which to build. It was initiated in the 1980s and is the newest MEMS
production technology. Material is added to the substrate in the form of layers of thin films
on the surface of the substrate (typically a silicon wafer). These layers can either by structural
layers or act as spacers, later to be removed, when they are known as sacrificial layers. Hence
the process usually involves films of two different materials: a structural material out of
which the free standing structure is made (generally polycrystalline silicon or polysilicon,
silicon nitride and aluminium) and a sacrificial material, deposited wherever either an open
area or a free standing mechanical structure is required (usually an oxide).


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Figure 21. Surface micromachining of a cantilever beam using a sacrificial layer [2,3].

These layers (or thin films) are deposited and subsequently dry etched in sequence, with the
sacrificial material being finally wet etched away to release the final structure. Each
additional layer is accompanied by an increasing level of complexity and a resulting difficulty
in fabrication. A typical surface micromachined cantilever beam is shown in Figure 21.
Here, a sacrificial layer of oxide is deposited on the silicon substrate surface using a pattern
and photolithography. A polysilicon layer is then deposited and patterned using RIE
processes to form a cantilever beam with an anchor pad. The wafer is then wet etched to
remove the oxide (sacrificial) layer releasing and leaving the beam on the substrate. More
complex MEMS structures can be achieved using structural polysilicon and sacrificial silicon
dioxide, including sliding structures, actuators and free moving mechanical gears. Figures 22
shows the process flow for the fabrication of a micromotor by the commercially available
Multi-User MEMS Process (MUMPS).




The levels of complexity achievable with MEMS has already been shown in Figure 16. In
this case, five mechanical levels of micromachined polysilicon can be achieved using Sandia
Ultra-Planar Multi-Level Technology (SUMMiT).

The success of the surface micromachining process depends on the ability to successfully
remove all of the sacrificial layers to free the structural elements so that they can be actuated.
This step is responsible for curtailing the yield (percentage of the devices on a wafer that
function properly) and reliability of fabricated MEMS due to the phenomenon known as
Figure 22. Surface micromachining of a MEMS micromotor using the Multi-
User MEMS Process (MUMPS) [30].
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stiction. Stiction refers to the sticking of structural elements either to the substrate or the
adjacent elements. Capillary forces from rinsing liquids, as well as electrostatic and van der
Waals forces can also produce permanent adhesion after the system has dried.

3.4.1 Fusion Bonding
In order to form more complex and larger MEMS structures, micromachined silicon wafers
can be bonded to other materials in a process known as fusion bonding. It is a technique that
enables virtually seamless integration of multiple layers and relies on the creation of atomic
bonds between each layer either directly (with heating and pressure in the case of glass to
wafer bonding), or through a thin film of silicon dioxide (Figure 23). The resulting composite
has very low residual stress due to matching coefficients of thermal expansion from each
layer. In addition, the mechanical strength of the bond is comparable to that of the adjoining
layers resulting in a very strong composite fabrication technique for enclosed cavities and
channels. High-aspect ratio structural layers can also be bonded to silicon substrates in a
similar manner. Photoresist and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) are used as MEMS fusion
bonding media and have proved very successful for the bonding of polyimide [4].


Figure 23. Formation of sealed cavity using fusion bonding



3.5 High-Aspect-Ratio Micromachining

High-aspect-ratio micromachining (HARM) is a process that involves micromachining as a
tooling step followed by injection moulding or embossing and, if required, by electroforming
to replicate microstructures in metal from moulded parts. It is one of the most attractive
technologies for replicating microstructures at a high performance-to-cost ratio and includes
techniques known as LIGA. Products micromachined with this technique include high-
aspect-ratio fluidic structures such as moulded nozzle plates for inkjet printing and
microchannel plates for disposable microtitreplates in medical diagnostic applications. The
materials that can be used are electroformable metals and plastics, including acrylate,
polycarbonate, polyimide and styrene.

3.5.1 LIGA
LIGA is an important tooling and replication method for high-aspect-ratio microstructures.
The technique employs X-ray synchrotron radiation to expose thick acrylic resist of PMMA
under a lithographic mask (see Figure 24 below). The exposed areas are chemically dissolved
and, in areas where the material is removed, metal is electroformed, thereby defining the tool
insert for the succeeding moulding step. LIGA is capable of creating very finely defined
microstructures up to 1000 m high.

LIGA is limited by the need to have access to an X-ray synchrotron facility. A compromise
which combines some features of LIGA with surface micromachining eliminating the need
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for exposure to X-rays has been developed and is known as SLIGA (Sacrificial LIGA) [31].
It replaces the thick PMMA photoresist with polyimide as the electroplating mould, thus
enabling compatible conventional IC batch processing. HARM production methods have
provided radically new ways to produce micromachined parts for MEMS devices at relatively
low cost. In particular, techniques such as SLIGA enable the production of MEMS
components with much lower manufacturing infrastructures in terms of investment, facilities
and access to advanced materials and technology.



Figure 24. The LIGA process [3].

Other microreplication techniques can be combined to generate a preform for the tool insert.
These include laser ablation, ultra-violet (UV) lithography and mechanical micromachining,
which includes electric discharge machining (EDM) and diamond milling. EDM is a
relatively new approach that uses machine shop production techniques and offers the
capability to make parts out of most conductive materials. Unfortunately, as a spark erosion
technique, it is slow and not ideal for batch processing but has found many applications for
MEMS prototype production. For example, EDM was used for the micromachining of the
DENSO Micro-car previously shown in Figure 14.

3.5.2 Laser Micromachining
Most laser micromachining processes are not parallel and hence not fast enough for effective
MEMS fabrication. Nonetheless, they have utility in specialty micromachining or making
moulds. Excimer laser micromachining is used particularly for the micromachining of
organic materials (plastics, polymers etc.) as material is not removed by burning or
vaporization. Hence, material adjacent to the machined area is not melted or distorted by
heating effects. Lasers have found other applications in MEMS but only in a limited capacity;
laser drilling, laser annealing and etching are the most common forms.


3.6 Computer Aided Design

Computer Aided Design (CAD) is generally used in MEMS for the design of
photolithographic masks. This is a straightforward process as MEMS structures are relatively
large in comparison to the sub-micron structures usually associated with silicon chip
components. As well as using CAD for mask design, CAD and finite element analysis (FEA)
are important simulation tools for the design of MEMS applications. Unfortunately, to date
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there is a lack of adequate advanced software based design tools to fully model, analyse and
simulate MEMS microstructures as well as integrated MEMS/IC devices. This has acted as a
barrier to the development of MEMS devices and systems.

One of the most successful and commercially available software design tools today is
MEMCAD, a package from Microcosm Technologies in North Carolina, USA. The
MEMCAD system defines device layout and process, constructs the three dimensional
geometry of the device, assembles a detailed 3D model and analyses device performance as
well as device sensitivity to manufacturing and design variations. MEMS Pro, a package
from Tanner Research in California, enables designers of MEMS to simulate the
growth/deposition, implantation/diffusion and etch steps in a MEMS fabrication process.


3.7 Assembly and System Integration

The MEMS fabrication process essentially uses the same process as the microelectronics
industry as shown in Figure 25.


Figure 25. Similarities between IC and MEMS microfabrication processes [3].

Despite the fact that MEMS uses some of the same tools as those used with ICs, the greatest
challenge facing the MEMS industry is system integration between the miniature mechanical
systems and the electronic interface. For the cost-effective production of MEMS devices it is
necessary to combine complex mechanical structures together with microelectronics to form
integrated mechanical and electrical systems on a single chip that can be batch fabricated with
high yield and no additional or subsequent assembly (Figure 26).


Figure 26. Integration of mechanical structures and microelectronics [2].

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Despite certain successful high volume applications such as the airbag accelerometer and the
disposable blood pressure sensor, high yields are difficult with MEMS devices due to their
mechanical complexity and their integration with the necessary microelectronics. Assembling
and packaging complex microscopic parts is also extremely difficult. As conventional
automated assembly and packaging is not suited to such a microlevel, to date, many MEMS
devices require individual handling. As a result, the final cost of a device may be up to 100
times the cost of the actual component. For their successful commercial production these
challenges have to be overcome.

Over the years different approaches have been developed for the integration of the electronic
interface. These include hybrid integration using conventional wire bonding and flip-chips
(described later in Section 3.8) and monolithic integration. Monolithic integration offers
superior system integration performance to hybrid systems but at an overall higher price in
terms of involved technology and processing. Monolithic integration can be carried out in
three ways:

i) IC before MEMS
Monolithic integration by IC first has proved to be successful and relatively cheap; an
example is the technology in Texas Instruments DMD (Figure 10). The process relies
heavily on bulk micromachining and the addition of new layers through electroplating. It is a
relatively simple integrated system but suffers from residual stresses within the device
materials. To date, refractory metals need to be used within the IC components in order to
withstand the high temperature annealing cycles required to relieve the stress in structural
polysilicon.

ii) Mixed MEMS-IC fabrication
A typical example of MEMS and microelectronics being fabricated side by side is the airbag
accelerometer (Figures 4 and 5). Monolithic processing of this device as well as the reduced
number of parts enable a very compact device with high reliability at a very low cost. The
trade-off lies within its complexity as this process leads to a very rigid and constrained
process flow which is expensive, thus requiring very high volumes.

iii) MEMS fabricated prior to IC
The most promising monolithic integration technique includes fabricating the MEMS device
prior to the microelectronics. Using technology known as iMEMS (Integrated Micro-
electromechanical Systems) patented by Sandia National Laboratories, USA, MEMS
components are fabricated in trenches on a silicon substrate and then the standard electronics
are processed onto the same substrate as shown in Figure 27 [2].



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A significant improvement in device functionality and a high level of integration can be
obtained by integrating the control circuits and MEMS devices on the same silicon chip.
Benefits of trench integration include smaller, faster, less costly, lower power and higher
sensitivity integrated systems. There are no real trade-offs with the technology except the
potential for more parasitic noise from interconnects on the chip.


3.8 Packaging

The proper operation of MEMS devices depends critically upon the clean environment
provided by the package and is considered an enabler for the commercialisation of MEMS.
Packaging of microsensors presents special problems as part of the sensor requires
environmental access while the rest may require protection from environmental conditions
and handling (Figure 28).

Figure 28. Schematic illustration of the packaging role of a MEMS microsensor [32].

Although there is no generic package for a MEMS device, the package should:

provide protection and be robust enough to withstand its operating environment
allow for environmental access and connections to physical domain (optical fibres,
fluid feed lines etc.)
minimize electrical interference effects from inside and outside the device
dissipate generated heat and withstand high operating temperatures (where necessary)
minimize stress from external loading
handle power from electrical connection leads without signal disruption
Figure 27. Integrated MEMS/IC (iMEMS) technology developed at
Sandia National Laboratories for the monolithic integration of IC control
circuits and MEMS sensors and actuators on the same silicon chip. To
handle the differences in surface topography, the MEMS components are
fabricated in a shallow trench below the wafer surface prior to IC
processing [2].
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The most commonly used packages for sensors are usually based on derivatives of
conventional semiconductor packages including plastic, ceramic and metal can packages
(Figure 29).


Figure 30. Types of traditional IC packaging [32].

Each of these packages has been adapted in one form or another for the packaging of silicon
sensors. Since the substrate on many integrated circuits requires an electrical connection to
bias it, sensor dies are usually mounted to a die attach pad in the package using a conductive
bond. The die attach pad is typically joined to a metal lead frame with wire bonds providing
the electrical connections to the lead frame fingers. Various bonding media include AuSi
eutectic bonding, epoxy bonding (conductive or insulating depending on filler material) and
glass usually loaded with silver. The package is subsequently formed by plastic moulding (as
in the case of moulded plastic packages), sealed ceramic or metal caps (ceramic packages), or
with a brazed metal cap to the base of a metal package.

Wire bonding is still the most common technique for electrically connecting the die and
consists of two main technologies; ultrasonic and thermosonic, their difference being in the
mechanical stress applied to the die, the minimum spacing, the used wire alloys and the
possibility of wire adjustment.

In flip-chip (FC) technology the chips are bonded face down to a substrate via bumps;
materials include solder, gold, copper and nickel. On heating, the bump material melts and
simultaneously forms all the electrical and mechanical connections between the chip and the
substrate.

3.8.1 Multi-chip Modules
Multi-chip modules (MCMs) enable the integration and packaging of MEMS devices on a
single substrate using traditional thick-film technology. Using ceramics, silicon and printed
circuit board laminates as substrate materials, a variety of die types can be attached to, or
embedded within, the substrate surface. The dies can be interconnected by wire bonds, flip
chips or direct metallisation. The close proximity of each die allows for improved system
performance by providing low-noise wiring and in some cases eliminating unnecessary
interconnections. Three-dimensional variations of this technology are emerging in which dies
and their holding substrates are stacked up on top of each other.

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3.8.2 Passivation and Encapsulation
In order to protect MEMS devices from external contamination as well as enable them to
dissipate generated heat, thin-film coatings can be deposited on the components. In a process
called passivation using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), thin-film
coatings of usually silicon dioxide or silicon nitride increase wear resistance and electrical
insulation.

Encapsulation is used to protect the sensor die against adverse influences from the
environment like contaminants, mechanical vibration and shock. Common encapsulants are
epoxies, silicones and polyurethanes. These materials need to adhere well to the substrate, be
crack free and minimize induced mechanical stress as well as stresses due to mismatching of
thermal expansion coefficients.


3.9 Foundry Services

Despite the many similarities between IC and MEMS fabrication, MEMS makers, or
foundries, are still in their adolescence. The widening variety and increasing complexity of
MEMS products make the MEMS foundry business extremely problematic. Although the
fabrication technology is similar, the technology is on a different scale. MEMS are 3D
products in comparison to the 2D level of ICs. Furthermore, unlike a standard IC foundry,
which performs one or two standard processes, a MEMS foundry performs a wide variety of
processes.

From an economic standpoint MEMS foundries share a common characteristic with
semiconductor foundries in that they are often more cost-effective than internal
manufacturing. This is because there is an enormous economy of scale as MEMS foundries
can leverage the cumulative volume from multiple products from multiple companies to
achieve high equipment utilization rates. The most important difference though is that
MEMS produces a mechanical structure that moves and that is significantly more complex
and sensitive than traditional stationery IC structures.

Expansion of the MEMS market has been restricted by the need for specialized MEMS
engineering knowledge. Until recently, the majority of global research and development
investment has been limited to only a few MEMS foundries. A couple of years ago Cronos
Integrated Microsystems of North Carolina was seen as the leading MEMS foundry in the
field. A spin-off from MCNC and sponsored heavily by DARPA, it developed MUMPS,
offering low-cost manufacturing solutions for prototype and small-series MEMS applications.
Other pioneering foundries that were able to leverage the large scale investment already made
in silicon semiconductor fabrication include the Metal Oxide Implementation Service
(MOSIS), operated by the Information Sciences Institute at University of Southern California;
and Sandia National Laboratories, USA, with their SUMMiT technology. Smaller original
foundries still exist but in technology specific areas: MEMSCAP (France) IC based;
SensorNor (Norway) bulk micromachining and fusion bonding; GEMAC (Germany) bulk
micromachining; and Bosch (Germany) DRIE process. But of these labs, none are able to
handle mass production, certainly on the scale usually associated with the IC chip industry.
The lack of market demand for MEMS devices is one of the factors holding the technology
back; the devices can not be manufactured in numbers high enough to bring the price of
MEMS chips down to the point where they make economic sense.

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In 1999, the MEMS industry witnessed unprecedented growth and wealth creation as major
venture capital and corporate funding took place. Today, it is no longer necessary to build a
separate fabrication facility to create a MEMS product or invest hundred of millions of dollars
to become a MEMS player. A newly created infrastructure of smaller foundries is now
available to support both emerging and proven MEMS-based applications. Although the
biggest of these foundries are the risk-taking producers of specialized and niche chips such as
Motorola, Sony, Analog Devices and Texas Instruments, there are also many smaller start-up
MEMS foundries which offer more specialized services such as packaging, testing, reliability
analysis etc. Not only do these foundries offer the obvious manufacturing technology and
services to outside customers but they offer the concept of shared learning in that lessons
learned when the foundry puts into volume production one product can be applied to the
subsequent volume production of another product. This can occur even when the products are
completely different because there will still be sharing of specific process modules. Today,
there are more than 40-50 MEMS makers or foundries worldwide (though none has broken
away from the pack as in the case, for example, of Intel with computer chips).



4. MEMS Transducers

Microsensors and microactuators are at the very core of a MEMS device or system. A
microsensor detects changes in the systems environment; an intelligent part processes the
information detected by the sensor and makes a decision in the form of a signal; and a
microactuator acts on this signal to create some form of changes in the environment.
Microelectronic components make up most of the intelligent part of the device and, as an
established technology, will not be discussed here.

Sensors and actuators are broadly termed transducers and are essentially devices that convert
one form of energy into another. Many of the MEMS sensors and actuators described in this
section have been developed within the microelectronics industry and do not all involve any
special micromachining techniques; they are based on conventional integrated circuits that,
through inherent mechanisms, sense light, temperature etc. However, many of these can be
enhanced by the use of MEMS.

Basic MEMS mechanisms and structures consist of both in-plane and out-of-plane
mechanisms as well as structural members to couple energy between the actuator and sensors
as well as with the physical interface of a mechanical system. Mechanisms such as joints,
linkages, gears and hinges are very typical.

This section concentrates on the phenomena that can be sensed or acted upon with MEMS
devices with a brief description of the basic sensing and actuation mechanisms. It is
important to note that although these devices are mechanical and have been categorized in
terms of their sensing domain (e.g. thermal, chemical, radiation), there are many overlaps, and
forms of mechanical transducer can be commonly found as intermediate mechanisms in other
devices.


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4.1 Mechanical Transducers
4.1.1 Mechanical Sensors

There is a tremendous variety of direct mechanical sensors that have been or could be
micromachined depending on their sensing mechanism (usually piezoresistive, piezoelectric
or capacitive) and the parameters sensed (typically strain, force and displacement).

i) Piezoresistive sensors
As a result of the piezoresistive effect (defined as the change in resistivity of the material with
applied strain), changes in gauge dimension result in proportional changes in resistance in the
sensor. The piezoresistive effect in semiconductors is considerably higher than in traditional
metals, making silicon an excellent strain sensor. MEMS piezoresistors are readily
manufactured using bulk silicon doped with p-type or n-type impurities.

ii) Piezoelectric sensors
Piezoelectric sensors utilize the piezoelectric effect in which an applied strain (or force) on a
piezoelectric crystal results in a potential difference across the crystal. Similarly, if the crystal
is subjected to a potential difference, a displacement, or strain, is produced. The effect can be
used to sense mechanical stress (i.e. displacement) and as an actuation mechanism, although
displacements are small even for large voltages. Common piezoelectric materials used for
MEMS applications include quartz, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF) and ZnO, PVDF and ZnO being the most common. Silicon is not piezoelectric;
hence a thin film of a suitable material must be deposited on the devices.

iii) Capacitive sensors
Capacitive (or electrostatic) sensing is one of the most important (and widely used) precision
sensing mechanisms and includes one or more fixed conducting plates with one or more
moving conducting plates. Capacitive sensing relies on the basic parallel-plate capacitor
equation shown below. As capacitance is inversely proportional to the distance between the
plates, sensing of very small displacements is extremely accurate.

d
A
C
r 0
= where: 0 =permittivity of free space =8.854x10
-12
Fm
-1
r =relative permittivity of material between the plates
A =overlapping plate area (m)
d =plate separation (m)

iv) Resonant sensors
MEMS resonant sensors consist of micromachined beams or bridges which are driven to
vibrate at their resonant frequency. They can be attached to membranes or designed to adhere
to a particular substance (as in the case of a biosensor). Movement of the membrane or
increased build-up of the binding substance will affect the resonant frequency and can be
monitored using implanted piezoresistors.

Types of mechanical sensor include:
a) Strain gauge - a strain gauge is a conductor or semiconductor that is fabricated on or
bonded directly to the surface to be measured. An example of a polysilicon strain sensor
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unable to be fabricated by any other method than MEMS is an implantable piezoresistive
strain gauge to measure forces in heart and brain tissue.

b) Accelerometer - accelerometers sense acceleration by using a suspended proof mass on
which external acceleration can act (Figure 30). Upon acceleration (or deceleration), a force
(F=ma) is generated on the proof mass resulting in displacement. The force or displacement
is usually measured by piezoresistive and capacitive methods.


Figure 30. Suspended proof mass in a piezoresistive accelerometer (not to scale).

c) Gyroscope a gyroscope is a device that measures the rotation rate and detects inertial
angular motion. As a result it can be found, for example, in transportation, navigation and
missile guidance applications. It relies on measuring the influence of the Coriolis force on a
body in a rotating frame. MEMS gyroscopes typically use vibrating structures because of the
difficulty of micromachining rotating parts with sufficient useful mass.

d) Pressure sensor - MEMS pressure sensors are usually based around thin membranes with
sealed gas or vacuum-filled cavities on one side of the membrane and the pressure to be
measured on the other side. Piezoresistive and capacitive membrane deflection measurement
techniques are most commonly used in commercial pressure sensors.


4.1.2 Mechanical Actuators

i) Electrostatic actuation
The fundamental actuation principle behind electrostatic actuators is the attraction of two
oppositely charged plates. Their use is extensive in MEMS devices, since it is relatively
simple to fabricate closely spaced gaps with conductive plates on opposite sides. For a
parallel plate capacitor, the energy (W) stored at a given voltage (V) is equal to:
2
2
1
CV W = where: C=capacitance between the plates

And the force between the plates is:
2
2
1
V
x
C
x
W
F

=

Comb-drive-type actuators make use of a large number of fine interdigitated fingers that are
actuated by applying a voltage between them (Figure 31). As the capacitance is related to
area, the greater the number of fingers, the larger the force that can be generated by the
actuator.

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Figure 31. Comb-drive electrostatic actuator concept [2,33].


Electrostatic rotary motors are another good example of the success of MEMS sacrificial
oxide/polysilicon techniques. They rely on a central freely-moving rotor with surrounding
capacitive plates that can be driven in correct phase to cause the rotor to turn. Harmonic or
wobble motors rely on the principle of a rotor turning in a slightly larger stator ring, such
that it wobbles around the central axis as it rotates (Figure 32). Reduction of sliding friction
and increased electrostatic forces can be achieved with these motors.



Figure 32. A MEMS electrostatic wobble motor [30].



ii) Piezoelectric actuation
As previously described, the piezoelectric effect can be used in both sensors and actuators. In
piezoelectric actuation, the electrically induced displacement (or strain) is proportional to the
applied potential difference. Despite small displacements, relatively high forces (in the region
of tens of MPa) can be achieved using lower voltages than those required for comparable
electrostatic actuation. It should be noted, however, that it is dependent on the geometry of
the device components. The main disadvantages of piezoelectric actuation include high
complexity of fabrication, as well as small actuation displacements. Larger displacements can
be achieved using multiple piezoelectric layers known as piezoelectric bimorphs. Most
MEMS piezoelectric actuation is used where small strains are required (for example, the tip of
a scanning tunnelling microscope) [4].

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4.2 Radiation Transducers
4.2.1 Radiation Sensors

Radiation sensors cover ionising radiation as well as visible light, infra-red (IR) and ultra-
violet (UV) radiation. Current ionising radiation sensors for high-energy particles and X-rays
include Geiger-Mller (GM) tubes and scintillators and although they have not been realized
using MEMS, their miniaturization is potentially feasible. Sensors for visible, IR and UV
radiation are generally categorized as either direct or indirect. Direct optical sensors detect
photons and result in an electronic signal. Indirect sensors convert the optical signals into an
intermediate energy form (e.g. thermal or chemical), which is then measured electrically.
There are a wide variety of both direct and indirect sensors and only the most common will be
described here.

i) Photodiodes
A photodiode is a semiconductor device for measuring light intensity based on the
photoconductive effect (increase in conductivity of a semiconductor on exposure to light).
Photodiodes are junction-based photoelectrodes which have a p-n junction. When visible or
near infra-red light falls on the device, additional charge carriers are generated resulting in
increased current flow.

ii) Charge-coupled devices
Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are one of the most common photodetectors used in
handheld video recorders and many other consumer applications. They consist of a metal gate
(electrode) above a dielectric and a semiconductor substrate. This forms a metal oxide
semiconductor (MOS) capacitor, the charge on which arises from photogenerated carriers.
CCDs can be linear or made up of arrays of metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors arranged
so that photo-generated charge can be stored and transferred between elements by an
appropriate variation of control voltages applied to surface electrodes (memory/signal
processing approach).

iii) Pyroelectric sensors
Pyroelectric detectors are an example of indirect optical sensors and are essentially capacitors
whose charge can be altered by illumination or temperature changes. By converting incident
light into heat, which is then measured, pyroelectric sensors have a wide range of applications
in surveillance, military, security consumer markets etc. e.g. human motion detectors.
Pyroelectric sensors use piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials (varying dielectric constant
with applied voltage). ZnO is the most common in MEMS devices.

4.2.2 Radiation (Optical) Actuators

The two most common forms of optical actuation include light emitting diodes and light
modulators such as liquid crystal displays and reflective micromechanical light modulators
(technology used in Texas Instruments DMD projection system).

Optical devices can either be active or passive; active devices include laser emitting diodes,
photodiodes and optical switches. Passive devices include couplers, mirrors, wavelength
division multiplexers, polarisers etc. Their application is important in both optical MEMS
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devices and integrated optics to enable the control and analysis of optical acquired data. A
brief selection of optical MEMS components includes:

optical waveguides to route optical energy from one region to another. MEMS
techniques are commonly employed to enable waveguide-to-photodiode coupling.

fibre-optic couplers incorporate micromachined grooves and channels as mechanical
couplings for fibre-optic components. Anisotropic wet etching, DRIE and HARM
methods are typically used.

micromirrors with flawless surfaces can be achieved using anisotropic etching to yield
perfect crystal plane surfaces.


4.3 Thermal Transducers
4.3.1 Thermal Sensors

i) Thermo-mechanical sensors
Thermo-mechanical sensing (and actuation) utilize the fact that all materials have a
coefficient of thermal expansion. Consequently, if two different materials are sandwiched
together and undergo a temperature change, movement in the sandwich assembly would
occur. This is the basis for the common bimetallic (or thermal bimorph) sensing and
actuation.

ii) Thermoresistive sensors
Thermoresistive sensors rely on the fact that the resistivity, , of most materials changes with
temperature and is shown by the equation ) 1 (
2
bT aT R = + = where R is the resistivity of the
material at a reference temperature, T (C), and a and b are constants specific to the material
being used. The rate of change of resistance with temperature is known as the temperature
coefficient of resistance. Most common materials exhibit an increase in resistance with
temperature (e.g. platinum is particularly linear with temperature). Certain materials for
example, carbon, some ceramics and most semiconductors used in thermoresistors or
thermistors exhibit a decrease in resistance with increasing temperature. They are not as
linear as platinum, but often cheaper to fabricate and easier to integrate with circuitry in
MEMS devices.

iii) Thermocouples
The thermocouple is probably the most common temperature transducer. It consists of a
junction between two different materials and measures the temperature-dependent voltage that
arises across the junction. Semiconductor materials often exhibit a better thermoelectric
effect than metals. Thermocouples have been used in a wide variety of MEMS sensors in an
array arrangement referred to as a thermopile.

4.3.2 Thermal Actuators
Thermal actuation in MEMS is usually as a direct result of incorporating tiny heaters, or
resistors. These resistors can be controlled to locally heat specific areas or layers as in the
case of a bilayer actuator. As already detailed, basic thermal actuation utilizes the difference
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in thermal coefficients for expansion of two bonded materials and is referred to as thermal
bimorph actuation. A typical thermal bimorph actuator is shown in Figure 33.


Figure 33. Example of a MEMS thermal bimorph actuator [34].

This can be applied to a volume of fluid (liquid or gases) in sealed cavities with a thin
membrane as a wall. By incorporating a heater the liquid can be heated causing it to expand
and deform the membrane outwards. Large forces can be achieved using thermally actuated
devices but power consumption can be high and it can take time for material to cool to its
original activation state.

i) Shape memory alloy actuation
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit considerable changes in their length (contraction) when
heated. These include titanium/nickel alloys, of which some, once mechanically deformed,
would return to their original undeformed state when heated. Being conductive they can be
heated simply by passing a current through them.


4.4 Magnetic Transducers
4.4.1 Magnetic Sensors

Most MEMS magnetic sensors are based on the Hall effect. They rely on the production of an
electric field across a material through which an electric current is flowing and where a
magnetic field is acting. The force applied to the charge carriers by the electric field exactly
balances a force from the magnetic field called the Lorentz force. Other ways to sense
magnetic fields use optical sensors that rely on the magneto-optical effect or materials that
exhibit magnetic anisotropy (shape, stress and crystalline anisotropy are particularly common
in MEMS magnetic applications). Magnetic coils are not common in MEMS as they tend to
be 2D, which is not useful for many applications.

The most sensitive magnetic sensors include superconducting quantum interference devices
(SQUIDS). The devices can detect diminutive magnetic fluxes produced by the electric
currents in heart and brain tissue. Advances in superconducting thin films as well as MEMS
techniques have accelerated growth with these devices.

Most of todays magnetic sensors are silicon based, not only because of the ease of fabrication
and their ability to be readily integrated with circuitry, but also because their high volume
demand necessitates lower cost.

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4.4.2 Magnetic Actuators

Magnetic actuation is based on the fact that a current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic
field. If this conductor is a wire (or coil) and interacts with another external magnetic field
(e.g. from a similar conductor or coil) a mechanical force is produced.

Despite the success of magnetic actuation on a macroscale, such as motors or solenoids,
MEMS magnetic devices are still relatively unestablished. This is due to the fact that 3D
coils are very difficult to fabricate by MEMS. A notable exception is the magnetic read/write
heads for computer disk drives. This device can be classified as both a sensor and actuator in
that it reads from and writes to magnetic media.

Choice of magnetic material is limited to those that can be easily micromachined and do not
suffer from high power consumption and heat dissipation. Thin film permanent magnets can
be fabricated using MEMS; LIGA is particularly common for polymers such as polyimide
which can be loaded with a magnetic powder and electroplated. Although attempts have been
made to fabricate MEMS magnetic actuators with wire-bonded coils, often in MEMS devices,
magnetic actuators compete with electrostatic devices which are stronger for the same
volume.

i) Magnetostrictive Actuators
These rely on the magnetostrictive effect, which is the change of shape or size of a
ferromagnetic material induced by a magnetic field, for example, the contraction of a nickel
rod under a longitudinal magnetic field.



4.5 Chemical and Biological Transducers
4.5.1 Chemical and Biological Sensors

Chemical and biological sensors encompass a large and wide variety of devices that interact
with solids, gases and liquids of all types and are therefore extremely diverse and
interdisciplinary. They are different from previously described sensors in that they must
directly interact with a chemical medium to connect the chemical and electrical domains.
Hence they require openings within their packaging to enable this interaction (like pressure
sensors).

Most chemical and biological sensors do not require extremely sophisticated micromachining
but can require considerable interdisciplinary knowledge and sophistication for their actual
use. Chemical sensors must be very highly selective in order to make such identifications
among compounds without falsely responding to potential interfering species.

Chemical sensors can be categorized in many ways including passive chemical sensors, work
function based systems and electrochemical transducers. Passive chemical sensors include:

Chemiresistors measure the resistance of a chemically sensitive layer between two
electrical contacts. Sensitivity can be increased using more micromachined
electrodes.

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Chemicapacitors are similar to chemiresistors but the capacitance of the sensitive layer
is measured. Chemicapacitors have found application in sensing humidity.

Chemomechanical sensors rely on direct chemical-to-mechanical transduction (for
example, the expansion of a thin-film polymer in the presence of a substance being
analysed).

Calorimetric sensors measure heat generated by chemical reactions.


i) Work function based sensors
This class of sensors, including the ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) and the metal
oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), utilizes metal-insulator-semiconductor
junctions and the fact that the work function of the material at the interfaces can be
chemically modulated. The ISFET was developed as a direct result of the fact that metal-
oxide-semiconductor transistors were so sensitive to surface contaminants during their
manufacture. As a large proportion of chemical sensors are based on the ISFET, a more
detailed description of their operation is outlined.

ISFETs sense the concentration or activity level of a particular ion in solution. The ISFET is
a derivative of a common electronic component called a MOSFET. This consists of a silicon
semiconductor substrate (doped with impurities to make it p-type) and two electrical contacts
(source and drain) doped with impurities so that negatively charged electrons are the main
carriers in these small n-type silicon regions. A small distance separates source from drain
(Figure 34). Overlaying the substrate between the source and drain is a silicon dioxide
insulator which itself is overlaid with a metal electrode called a gate. When a potential is
applied to the gate of the MOSFET, the induced electrical field changes the freedom with
which the current flows between the source and the drain. In the case of an ISFET however,
there is no gate electrode and the insulator is in direct contact with an electrolyte solution to
be measured. With the ISFET, electric current flows from the source to the drain via a
channel. As in the MOSFET the channel resistance depends on the electric field
perpendicular to the direction of the current. Also it depends on the potential difference over
the gate oxide. Therefore the source-drain current is influenced by the interface potential at
the oxide/aqueous junction. When SiO
2
is used as the insulator, the chemical nature of the
interface oxide is reflected in the measured source-drain current. With the selection of other
appropriate insulator material, such as silicon nitride or aluminium oxide, hydrogen ions will
reside at the surface of the insulator in proportion to the pH. Their positive charge produces
an electric field that modulates the current between the source and drain. In order to quantify
this effect, the control voltage is measured that must be applied (via a reference electrode) to
maintain the drain-source current at a constant value.

The chemical sensitivity of the ISFET is completely controlled by the properties of the
electrolyte/insulator interface. One significant problem in the design and fabrication of
ISFETs is ensuring that the selective membrane adheres to the device. If the integrity of the
membrane is compromised, then the device is useless.
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Figure 34. Schematic diagram of an MOSFET and ISFET [35].

ii) Biosensors
Biosensors is the term used for a whole class of sensors that utilize a biochemical reaction to
determine a specific compound. A biosensor is generally a transducer combined with an
immobilized enzyme or cell to monitor a specific change in the microenvironment. Typically,
an enzyme, antibody, polysaccharide or nucleic acid is used to interact with the substance to
be measured. The sensor itself can vary but a form of ISFET is typically used. The probe tip
is immersed in a liquid phase and is in contact with the process either directly or through a
membrane. They have not seen widespread use because as a class they exhibit many
disadvantages including oxidization reactions with product, extreme sensitivity and the need
for regular recalibration (not ideal for implantable devices).

One of the most promising applications of an amperometric enzyme-based biosensor is the
glucose oxidase based sensor for monitoring glucose levels in the blood. This is particularly
important for diabetes and also in the fermentation process.

4.5.2 Chemical Actuators

There is certainly potential to fabricate chemical actuators using MEMS, but to date, there has
been little work in this area with the exception of a few devices using microelectrodes. These
electrochemical transducers are based on the simple electrochemical electrode concept in
which current is transduced from the circuit domain into the chemical domain through
oxidation or reduction of chemical species at the electrode surface. These structures are
amongst the simplest (they can be as simple as a region of bare metal in solution) and play a
major role in biological interfacing (e.g. neurophysiological probes).



4.6 Microfluidic Devices

MEMS has many applications in microfluidics with many of the key building blocks such as
flow channels, pumps and valves fabricated using mature micromachining techniques.
Chemical analysis, drug delivery, biological sensing, environmental monitoring and many
other applications typically incorporate MEMS microfluidic devices. It should be noted that
in MEMS fluidic devices the type of flow (laminar or turbulent), effect of bubbles, capillary
forces, fluidic resistance and capacitance all have an effect on their final design.
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i) Flow channels
A wide variety of microfluidic channels have been fabricated using bulk micromachining (wet
and dry etching), surface micromachining and moulding techniques (Figure 35).


Figure 35. Selection of MEMS channels for microfluidic applications [36,37,38].

ii) Flow sensors
MEMS flow sensors can be fluid-dependent flow or fluid-independent. In a very basic form,
fluid-dependent flow sensors measure the flow rate by heating a fluid upstream and then
recording its temperature downstream. The flow rate is proportional to the temperature
difference and transit time of the two actions. Fluid-independent flow sensors measure
pressure or force exerted on an object by the fluid. Figure 36 shows an example of a MEMS
bulk drag-force flow sensor. Using a piezoresistive sensing mechanism, flow measurements
are fairly linear; direction and magnitude can be sensed by this method. In addition, fluid-
independent flow sensors do not involve any form of heating and hence are more suited to
biological fluid applications.


Figure 36. Micromachined mechanical (drag-force) flow sensor [39].

iii) Valves
Valves are generally classified as either active or passive depending on whether or not they
have an external power or control source. One of the simplest MEMS valves is the passive
check valve shown in Figure 37.

Figure 37. Basic concept of passive silicon check valve [40].

Active MEMS valves can be actuated by many methods including thermal, piezoelectric,
electrostatic and shape memory alloy means. Thermal actuation is the most common.



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iv) Pumps
Pumps are generally an important part of microfluidic devices. However, MEMS pumps are
very sensitive to fine particles which often cause contamination and leakage of the device.
Membrane, rotary and ultrasonic pumps are the most common types of MEMS pumps.

v) Rotary pumps
Figure 38 shows the basic concept of a magnetic rotary micropump. LIGA is commonly used
as a fabrication technique for micromachined PMMA gears in MEMS microfluidic systems.
These gears can be driven for example using electroplated NiFe bars mounted on one or both
of the gears. Fluid is pumped by the action of the turning gears.


Figure 38. Basic concept of magnetic rotary micropump [41].

vi) Droplet generators
The majority of droplet generators in commercial MEMS microfluidic devices are inkjet
printer heads as previously described in Section 2.4.1. These rely on either thermal or
piezoelectric actuation to eject ink droplets, thermal actuation being the most common.
Piezoelectrically actuated valves offer the advantage of very high forces, but very small
movement for even very large voltages. They also find use in automotive fuel-injection
valves and spray nozzles.



5. The Future of MEMS
5.1 Industry Challenges

Some of the major challenges facing the MEMS industry include:

i) Access to Foundries.
MEMS companies today have very limited access to MEMS fabrication facilities, or
foundries, for prototype and device manufacture. In addition, the majority of the
organizations expected to benefit from this technology currently do not have the required
capabilities and competencies to support MEMS fabrication. For example,
telecommunication companies do not currently maintain micromachining facilities for the
fabrication of optical switches. Affordable and receptive access to MEMS fabrication
facilities is crucial for the commercialisation of MEMS.

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ii) Design, Simulation and Modelling.
Due to the highly integrated and interdisciplinary nature of MEMS, it is difficult to separate
device design from the complexities of fabrication. Consequently, a high level of
manufacturing and fabrication knowledge is necessary to design a MEMS device.
Furthermore, considerable time and expense is spent during this development and subsequent
prototype stage. In order to increase innovation and creativity, and reduce unnecessary
time-to-market costs, an interface should be created to separate design and fabrication. As
successful device development also necessitates modelling and simulation, it is important that
MEMS designers have access to adequate analytical tools. Currently, MEMS devices use
older design tools and are fabricated on a trial and error basis. Therefore, more powerful
and advanced simulation and modelling tools are necessary for accurate prediction of MEMS
device behaviour.

iii) Packaging and Testing.
The packaging and testing of devices is probably the greatest challenge facing the MEMS
industry. As previously described, MEMS packaging presents unique problems compared to
traditional IC packaging in that a MEMS package typically must provide protection from an
operating environment as well as enable access to it. Currently, there is no generic MEMS
packaging solution, with each device requiring a specialized format. Consequently,
packaging is the most expensive fabrication step and often makes up 90% (or more) of the
final cost of a MEMS device.

iv) Standardization.
Due to the relatively low number of commercial MEMS devices and the pace at which the
current technology is developing, standardization has been very difficult. To date, high
quality control and basic forms of standardization are generally only found at multi-million
dollar (or billion dollar) investment facilities. However, in 2000, progress in industry
communication and knowledge sharing was made through the formation of a MEMS trade
organization. Based in Pittsburgh, USA, the MEMS industry group (MEMS-IG) with
founding members including Xerox, Corning, Honeywell, Intel and J DS Uniphase, grew out
of study teams sponsored by DARPA that identified a need for technology roadmapping and a
source for objective statistics about the MEMS industry. In addition, a MEMS industry
roadmap, sponsored by the Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International
organization (SEMI), has also been identified to share pre-competitive information on the
processes, technology, application and markets for MEMS. This web-based organization can
be found at http://www.roadmap.nl.

Several other European initiatives supported by governments and the European commission
have been coordinated: Europractice (Microsystems Service for Europe), NEXUS (Network
of Excellence in Multifunctional Microsystems), aimed at enhancing European industrial
competitiveness in the global marketplace, and Netpack, whose role is to drive the
development and use of advanced packaging and integration technologies. The networking of
these smaller companies and organizations on both a European and a global scale is extremely
important and necessary to lay the foundation for a formal standardization system.

v) Education and Training.
The complexity and interdisciplinary nature of MEMS require educated and well-trained
scientists and engineers from a diversity of fields and backgrounds. The current numbers of
qualified MEMS-specific personnel is relatively small and certainly lower than present
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industry demand. Education at graduate level is usually necessary and although the number
of universities offering MEMS-based degrees is increasing, gaining knowledge is an
expensive and time-consuming process. Therefore, in order to match the projected need for
these MEMS scientists and engineers, an efficient and lower cost education methodology is
necessary. One approach, for example, is industry-led (or driven) academic research centres
offering technology-specific programmes with commercial integration, training and
technology transfer.


5.2 The Way Ahead

The market for MEMS devices is still being developed but does not have the explosive
growth of, for example, the IC industry in the 1970s. Comparison will always be made
between the two, but this is not realistic as there is no dominant technology in MEMS
analogous to metal oxide semiconductor circuitry, which accelerated the exponential growth
of the digital electronics industry. Most of the research today is focused on surface
micromachining, but in industry the majority of shipped devices are still manufactured using
much older bulk methods. Although some surface micromachined devices are being
produced in volume, it will take a few more years for this approach to make a large impact;
devices using both surface and bulk continue to be marketed.

Despite MEMS being an enabling technology for the development and production of many
new industrial and consumer products, MEMS is also a disruptive technology in that it differs
significantly from existing technology, requiring a completely different set of capabilities and
competencies to implement it. MEMS involves major scaling, packaging and testing issues,
and, as a disruptive technology, faces challenges associated with developing manufacturing
processes that no longer fit established methods. For the true commercialisation of MEMS,
foundries must overcome the critical technological bottlenecks, the economic feasibility of
integrating MEMS-based components, as well as the market uncertainty for such devices and
applications. Cost reduction is critical and will ultimately result from better availability of
infrastructure, more reliable manufacturing processes and technical information as well as
new standards on interfacing.
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General References
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De Los Santos, H.J ., Introduction to Microelectromechanical (MEM) Microwave Systems,
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Feynman, R., Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom, Journal of Microelectromechanical
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Kovacs, G.T.A., Micromachined Transducers Sourcebook, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY,
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Trimmer, W.S., Micromechanics and MEMS: Classic and Seminal Papers to 1990, IEEE
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J apan, J an. 26-30, 1997, pp.311-316.

39. Gass, V., van der Schoot, B.H., J eanneret, S., and de Rooji, N.F., Integrated Flow-
Regulated Silicon Micropump, Proceedings of Transducers 93, the 7
th
International
Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, Yokohama, J apan, J une 7-10, 1993,
Institute of Electrical Engineers, J apan, pp. 1048-1051.

40. Smith, L., and Hok, B., A Silicon Self-Aligned Non-Reverse Valve, Proceedings of
Transducers 91, the 1991 International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and
Actuators, San Francisco, CA, J une 24-27, 1991, pp. 1049-1051.

41. Ahn, C.H., and Allen, M.G., Fluid Micropumps Based on Rotary Magnetic Actuators,
Proceedings of the 8
th
Annual Workshop of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS
95), Amsterdam, Netherlands, J an. 29 Feb.2, 1995, pp. 408-412.
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Appendix A Glossary of Terms

Chip
A piece of semiconductor wafer containing the entire circuit.

Die
A single piece of semiconductor containing entire integrated circuit chip, which has not yet
been packaged.

Dielectric
A polarisable medium, usually an insulator.

Field Effect Transistor
A class of transistor in which current flows from a source to a drain via a channel whose
resistance can be controlled by applying a voltage to a gate.

Ferroelectric
Ferroelectric materials (typically oxides) have a spontaneous electric polarization in the
absence of an applied field that can be reversed by application of a potential field. All
ferroelectric crystals are simultaneously pyroelectric and piezoelectric as well.

Gate
One of three electrodes of a field effect transistor. The gate is the connection that is used to
control the behaviour of the transistor by varying the voltage (or current) through it.

Integrated Circuit (IC)
A chip that contains electrical components such as transistors, resistors and capacitors
connected by wiring, to form a circuit designed to perform some specific task or tasks.

Integrated Sensor
A sensor that is integrated with signal processing circuits in a single package (usually a
silicon chip).

Micromachine
Micromachines are composed of functional elements only a few millimetres in size and are
capable of performing complex microscopic tasks.

Microsystem
An intelligent miniaturised system comprising sensing, processing and/or actuating functions
integrated onto a single chip or multi-chip hybrid.

N-type Silicon
Silicon that is negatively charged by doping with an element, such as boron, which contains
an extra electron. The extra electron enables electric current to flow through the material.

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p-n junction
A junction formed between layers of p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor. The
junction forms a potential barrier at the interface.

P-type Silicon
Silicon doped with an element containing one fewer electron in its outer layer, like
phosphorous. When combined with silicon, phosphorous takes an electron from the outer
ring of the silicon, leaving an electron hole which enables electric current to flow.

Sacrificial Layer
A layer of material that is deposited between structural layers for mechanical separation and
isolation. This layer is removed during the release etch to free the structural layers and allow
mechanical devices to move relative to the substrate.

Semiconductor
A crystalline solid that behaves somewhere between a conductor (like iron) and an insulator
(like glass). Semiconductors are the raw materials used in active electronic and optical
devices.

Structural Layer
A layer of material that forms a physical structure on a substrate. A structural layer is
releasable when a sacrificial layer separates it from the substrate.

Substrate
A base material, typically a semiconductor, on which a second material is to be deposited or
adsorbed.

Vertical Aspect Ratio
The ratio of the height or depth of a mechanical structure perpendicular to the substrate to the
width of the structure.

Work Function
The minimum energy required for an electron at the Fermi energy of a conductor to escape
from the conductor.
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Appendix B Sources of MEMS Information and Advice Organisations

The following organizations are leading sources of MEMS information and advice.

1. The MEMS Industry Group (MEMS-IG)
The trade association representing the MEMS industry. Their mission is to provide leadership
for U.S. MEMS manufacturers and integrators by being a resource on the critical issues of
MEMS technology, evolution, global markets and the state of the industry.

Contact Info: MEMS-IG
2403 Sidney Street Tel: 1 (412) 390-1644
Suite 565 Fax: 1 (412) 381-1336
Pittsburgh 15203 Email: info@memsindustrygroup.org
USA http://www.memsindustrygroup.org


2. NEXUS (The Network of Excellence in Multi-functional Microsystems)
Sponsored by the ESPRIT Programme of the European Commission, its mission is to enhance
European industrial competitiveness in the global MEMS marketplace. It houses the
European Microsystems Technology On-Line database (EMSTO).

Contact Info: NEXUS
CEA/Grenoble Tel: 33(0)438.78.43.47
17, rue des Martyrs Fax: 33(0)438.78.51.42
F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 Email: nexus@cea.fr
France http://www.nexus-emsto.com


3. The MEMS/MST Roadmap
The mission of the roadmap is to provide a guide to pre-competitive research and
development and infrastructure expenditure that will lead to the commercialisation of MEMS.

Contact Info: MEMS/MST Roadmap
Twente Microproducts Tel: 31.53.4800111
P.O. Box 318 Fax: 31.53.4800119
7500 AH Enschede Email: info@roadmap.nl
The Netherlands http://www.roadmap.nl


Internet-based Resources
There is a wealth of MEMS-based information on the Internet. The primary website in the
field is provided by the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) in California. Sponsored by
DARPA, it offers a MEMS Bulletin Board known as the MEMS ClearingHouse. It can be
found at http://mems.isi.edu/mems.

A selection of other informative MEMS websites include:

1. The European Microsystems Technology On-Line database (EMSTO) operated by
NEXUS, which contains over 160 MEMS links categorized by Government and Research
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Institutes; Newsletters, J ournals and Societies; Universities; and Companies
(http://www.nexus-emsto.com).

2. William Trimmers Home Page contains details of over 100 websites for MEMS related
journals, books as well as company, university and organization information. It is a huge
resource for MEMS, MST and micromechanics (http://www.trimmer.net).

3. Memsleadership.com operated by Standard MEMS Corporation (William Trimmer, CTO)
contains over 200 industry and academic links, as well as an excellent MEMS Glossary
and an updated calendar of global MEMS events (http://www.memsleadership.com).

4. The MEMS Superlink operated by Cornell University offers a MEMS Virtual Learning
Cyber Center, (http://www.people.cornell.edu/pages/akt1/superlink.html).

5. Memscenter.com is one of the largest MEMS guides and portals for the industry. It
provides extensive MEMS information with daily news and links,
(http://www.memscenter.com).

6. System Planning Corporation supports critical national requirements by providing
superior scientific analyses, systems engineering, prototype development and information
technology applications. Their MEMS market study is available online and they have an
extensive list of publications and links (http://memsmarket.sysplan.com/cgi-bin/linker.pl).


Industry and Academic Participants
It is beyond the scope of this report to fully list the range of industry and academic
participants involved in MEMS; the list is truly extensive. However, numerous links to
companies, organizations and universities can be found on the sites listed above in
Organisations and Internet-based Resources (http://www.memsleadership.com/links.cfm,
http://nexus-emsto.com/links.html and http://www.trimmer.net are particularly detailed)


Journals
Some of the leading MEMS-specific journals include:

1. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
(http://www.ieee.org/pub_preview/mems_toc.html)
2. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (http://www.iop.org/J ournals/jm)
3. Sensors and Actuators A (Physical)
(http://www.elsevier.com:80/inca/publications/store/5/0/4/1/0/3/)


Conference Proceedings
The following MEMS-based conferences are held on an annual basis or in alternate years.
Their proceedings are a valuable source of current activity in the MEMS field.
Memsleadership.com and Memscenter.com offer updated calendar lists for most MEMS
conferences and events.

1. Eurosensors
2. International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators
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3. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop/MEMS
4. Micro Total Analysis Systems/TAS
5. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop


Textbooks
Good sources of introductory information can be found in books listed in the References
Section. Particular attention is drawn to the following titles, which include all of the most
important and fundamental papers up to 1990 in the field of MEMS, microsensors and
micromechanics.

1. Microsensors, Muller, R.S., Howe, R.T., Senturia, S.D., Smith, R.L., and White, R.M.
[Eds.], IEEE Press, New York, NY, 1991.

2. Micromechanics and MEMS: Classic and Seminal Paper to 1990, Trimmer, W.S., IEEE
Press, New York, NY, 1997.