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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

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THE

HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE


VOL.
I.

LOXDOS PaiNTKD BY SrOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-8TttKET AND PAULIAMBNT STUBET


:

SQl/'ARE

THE

HISTOEICAL GEOGEAPHY
OF

EUEOPE
BV

EDWAED

A.

FREEMAN,

D.C.L., LL.D.
OXFORD

HONORAHV

FKr.I.OW OP TRTNITT COLLEGE.

IN

TWO VOLUMES

VOL. I. TEXT

LONDON LONGMANS, GREEN, AND NEW YORK


1881

CO.

SCRIBNER AND WELFORD

(^il^
V,
'.

34-0.92

I;

'5

PEEFACE.
It
is

now

several years since this

book was begun.

It

has been delayed by a crowd of causes,


loss of strength,

by a temporary

by enforced absence from England, by

other occupations and interruptions of various kinds,


I
it

mention

this

only because of the


itself.

effect

which

I fear

has had on the book

It

has been impossible


if

to

make

it,

Avhat a

book should,
effort.

possible, be, the


fact that the

result of

one continuous

The mere

kindness of the publishers allowed the early part to be


printed

some years back

has,

fear,

led to

some

repetition

and even contradiction. was


found
unavoidable.

certain change
It

of

plan

proved

im-

possible to go through the


to

whole volume according


chapters.
it

the

method of the
Europe

earlier

Instead

of

treating
it

as a whole, I found

needful to divide

into several large geographical groups.

The

result

is

that each of the later chapters has

had to go over

again some small amount of ground which had been

already gone over in the earlier chapters.


cases later lights have led to

In some

some changes of view


these,

or

expression.

I have

marked

as

far

as

vi

PREFACE.
Additions and Corrections.
If in
is

could, in the

any
the

case I have failed to do so, the later statement

one which should be rehed on,


I

hope that

have made the object of the work


It
is

clear in the Introductory Chapter.

really a very

humble

one.

It

aims at

little

more than

tracing out

the extent of various states at different times, and at

attempting to place the various changes in their due


relation to one another

and

to their causes.

am

not,

strictly speaking, writing history.

I have
I

little

to

do

with the internal


at events

affairs

of any country,

have looked

mainly with reference to their

effect

on the

European map.

This has led to a reversal of what to


things.

many

will

seem the natural order of

In a

constitutional history of Europe, our

own

island

would

claim the very

first

place.

In

my

strictly

geographical
it

point of view, I believe I


I of course

am

right in giving

the

last.

assume

in the reader a certain ele-

mentary knowledge of European

history, at least as

much

as

may be

learned from

my own General

Sketch,

Names and

things

which have been explained there I


it

have not thought

needful to explain again.

need

hardly say that I found myself far more competent to


deal with

some parts of the work than with


in,

others.

No one
Some

can take an equal interest


of, all

or

have an

equal knowledge
parts of
;

branches of so wide a subject.

the book will represent real original

research

others

must be dealt with

in

a far less

PREFACE.
thorough way, and
will represent only

VJi

knowledge got

up

for the

occasion.

In such cases the reader will


for

doubtless

find

out the difference

himself.

But
in the

my own deficiencies most keenly German part. No part of European history is


I have felt

to

me

more

attractive than the early history of the


as such.

German
than

kingdom

No

part

is

to

me

less attractive

the endless family divisions and unions of the smaller

German

states.

In the Slavonic part I have found great


in following

difficulty

any uniform system of

spelling.

con-

sulted several Slavonic scholars.

Each gave me
advice

advice,

and each supported


which
I should

his

own

by arguments
if

have thought unanswerable,

had

not seen the arguments in support of the wholly


ent advice given

differ-

me by

the others.

When the

teachers

differ so widely, the learner will, I


if

hope, be forgiven,
I have tried
to

the result

is

sometimes a

little

chaotic.

to write Slavonic

names

so as to give
it.

some approach

the sound, as far as I

know

But I fear that I have

succeeded very imperfectly.


In such a crowd of names, dates, and the
like, there

must be many small inaccuracies.


smaller dates, those

In the case of the

which do not mark the great


is

epochs of history, nothing

easier than to get


is

wrong

by a year or

so.

Sometimes there

an actual difference

of statement in different authorities.


is

Sometimes there
year.

a difference in the reckoning

of the

For

viii

PREFACE.
In what year was Calais lost to England?

instance,

We

should say 1558.

writer at the time


is

would say

1557.

Then again there

no

slip

of either pen or

press so easy as putting a

wrong

figure, and,

except in

the case of great and obvious dates, or again

when
slip

the

mistake

is

very far wrong indeed, there

is

no

of pen

or press so likely to be passed by in revision.


there
is

And again
which

often

room

for question as to the date

should be marked.

In recording a transfer of territory

from one power to another, what should be the date


given
?

The

actual military occupation

and the formal

diplomatic cession are often several years apart.


of these dates should be chosen
to follow
?

Which
it

have found

hard

any fixed rule

in such matters.

Sometimes

the military occupation seems the most important point,

sometimes the diplomatic cession.


each case where a question of

I believe that in

this sort

might

arise, I

could give a reason for the date which has been chosen

but here there has been no room to enter into

dis-

cussions. I can only say that I shall be deeply thankful


to

any one who

will point out to

me any

mistakes or

seeming mistakes in these or any other matters.

The maps have been a matter


I

of great difficulty.

somewhat regret that

it

has been found needful to


text,

bind them separately from the


as
if

because this looks

they

made some
atlas.

pretensions to the character of


this

an historical
are

To

they lay no claim.

They
no way

meant simply

to illustrate the text,

and

in

PREFACE.

ix

enter into competition either with such an elaborate


collection
collections
as

that

of Spruner-Menke,

or even with

much less

elaborate than that.

Those maps

are

meant to be companions in studying the history of the

several periods.

Mine do not pretend


boundary

to

do more than
way.
It

to illustrate changes of

in a general
it

was found,

as the

work went

on, that

was better on

the whole to increase the

number

of maps, even at the

expense of making each


advantages both ways.

map

smaller.

There are

dis-

In the maps of South-Eastern

Europe, for instance,

it

was found impossible

to

show

the small states which arose in Greece after the Latin

conquest at

all

clearly.

But

this

evil

seemed

to

be

counterbalanced by giving as

many

pictures as might be

of the shifting frontier of the Eastern Empire towards the Bulgarian, the Frank, and the Ottoman.

In one or two instances I have taken some small


hberties with

my

dates.

Thus, for instance, the

map

of
all

the greatest extent of the Saracen dominion shows

the countries which were at any time under the Saracen

power.

But there was no one moment when the

Saracen power took in the whole extent shown in the

map.
Sicily

Sind and Septimania were

lost

before Crete and


as I

were won.

But such a view

have given
it

seemed on the whole more

instructive than

would

have been to substitute two or three maps showing the


various losses and gains at a few years' distance from

one another.

X
I liave to thank a

PREFACE
crowd of
friends, including
hints,

some

whom
of

have never seen, for many

and

for

much

help given in various ways.


Gottingen, Professor

Such are Professor Pauli


of

Steenstrup
Corfu,

Copenhagen,
Galiffe

Professor

Eomanos

of

M.

J.-B.

of

Geneva, Dr. Paul Turner of Budapest, Professor A.

W.
Mr.

Ward

of Manchester,

the

Rev.

H.

F,

Tozer,

Ralston, Mr. Morfill, Mrs.

Humphry Ward, and my


whose praise
is

son-in-law Arthur John Evans,

in all

South-Slavonic lands.
SOMERLEAZE, WeLLS
December

16, 1880.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Definition of Historical Greography
ItvS

I.

INTRODUCTION.
relation to kindred studies

.....
.
. .

PAGB
1

.1-2
.

Distinction l>etween geographical and political

1.

names

3-5

Geographical Aspect of Europe.


.
. .

Boundaries of Europe and Asia


sulas

.5-6
6-7

General geogiaphy of the two continents

..........
gi'eat

the

penin-

2.

Effects

of Geography on Hislorij.

Beginnings of history in the southern peninsulas characteristics of Greece and Italy Advance and extent of the Roman dominion the Mediterranean lands, Gaul, and Britain
;

Effects of the geographical

position of
.

Spain, Scandinavia, Britain


Effect of geogi-aphicjil po.sition

..... ..... .....


Germany, France,
.

7-8
8-9

9-10
lU

on the colonizing powers Joint working of geogi-aphical position and national cha.

i-acter

.11
remnants and
. .

3.

Geographical Distribution of Races.


continent
.

Europe an Aryan
Fins and Basques

non-Aiyan
.

latter settlements
.

.12 .13
.
.

Order of Aj-yan settlements


Celts, Teutons, Slaves,

Greeks and Italians


. . .

Lithuanians

13 14-15
16 16

Displacement and assimilation among the Aryan races Intrusion of non- Aryans Sai-acens Turanian intrusions Ottomans Magyars Bulgarians
;
;

differunccii in their history

.17

Xll

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
CxREECE AND THE

1.

11.
.

GREEK COLONIES.
PAGE

The,

Eastern or Greek Peninsula.

Geo<^raphical and historical characteristics of the Eastern,

Greek, or Byzantine peninsula


Its chief divisions;

18-19

Thrace and Illyria


peninsulas
. .

their relations to

Greece
Greece Proper and
its

19-20 20-21
.

Pelopounesos

.21

2.

Insular and Asiatic Greece.


.

'K^tent oi Continuous Hellas

.21
22

The Islands
Asiatic Greece

3.

........
Uthnologi/ of the Eastern Peninsula.
races

22-23

The Greeks and the kindred

Illyrians, Albanians, or Skipetar Inhabitants of Epeii-os, Macedonia,

Pelasgians

.........
Sicily,

.....
and Italy
. .

23

24

24 24-25
25

The Greek Nation


4. Earliest

Geography of Greece and


:

the Neighhouy'itig
.

Lands.

25-27 Homeric Greece its extent and tribal divisions 26 Use of the name Epeiros The cities their groupings unlike those of later times supremacy of Mykene 28 Extent of Greek colonization in Homeric times The Asiatic catalogue
.
:
.

.......
. . . .

Probable kindred of

all

the neighbouring nations

Phoenician and Greek settlements in the islands

5.

....27 .28 ...


.
.

28 28

Change from Homeric


;

to

Historic Greece.

Changes

in

Pelopounesos

Dorian and Aitolian settlements

Later divisions of Pelopounesos Change in Northern Greece Thessaly


;

..... ....
. . .
.

29

29-30
30

Akarnania and the Corinthian colonies Foundation and destruction of cities

6.

.31 .31
32-33

The Greek Colonies

The ^gaean and Asiatic

colonies.
cities
;

Early greatness of the Asiatic

Miletos

32

CONTENTS.
.

XIU
.

Their submission to Lydians and Persians 32-33 The Thracian colonies; abiding greatness of Thessalonike and Byzantion 33 More distant colonies Sicily, Italy, Dalmatia 33-34 Parts of the Mediterranean not colonized by the Greeks Phoenician settlements ; struggles in Sicily and Cyprus 34-35 Greek colonies in Afi-ica, Gaul, and Spain 35 Colonies on the Euxine abiding greatness of Cherson and
.

........
.
,

Trebizond

Beginning of the

7.

artificial

Greek nation

.... ....

36 36

Growth of Macedonia
sors
;

Growth of Macedonia and Epeiros. Philip; Alexander and the Succes


;

effects of their
;

conquests

37 37 38

Athamania The Macedonian kingdoms Egypt Syria Independent states in Asia Pergamos Asiatic states advance of Greek culture
Epeiros under Pyrrhos
.

38 39
39

Free

cities
;

Herakleia

Sinope

Bosporos

8.

....
Achaia, Aitolia
;

39

Later Geography of Independent Greece.


;

The Confederations
tions

Macedonian possessions
First

......... ......
Greece

smaller confedera

40 40 40
41

Roman possessions east of the Hadriatic Progress of Roman conquest in Macedonia and
Special character of Greek history

....
Roman

42

CHAPTER
Meanings of the name Italy commonwealth
;

III.

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

Characteristics of the Italian peninsula

1.

Ligurians and Etruscans

The

Italian nations

Other nations ; lapygians


Venetia

Greek colonies in Italy

........ ....... ........ ....


its

extent under the

43

the great islands


Sicily.

44

The Inhabitants of Italy and


Latins and Oscans
; ;

45

45-46

Gauls Veneti

use of the

name
46-47
47 47-48

Kyme and Ankon

The southern

colonies

their history

....

XIV
Inhabitants of Sicily
Phoenician and

CONTENTS.
PAOK
;

Sikanians and Sikels

48

Greek settlements Semitic powers

2.

........
;

rivalry of

Aryan and
48-49

Growth of the Roman Power in


;

Italy.

Gradual conquest of Italy


states

different positions of the Italian

49
;

Origin of

Rome

its

Latin element dominant

Early Latin dominion of

Rome

......
. .

49-50
50 50 50-51

Conquest of Yeii

more

distant wars

Incorporation of the Italian states

3.

....
.

The Western Provinces.


.
.
.

Nature of the Roman provinces Eastern and Western provinces


Fii-st

.51 .52
.

Roman

possessions in Sicily
;

conquest of Syracuse
.

53

State of Sicily
Cisalpine Gaul

its

Sardinia and Corsica

Liguria

Venetia

Spain

its

inhabitants

colonies

Conquest and Romanization of Spain Transalpine Gaul the Province


;
.

....... ........ ........ ....


Greek
civilization
.
. .

.53
53-54 54-55
.

Istria
;

foundation of Aquileia
;

55

Iberians

Celts

Greek and Phoenician 55-56 56-57


.
.

.57
57-58 57-58 58-60

Conquests of Caesar
clature

threefold division of
;

Gaul

Boundaries of Gaul purely geographical

........
survival of
.

nomen-

Roman

Africa

restoration of Carthage

4.

The Easterii Provinces.


:

Contrast between the Eastern and Western provinces civilization in the East
Distinctions

among

the

Tauros

The

Illyrian provinces

Dalmatia and Istria The outlying Greek lands

The Asiatic provinces


Syria
;

independence of Lykia
Palestine

Rome and

Parthia
;

...... ...... ...... ........ ........


Eastern provinces
; ;

Greek

60 boundary of 60-61
conquest of

kingdom
:

of Skodra

62-63
63 64
65

Crete, Cyprus,
;

Kyrene

province of Asia

Mithridatic

War

65

Conquest of Egypt

the

Roman

Peace

.66

CONTENTS.

5.

XV

Conquests under the Empire.


PAGK
;

Conquests from Augustus to Nero

kingdoms 66-67 Attempted conquest of Germany fi'ontiei"S of Rhine and 67-68 Danube conquests on the Danube Attempt on Arabia 68 Annexation of Thrace and Byzantion 68 Conquest of Britain the wall 69 Conquests of Trajan ; his Asiatic conquests suri-endered by Hadrian 70 Arabia Petrsea 70
;

........
....
. .

incorpoi-ation of vassal

..... .....
.

change of the name Roman, Greek, and Oriental

Dacia

ro-71
parts of the

Empire

71

CHAPTER

IV.

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

1.

The Later Geoijrcvphy of the


;

E injure
73

Changes under the Empire loss of old div New divisions of Italy under Augustus Division of the Empire under Diocletian

71
74-7.5
7.5

The four Praetorian Prefectures


Prefecture of the East
Its dioceses
; ;

its

character

75-76
76

the East
;

Egypt, Asia, Pontos

Diocese of Thrace

provinces of Scythia and Europa


.

76-77
77 77-78 78 78

Great

cities of

the Eastern prefecture


;

Prefecture of Illyricum

position of Greece

Dioceses of Macedonia and Dacia


Prefecture of Italy
;

its

extent

Dioceses of Italy, Illp-icum, and Africa

thage

Prefecture of Gaul

........ ......
;

....
;

province of Achaia
gi-eatness of

Car
79 79 79

Diocese of Spain

its

African tenitory
;

Dioceses of Gaul and Britain

2.

province of Valentia

79-80

The Division of the Empire.

Change

in the position of

Rome

Division of the Empire, a.d. 395

Rivalry with Parthia and Persia inherited by the Eastern

Empire

...... ..... ......


a

80
81

81-82 82-83

Teutonic invasions

no Teutonic settlements in the East

xvi

3.

CONTENTS.
The Teutonic Settlements within
of the Nations
. .

the

Empire.
PAOK

The Wandering

83
.

83-84 nomenclature of the Teutonic nations Warfare on the Rhine and Danulje Roman outposts beyond
the rivers

New

.........
;

84

Teutonic confederations

Marcomanni; Quadi
;

Franks, Alemaus, Saxons

G-ermans within the Empire

Beginning of national kingdoms


Loss of the Western provinces of
.Settlements within the

Rome

..... ....
sea
.

84-85 85-86
86 86 87

Empire by land and by Franks, Burgundians, Goths, Vandals


.

Early history of the Goths The West-Gothic kingdom in Gaul and Spain
;

Alans, Suevi, Yandals the Vandals in Africa The Franks use of the name -^rawcwi. 91 Alemans, Thuringians Low-Dutch tribes Roman Germany Teutonized The Frankish dominions 91-93 afresh; peculiar position of the Franks 93 Celtic remnant in Armorica or Britanny
. .

87-88 88-89 89-90 89-90

The Burgundians
Inroads of the

various uses of the


battle of Chalons

separate history of Provence

Huns

Nominal

I'eunion of the

Empire

in

47G

Reigns of Odoacer and Theodoric


4. Settlement of
tlie

.....91 .... .... .... ....


.

name Burgundy

93-94
94 94

origin of Venice

94-95

English in Britain.

Withdrawal

of the

Roman

troops from Britain

Special character of the English Conquest of Britain

....96
.

95

The Low-Dutch settlers, Angles, Saxons, Jutes the name English The Welsh and Scots
. .
.

origin of
.

.97
98

5.

2'he

Eastern Empire.
;

Comparison of the two Empii'es


in the Eastern

........
. , .

no Teutonic settlements 98 98
98-99
. .
. .

The Tetraxite Goths


Rivalry with Parthia continued under the revived Persian
Position of

kingdom Armenia

Momentary conquests
Jovian
l)ivi:sion of

of Trajan

.99 .99
100

Conc|uests of Marcus, Severus, and Diocletian

.........
; .
.

cessions of

Armenia; Hundred Years' Peace

.100

Summary

101-102

CONTENTS.

xvii

CHAPTEE

1.

V.

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


The Beunion of the Empire.
PAGE
;

Continued existence of the Empire


kings

position of the Tevitonic

103

Extent of the Empire at the accession of Justinian Conquests of Justinian their effects
;

....
.

.104
104-106

Pi-ovence ceded to the Franks

.105

2.

Settlement of the
;

Lombards in
Avars Danube

Italy.
.

Early history of the Lombards

Grepidfe,

106-107
.

Possibility of Teutonic powers on the

107

Lombard conquest

of Italy

its partial

niture

territory

kept by the Empire

3.

107-108
Rise of the Saracens.
tlie

Loss of the Spanish province by

Empire
. .

Wars

of Chosroes and Heraclius

.108 .109
109-110

Extension of

Relation of the Arabs to

Roman power on the Euxine Pome and Persia


Arabs under Mahomet
.
. . .

.110

Union

of the

renewed Aryan and


. .

Semitic

strife

Loss of the Eastern and

Afn can
.

provinces of
. .

Rome
, .

Saracen conquest of Peisia

.110 .111 .111


.112 .112 .113

Conquest of Spain

Saracen province in Gaul


;

Effects of the Saracen conquests

distinction
.

111-112 between the


.

Latin, Greek, and Eastern provinces

Greatest extent of Saracen provinces

Loss of Septimania

4.

Settlements of the Slavonic Nations.


.

Movements

of the Slaves; Avars, Magyars, &c.


.

113-114

Geographical separation of the Slaves

Analogy between Teutons and Slaves


Slavonic settlements under Heraclius
;

.114 .114
.115
115-116

the Dalmatian
.

cities
.

displacement of the Illyrians


Slavonic settlements in Greece

.....
.

Settlement of the Bulgarians

.116
116-117

Curtailment of the Empire


nople

moral influence of Constanti-

a2

xviii

CONTENTS.

5.

The Transfer of

the Western

Emjnre

to the

Franks.
PAGB
.

y
^

117-119 Their position in Germany, Northern Gaul, and Southern 119-120 Gaul Division of the Frankish dominion Austria and Neustria 120-121 Use of the name Francia Teutonic and Latin Francia
Conquests of the Franks in Grermany and Gaul
.

modern forms of the name The Karlings their conquests


;

.121

power.
Sai-acens

The great powers

........ .........
;

German

character of their

of the eighth century

121-122 Romans, Franks, 122


. .

Character of the Caliphate

its

divisions

Relations between the Franks and the Empire


.
.

Lombard conquest of the Exarchate Conquest of the Lombards by Charles the Great ; be Lombardy as a separate kingdom
. .

.122 .123 .123

holds

.123
123-124

His Roman
pire

title

of Patrician
;

Effects of his Imi>erial coronation

final division of

the

Em124
their

The two Empires become severally German and Greek ;


separation and rivalry
.

.....
.

The two Empires and the two Caliphates Extent of the Carolingian Empire
.

124125 125-126

.126
126-127

Conquest of Saxony
the Eider

dealings with Scandinavia

frontier of

Relations with the Slaves

overthrow of the Avars

.127
128
128

The Spanish March Divisions of the Empire

kingdoms

of

Aqnitaine and
, .

Italy J] &Q oi i\xQ iaSiVXQ& Francia, Gallia,

Germania

.129

6. Northern Europe.

Lands beyond the Empire


states

Scandinavia and Britain


;

129

Stages of English Conqviest in Britain

Teutonic and Celtic

129-130
of AVessex
.

Supremacy

Denmark; Norway; Sweden

Different directions of the Scandinavian settlements

Summary

.........
. .
.

.....
.
.

.130
130-131

.131
131-133

Religious changes

.132
133

Note ou the Slavonic settlements

CONTENTS.

Xix

CHAPTER

VI.

THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.

1.

The Division of the Frankish Empire.


PAGE

Break-up of the Frankish power; origin of the states of modern Europe .134 Kingdoms of Italy and Aquitaine .134
.
.

Division of 817

135
;

Union of Neustria and Aquitaine


France
Division of
;

first

glimpses of

modem
135

Yerdun Eastern and Western Francia Lotharingia; the Western Kingdom or Karolingia .137 Middle Kingdom or Burgundy .137 Union under Charles the Fat division on his deposition 137 No formal titles used various names for the German
;
. . .
. .

Kingdom
Empire

138

Connexion between the German Kingdom and the


Extent of the German Kingdom
Lotharingia
its

Roman
139

Extent of the Western Kingdom .141 Normandy cut ofi" from Its great fiefs ; Aquitaine ; France France 142 union of the Origin of the French kingdom and nation duchy of France with the Western kingdom .143 New use of the word Frcmce; title of Hex Frmicorum 143-144 Paris the kernel of France .144 Various uses of the name Burgiiv/ly .144 The French Duchy; the Middle Kingdom; Transjui^ane 144-145 and Cisjurane Burgundy
. .
.
.

........
; ; ;
. . .

duchies and marks

39-140 140-141
1

Burgundian kingdom Separation of Burgundy from the Frankish kingdom


Great
cities of the
.

union with Germany


Its
later

..... ......
.

.145
;

its

145-146

mainly swallowed up by France, but partly represented by Switzerland .146 146-147 Kingdom of Italy its extent separate principalities
history;
.
.

Italy represents the

Lombard kingdom
;

Milan

its capital

147

Abeyance of the Western Empire

its

restoration by Otto
. .

the Great; the three Imperial kingdoms

147-148

Rivalry between France and the Empire

.148

XX

CONTENTS.
The Eastern Empire.
PAGE
;

2.

Kivalry of the Eastern and Western Empires and Churches

Greek character of the Eastern Empire


its

extent

.........
;

fluctuations in

149

149-151 The r/iemes; Asiatic Themes 151-152 The Em-opean Themes Hellas; Lombardy Sicily Older Greek names supplanted by new ones .151 Character of the European and Asiatic dominion of the Em; ;
. . .

pire

its

supremacy by sea
;

.152
;

Losses and gains

Crete

Sicily

Syria; Bulgaria; Cherson

.....
Italy
;

Dalmatia

Greece

Greatness of the Empire under Basil the Second


3. Origin of the

152-153 153
.

Spanish Kingdoms.

Special position of Spain

the Saracen conquest

Growth
Castile;

of the Christian states

.....
.

153-154 154-155

Aragon

Portugal

Break-up of the Western Caliphate

4.

.155 .156

Origin of the Slavo7iic States.


;

Slavonic and Turanian invasions of the Eastern Empire

Bulgarians; Magyars; Great Moravia


Special character of the
religious connexion

156-157

Hungaiian kingdom
with the West
.

effects of its
. .

.157

The Northern and Southern Slaves split asunder by the Magyars 158 The South-eastern Slaves .158 The North-western Slaves Bohemia; Poland 159
.

.........
. .

Special position of Russia

.15^

5.

Northern Eurojie.
.
.

Scandinavian settlements

159-160

Growth of the kingdom of England .160 The Danish invasions division between ^5^]lfred and Guthrum Bernicia Cumberland .161 Second West-Saxon advance Wessex grows into England submission of Scotland and Strathclyde Cumberland
. . .
.

and Lothian

.162

Use

of the Imperial titles

Empire of Cnut
Conquest

by the English kings Northern England finally trnited by the Norman


;

Summary

162-163 163-165

, ;

CONTENTS.

XXI

CHAPTER
Permanence

A^II.

THE ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


PA fire

of ecclesiastical divisions

they preserve earlier


.

divisions; case of

Lyons and Rheims


.

166-167

Patriarchates, Provinces, Pioceses

,167
167-168

Bishoprics within and without the

Empire

1.

The Great Patriarchates,


.
.

The Patriarchates suggested by the Prefectures Pome, Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem
Later Patriarchates

.168
168-169 169-170

2.

The

Ecclesiastical Divisions of Italy.

Great numbei-s and


bishoprics
. .

smaller
.

importance of
.
.

the
.

Italian
.

Rivals of Rome Milan, Aquileia, Ravenna The immediate Roman province other metropolitan
;
.

.170 .171
171-172

sees

3.

The EcclesiaMical Divisions of Gaul and Germanij.

Gaulish and

German

dioceses
;

.172

172-17o Lyons New metropolitan sees Toulouse, Alby, Avignon, Paris 174 comparison of civil and ecclesiastical divisions Provinces of Northern Gaul and Germany histoiy of Mainz 178-179
Provinces of Southern Gaul
;

position of

The

archiepiscopal electors

other

burg, Bremen,

Magdeburg
in France,

.....
German provinces
;

Salz-

Modern arrangenients
lands

4.

176-177 Germany, and the Nether177

The

Ecclesiastical Divisions

of Spain.
;

Peculiarities of Spanish ecclesiastical geography

eftects of
.

the Saracen conquest

.178
178-179

Gothic and later dioceses


rier

neglect of the Pyrensean bar-

.5.

The

Ecclesiastical Divisio'ns of the British Islands.


.

Analogy between Britain and Spain


Tribal nature of the Celtic e])isco])ate

....
. . .

.179
179-180
180-181

Scheme

of Gregory the Great

the two English provinces


..
.
. .

relation of Scotland to

York

XXil

CONTENTS.
PAGB
.

181 Foundation of the English sees ; territorial bishoprics Canterbury and its suffragan ; effects of the Norman Con181-182 quest 182-183 Province of York Scotland and Ireland
.

.........
;
. .

6.

The Ecclesiastical Divisions of Northern and Eastern Europe.


;

The Scandinavian provinces Lund, Upsala, Trondhjem Poland and neighbouring lands; Gnezna, Riga, Leopol. Provinces of Hungary and Dalmatia
. .
.

184 184-185
.

.186

CHAPTEE

VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


The German Kingdom
falling off of Italy
;

its

relation to the

Loss of territory

and Burgundy by the German kingdom

Western Empire 188-190


.

its

extension to

the north-east
Geogi-aphical contrast of the earliei-

190-191

and the

later

Empire

191

1.

The Kivgdom of Germany.

Changes of

boundaries and nomenclature in Germany; 191-192 Saxony; Bavai^ia Austria; Burgundy; Prussia Extent of the Kingdom fluctuations of its western boundary Lorraine; Elsass the left bank of the Rhine 192-194 Fluctuations on the Burgundian frontier; union of Burgundy 194 with the Empire. .195 Frontier of Germany and Italy union of the crowns 195 Northern and eastern advance of the Empii-e the marks
; ;

Hungai-ian frontier
niola

marks of Austria, Carinthia, and Car196

Danish

fi'ontier

Danish mark
.
.

boundary of the Eider


. . .

196

.197 The Slavonic frontier Slavonic princes of Mecklenburg, The Saxon mark 198-199 Liibeck the Hansa 199 Marks of Brandenburg, Lausitz, and Meissen .199 Bohemia and Moravia
.
.

Polish frontier

Pomerania,

Silesia

Germanization of the Slavonic lands


Internal geography
;

..... ....
.

200 200-201

Growth

.201 growth of the principalities Brandenburg or Prussia, and 202 Austria analogies elsewhere 202 Decline of the duchies end of the Gauverfassung
.

of the marchlands
;

.....
,
.

CONTENTS.
Growth
of the

xxiii
PAOl

House

of Austria

and the Netherlands 203 The Circles 203 Powers holding lands within and without the Empire Austria Sweden Brandenburg and Prussia ; Hannover and Great Britain 203-204 Dissolution of the kingdom the Confedei*ation 204
;

.......
; ;
.

separation of Switzerland

Greatness of Prussia and Austria

The new Empire 204 Germauy under the Saxon and Prankish kings vanishing of Francia analogy of Wessex 205-206 Changes in the twelfth century beginning of Brandenburg and Austria the duchies and the circles 206-207 Duchy of Saxony its divisions and growth 207 Break-up of the duchy Westfalia the new Saxony 207 Duchy of Brunswick electorate and kingdom of Hannover 208 The new Saxony Lauenburg the Saxon Elector-ate 208-209 The North Mark of Saxony or Mark of Brandenburg 209 House of Hohenzollern union of Brandenburg and Prussia. 210 Advances in Pomerania, Westfalia, &c. .210
;

..... ..... ........


; . .

204

....
;
. .
.

German

character of the Prussian state

its
.

contrast with
. .

Austria; use of the name Prttssia


Conqi;est of Silesia
;

210-211
East

Polish acqmsitions of Prussia

Friesland

Saxon Possessions of Denmark and Sweden Free cities of Saxony; the Hansa; the
bishoprics

211-212 212-213
the

cities

and

213-214
;

Duchy

of Francia

hel<l

by the bishops of Wurzburg


.

the

Franconian

circle

.214
;

The Rhenish

circles;

ecclesiastical

Hessen Bamberg; Nurnberg states on the Rhine


;

....
.

the

214-215

Palatinate of the Pthine

Upper Palatinate

.215
215

Bavaria;

its relations

Austria
Lotharingia

.........
.
.

towards the Palatinate and towards

Archbishopi-ic of Salzburg

.215

the later Lorraine ; falHng off from the Empire and Elsass 216 Swabia; ecclesiastical powers .216 Swabian lands of the Confederates .216 Baden and Wiirttemberg 216 Circle of Austria house of Habsburg .217 Extent of its Grerman lands Tyrol Elsass loss of Swabian
;
.

lands

217
its

Bohemia and

dependencies

.217

XXIV
Trent and Brixen
Cii-cle of

CONTENTS.
PARK

217
;

Burgundy
2.

not pm-ely CTerman

its

origin

.218

The ConfeJeration mtd Empire of Germany.


.

.218 Germany changes from a kingdom to a confederation The Bund the \\q\n Confederation and Empire the Empire
; ;

still

federal
;

219
loss of the left

Wars

of the French Eevolution

bank
states
.

or the

PJiine

220
free
. .

Suppression of
electorates

cities
.

and
.

ecclesiastical
.
.

new

.220
221
;

Peace of Pressburg
Title of
'

new kingdoms
;
'

cessions

made byAnstiia
. .

Confederation of the PJiine Emperor of Austria .221 end of the Western Empire 221-222 German territories of Denmark and Sweden 222 Losses of Prussia and Austria French annexations Kingdoms of Saxony and Westfalia; Grand duchy of
. .
.

Frankfurt

222
of the

Germany wiped out


Losses of Prussia
;

map
;

.222
222-223

Danzig; duchy of

Warsaw

The German Confederation

princes holding lands within


;
.

223 and without the Confederation kingdom of Hanover dismemberment of Saxony 224 Increase of Prussian territory Lands recovered by Austria German possessions of Denmark and the Netherlands Sweden withdraws from 224-225 Germany
; .

Comparison of Prussia and Austria; Hannover 225 Kingdoms of Bavai'ia, Saxony, Wiirttemberg other Gei'man the free cities Liittich passes to Belgium. 226-227 states
.

Revival of
Affairs of

German national Luxemburg


and
.

War

...... ......
life
;

227 228-229
to

of

Sleswick

Holstein
.

the
.

duchies
.

ceded
.

Austria and Prussia

.228

War War

of 1866;

North German Confedei-ation


.

exchision of
. .

Austria; great advance of Prussia 228-229 with France; the new German Empire; recovery of Elsass-Lothringen 229-230
;

Comparison of the old kingdom and the new Empire of Prussia


3. The Kingdom of Italy. Small geographical importance of the kingdom the Alpine frontier

name
230-231

changes on

Case of Trieste

231-232 233

; ;

CONTEXTS.
Apulia,
Sicily,

XXV
p..c;r
;

Venice, no part of the kingdom

their relation

to the Eastern

Empire
.
.

233-234
.
.

Special history of the house of Savoy

.234

Extent of the kingdom; Neustria and Austria; Emilia, 234235 Tuscany Romagna
;

Lombardy proper the marches Comparison of Germany and Italy


;

...... ......
;

23.5

the commonwealths, the

tyrants, the

Popes

four stages of Italian history.

235-236

Northern Italy
cities
;

the Marquesses of Montfeirat

236-238 march the Ancona march of the and Central Italy Eomagna Tuscan commonwealths Pi^^a and Genoa Rome and
the Veronese
; ; ;

....
;

the

Lombard

the Popes

238-2.39
:

The

tyrannies; Spanish dominion practical abeyance of the

Empire

in Italy

Imperial and Papal


;

fiefs

239-240
;

Palaiologoi at Montferrat house of Visconti at Milan the duchy of Milan ; its dismemberment ; duchy of Parma

242-243 Mantua, of Ferrara and 243-244 Modena difference in their tenure 244 Ptomagna Bologna; Urbino; advance of the Popes The Tuscan cities Lucca rivalry of Pisa and Genoa Siena 245 Florence

Land power

and Piacenza of Venice


principalities
;

......
.

240-242

Other

duchy of

Duchy

of Florence

grand duchy of Tuscany

246

4. The Later Geography of Italy.

The kingdom

practically forgotten

position of Charles the

Fifth Italy a geographical


states

246
expression
;

changes in

the

Italian

246-247
.

247 Dominion of the two branches of the house of Austria Italy mapped into larger states ; exceptions at Monaco and 247 San Marino Venice ; Milan Spanish and Austrian its dismemberment 248-249 in favour of Savoy end of Montferrat and Mantua. Parma and Piacenza separation of Modena and Ferrara Genoa and Lucca Grand Duchy of Tuscany advance
;
;

of the Popes

249
; .
.
.

The Norman kingdom of Sicily Benevento The Two Sicilies their various unions and
;

250

divisions

their relations to the houses of Austiia,

Bourbon

Savoy and 250-251


. .

Use

of the

name

S'an?ima

.251

XXVI

CONTENTS.
PASS of the French Eevohition
;

Wars

the

new

republics
to

Treaty
,

of

Campo Formio
;

Piedmont joined

France

Restoration of the Pope and the

King
Italy

of the

The French kingdoms


Various annexations ;
of Naples

Etruria

....
Sicilies
.

Two
;

251-253 253 253

Eome
;

becomes French

Murat King

Italy under French dominion revival of the Italian

name

253-254 254-255

Settlement of 1814-1815; the princes restored, but not the

255 commonwealths Austrian kingdom of Lombardy and Venice; Genoa annexed 255-256 by Piedmont

........
;

The smaller
Sicilies

states

the Papal states

Kingdom
;

of the

Two
256
;

Union of Italy comes from Piedmont earlier movements war of 1859; Kingdom of Italy: Savoy and Nizza
ceded to France Recovery of Venetia and
recovered

.........
Rome
;

parts of the

257-258 kingdom not


258 258

Freedom

of

San Marino

5.

The. Khvjdor.i

of Burgundy.
;

Union

of
;

Burgundy with Germany


chiefly

dying out of the king-

dom

swallowed up by France, but represented

by Switzerland Boundaries of the kingdom


prevails in
it
. .

258-259
;

fluctuation
. .

Romance tongue
.

259
261

History of the Burgundian Palatinate


beliard

Besan^on

Mont-

The Lesser Burgundy partly German The Dukes of Zahringen the ecclesiastical
.

.261

states

the free

cities

the free lands

High Gei*many Growth of Savoy Burgundian


;

........
;

gi-owth of the Old League of

possessions of its counts


;

262 263

States between the Palatinate

andBugey;

principalities

and the MediteiTanean and free cities


. .

Bresse
.

.263

263-264 County of Provence; its connexion with France Progress of French annexation: 1310-1791: Lyons; the Dauphiny Vienne Valence; Provence; Avignon and 264-265 Venaissin
. :

Nizza

265

History of Orange

265-266 States which have split off" from the Imperial kingdoms Switzerland Savoy tlie duchy of Burgundy by Belgium and the Netherlands 266-267
:

.....

; ;

CONTENTS.
The
Austi'ian power
;

XXvii
PAGE
its

its

position as a marcliland

union
.

with Hungary ;

its relation

to Eastern

Europe

267-268

6.

The Swiss Confederation.


;

German

origin of the Confederation

popular errors

sketch

of Swiss history

268-270
;

The Three Lands


Allies

the cities

Luzern, ZUrich, Bern


. .
.

the

Eight Ancient Cantons


;

.270

and subjects dominion of Zurich and Bern conquests from Austria 270-271 Italian conquests; fii-st conquests from Savoy; League of WaUis 271-272 The Thiiieen Cantons 272 League of Graub linden further Italian and Savoyard conquests 272-273 History of Geneva territory restored to Savoy division of Gruy^res 273-274
; ; ; ;

......

The Allied States Neufchatel Constanz The Confederation independent of the Empii^e;
;

.274
274-275
275-276
276

as a middle state

Wars of dom

the French Revolution

of the subject lands; annexations to France.


;

Act of Mediation The present Swiss

the nineteen cantons


Confedei-ation

...... .... .....


its
;

position

Helvetic Republic

free-

276 276

History of Neufchatel

7.

The State of Savoy.


;

Position and gi-owth of Savoy three divisions of the Savoyard lands; popular confusions 277-278 The Savoyard power originally Burgundian; Maurienne Aosta 278
First Italian possessions
;

.....
.
.

Burgundian advance lands north of the lake Relations to Geneva, France, and Bern
Acquisition of Nizza

Italian advance of Savoy; principally of Achaia, of Pied-

283-284 284 decline of Savoy 285 Loss of lands north of the lake; fui'ther losses to Bern and
Savoy a middle state French influence and occupation
her
allies
;
.

mont; Saluzzo

....... ........ ........


. .

279 280-281 281-282 282

recovery of the lands south of the lake


. .

the Savoyard power becomes mainly Italian

286

Savoy

falls

back in Burgundy and advances in Italy


;

history

of Saluzzo

finally acquired in

exchange for Bresse, &c.

287

XXviii

CONTENTS.
rAflR

annexed again French annexation of Nizza; Aosta the one Burgundian remnant Savoyard advance in Italy

Duchy

of

Savoy annexed

to France; restored;

288 288 289

.........
.

8.

The Duchy of Burgunrly mid

the Lovi Countries.


;

Position of the Valois dukes as a middle power


their twofold vassalage

result of

290

Schemes 290-291 Belgium and the Netherlands History of the duchy of Burgundy its union with Flanders, Artois, and the county of Burgundy relations to France " 292-293 and the Empire Flanders their Imperial fiefs of 293 counts the The Netherlands 293 Holland and Friesland 294 Brobant Hainault union of Holland and Hainault
of a
; ; ;
.

Burgundian kingdom

....
their
final
;

effects

Common points in all these states


and Teutonic
dialects
;

the great cities

Romance
;

South-western states

Liege

Luxemburg Limburg
;
;

of Geldern union Middle position of these states French influence .296 under the Burgundian dukes Advance under Philip the Good; Namur, Brabant, and 296-297 Limburg, Holland and Hainault The towns on the Somme; Flanders and Artois released 297^298 from homage Philip's last acquisition of Luxemburg; advance under
;
.

294-295 duchy 295

.......
;

Charles the Bold and Charles the Fifth

union of the

Netherlands

298
to Spain
.

The Netherlands pass


imperfect results

war
.

of independence
. .

its

.299

The Seven United Provinces; their independence of the


Empire
;

their colonies

lack of a

name

use of the

^ordi Dutch

299-300
;

The Spanish Netherlands


Austria

English possession of Dunkirk

advance of France; the Spanish Netherlands pass to


301

.........
;
;

Annexation by France kingdom of Holland gundian possessions French

Kincdom of the Netherlands Liege of Luxemburg to Germany

Division of the Netherlands and Belgium Luxemburg from Germany

...... ......
;

all

the Bur-

302

incorporated
. . .

relation
.

.303

separation of

General history and

i-esult of

the Burgundian power

303 303-304

; ' ;

CONTENTS.

9.

Xxix
Atistria.

The.

Dominions of
;

PACK

anomalous position of the Austrian power; the so-Gilled Empire' of Austria 305-307 The Eastern Mo.rk becomes a duchy; division of Carmthia union of Austria and Styria 307-308 County of Gorz 309 Austiia, (fee, annexed by Bohemia great power of Ottokar 309
Origin of the
'

name Austria
;

.... .........
; ;

Swabiau and Alsatian lands their loss 309-311 Xing Rudolf break-up of the power of Ottokar Albert duke of Austria and Styria .310 Relations between Austria and the Empire division of the Austrian dominions 311-312 Acquisition of Carinthia and T}to1 commendation of Trieste; loss of Thurgau 312-313 Austrian kings and emperors; possessions beyond the Empire 313-315 Union with Bohemia and Hungary 314-317
of
their
; ;

House

Habsburg

......
; ;

Consequences of the union with Hungary


of the

kingdom

........
;
;

....
;

slow recovery

317 318

Gorz advance towards Italy Austrian dominion and intluence in Italy Connexion of Austria and Burgundy the Austrian NetherAcquisition of
;

.....
of
. , .

lands

Loss

of

Elsass

of

Silesia

acquisition

318-319 Poland
320 320-321 Empiie 321-322 322

Dalmatia
Position and dominions of Maria Theresa

New

use of the
in

name Austria

the Austrian

'

1811

Misuse of the IllyrLm name


of Ragusa; of

Austria in 1814-1815; recovery of Dalmatia; annexation

Cracow
;

..... .....
; '

322-323

Separation from

Hungary reconquest the Austro-HuuBosnia, Herzegovina, Spizza garian Monarchy 323-324


;
'

CHAPTER
Origin and growth of France

IX.

THE KINGDOM OF FRANCE.

How

far Karolingia spht off

comparison with Austria from the Empire


;

325

France a nation as well as a power 326-327 Use of the name of France its dukes acquire the western kingdom ; extent of their dominion 327-328
;
.

....
.

.326

;;

XXX
Two

CONTENTS.
PAGK

forms of annexation

first,

of

fiefs

of

the crown
.
. .

secondly, of lands beyond the

kingdom
;

328

Distinctions

among
;

Britanny

.........
the
fiefs
;

the great vassals

Normandy

328

The Twelve Peers different many and Karolingia

1
.

position of the bishops in Ger-

.....
;
.
.

328-329

Incorporation of the Vassal States.


;

The duchy of France in 987 the King cut off from the sea 329-330 330 The neighbouring states position of the Parisian kings The kings less powerful than the dukes advantages of their
;
.

kingship

first

advances of the kings


;

.331

The House

of

Anjou

gradual union of Normandy, Anjou,


.

331-333 333-334 Normandy, Anjou, &c. 334 The English kings keep Aquitaine and insular Normandy 334 Sudden gi-eatness of France coxmts of Toulouse and Fiefs of Aragon in Southern Gaul
Maine, Aquitaine, and Gascony
. .

Acquisition of continental

334-335 French annexations 335 Roussillon and Barcelona freed from homage 335 Languedoc 335-336 Other annexations of Saint Lewis temporary possession of NaAnnexation of Champagne 336-337 varre The Hundred Years' War relations between France and momentary possession of Aquitaine by Aquitaine 337 Philip the Fair Aquitaine and other lands freed from Peace of Bretigny 337-338 homage Peace of Troyes; momentary union of the French and 338 English crowns beginning of the modern Final annexation of Aquitaine 338-339 French kingdom Growths of the Dukes of Burgundy the towns on the Somme momentary annexation of Artois and the Comity of 339-340 Burgundy Annexation of the duchy of Burgundy Flanders and Artois 340-343 released from homage analogy with Aquitaine
Barcelona
of
Effects

...... ........
;

the

Albigen^ian war

......... .... ........


.

........ ........ ......


;
;

2.

Foreign Annexations of France.


;

Kelations betweou France and England

Boulogne

Dun341-342

kirk

; ;

CONTENTS.
Relations between France and Spain
;

XXXI
PAGE
;

Roussillon

Navarre
first

Andorra Advance at the

342-343
cost of the Imperial

343 with of France relations Burgundian conquests Effect of the .344 Savoy and Switzerland 345 History of the Langue cVoc slight extent of real annexaFrench dominion in Italy 345-346 tion the Three Bishoprics French annexations from Germany
;
.

gundy, then Germany

...... ......
kingdoms,

Bur-

346 French acquisitions in Elsass France reaches and passes the 347-34S Rhine increased isolation Temporary annexation of Bar annexation of Roussillon
effect of isolated

conquests
;

...... .....
;

348-349 Annexation of Franche Comte and Besangon ; seizure of 349-350 Strassburg annexation of Orange Annexation of Lorraine thorough incorporation of French 350-351 conquests; effect of geographical continuity Purchase of Corsica its effects; birth of Buonaparte 351-352
advance in the Netherlands
;
.
.

....

3.

The Colonial Dominion of France.


;

French colonies in North America


Louisiana

Colonial rivalry of France and Eagland


of Canada French West India Islands The French power in India

......... .........
Acadia
;

Canada

352 353

English conquest

.353

Bourbon and Mauritius

353-354

4.

Acquisitions of France during the Revolutionary Wars.

Distinction between the Republican and

quests

........
'

Imperial

'

Con355-356

First class of annexations


;
;

Avignon, MUlhausen, MontbeHard Geneva bishopric of Basel 355 Second zone; traditions of Gaul and the Rhine; Netherlands; Savoy,&c. feelings of Buonaparte towards Switzerland 355-356 Character of Buonaparte's conquests dependent and incorporated lands division of Europe between France and Russia 356-357 357-358 The French power in 1811 Arrangements of 1814-1815 358-359 Later changes annexation of Savoy, Nizza, and Mentone
;
;

....

loss of Elsass

and Lorraine

.359

XXXU
Losses

CONTENTS.
PACi a

among

the colonies

independence of Hayti

sale of

Louisiana

359-360
;

Conquest of Algeria

character of African conquests

360

CHAPTER

X.

THE EASTERN EMPIRE.


Comparison of the Eastern and Western Empires the Western fills to pieces from within the Eastern is broken to
;

pieces from without

......
;
.
.

36ti-363

Tendencies to separation in the Eastern Empire Closer connexion of the East with the elder Empire
tion of the

.363
363-364
.

reten.

Roman name

Romania

Importance of the distinction of races in the East The original races; Albanians, Greeks, Vlachs
Slavonic settlers

364 364 364 365

........
.

Turanian invasions fi'om the North

Bulgarians, Magyars, &c.

365 The Saracens The Seljuk and Ottoman Turks comparison of Bulgarians, 365 Magyars, and Ottomans The Eastern Empire became nearly conterminous with the 366 Greek nation reappearance of tlie other original races The Latin Conquest, and the revived Byzantine Empire 366-367 States which arose out of the Empire or on its borders Bulgaria Hungary Asiatic powers 367-368 Sicily; Venice
;

......
.

Distinction between conquest and settlement


1
.

368

Changes in

the

Frontier of the Einjnre.


.

.369 Power of revival in the Empire Western possessions of the Empire losses in the islands 369 advance in the mainland Loss of Sardinia; gi*&dual loss and temporary partial recovery 369-370 of Sicily Fluctuations of the Imperial power in Italy; theNoi-mans 370^371 separation of Loss and recovery of Crete and Cyprus 371-372 Cyprus 372-373 Summary of the history of the great islands
.
. .

......
;

Relations to the Slavonic powers

three Slavonic groups


;

373

Bulgarian migrations

373-374 374 375 375 Relations between the Empire and the Bulgarian kingdom

kingdom south

of

White Bulgaria the Danube

Use of the Bulgarian name The slaves of Macedonia, &a

.... ...... .....


the
first

Bulgarian

CONTENTS.
Recovery
of

XXXlll
PAOX
;

Macedonia and Greece

Hellenes
Servia, Croatia,

and Dalmatia
of

Greatest

extent

Simeon

First conquest of Bulgaria

Second Bulgarian kingdom under Samuel; second conquest 377-378 378 Venice and Cherson 378-379 Asiatic conquests annexation of Armenia
; . .

........ ........ ........


use of the

name

375-376

.376

the

first

Bulgarian

kingdom under 376-377


.
.

.377

New

enemies ; Magyars
;

Turks
Belgrade

Revolt of Servia

loss of

.379 .379
379-380

Advance

of the Seljuk Turks;

Sultans of

Roum;
.

loss of

Antioch

Normans advance
in Asia

loss of

Corfu and Durazzo

380

Revival under John and Manuel, Komnenos; recovery of lands

and Europe
of Cyprus

.381
Latin

Splitting off of distant possessions

loss of
.

Dalmatia
.
.

Kingdom
Greek

.381
382

Third Bulgarian kingdom

the

Empire more thoroughly


;

Latin conquest of Constantinople


Latin Empire of Romania Latin kingdom of Thessalonike

Despotat of Epeiros
separation

.........
;

...... .....
Act
of Partition
.

383 383-384 384-385


.

Greek Empii-e of Thessalonike

their

385

Empire of Trebizond loss of its western dominion 386 The old Empire continued in the Empire of Nikaia its advance in Europe and Asia; recovery of Constantinople 386-387 Loss in Asia and advance in Europe; recovery of Pelo387-388 ponnesos Advance in Macedonia and Epeiros 388 Losses in Asia Knights of Saint John advance of the Turks 389 Losses towards Servia and Bulgaria conquests of Stephen 389-390 Dushan 390 Fragmentary dominion of the Empire Advance of the Turks in Europe loss of Hadrianople loss
;
. .

........ ....
; ;

....
;
.

390 390-391 Recovery of territory after the fall of Bajazet 391 Turkish conquest of Con.stantinople of Peloponnesos States which grew out of the Empire; Slavonic, Hungarian, 391-393 and Rouman Greek; Latin; Turkish
of Philadelphia
.
; .

2.

The Kingdom of Sieily.

The Norman Power in Italy and Sicily Eastern and Western Empires

.....
;

its relations to

the

393

b2

XXXIV

CONTENTS.
PAGE
;

Advance of the Normans in Italy Aversa and Capua duchy of Apulia Robert Wiscard in Epeiros 394-395
;

Norman

conquest of Sicily
Sicily
;

.......
.

39.5

Roger King of
Africa

his conquests in Italy, Corfu,

and
39-5-396
of

Eastern dominion of the two Sicilian crowns

kingdom

Margarito

Acre; Malta

3.

396-397 398
States.
.

The,

Crusading

Comparison between Sicily and the crusading states 398 Jerusalem Cyprus Armenia .399 Extent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem other Latin states in Syria ; loss and recovery of Jerusalem, final loss loss of Acre 399-400 Kingdom of Cyprus its relations to Jerusalem and Armenia 401
.

Frank principalities in Greece commonwealths

4.

.......
;
.

possessions of the maritime

401-402

The Eastern Dominion of Venice and Genoa.


Venice springs from her relation to

The

historic position of

402-403 Connexion of her Greek and Dalmatian rule 402 Comparison between Venice and Sicily 402 Her share in the Act of Partition compared with her real dominion her main position Hadriatic 403-405 Venetian possessions not assigned by the partition Crete ; Cyprus Thessalonike 404 Taking of Zara in the fourth crusade 405 Relations of the Dalmatian cities to Servia, Croatia, Venice, Hvmgary, and the Empire 405-407 Pagania 406

the Eastern Empire

....
.
. .

Magyar Kingdom Hungary

Independence of Ragusa History of Corfu


of the

Venetian posts in Peloponnesos

....... ..... ..... .......... ......... ..... ......


; ;

of Croatia

struggles between Venice and

Polizza

407 407 408


409

history of Euboia

loss

^gsean

islands

Advance of Venice and Dalmatia, Peloponnesos, and the Western islands .410 . Venice the champion against the Turk losses of Venice 410-412 fluctuations in the "Western Islands Conquest and loss of Peloponnesos .412 Frontier of Ragusa .412
.
.

;; ;

CONTENTS.
Venetian
ine
Grcnoese
fiefs
;

XXXV
PAGB

fiefs

history of the duchy of


;

Naxos

.413
413-414

Possessions of

Genoa

Galata

her dominions in the Euxthe

Lesbos

Chios
;

Maona

.414

Revolutions of P^hodes
to

knights of Saint John

Malta

5.

revolutions of Malta

....
;

their

removal 414-415

The Princqjalities of the Greek Mainland.


states; use of the

Greek and Latin

name Moraia

415-416

Lordship and duchy of Athens ; the Catalans ; the later dukes ; Ottoman conquest momentary Venetian occu;

pations

416-417
. . . .

Salona and Bodonitza


Principality of Achaia
;

.417

recovery of Peloponnesian lands by

the Empire

Angevin overlordship
principality
.

in

Achaia
. .

417-418 dismemberment of the


.
.

Patras under the Pope

Conquests of Constantine Palaiologos Turkish conquest of Peloponnesos independence of Maina


.

.418 .418 .418


.

419

dismemberment of the despotat recovery of Epeiros by the Empu-e .419 Servian conquests beginning of the Albanian power kings 419-420 of the house of Thopia Servian dynasty in southern Epeiros ; kingdom of Thessaly
Revolutions of Epeiros
;
.
.

Turkish conquest

.420
420-421

The Buondelmonti
house of Tocco
reconquest
;

in

Northern Epeiros;
;

history of the
.

Karlili
;

effects of their rule

Turkish conquest of Albania


.

revolt of Scanderbeg
.
.

Turkish
.

.421
422 422-423
.

Empire of Trebizond

its relations to
;

Constantinople

Turkish concjuest of Trebizond

6.

of Perateia or Gothia
States.

The Slavonic

on the Slavonic states .423 Comparison of Servia and Bulgaria extent of Servia its relation to the Empire conquest by Manuel Komnenos 423-424 Servia independent Relations towards Hungary shiftings of Rama or Bosnia 424-425
Effects of the Latin conquest
. ; ; ;

......
; ;
.
. .

425 Southern advance of Servia Empire of Stephen Dushan Break-up of the Servian power the later Servian kingdom .426 conquests and deliverances of Servia Kingdom of Bosnia loss of Jayce ; duchy of Saint Saba or
.

; ; ; ;

XXXVl
;

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Herzegovina Turkish conquest of Bosnia of Herze426-427 govina The Balsa at Skodra loss of Skodra ; beginning of Tzer.428 nagora or Montenegro. 428 Loss of Zabljak establishment of Tzetinje 429 The Yladikas the lay princes 428-429 ]\1 ontenegrin conquests and losses
; ;
. .
.

........ ...... ....


.
.

Greatest extent of the third Bulgarian kingdom


cline
;

its

de-

shif tings of the frontier towards the

Philippopolis

Break-up of the kingdom Turkish conquest


7.

principality

of

Empire 429-430 Dobrutcha


430-431

The Kin<jdom of Hungary.


.

Character and position of the Hungarian kingdom

431-432

Great Moravia overthrown by the Magyai-s

to the two Empires The two Chrobatias separated by the Magyar's

graphical position

Kingdom

of

Hungary

its

Transsilvania or Siebenbiirgen

and other colonies


Origin of the

...... ...... .......


;

their i-elations

432-433

their geo-

relations to Croatia
;

433-434 and Slavonia 434


;

origin of the

name

German
43.5
.

Roumans

their northern migration


;

435-436

Eouman

element in the third Bulgarian kingdom

occupa-

tion of the lands beyond the

Danube
;

Great and Little


. . .

Wallachia

Transsilvania

Conquests of Lewis the Great


Halicz and Vladimir
;

Moldavia Dalmatia

436-437
437

occupation of
.

pledging of Zips

Turkish invasion ; disputes for Dalmatia Reign of Matthias Corvinus extension of Hungaiy east

and west
of

.........
;

....
.

438 438

Loss of Belgrade

Hungary

Turkish conquest fragment kept by the Austrian kings


the Austiian kings
;

their tribute to the

Turk

the

Rouman
;

lands

438-439

Recovery of Hungary from the Turk


of Passarowitz
;

peace of Cailowitz
.

439-440 Belgrade 440-441 Dalmatia Annexation of Spizza administration of Bosnia and Herze440-441 govina; renewed vassalage to the Turk
losses at the peace of
;

Galicia and Lodomeria


;

Bukovina

8.
;

The Ottoman Tower.

The Ottoman Turks


contrast with

special character of their invasion

other

Turanian

with the Saracens in Spain

.....
invasions;

comparison

442-443

;;

CONTENTS.

XXXVll
TXGK

Comparison of the Ottoman dominions with the Eastern


443 Mongolian invasion ; origin of the Ottomans their position in Europe and Asia break-up and re443-444 vmion of their dominion its permanence Advance of the Ottomans in Asia in Europe dominion of 444-445 Bajazet Victory of Timour reunion of the Ottoman power under 445-446 Mahomet the First

Empire

.........
;
;
.

Effects of the

......
;
.
.

Mahomet
his

the Second
;

taking of Constantinople

dominion

taking of Otranto

Conquest of Syria and Egypt his conquests Reign of Suleiman


;

Hungary

Naxos

his African overlordship


;

.... ....
. .

extent of

446

.447
447

Rhodes

447-448 Ottoman power 448 Createst extent of the Ottoman power Crete and Podolia Ottoman loss of Hungary loss and i-ecovery of Peloponnesos Bosnia and Herzegovina union of inland and mari448 time Illyria 449 English vassalage in Cyprus Azof Treaty of Relations between RussLa and the Turk shiftings of Crim Jedisan Bessjirabia Kainardji
Conquest of Cyprus
decline of the
, ;
.

the Moldavian frontier


9.

The Liberated
;

Lands

liberated

from the Turk

with

Gi-eece, Sei-via, kc.

...... ..... ......


;
; ;

449 -450

^States.

comparison of Hungary

450

The Servian people the first The Ionian Islands the first

to revolt

.450

liberated state

the Septinsular
.

Republic; overlordship of the Turk

.451

suiTeiider of The Venetian outposts given to the Turk 451 Parga last Ottoman encroachment .451 The Ionian Islands under British protection The Greek War of Independence extent of the Greek nation 451-452 extent of the liberated land;4
;
;
.

Kingdom

of Greec:?; addition of the Ionian Islands; promised

addition in Thessaly and Epeiros


First delivei-ance

and reconquest of Servia


;

452-453 453 453 Independence and enlargement of Servia 453 Fourfold division of the Servian nation The Rouman principalities; union of Wallachia and Mol453 davia
Second deliverance
Servia a tiibutary pi-incipility
.

Withdrawal

of

Turkish garrisons

..... .....
.
. . . .

.... ....
.

452

.453

....
.

XXXVlll

CONTENTS.
PAGB
. ,

Independence and new frontier of Eoumania Deliverance of part of Bulgaria; the Bulgaria of
Stefano

453-454 San 454


454-455

Treaty of Berlin

division of Bulgaria into free, half-free,

and enslaved
Principality of Bulgaria
;

Eastern Roumelia

General survey

......
.
.

.454
455-460 460-461

Note on M. Sathas

CHAPTER
Lands beyond the two Empires
dinavia
;

XI.

THE BALTIC LANDS.

Spain

powers C/'omparison of Scandinavia and Spain


Quasi-iiaperieil position of certain

Sweden Eastern and Western aspect

....... ........
;

the British islands

Scan-

462-463 462-463 of Aragon and 463-464


.
. .

of Scandinavia
;

.464
.

General view of the Baltic lands


lands, their relations to

the Northern Slavonic

Germany and Hungary and Russia The primitive nations, Aryan and non-Aryan
Characteristics of Poland
.

.....
.

465
465

,.

455-466

Central position of the North-Slavonic lands

bai-barian

neighbours of Russia and Scandinavia

and colonization by land


always independent
to the

Relation of the Baltic lands to the two Empires


;

relations of

Western Empire 467 The Western Empire and the West- Slavonic lands relations of Poland to the Western Empire .467 Relations of Russia to the Eastern Church and Empire
;
.

..... ......
;
.

Russian conquest

467

Norway Sweden and Denmark


;

Imperial style of Russia

1.

.468

The Scandinavian Lands after


Baltic
still

the

Separation of the Emjnres.

The

mainly held by the earlier races ; formation 468-499 of the Scandinavian kingdom Formation of the Danish kingdom ; its extent ; frontier of 469 the Eider; the Danish march

.....
.

....
.

Use

name Northmen Norway


of the
;

formation of the kingdom of

The Swedes and Gauts


towards the north

the Swedish kingdom

Its fluctuations towards

Norway and Denmark

.......
;

its

469-470 470 growth 470


.

; ;

CONTENTS.

XXXIX
PAGE

Western conquests and settlements of the Danes and North

men

Settlements in Britain and Gaul

Settlements in Orkney, Man, Iceland, Ireland,

Expeditions to the East; Danish occupation of Samland

Jomsburg

... .......... ........


cfec.
;
;

471
471

471 471

Swedish conquest of Curland

Scandinavians in Russia

472

2.

The Lands East and South of the Baltic of the Empires.

at the Separation

Slaves between Elbe and Dnieper

their lack of sea-board


. . . .

472-473

Kingdom

of

Samo
;

Great Moravia

Four Slavonic groups


Polabic group
the Empire

......
;

.473
473-474

Sorabi, Leuticii, Obotrites

their relations to

Early conquest of the Sorabi

474-475 marks of Meissen and Lusatia


;

long resistance of the Leuticians

Brandenburg Mark of the Billungs kingdom of Sclavinia


of
;

mark

lenbui-g

relations to
;

Bohemia and Moravia their relations to Poland, Hungary, 477 and Germany The Polish kingdom its relations to Germany rivalry of Poland and Russia .478
;

...... ..... ........


takings of Bi-anibor
;

475-476
476

house of Meck-

Denmark

Lechs or Poles their various ti-ibes .478 Beginning of the Polish state its conversion and relations
; .
. . .

to the

Empire
.

........
;
. .

479

Conquests of Boleslaf ; union of the Northern Chrobatia with

479 479-480 though divided Relations of Russia to the Eastern Church and Empire Russia created by the Scandinavian settlement origin 480 of the name First centre at Novgorod Russian advance union of the

Poland

The Polish

state survives,

........
;
;

Eastern Slaves

.481

Second centre at Kief; the princes become Slavonic; attacks on Constantinople and Cherson 481-482 Conquests on the Caspian isolation of Russia Russian lands west of Dnieper 482 Russian principalities; supremacy of Kief 482 Supremacy of the northern Vladimir commonwealths of
;

.... ........ ....


; ;

Novgorod and Pskof; various


of Halicz or Galicia
.
..

principalities;
. . .

kingdom
. .

483

Xl

CONTENTS.
PAGE
;

The Cuman power


the Mongols
;

Mongol invasion

Russia tributary to
.

The The

earlier races

Russia represented by Novgorod Finns in Livland and Esthland


;

Lettic nations

Lithuania

Survey in the twelfth century

.... ......
.
.

Prussia

483-484 484 484 485

3.

German Dominion on

the Baltic.

comparison of Time of Teutonic conquest on the Baltic German and Scandinavian influence German influence
; ;

the stronger

Beginning of Swedish conquest in Finland German conquest in Livland ; its effect on Lithuania and Russia ; the
;

Military orders

Polish gains and losses

Character of the

Temporaiy Swedish possession of Scania union of Calmar abiding union of Denmark and division and reunion 487-488 Norway
; ;

Union

of

Iceland with

avian settlements in the British

Swedish advance in Finland


'Tempoi'ary greatness of

....... ....... ....... ........ .... ......


.

485-486

.487
487
487

Hansa

Norway

loss

of the Scandin-

isles

488 488

Denmark, settlement
;

of Esthland

Danish advance in Germany 488-490 Holstein, &c. long retention of Riigen Duchy of South-Jutland or Sleswick its relations to Denmark and Holstem royal and ducal lines conquest 490-491 of Ditmarschen
conquest of Sclavinia
; ;
. .

Efifect of

the Danish advance on the Slavonic lands

losses of

Poland

Kingdom

of

Bohemia

burg kings Annexation of Silesia and Lusatia


Corvinus

....... ........
;

western
.

Pomemnia;
;

Silesia.

491-492 492-493 493

dominion of Ottocar

the

Luxem-

..........
;
;

territory lost to Matthias

Union with

Avistria

later losses
;

.493

German
The

corporations

the

a territoiial poAver
Military
Ot-ders;

......
Hansa
;

its

nature

not strictly

494-495
of

knights

and their connexion with the Empire


Sword-brothers
in

Teutonic
;

their rule

.........
eflfects

495

The Sword-brothers
their

Livland and Esthland


Prussia: union with

extent of

dominion
the

495-496
Sword-

The Teutonic order in

; ;

CONTENTS.
brothers; acquisition of Culm, Ponierelia, Samogitia,

xli
PAGE

496 and part of Prussia to Poland the remainder a Polish fief 496-497 Advance of Christianity Lithuania the last heathen power its great advance 497-498 Consolidation of Poland; conquests of Casimir the Great
Losses of the oi'der
;
;

Gotland; the

New Mark

cession of Pomerelia

shiftings of

Red Russia

...... ......
;

498

Union

of Poland
;

and Lithuania

recovery of the Polish


.

498-499 closer union power of Moscow ; name of Mtiscovij 499-500 Break-up of the Mongol power; the Khanats of Crim, Kaz:in, Siberia, Astrakhan 501 Deliverance of Russia Crim dependenr on the Turk .501 Advance of Moscow ; annexation of Novgorod, (fcc. Russia united and independent .501 Survey at the end of the fifteenth century 502
duchies

Lithuanian advance
;

Revival of Russia

.......
.

....
.
.

4.

The GrovAh of Russia ami Siveden.


;

Growth of Russia of Sweden


Prussia
;

creation of Prussia

temporary greatness

503

Separation of the Pitissiau and Livonian knights; duchy of

union of Prussia and Brandenburg

independent of Poland

.....
; ;

Prussia

503-504
;

Fall of the Livonian knights; partition of their dominions

duchy of Curland and Russia


Lublin

.........
;

shares of Denmark, Sweden, Poland,

504

Greatest Baltic extent of Poland and Lithuania

union of

Advance

of Russia

its

order

the Euxine reached last


;

505 505-506

Recovery of Russian lands from Lithuania Polish conquest second Russian advance Peace of Andrasof Russia zovo recovery of Kief
; ;

......
; ;
.
.

506

Russian supeiiority over the Coss icks

Podolia ceded to the

Turk 506-507 Comparison of Swedish and Russian advance .507 Advance under and after Gustavus Adolphus conquests from Russia and Poland Ingormanland Livland 507-508 Conquests from Denmark and Norway Dago and Oesel
;
;

Fiefs of

<tc. restoration of Trondhjem 508-509 Sweden within the Empire; Pomerania; Bremen and Verden 509

Scania,

Fluctuations in the duchies

Danish possession of Olden509

burg

xlii

CONTENTS.
PAOB

Sweden

after the peace of Oliva

.510
511

Eastern advance of Russia; Kasan and Astrakhan

5.

Siberia

The Decline of Sweden and Poland.


extinction

Decline of Sweden;

Prussia; empire of Russia

.....
of

Poland;

kingdom of 511-512
foundation
. .

Russia on the Baltic

conquest of Livland, &c.


;

of Saint Petersburg

advance in Finland
:

.512
of

German

losses
.

of

Sweden
. .

Bremen,
.
.

Verden,
. .

part
.

Pomerania Union of the Gottorp lands and Denmark


First partition of Poland
;

.513 .513

recovery of lost lands by Russia


;

geographical union of Pr-ussia and Brandenburg


.

Polish
.

513-514 and Russian lands acquired by Austria .514 Second partition Russian and Prussian shares 514-515 Third partition extinction of Poland and Lithuania No strictly Polish territory acquired by Russia; the old Poland passes to Prussia, Chrobatia to Austria .515 515-516 Russian advance on the Euxine, Azof; Crim Jedisan superiority Temporary Russian advance on the Caspian
:
.

over Georgia

Survey at the end of the eighteenth century

6.

.516 .517

The Modern Geography of

the Baltic

Lands.

Effects of the fall of the Empii-e; incorporation of the

German
.
.

lands of

Sweden and Denmark


.

Russian conquest of Finland

.518 .518

Union of Sweden and Norway; loss of Swedish Pomerania 518-519 Denmark enters the German Confederation for Holstein and
and of Sleswick. 519 commonwealth of Danzig Duchy 519-520 of Warsaw Polish territory recovered b)' Prussia Russian kingdom of Poland commonwealth of Cracow its annexation by
Lauenberg
;

loss of these duchies


;

Polish losses of Prussia

Austria

.........
;
. . . . . .

520

Fluctuation on the Moldavian border

Russian advance in the Caucasus and on the Caspian

.521 .521

Advance

Turkestan and Eastern Asia racter of the Russian dominion Russian America ,
in
.

Final survey of the Baltic lands

.... ....
;
. .

extent and cha-

522-523

.523
523-524

CONTENTS.

xliii

CHAPTER

XII.
ITS COLONIES.
PAGK

THE SPANISH PENINSULA AND

Analogy between Spain and Scandinavia ; slight Spain with the Empire break between its
;

relation of
earlier

525 and the Eastern Empire the Spanish nation formed by the Saracen wars ; analogy between Spain and Russia 525-526 Extent of West-Gothic and Saracen dominions two centres of deliverance, native and Frankish 526-527 History of Aragon, Castile, and Portugal use of the phrase Spain and Portugal 527-528 Navarre 528
later history

ComparLson

of Spain

........ ......
;
;
.

and

'

..........
' .

1.

The Foundation of

the

Spanish Kingdoms.
. , . .

Beginning of the kingdom of Leon

.529
.

The Ommiad emirate

529 Navarre under Sancho the Great 529-530 Break-up of the kingdom of Navarre, and of the Ommiad caliphate small Mussulman powers 530
;

the Spanish

March;

.... ....
its

divisions

name Moors. 530 kingdoms Castile, Aragon, and Sobrarbe union of Aragon and Sobrarbe .530 Shiftings of Castile, Leon, and Gallicia ; final union Castilian Empire 531 Decline of Navarre ; growth of Aragon union of Aragon and Barcelona end of French superiority .531 County and kingdom of Portugal 532 Advance of Castile taking of Toledo ; checked by the Almoravides .532 Advance of Aragon taking of Zaragoza 532 Advance of Portugal taking of Lisbon 533 Second advance of Castile; invasion of the Almohades;
Invasion of the Almoravides; use of the
.

New

........
;
;
. '. . .
.

.....
.

their decline

........
. .

.... ....
. .
,

533

Aragon and Portugal Final advance of Castile kingdom

Advance

of

.533

of

Granada

Gibraltar
. .

Gteogi'aphical position of the

Spanish kingdoms

Title of

'

King

of Spain

;
'

the lesser kingdoms

534 534-535 535-536


.

2.

Growth

a/nd Partition of the Great

Spanish Monarchy.
;

Little

geographical change in the peninsula territoiies beyond the peninsula ; the great Spanish Monarchy
.

536

xliv

CONTENTS.
PAG
.

536-537 Conquest of Granada ; end of Mussulman rule Union of Castile and Aragon ; loss, recovery, and final loss of 537-538 Roussillon annexation and separation of Portugal
. ;

Gibraltar and Minorca

.537

Advance of Aragon beyond the


Sicilies

penin.sula
.

union with the


.

and Sardinia

.538
539

Extension of Castile dominion

the Burgundian inheritance;

duchy of Milan Extent of the Spanish Monarchy lands lands lost to France
;

loss of the
.
.

United Nether. .

.539
539-540

Partition of the Spanish


Sicilies
;

duchy of

Monarchy Parma

later relations

with the

3.

The Colonial Dominion of Spain and Portugal.


. .

.540 Character of the outlying dominion of Portugal African conquests of Portugal ; kingdom of Algarve beyond
the Sea; Ceuta, Tangier
. .

.541

Advance in Africa and the islands dominion in India and Arabia


Settlement and histoiy of Brazil
;

Cape of Good Hope 541-542 the one American mon;


. .

....
.
.

archy

'

542

Division of the Indies between Spain and Portugal

542-543 and insular dominion of Spain American dominions of Spain revolutions of the Spanish 54-3-544 two Empires of Mexico colonies 544 The Spanish West Indies
;

....
;
.
. .

African

CHAPTER
Isolation

XIII.

THE BRITISH ISLANDS AND COLONIES.


and independence of Britain late Roman conquest and early loss Britain another world and Empire Shiftings of the Celtic and Teutonic kingdoms little geo;

545 546

graphical change in later times

.....
;

English settlements beyond sea

1.

new English

nations

.547

The Kingdom of Scotland.


;

Greatness of Scotland due to its English elements


lish

two Eng548 549 549

kingdoms in Britain

Use

of the Scottish

name
in the later Scotland
;

Analogy with Switzerland

The three elements


Irish
]

Lothian, Strathclyde, Scotland

....

English, British,

549

CONTENTS.
The
Picts
;

xlv
PAOB
;

their

union with the Scots

clyde

Galloway

Scandinavian settlements
English supremacy
;

taking of Edinburgh

berland and Lothian

........ ......
;

Scottish Strath-

Caithness and Sutherland


;

550 550

grants of

Cum550-551

Difference of tenure gradually forgotten


Effects of the grant of Lothian
;

.551

shiftings of

CarUsle, and Northumberland Boundary of England and Scotland kingdoms

.........
;

....
relations
.
.

Cumberland,

551-552 between the


552
55.3

Struggle with the

Northmen recovery
;

way, and the Sudereys


History of

Man

......
.

of Caithness, Gallo-

of
2.

Orkney

.553

The Kingdom of Englatid.


;
.

Changes of boundary toward Wales conquests of Harold 553 Norman conquest of North Wales 554 Princes of North Wales English conque.'-t 554 The principality of Wales; full incorporation with England 554-5.55 The English shires two classes of shires ancient principal.

....
.
. . . .

ities

shire.s

mapped out

in the tenth

century

555

The new shires; Cumberland, Westmoreland, Lancashire, Rutland 555-556

3.

Ireland.

Ireland the

first

Scotland

its
;

provinces

....

556

Settlements of the Ostmen land


Lord.-^hip
;

increasing connexion with Eng;

the English conquest

fluctuations of the Pale


;

and kingdom of Ireland and Great Britjiin

4.

Outlying European Possessions of England.


;

The Norman Islands


Outposts and islands

....... ........
its relations to

556-557 England
557

Aquitaine, Calais,

<fec.

Greek possessions

5.

the Ionian Islands

Cyprus

558 558 558-559


.

The American Colonies of England.

The United
First

States of

America
;

559

English settlements

Virginia

States; Maryland; Carolina

....
;

the

New

England
559-561

Settlements of the United Provinces and Sweden

Netherlands; New Sweden New York The Jerseys; Pennsylvania; Delaware; Georgia
;

New .561
561-562

xlvi

CONTENTS.
PAGE

The

thirteen Colonies
;

their independence

Nova Scotia Canada; Louisiana; Florida A new English nation formed lack of a name name America
;

562 562-563
.

Second English nation in North America


confederation
. . .

The West India

6.

Islands, &c.

Other Colonies and Possessio7is of England.

The Australian colonies The South- African colonies Europe extended by colonization dominion; Empire of India

....... ...... ...... ......


; ;
. . .
.

use of the

563-564

the Canadian

.564
565

565-566 566
567 568-569

contrast with barbaric

....

Summary
Index
.
.

571

xlvii

ADDITIOXS AND COEEECTIONS.


P. 19,
into
1.

10.

Lattei'ly the
use.

name Balkan
of

Peninsula, has come

moie general
38,

P.
'

side-note.

For

'

Cities

independent state

'

read

Growth

of independent states.'
1.

P. 41,

10 from bottom.

This

is

true in a rough pi'actical

way,

Bnt when

I wrote this, I hardly took in the fact that not

a few Greek

cities,

not finally incorporated with

though practically subject to the Empire, were it till ages later, perhaps never forall.
' ' '

mally incorporated at
P. 55,
1.

For south-east read south-west.' P. 55, 1. 8, For north-west read north-east,' P. 71, When I Avrote this, I had not taken in the tiue history of the Exjuman people. See below, p, 435. P, 88, 1. 14, Since this was written, I wrote the article ' Goths,' in the Encyclopredia Britannica, where I have gone rather moie fully into their history from later and minuter study.
7.
'
'

P, 90,

1,

4 fi'om the bottom.

I believe the existence of a

a little doubtful. As to the Gotlda in Gaul, otherwise Septimania, and the other GotMa in the Tauric Chersonesos, there is no doubt.
that

GotMa by

name

in Spain

is

P, 105,

1.

14 from bottom,

I believe hoAvever that the coins of

some of the Provencal cities point to a retention of allegiance to Still there is no doubt as to the formal the Empire much later.
cession.

P. 115, 1, 5 from bottom. I now see no reason to believe in any Albanian migrations into Greece till long afterwards. But I still have no doubt that the Albanians stiictly represent the old
Illyrians.

P. 119.

Dele side-note, "The cession of Gaulish possessions.'


1.

P. 126.
gi'eat

6.

For

'

tJie

great

Mahometan powers

'

read

'

the

two

Mahometan
1.

powers.'

P. 138,
P. 154.

9,

Dele

'

much

as,'

The growth of the Christian states in Spain will be found more fully and accurately given in the specially Spanish
chapter, Chapter XII.

xlviii

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.


1.

P. 156,

4.

It will be at once seen that this

was written

be-

fore the events of 1877-8.

be found described in P. 167,


1.

The later changes Chapter X.


'

in these lands will

For 'division read divisions.' For province read provinces.* P. 180, side-note. For schemes' read 'scheme.' P. 189, 1. 12. For 'were read 'some were.' P. 216, side-note. For ecclesiastical towns read ecclesiastical
10.
'

P. 172, side- note.

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

powers.'

P. 221, side note.


P. 258,
fore
1.

much,

if

For kingdom read kingdoms.' was here speaking purely geographically, beanything, had been heard of the cry of Italia irre'

'

'

14.

denta.

How
1.

far I

go with that

cry,

how
'

far not,

I have ex-

l)lained in Historical Essays,

Thiid

Series, p. 206.

P. 261, lead

1.

For

'

Montbeilliard,' read

Montbeliard.'
its

P. 263, side-note.
'

For
'

'

Burgundian possession of
'

county

'

Burgundian possessions of its counts.' 1. 1. For maps' read map.' For 'High and P. 288, 1. 11 from bottom. Savoy and High Savoy.' P. 300, side-note. For 1662 read 1663.'
P. 267,
' '

Low Savoy

'

i-ead

'

P. 306,

I.

8.

At

present

it

would seem that

this mysterious

name takes

in all those kingdoms, counties, lordships, &c.,

which

are held by the

Archduke of Austria, and which do not form part For these I of the kingdom of Hungary and its ^^rti-^es annexm. have elsewhere, according to an old analogy, suggested the more intelligible name of Nungary.
P. 319, P. 334,
P. 340,
freed from
1.

3.

That

is

Philip

'

the Handsome,' son of Maxi-

milian and father of Charles the Fifth.


1.

9.

Aquitaine, the inheritance of Eleanor, did not


foi-feituie of

come under the


1.

the

fiefs

actually held by John.


is

4 from bottom.

Roussillon

another case of a land

P. P. P.
P.
'

homage and afterwards annexed as a foreign conquest. 369, 1. 17. For farther read further.' 389, side-note. For con(juest read conquests of.' 408, side-note. For final read first.' For possession of Venetian cities read 413, side-note.
'
' '

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

possessions of Venetian families.'

P. 429,

1.

15.

Since this was printed, Dulcigno has Ijeen re-

stored to Montenegro, in
territory given

back to the Turk.

exchange for some inland Albanian The formation of the Albanian

League is not unlikely to affect the geography of Herzegovina; but no change has yet (January 1881) taken place which can be
sliown on the map.

ADDITIONS
P. 441,
(quarters, is
1. 8.

AND CORRECTIONS.
is felt

xlix

How

unpleasant this truth

to be in certain

shown by a small incident of last year. I sent a set of manuscript maps of Dalmatia to Mr. Arthur Evans foi- his Those maps vanished in the Imperial. Royal, and suggestions.
Apostolic post-office, and nevei- reached his address at Ragusa.
If therefore

the revolutions of

Dalmatian geogiaphy are

less
is

accuiately marked in this book than they should be, the fault

In Imperial, Royal, and Apostolic quarters it is doubtless inconvenient to allow any memoiy of days when free Ragusa had not bowed to any self-styled Emperor, either fi"oni
not mine.
Corsica or from Lorraine, or of
I'eached to her
still

later days

when free Tzernagora


it

own

sea at Cattaro.

Those who have made

their business to filch the substance


it

may

naturally enough think

their business to filch the picture also.

P. 450,

1.

5 from bottom.

It

is

quite accurate to say that the

Turk has never ruled at Tzetinje. It is perfectly true that the Turk has more than once hairied iNIontenegro and Tzetinje itself; the Turk has professed to consider the land as included in a
pashalik
;

tributaiy state, as Servia and


is still.

but Montenegro has never been a regulai-ly and avowedly Roumania were, as fi-ee Bulgaria

The promises of Eiu-ope on thi^ 7 from bottom. It is hardly remain unfulfilled (January 1881). needful to notice the diplomatic qui1)ble that the European order for the liberation of these lands was not contained in the document strictly called the Ti-eaty of Berlin, but in another paper signed at the same time and place. The order has been i-enewed during the present yeiir at the Second Berlin Conference. P. 492, side-note. For and read under.' P. 529, 1. 9 from bottom. For western read eastern.' P. 554, side-note. For Northerners,' read Northmen.'
P. 452,
still
1.

head

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

HISTOPJCAL GEOGEAPHY

OF EUROPE.
CHAPTEE
I.

INTRODUCTION.

The work which we have now

before us

is

to

trace

out the extent of tenitory which the difierent states

'

Geo-

chap.

and nations of Europe and the neighbouring lands have


held at different times in the world's history, to

of iMsturicji!

mark

giapiy.

the different boundaries which the same country has

had, and the different meanings in which the same


has been used.
It is of great

name

importance carefully to

make

these distinctions, because great mistakes as to the

facts of history are often

caused through

men

thinking

and speaking
for instance

as

if

the

names of

different countries, say

England, France, Burgundy, Austria, have

always meant exactly the same extent of territory. Historical

geography, in

this sense, differs

from physical

geography which regards the natural features of the


earth's surface. It differs also

from studies

like

ethnology

and comparative philology, which have

to

do directly

with the differences between one nation and another,with


their

movements from one part of the world


relations to

to another,

and with the

be found among the languages


it is

spoken by them.

But, though

distinct

from these

INTRODUCTION.
CHAP,
^

studies,

it

makes much use of them.

For the physical


effect

'

geography of a country always has a great


its

upon

pohtical history, and the dispersions

and movements

of different nations are exactly those parts of history

which have most

to

do with fixing the names and the


in strictness, the land of the

boundaries of different countries at different times.

England^ for instance,

is,

English wherever they


old

may

settle,

whether

in their

home on

the European

continent, or in the isle of

Britain, or in

New

England beyond the Ocean.

But

the extent of territory which was in this

way

to

become
cir-

England was largely determined by the physical


cumstances of the countries in which
settled.

the

English

And

the history of the English nation has


all

been influenced, above

things,

by the

fact that the

great English settlement which has

made

the English But,

name famous was made


dominion,
its

in

an

island.

when

England had become the name of a


dominion advanced or went back.
of England and
different times,

distinct political

meanino- was liable to chanii:e as that

Thus the borders


changed
at

Scotland have

greatly
tliis

and forgetfulness of
in

has led to
history

many
kind

misunderstandings

reading

the

of

the two countries.


;

And

so with all other cases of the

the physical nature of the country, and the settlewdiicli

ments of the different nations

have occupied
its

it,

have always been the determining causes of


divisions.

political

But

it

is

with the political divisions that


in the
first

historical

geography has to deal

place.

With the nature


occupy
it, it

of the land, and with the people


fiir

who
in-

has to deal only so

as they

have

fluenced the political divisions.


in short
is,

Our present

business

first

to

draw

the

map

of the countries

'

GEOGEAPIIICAL AND POLITICAL NAMES.


with which

3
chap.
^
'.

we

are concerned as

it

appeared after each

of the different changes whicli they have gone through,

and then

to point out the historical causes

which have
shall

led to the changes on the map.

In

this

way we

always see what was the meaning of any geographical

name

at

any particular time, and we

shall thus avoid

mistakes,

some of which have


this

often led to really im-

portant practical consequences.

From

it

follows that, in lookins; at the Geoorraphv

Distinction

of Europe for our present purpose, ^ ^


,

11' we must
may be
well

look

first

giaphicai
3,^^ Politi'*i

at the land itself,


it.

and then

at the nations

which occupy
first

Names,

And,

in

so doing,

it

of

all

to distinguish
shall

between two kinds of names which we


use.

Some names of countries are strictly geographical they really mean a certain part of the earth's surface marked out by boundaries which cannot well be changed. Others simply mean the extent of
have to
;

country which
nation,

is

occupied at any time by a particular

and whose boundaries


is

may

easily

be changed.

Thus Britain

a strictly geographical name, meaning

an island whose shape and boundaries must always be


nearly the same.
Ejif/land, Scotland, Wales, are

names
of

of parts of that island, called after different

nations
all

which have
which have
again
is

settled in

it,

and the boundaries of

differed greatly at different times.

Spain
is

the geographical

name

of a peninsula which

almost as well marked out by nature as the island of


Britain.
Castile,

Aragon, Portugal, are

political

names
names

of parts of the peninsula of Spain.


of states

They

are the

whose boundaries have greatly

varied,

and

which have sometimes formed separate governments


and sometimes have been joined together.^
*

Gaul

In modern use

we speak

of Spain as only one part, tliough

B 2

INTRODUCTION.
CHAP,
I.

again
is

is

the geographical

name
all

of a country which

not so clearly marked out

round by nature

as

the island of Britain and the peninsula of Spain, but

which
south,

is

well

marked on

three sides, to
limits of Gaul,

the north,

and west.

Within the

names

like

France, Flanders, Briianny, Burgimdy, and Aquitaine,


are political

names of parts of the country, whose


and Spain.
This
the

limits

have varied as much at different times as those of the


different parts of Britain
is

differ-

ence between strictly geographical names which do not


alter

and

political

names which do
in

alter.

No

doubt

Gaul and Britain were


names given
just as nuich as the

the beginning political names,

to the land

from those who occupied

it,

names France and England.

But

the settlements from which those lands took the names


of Gaul and Britain took place long before the begin-

ning of trustworthy history, while the settlements from

which parts of those lands took the names of France

and England happened


history began,

in times

long after trustworthy

and

for

which we are therefore ready

with dates and names.


oldest received

Thus Gaul and Britain are the


;

names of those lands

they are the


first

names which those lands bore when we


of them.
It is

hear

therefore convenient to keep

them
mean-

in use as strictly geographical names, as always

ing that part of the earth's surfice which they meant

when we

first

hear of them.

In this book therefore,

Gaul, Britain, Spain, and other names of the same kind,


and of Portugal as another comes from the accident that, for some centuries past, all the other Spanish kingdoms have been joined under In speaking one government, while Portugal has remained separate.
inucli the larger part, of the peninsula,
part.

But

this simply

of any time

till

near the end of the fifteenth century of our

Era,

the word Spain must always be used the name of the whole peninsula.

in the geographical sense, as

THE MEDITEERANEAX LANDS.


will

always be used to mean a certain space on the


its

map, whoever may be

inhabitants,

or whatever

may

be

its

government, at any particular time.

But

names

like

France^ England, Castile, will be used to

mean
phed

the territoiy to which they were politically apat the

time of which

we may be

speaking, a terri-

tory which has been greater and less at different times.

Thus, the

cities

of Carlisle and Edinburgh have always

been

in

Britain since they were built.

They have
The
built.

sometimes been in England and sometimes not.


cities of Marseilles,

Geneva, Strassburg, and Arras have


since
in

always been in

Gaid ever

they were

They have sometimes been

France and sometimes

not, according to political changes.

1.

Geographical Aspect of Europe.


business
is

Our present

with the Historical Geography

of Europe, and with that of other parts of the world

only so far as they concern the geography of Europe.

But we

shall

have

to

speak of

all

the three divisions

of the Old World, Europe, Asia, and Africa, in those


parts of the three

which come nearest


real
hi.storv
all

to

one another,
tfrranean LancL.

and

in

which the

xheMediof the world bei^ins. *"


lie

These are those parts of


Mediterranean

three which

round the
to

sea, the lands

which gradually came

form the Empire of Eome. In these lands the boundaries

between the three great

divisions are verj^ easily

marked.

Modern maps do not Europe and Asia at


river

all

place the boundary between


;

the same point

some make the


But
In the

Don

the boundary and


is

some the Volga.


to

this question

of

little

importance for history.

earliest historical times,

when we have

do only with

the countries round the Mediterranean sea, there can

INTRODUCTION.
CHAP,

'-^

be no doubt

how much

is

Europe and how much


is

is

Asia and Africa.

Europe

the Land to the north of


tlie

the Mediterranean sea and of

great gulfs which

run out of

it.

If an exact boundary is needed in the bar-

barous lands north of the Euxine, the Tanais or


clearl}^

Don

is

the boundary which sliould be taken. In


its

all

these

lands the Mediterranean and


Asia.

gulfs divide Em^ope

from

But the northern parts of the two continents

really

form one geographical whole, the boundary between

them being one merely of convenience.

A vast

central

mass of land, stretching right across the inland parts of


the two continents, sends forth a system of peninsulas

and

islands, to the

north and south.

And

it is

in the

peninsular lands of Europe that European history begins.

Alike in Europe and in Asia, the southern or peninsular part of the continent
is

cut off from the central


is

mass by a mountain chain, which in Europe


The
pcEin-

nearly unconsists of

brokcu.
tlic

Thus the southern part of Europe


ni

Europe and
Asia.

thrcc great peninsulas of Spain, Italy, and wliat


a wide sense, call Greece.

we may,
in

These answer

some

sort to the

three great Oceanic peninsulas of

Asia, those

of Arabia, India, and India

beyond the
historically

Ganges.

But the part of Asia which has


to

had most
insula,

do with Europe

is

its

Mediterranean penIn the north-

the land

known

as

Asia Minor.

ern part of each continent


great gulfs

we
;

find another system of

or inland seas

but those in Asia have

been hindered by the cold from ever being of any


importance, while in Europe the Baltic sea and the
gulfs

which run out of

ing a kind of secondary

may be looked on as formMediterranean. We may thus


it

say that Europe consists of two insular and peninsular regions, north

and south, with

a great

unbroken


THE GREAT PENINSULAS.
mass of land between them.
of Europe which seem as
it

But there are some parts


were connecting
links be-

chap.

tween the three main

divisions of the continent.

Thus

we

said that the

three

great peninsulas are cut off

from the central mass by a nearly unbroken mountain


chain.

But the connexion of the

central peninsula,
is

that of Italy, with the eastern one or Greece,


closer than
its

far

connexion with the western one, or

Spain.
Italy

Italy

and Spain are much further apart than

and Greece, and between the Alps and the PyreWe might nees the mountain chain is nearly lost. almost say that a piece of central Europe breaks through
at this point

and comes down


as a land

to the Mediterranean.
;

This
this

is

the south-eastern part of Gaul

and Gaul may in

way be looked on
all

which joins together the

central

and the southern parts of Europe.


;

But

this

is

not

in the

north-western corner of Europe

lies

that

great group of islands,


of which our

two large ones and many


is

small,

own

Britain

the greatest.
their

The

British

islands are closely connected in

geography and
islands

history with Gaul on one side,

and with the


In

and peninsulas of the North on the other.

tliis

way
tlie

we may

say that

all

the three divisions of

Europe are

brought closely together on the western side of


continent,

and that the lands of Gaul and Britain are

the connecting links which bind

them

together.

2. Effect of

Geography on History.
.

ISTow this ffeogi'aphical aspect of the chief lands of

Europe has had

its

direct effect

on

their history.

^^j

We

Bofrinninof history
in the
i.eninMiia.

might almost take

for granted that the history of

Europe

should begin in the two more eastern


great southern peninsulas.

among

the three

Of

these two, Italy and


8
CHAP.
^ ,'

INTRODUCTION.
Greece, each has
-

its

own

character.

Greece, though
is

it

is the part of Europe which Hes nearest to Asia, certain sense the most European of European

in a

hinds.

The characteristic of Europe


sulas
chiracfer-

is

to

be more

full

of penin-

and islands and inland

seas than the rest of the


itself

Old

World.

And

Grcece, the peninsula

and the

neigli-

gSc^;

bouring lands, are fuller of islands and promontories

and inland

seas than
is

any other part of Europe.


the central land of
all
all

On

the other hand, Italy

southern

Europe, and indeed of


ranean.
It

the land round the Meditertliat

was therefore only natural


all

Greece
is

should be the part of Euro]^e in which


distinctively

that

most

European
so, if

first

grew up and influenced other


city

lands.
of Italy.

And

any one land or

among

the Mediin Italy,

terranean lands was

to rule over all the rest,

it is

as the central land, that

we

should naturally look for


destinies of the

the place of dominion.


sulas

The

two penin-

and their

relati(3ns to

the rest of the world were


position.
it is

thus impressed on them by their geographical


If

we

turn to recorded history,

we
to
it

find that

only

a working out of the consequences of these physical facts.

Greece was the

first

part of

Europe
;

become
was

civilized

and

to play a part in history


it

but

Italy,

and

in

Italy

was

its

most central

cit}^,

Rome, which came

to

liave the

dominion over the civiHzed world of early


is,

times

that

over the

lan'^s

around the Mediterits

ranean.

These two peninsulas have, each in


rest of

own
no

way, ruled and influenced the


other parts have done.
in one

Europe

as

All the other parts have been,


tlieir

way

or another,

subjects or disciples.

The
is

effect of the geographical position of these countries


Advnnceof
d'niu'tl'ion.

also

marked

iu tiie stages

by which Rome advanced

to the

general dominion of the Mediterranean lands.

'

GROWTH OF GREECE AXD


She
first

ITALY.
chap.

subdued

Italy

then she had to strive for Carthage,


a
city

the mastery

with her great rival

which held nearly the same central position on the


southern coast of the Mediterranean Avhich she herself
did on the northern.

Then

she subdued, step

by

step,

the peninsulas on each side of her and the other coast


lands of the Mediterranean

European,

Asiatic,

and

African. Into the central division of

Europe she did not


Into Northern Euat all.

press far, never having any firm or lasting dominion

beyond the Ehine and the Danube.


rope, properly so called, her
])Ut she

power never reached

subdued the lands which we have seen act as

a kind of connecting link

between the

different parts of
pai't

Europe, namely Gaul and the greater

of Britain.

Thus the Eoman Empire,


sisted of the lands

at its greatest extent,

con-

round the Mediterranean, together

with Gaid and Britain.

For the possession of the Medi-

terranean land would have been imperfect without the


possession of Gaul, and the possession of Gaul naturally
led to the possession of Britain.

In

this

way

the early history of Greece and Italy,

Effect of

11 by

and the formation of the


tlie

1-11 geographical character

Eoman

Empire, were affected


/

oi the

-1 countries themThus Gerposition

srapinoni
position of

selves.

lands

The same w^as when they came


as being the
fill

the case with the other European


to share in that importance wliich
Gennany,

once belonged to Greece and Italy only.

many,
at

most central part of Europe, came


something
It

one time to

like

the
to

same

which Italy had once held.


Avhich

came

be the countiy

had

to

do with

all

parts of Europe, east, west,

north, and south, and even to be a ruler over

some of
it

them.

So, as France
it

became

tlie

chief state of Gaul,

France,

took upon

something like the old position of Gaul as

10
CHAP,
'

INTRODUCTION.

r-

a
'

means of

coininunicatioii

between the

different parts

of Western Europe.

MeanAvhile, as the Scandinavian


off in

Seamii""

aud Spanish peninsulas are both cut

such a mai'ked

way from
less to

the

mainhmd

of Europe, each of tliem has


its

often formed a kind of world of

own, having much

do with

otlier countries

than Germany, France,


for a long time the case

and Italy had.


with our

The same was


island.

own

Britain

was looked on
of

as lying

outside the world.

Thus the geograi)hical


European.

position

tlie

European
to send

lands influenced their history while their history was


still

})urely

And when Europe began


less strongly.

forth colonies to other continents, the

working of geo-

graphical causes
position of Spain
to

came out no

Thus the

on the Ocean led

Castile

and Portugal
of the
also

be foremost among the colonizing nations of Europe.


oin*

For the same reason,


for a long time.

own country was one


too,

chief in followmg their example,

and so was France


it

Holland

when

ro>e into impor-

tance,
The
coio-

became a great colonizing

powder,

and so did DenItalian colony

mark and Sweden to some


ever been a

extent.

But an
of,

powers.

beyond the Ocean was never heard

nor has there


in

German colony

in the

same sense

which

there have been Spanish and English colonies.

Mean-

while, the north-eastern part of Europe, whicli in cariy

times was not


the
rest,

known

at

all,

has always lagged behuid


in later

and has become of importance only


is

times.

This

mainly because
it

its

geographical position

has almost wholly cut

off

both from the Mediter-

ranean and from the Ocean.

Thus we
earlier

see

how,
by

in

all

these

Avays,

botli

in

aud

in later times, the history of

every country

has

been

infhienced

its

geograph}'.

No doubt

'

EFFECT OF GEOGRiU^IIY ON HISTORY.


the
history

11
chap.
"-

of each

country has also been largely


tlie

influenced
settled in
-r
1

by the
it,
1

disposition of
is
1

people

who have
has
1

by what
to

called the national character,


1

But then the geographical position

.1'^ national
character.

influence

itself

often

had something
racter,
it,

do with forming the national chait

and

in all cases
it

has had an iniiuence upon

by giving
the

a better or a worse field for working

and showing
neither

itself.

Thus
in

it

has been well said that

Greeks

any other country nor any

other

people in Greece coidd have been what the

Greeks in Greece really were.


country and the
nature
of the

The nature
all

of the

people helped
that
it

one

another, and caused Greece to


in tlie early times of

become
It is

was

Europe.

always useful to

mark

the points both of likeness and unlikeness of the

different nations

whose history we study.


shall

And

of this

likeness

and unlikeness we
always one of
3.

always find that the

geographical character, though only one cause out of


several,
is

tlie

chief causes.

Geographical Distribution of Races.


business then
is

Our present
fluenced

with geography as

in-

by

history,

and with history as influenced

by

geography.
tions

With ethnology, with the


to

relations of nato deal only

and races

one another,

we have

so far as they form one of the agents in history.


it

And
re-

will

be well to avoid, as

far as

may

be, all obscure

or controverted points of this kind.


sults of

But the great

comparative philology

may now
is

be taken for

granted, and a general view of the geographical disposition of the great

European races

needful as an

introduction to the changes which historical causes have

wrought

in the

geography of the several parts of Europe.


12
CHAP.
"'

INTRODUCTION.

Ill
'

European ethnology one Europe


is,

main feature

is

that

the population of

and from the very begin-

nings of history has been, more nearly homogeneous,

more palpably homogeneous, than that of any Whether we look other great division of the world.
at least

at

Europe now, or Avhether we look

at

it

at the earhest
it

times of which
European
contineut.

we have any glimmerings,


as exceptional.

is

pre-

eminently an Aryan continent.


jg
^^^

Eveiything non-Aryan

q^^qq

marked
is

We

cannot

say
ele-

this of Asia,

where, among several great ethnical


so clearly

ments, none

predominant as the Aryan


in

element

is

in

Europe.

There are

Europe non- Aryan

elements, both earlier and later than the

Aryan

settle-

ment but they have,


;

as a rule,

been assimilated
earlier

Non-Arj-an
reuinants.

prevaihusT
^
.

Arvau mass.

The

ment

consists of the

remnants which

...
non-Aryan
still

to the
ele-

remain of

the races which the

Aryan

settlers

found in Europe,

and which they


themselves.
races

either exterminated or assimilated to


later elements consist of

The

non-Aryan

which have made

their

historical times, in

whose case
complete.

way into Europe within the work of assimilation


It follows

has been
rally

much

less

almost natu-

from the position of Europe that the prima3val

non- Aryan element has survived in the west and in the


north, while the later or intrusive

non-Aiyan element
In

has

made
of

its

way

into

the east and the south.

the mountains of the western peninsula, in the border


lands

Spain

and Gaul,
survives.

tlie

non-Aryan

tongue

of the Basque of Europe the

still

In the extreme north


of the Fins and

non-Aryan tongue

Laps

still

survives.

The

possible relations of these

tongues either to one another or to other non-Aryan

tongues beyond the bounds of Europe

is

a question of

'

ARYANS AND NON- ARYANS IN EUROPE.


purely philological concern, and does not touch historical

13
chap.
"

geography.

But

historical

geography

is

touched

by the

probability, rising almost to

moral certainty,
these primitive
pri-

that the isolated populations

by

whom

tongues are

still

spoken are mere remnants of the

mitive races which farmed the population of Europe at


the time

when

the Aryans

first

made

their

way
thcit

into

that continent.

Everything tends to show

the

Basques are but the remnant of


w^e

a great people

whom

may

set

down

with certainty as the

pric-Aryan

inhabitants of Spain and

a large part of Gaul, and


Extent of
the Basques.

whose range we may, with great probability, extend


over Sicily, over part at least of Italy, and perhaps as far
north as our

own

island.

Their possible connexion with

the early inhabitants of northern Africa hardly concerns


us.

The
The

probability that they were themselves preceded

by an
all.

earlier

and

far

lower race concerns us not at


south-western

earliest historical inhabitants of

Europe are those of


ans and Ligurians,

whom
fill

the Basques are the sur-

viving remnant, those who, under the names of Iberia not unimportant place in

European

history.

When we come
Europe were the

to the

Aryan

settlements,

we cannot
of time.

or.ur of
settie-ieut.

positively determine

which among the Arj^an races of


settlers
its

earliest

in

point

The great race which,


tains the Greeks^ the

in

many

sub-divisions, conGreeks and

Italians^

and the nations more


first

immediately akin to them, are the

among
follow

the

European Aryans
history
;

to

show themselves
not

in the light of

but

it

does

necessarily
in point of

that

they were actually the


It

first

settlement.

may be

that, while

they were

pressing

through
Celts
ceiti.

the

Mediterranean peninsulas

and

islands, the

14
CHAP,
^

INTRODUCTION.

were pressing

their

way through
Celts

the soUd

central

'

land of Europe.
of the
first

The

were clearly the vanguard

the

Aryan migration within their own range, the swarm which made its way to the shores of Partially in Spain, more completely in Ocean.
Islands, they displaced or assi-

Gaul and the British and that of

milated the earlier inhabitants, who, under their pressure


later

conquerors,

have been gradually

shut up in the small mountainous region which they


still

keep.

Of the

Celtic migration
all

we have no we

his-

torical accounts,

but

probability

would lead us

to

think that the Celts

whom

in historic times

find

on the Danube and south of the Alps were not emigrants

who had

followed a backward course from the

great settlement in Transalpine Gaul, but rather detach-

ments which had been


journey.

left

behind on the westward


to settle questions as to

Without attempting

the traces of Celtic occupancy to be found in other


lands,
it is

enough for our purpose

that, at the begin-

nings

of their history,

we

find the

Celts the chief


to

inhabitants of a region stretching

from the Eubico

the furthest

known
is

points of Britain.
their

Gaul, Cisalpine

and Transalpine,

great central land, though


;

even here they are not exclusive possessors

they share

the land with a non-Aryan remnant to the south-west,

and

witli the

next wave of Aryan new-comers to the

north-east.

The

settlements of these two great


history.

Aryan

races

come before authentic


Teutonic races,

After them came the

who

pressed on the Celts from the east

and

in their

wake, to judge from their place on the

map, must have come the vast family of the Slavonic


and Slaves,

uatioiis.

But the

mi<]frations

of

the

Teutons and

WAVES OF ARYAN SETTLEMENT.


Slaves come, for the most part, within the range of

15
chap.
~

recorded history.

Our

first

glimpse of the Teutons


already

-^

shows them in their central German land,

occupying both sides of the Ehine, though seemingly


not

very

ol(J

settlers

on

its

left

bank.

The long
Slavonic

wanderings of

the

various

Teutonic

and

tribes over all parts

of central Europe, their settle-

ments

in

the

southern

and western
is

lands, are

all

matters of history.

So

the great Teutonic settle-

ment
leave

in the British islands,

which partly exterminated,


as

partly assimilated, their Celtic inhabitants, so

to

them

as

mere a remnant, though a greater rem-

nant, as they themselves


as the process

had made the Basques.


a

And,

which made the north-western islands


is

of Europe
are the

Teutonic
stages

matter of history, so also


the
process

later

of

which
it is

made
that in

the northern peninsulas Teutonic.


later

But
;

only the

stages

which are

historical

we know

the strictly Scandinavian peninsula the Teutonic invaders displaced non-Aryan Fins
;

we have

only to guess

that in the Cimbric Chersoncsos they displaced


Celts.

Aryan
yet uthuamans.

But beyond the Teutons and Slaves


the most interesting of
still

lies

another Aryan settlement, one which, in a purely philological view,


fast
is

all,

the small and

vanishing group which

survives in Lithuania
is

and

the neighbouring lands.


really nothing to be said,

Of

these there

historically

On

the eastern shores of the

Baltic

we

find people

whose tongue comes nearer than


to

any other European tongue

the

common Aryan
when

model

but

we can

only guess alike at the date

they came thither and at the road by which they came.

These races then, Aryan and non-Arj-an, make up


the immemorial population of Europe.

The remnants

INTHODUCTION.
of the older

non-Aryan

races,

and the successive waves

Aryan settlement, are all immemorial facts which we must accept as the groundwork of our history and our
of

geography.

They must be
strictly

distinguished from other

movements which are


Jinvements
amon.i^ tlie

matters of written history,


.

botli

Aryan
races.

movemcuts auioug the Aryan nations themselves and latcr mtrusions of non- Aryan nations. Thus the
Hellenized
partly

Greek colonies and the conquests of the Hellenized


Macedonians
large
districts

of

Europe,

Asia, and Africa,


assimilation.

by displacement,

partly

by

The conquests of Eome, and

the Teutonic

settlements within the

Roman Empire, brought about


The process indeed was The Eoman conqueror
himself;
the Teutonic

but

little

in the

way

of displacement, but a great deal

in the

way

of assimilation.

opposite

in the

two

cases.

assimilated the conquered to

conqueror was himself assimilated


he conquered.
Britain

by those

whom

and the Rhenish and Danubiaii


exceptions.
far

lands stand out as


settlements in

marked

The Slavonic
displace-

the East wrought

more of

ment than the Teutonic settlements


regions, once Illyrian or Thracian

in the West.

Vast
likely,

that

is,

most

more or
Later intra'^^on

less

nearly akin to
Lastly

the

Greeks

are
in

now

of

Non-Aryan
races.

come the incursions on EurowlioUy Slavouic. kuds made by non- Aryan settlers m historic times. peau ^

-,.....

Their results
Semitic.

have been widely different

differ-

ent cases.

The Semitic Saracens

settled in Spain

and

Sicily, bringing with them and after them their African

converts,

men

possibly of originally kindred race w^ith

the

first

inhabitants both of the peninsula and of the

island.

These non-Aryan

settlers

have vanished.
is

The
that

displacement of large bodies of


paratively recent history, but
it

them

a fact of comfail

can hardly

'

INTRUSION OF NON-ARYANS.

17
place,

some degree of
of those

assimilation

must

also

have taken

Then come the

settlements, chiefly in eastern Europe,


for our purpose
it is

chap.

whom

enough

to

group

together as the Tm^aniau nations.

The Huns
far

of Attila

have

left

only a name.

The more

lasting settlement

of the Avars has vanished,

how

by displacement,
say.
Clio-

how
zars,

far

by

assimilation,

it

might be hard to

Patzinaks^ a
left

crowd of other barbarian


their presence.

races,

have

no sign of

The Bulgarians^
Turanian,

originally Turanian conquerors, have been assimilated

by

their

Slavonic

subjects.

The Finnish Magyars


religious

have received a pohtical and


their

assimilation

kingdom became a member of the commonof Christian Europe, though


lanQ;ua<?e.
still

wealth

they
latest

still

keep

their old Turanian

The

intruders

of

all,

the Ottoman Turks^


first

remain as they were

when they
tian

came,

aliens
is

on Aryan and Chrisa case of assimilation


are an artificial
incor-

ground.

But here again


the

the other way;

Ottoman Turks

nation which has been kept up


poration of
aside the

by the constant

European renegades who have

thrown
of

speech, the creed, and the civilization

Europe.

18

CHAPTER

II.

GKEECE AND THE GKEEK COLONIES.


^ 1.

The Eastern or Greek Peninsula.

CHAP.

The
-

Historical

Geography of Europe,

if

looked at in

chronological order, must begin with the most eastern


of the three peninsulas of Southern Europe.

istS^'of'the
pj'nin'uia.

Here the

historj of Europc, and the truest history of the world,

began.

It

was

in the insular

and peninsular lands befirst


it is

tween the Ionian and ^ga3an seas that the


towards European civilization were taken
that
;

steps

there

we

see the
life.

first

beginnings of

art,

science,

and

poKtical

But Greece or Hellas,


only
as

in the strict sense

of the name, forms

a part of the

lands which

must be looked on
It
is

the great Eastern peninsula.

however

its

leading and characteristic portion.

As the whole peninsular land gradually tapers southwards from the great mass of central Europe,
it

be-

comes
it

at each stage

more and more


the

peninsular,

and

also

becomes
indeed

at each stage

more and more Greek.


lands

Greece
as

and

neighbouring
Strabo,^
is

form,

was long ago remarked by


It

a series of

peninsulas within peninsulas.


^

not easy to find


ii.

See the

first

chapter of his eighth book (voL

p.

139 of the

Tauchnitz edition).

He makes

four peninsulas within peninsulas,

beginning from the south with Peloponnesos, and he enlarges on the general character of the country as made up of gulfs and promontories.

'

THE EASTERN PENINSULA.


a

19

name

for the

whole region, as

it

stretches far
in

beyond
But

any

limits

which can be given to Greece

any age of

^^

chap.

the world or according to any use of the name.

the whole land seems to have been occupied by nations

more or
and

less

akin to the Greeks.

The

history of those

nations chiefly consists of their relations to the Greeks,


all

of

them were brought more or


influences.

less

within the

range of Greek

We may
It

therefore

not

improperly

call

the whole land, as opposed to Italy

and Spain, the Greek peninsula.

has also

been

called the Byzantine peninsula^ as nearly answering to

the European part of the Eastern division of the

Eoman

Empire, when

its

seat of

government was

at Byzantion,

Constantinople, or

New Eome.
diits chief

Taking the great range of mountains which


vides southern from central

Europe

as the northern
it

boundary of the eastern or Greek peninsula,


said to take in the lands
central mass

may be
tlie

which are cut


Alj^s

off

from

by the Dalmatian

and the range of


or
its

Haimos or Balkan. It is washed to the east, west, south, by various parts of the Mediterranean and
great gulf the Euxine.

But the northern part of

this

region, all that lies north of the


in therefore the

^gaaan

Sea, taking
still

whole of the Euxine


great

coast,

keeps

much

of the character of the

central mass of

Europe, and forms a land intermediate between that

and the more


Still

strictly
is

peninsular lands to the south.

the boundary

a real one, for all the lands south


less

of this range have


influences,
tory.

come more or

within

Greek

and have played


w^e got

their part in Grecian his-

But when

beyond the mountains,

into

the valley of the Danube,

we

find ourselves in lands

which, excepting a few colonies on the coast, have


c 2

20

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.


hardly at
all

come under Greek

influences

till

quite

modern more

times.

This region between Haimos and the

Greek lands takes in Thrace, Paionia, and lllyria. Of these, Thrace and lUyria, having a sea coast, received many Greek colonies, especially on
strictly

the northern coast of the

^gcean and on the Propontis


this region,

or Sea of Marmora.

The Thracian part of

as bordering on these

more

distinctly

Grecian seas,

became more
Thrace and

truly a part of the Grecian world than


it.

the other lands to the west of

Yet geographically
is.

Thiacc

is

morc wldcly
is

cut off from Greece than lllyria

For there

no such great break on the western shore

of the great peninsula as that which, on the eastern side,

marks the point where we must draw the line between Greece and its immediate neighbours and the lands to This is at the point where a peninthe north of them.
sula within a peninsula breaks off to the south,

comhere

prising Greece, Macedonia, and Epeiros.

There

is

no very

special

break on the Illyrian coast, but the


is

^gajan

coast of Thrace

fenced in as

it

were

at its

two

ends, to the east

by

the long narrow peninsula

known

specially as the Chersonesos, and to the west

by the group

of peninsulas called Chalkidlke.

These have nothing

answering to them on the Illyrian side beyond the

mere bend in the coast above Epidamnos. This last point however marks the extent of the earlier Greek
colonization in those regions,

and which has become


in later times.

still

more important boundary

Beyond Chalkidike to the west, the specially Greek peninsula projects to the south, being itself The ao;ain composed of peninsulas v/ithin peninsulas.
pr'cfpS'.ind

suhir'""

Amhralian Gulf on the west and the Payasaian on the east again fence off a peninsula to the south, by


PENINSULAS AND ISLANDS.
which the more purely Greek lauds are
from Macedonia, Epeiros, and Tkessaly.
peninsula again another
feucecl
off
this
-

21
chap.
r^

Within
off

may be marked

by

a line

drawn from Thermopylai


Delphoi.
Aitolia, and

to the Corinthian gulf near

This again shuts out to the east Akarnania,

some other of the more backward


Greek name.
a further

divi-

sions of the

Thus Phokis,
to

Boiotia,

and

Attica form a great


projects
as

promontory, from which Attica

promontory
southern

the south-east,

while the great peninsula of Peloponnesos

itself

made

Pek.pon-

up on
Corinth.

its

eastern
is

and

sides

of

smaller

peninsulas

joined on

by

the narrow isthmus of


to-

In this way, from H?amos


ever becoming

Tainaros, the

land

is

more and more broken up by

greater or smaller inlets of the sea.


as the land

And
in

in proportion

becomes more
strictly

strictly peninsular, it also


till

becomes more

Greek,

Peloponnesos

we

reach the natural citadel of the Greek nation.


Insular and Asiatic Greece.

1^

2.

Greece Proper then, what the ancient geographers


called Continuous Bellas as distinguished from the

Greek
it is

Continuous

colonies planted on barbarian shores,

is,

so far as

part of the mainland,

made up

of a system of peninsulas

stretching south from the general mass of eastern Europe.

But the neighbouring


continuous Greece
;

islands equally

form a part of

and the other coasts of the ^gasan,

Asiatic as well as Thracian,


Avith

were so thickly strewed

Greek colonies

as to form, if not part of continuous

Greece, yet part of the immediate Greek world.

The

western coast, as

it is

less peninsular, is also less insular,

and the

islands

on the western

side of

Greece did not


side.

reach the same importance as those on the eastern

22
CHAP.

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.

Still
'

they too, the Ionian islands of modern geography,


in every sense a part of Greece.

form

To

the north of

The

Is-

Korkyra or Corfu there are only detached Greek colonies, whether on the mainland or in the islands;
but
all

the islands of the vEgEean are, during historical

times, as

much

part of Greece as the mainland


side,

and

one island on each

Leukas on the west and the

greater island of Euboia on the east, might almost be

counted as parts of the mainland, as peninsulas rather


than islands.

To
It

the south the long narrow island of

Crete forms a sort of barrier between

Greek and barthe

barian seas.

is

the most southern of the purely


to the east

Greek

lands.

Sicily

and Cyprus
as Crete

to

west received

many Greek
in the
it.

colonies, but they never

became purely Greek

same way

and the

islands to the north of


Asiatic

But, besides the European peninsulas and the islands,


part of Asia

must be looked on

as forming part of the imstrictly

mediate Greek world, though not


Greece.

of continuous

The peninsula known


With
its

as

Asia Minor cannot be

separated from Europe either


history.

in its

geography or
little

in its

central

mass we have

or nothing

to
its

do

but

its

coasts

form a part of the Greek world, and


less

.^gaean coast was only


itself

thoroughly Greek than


It

Greece

and the Greek

islands.

would seem that

the whole western coast of Asia Minor was inhabited

by
the

nations which, like the European neighbours of Greece,

were more or

less

nearly akin to the Greeks.


is

And

^gasan

coast of Asia

almost as

full

of inlets of the
islands near to

sea, of peninsulas

and promontories and


itself.

the shore, as European Greece


therefore received

All these shores

Greek

colonies.

The

islands

and

the most tempting spots on the mainland were occupied

'

INSULAR AND ASL\TIC GREECE.


Greek by J
]3ut
settlers, ^

Zo

and became the

sites

of Greek

Greek influence never spread very


itself

far inland,

.II.
cities,

chap.

and

even the coast


as the islands.

did not

become
sides

so pm^ely

Greek

When we

pass from the jEgsean coast

of Asia to
to
its

the other

two

of

the

peninsula,
its

northern coast washed by the Euxine and


coast

southern

have

passed

by the Mediterranean, we out of the immediate Greek world.


washed
spots here
is

Greek colonies are found on favourable


and there
barbarian.
;

but the land, even

tlie

coast as a whole,

3.

Ethnology of

the

Eastern Peninsula.
tlien

The innnediate Greek world


tlie

as

opposed
_

to The Greeks
kindred
races.

outlvinjT
"

Greek
sea

colonies,

consists
.

of the shores

of the
it

^gaian

and of the peninsulas lying between


sea.

and the Ionian

Of

this region a great part

was exclusively inhabited by the Greek nation, wliile Greek influences were more or less dominant tliroughout the whole.

But

it

would fmther seem

tliat

the

whole, or nearly the whole, of these lands were inhabited by races

more or
witli

less

akin to the Greeks.

They seem
deal
in

to

have been
the

races

which had a good


and
of

common

Greeks,

whom

the Greeks were sim})ly the foremost and most fortunate, their higher

developement being doubtless greatly


geographical nature of the country

favoured by

tlie

whicli they occupied.

But a

distinction

must be drawn

between the nearer and the more remote neighbours


of Greece.
It is

hardly necessary for our present pur-

pose to determine whether the Greeks had or had not

any connexion with Thracians, European or Asiatic, with


Phrygians and Lydians, and other neighbouring nations.

24
CHAP.
ii.

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.


All these were in Greek eyes simply Barbarians, but

modem
Avilli

scholarship has seen in

them

signs of a kindred

Nations
irion; raiiiotv, tiut

the

Greek nation nearer than the share of both

I'-nXabiy

in the coiniiiou

Aryan

stock.

We

need not

settle

here

whether

all

the inhabitants of the geographical district


not,

which we have marked out were, or were


in this sense
;

kinsmen

but with some

among them
race,

the question

assumes a deeper interest and a nearer approach to


iiivrians.

ccrtaiuty.

The great

Ill\Tian

of

whom

the

Albanians or Skipetars are the modern representatives, a race which has been so lai-gely displaced by
Slaves at one end and assimilated
other, can hardly
fail

by Greeks

at the

to

have had a nearer kindred with

the Greeks than that which they both share with Celts

and Teutons,
yet

When we come

to the lands

which are

more

closely connected with Greece, both in geo-

graphical position and in their history, the case becomes


clearer
still.

We

can hardly doubt of the close con-

nexion between the Greeks and the nations which

bordered
F.rxin^
si.'iiy

on Greece

immediately to
as

the

north

in at

I'^peiros
"

and

Macedonia,

well

as

with

some
tlie

and

](^iist

of tliosc
coasts

which thcy found occupying


of

op-

posite

the

^gcan,

as

well

as

in

Sicily

and

Italy.

The Greeks and

Italians,

with the nations

iimnediately connected with

them, clearly belong to

one, and that a well marked, division of the


family.

Aryan

Their kindred

is

shown

alike

by

the evi-

dence of language and by the remarkable ease with

which
Into
is
i'(i,rianH.

in

all

ages they received Greek


inquiries
to

civilization.

more minute
our
Say
to
to

as

to

these

matters

it

hai'dly

province
tluit

go here.

It is

perhaps
has

ciiough

thc Pelasgian name, which


speculation,

given rise

so

much

seems

to

have

THE GEEEKS AND THE laN'DEED XATIOXS.


been
used

25
very
our-

by

tlie

Greeks

themselves
is

in

vague way, mucli as the Avord Sa.von


selves.
It is therefore

among

chap.

dangerous to form any

tlieories

about the matter.

Sometimes the Pelasgians seem to

be spoken of simply as Old-Hellenes^ sometimes as a


people distinct from the Hellenes.
lenes,

Whether

the HelThe Greek


natiuu.

on their enterincf into Greece, found the land

held

by
is

earlier inhabitants,

whether Aryan or non-

Aryan,

a curious and interesting speculation, but one


us.
It
is

which does not concern


purpose
that, as far

enough

for

our

back as history or even legend cim


branch

carry us,
of the

we

find the land in the occupation of a

Aiyan

family, consisting, like all otlier nations,


It is a

of various kindred tribes.

nation whicli
it

is

as
off,

well defined as any otlier nation, and yet


as
it

shades

were, into the other nations of the kindred stock.

Clearly

marked

as

Greek and Barbarian are from the


are frontier tribes in Epeiros and

beginning, there

still

Macedonia which

nuist

be looked on as forming an
tlie

intermediate stage between


are accordingly placed

two

classes,

and whicli

by

different

Greek

writers some-

times in one class and sometimes in the other.

i^i

4,

The Earliest (jeo(jraphy of Greece and Nei(jhbourinii Lands.


picture of
catalogue.

the

Our first the Homeric

Greek geogi'aphy comes from


\\

111' liatevcr may be the historic

The Homeric

mapof
(j

recce.

value of the Homeric poems in general,

it is

clear that

the catalogue in the second book of the Iliad must represent a real state of things.
It

gives us a

map

of Greece

so different from the


that
it

map

of Greece at any later time


it

is

inconceivable that

can have been invented

at iiny later time.

We

have

in fact a

map

of Greece at

26
CHAP,

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.

a time earlier than


'

any time

to

which we can assign

certain
itself

names and
various

dates.

Within the range of Greece


their

the

Greek races often changed


or

settlements,
settlers
;

displacing

conquering earlier Greek

and the

different states

which they formed

often

changed

tlieir

boundaries

by bringing

other

states into subjection or

depriving them of parts of


gives us a

their

territory.

The Homeric catalogue

wholly different arrangement of the various branches


of the nation from any that
historic times.

we
are

find in the

Greece of

The Dorian and


so famous,

loniaii names,

which
;

were afterwards

hardly

known

the

Tribal divisious of

Homeric

name of Hellenes itself belongs only to a small district. The iiamcs for the whole people are Achaians, ^4r^ geians [Argos seeming to mean all Peloponnesos), and Danaoi, the last a name which goes quite out of use in historic times. The boundary of Greece to the west is narrower than it was in later times. The land called
'-

Akarnania has not yet got that name,


Greek
at
all.

if

indeed

it

was

It is

spoken of vaguely as Epeiros or


it

the mainland,^ and

appears as part of the possessions

of the king of the neighbouring islands, Kephallenia

and Ithake.

The

islands to the north,

Leukas and Korin Epei-

kyra, were not yet Greek.


ros

The Thesprotians

are

spoken of as

a neighbouring and

friendly

people, but they form no part of the

Greek nation.

'

"llivtipoQ

is

simply the mainland, and came only gradually to

mean

a particular country.

We

may compare

the use of
ii.

'

terr.i

rirma' in South America.


after the island subjects of

In the catalogue {Iliad,

620-G35),

read:

Odysseus have been reckoned up, we ayrnripui hffxorTa. This must mean the land afterwards called Akarnania. It was remarked at a later time that the Akarnanians were the only people of Greece who did
o'i

r'

"HTTfipov ixor,

?/3'

not appear in the catalogue.

'

THE HOMERIC MAP.


The
Aitolians appear as a Greek people, and so do

27
chap.
'

most of the other divisions of the Greek nation, only


their position

and

relative

importance

is

often different

from what

it

was afterwards.

Thus, to mention a few


in historic

examples out of many, the Lokrians^ who,


times, appear both

on the sea of Euboia and on the


the

Corinthian

gulf,

appear in

catalogue

in

their

northern seats only.

When we
is still
.

turn from tribes to

cities,

the difference
first

greater.
.

The

cities

which held the


.

place in

Croupinfis
ofcitie.-i.

historic times are not always those


in the earlier time,

which are greatest

and

their

grouping in federations or
in later history.

principalities

is

wholly unlike anything

Thus
the

in the historic Boiotia

we

find

Orchomenos

as

the second city of a confederation of which Thebes


is
first.

In the catalogue Orchomenos and the

neighbouring city Aspledofi form a se[)arate division,


distinct

from Boiotia.
specially
to

Euboia forms a whole


be noticed, Attica,
as

and,

what
is

is

a land,

not mentioned, but only the single city of At/tens,

with Salamis as a kind of dependency.


sos again
is

Peloponne-

divided in a

manner

quite different from


is

anything

in later times.

The
a

ruling city

Mykene,
over
in

whose
all

king

holds

also
his

general

superiority

Ilellas,

while

immediate dominion takes

Corinth^ Kleonai, Sikyun, and the whole south coast of

the Corinthian Gulf, the Achaia of later times.


rest of the cities

The

of the Argolic peninsula are grouped


is

round Anjos.
groups of
cities

Northern Greece again

divided into

which answer

to nothing in later times.


is

And

its

relative

importance in the Greek world


it

clearly far greater than

was

in the historic period.

The catalogue

also helps us to

our

earliest picture


28
CHAP,
II.

GREECE AND THE GEEEK COLONIES.


of the northern and eastern coasts of the ^Efj-gean of the

and

-"

^giean
tJic

islands.

We
''

see the extent

which Greek
taken
*^

Extent of Greek ccJonizatiuu.

colonization
\\\

had ah-eady made.

It liad as yet

Qnly

southcm
;

islands of the

^gasan.

Crete

was

ah^eady Greek

so
;

were Rhodes, K6s, and the neighlast are

bouring islands
as

but these

distinctly

marked

new

settlements.
still

The
in

coast of Asia

and the northern

islands are

untouched, except through the events of


itself,

the Trojan

war

which the Greek conquest of


In Asia, besides Trojans
as

Lesbos
The Asiatic
Catalogue.
,

is

distinctly

marked.
7
7

and Dcirdanicms, we find Petasgians


people,
i

a
7->7

distinct

as

also

rapluagomans^ iMysians^ rlirygians^

r-.

\ r

Maionians^ Karians, and Lykians.


the nations which
fring;e

We

find in short

the whole jE^iddim coast of

Asia and the south-western coast of the Euxine.

In

Europe again we have Thracians and Paionians, names


familiar in historic times,

and whose bearers seemingly

occupied nearly the same lands which they do in later


times.

The presence

of Thracians in Asia

is

implied
is

rather than asserted.

The Macedonian name


islands of the

not

found.

The northern

^gasan

are

men-

tioned only incidentally. Everything leaves us to believe


that the whole region,

European and

Asiatic, to

which

we

now concerned, was, at this earliest time of which we have any glimpses, occupied by various races
are
less closely

more or
piioenician

alhed to each other.

The

islands

wcrc largely
peoplc froiu

Ivarian, but the Phnenidans,


tlic

a Semitic

and Greek
.settlements

castcm

coast,

seem

to have planted

lands.

colonies in several of the Mediterranean islands.

But
to

Karians and Phoenicians had

now begun

to give

way

Greek

settlements.

The same

rivalry in short

between

Greeks and Phoenicians must have gone on


times in the islands of the

in the earliest

M^SQun which went on

in

'

CHANGES

IN PELOPONNESOS.

29

historical times in the greater islands of Cyi^rus


Sicily.

and
^

II.
.

chap.

5.

Change from Homeric


state of things whicli
is

to

Historic Greece.

The

set before us in the

catalogue was altogether broken up by later changes,

but changes which

still

come before

the beginnings of
chiefly

contemporary history, and which we understand

by comparing the geography of the catalogue with the


geography of
dition, a
later times.

According to received

tra-

changes
nesos.

iu

number

of Dorian colonies from Northern


in

Greece were gradually planted

the cliief cities of

Peloponnesos, and drove out or reduced to subjection


their older
loses
its

Achaian inhabitants. Mykene from

this

time

importance; Argos, Sparta, Corinth, and Sikyon


cities
;

become Dorian
dominion over

and Sparta gradually wins the

all

the towns, whether Dorian or Achaian,

within her immediate dominion of Lakonia.

To the west
is

of Lakonia arises the Dorian state of Messene, which the

name only

of a district, as there was as yet no

city so called.

As
is

part of the
said
to

same mcn-ement, an
Eli.s

Aitolian colony

have occupied
Klis again
;

on the
at
this

west coast of Peloponnesos.


time the

was

name

of a district only

tlie

cities

both of

Messene and

Elis are of

much

later date.

First Argos.

and then Sparta,

rises to a

supremacy over

their fellow-

Dorians and over the whole of Peloi)onnesos.


cal

Histori-

Peloponnesos thus consists

(i)

of the

cities, chiefly

Dorian, of the Argolic Akte or peninsula, together with Corinth on the Isthmus and 3Jegara, a Dorian outpost

beyond the Isthmus

(ii)

of Lakonike, the district im-

mediately subject to Sparta, with a boundary towards

Argos which changed

as S])arta

advanced and Argos

30
CHAP,
II
-

GREECE AXD THE GREEK COLONIES.


went back
'
;

(iii)

of Messene, which was conquered

by

'

Sparta before the age of contemporary history, and was


again separated in the fourth century
B.C.
;

(iv) of Elis,
;

with the border-districts between


of the Achaian
cities

it

and Messene

(v)

on the coast of the Corinthian

Gulf;

(vi)

of the inland country of Arkadia.

The

relations

among

these districts and the several cities

within them often fluctuated, but the general aspect of


the

map

of Peloponnesos did not greatly change from


fifth

the beginning of the


the third.
Changes in
X.irthern Greece.

century to the later days of

of Accordiuo; r> ^ to the received traditions, mio;rations thc samc kiud took place in Northern Greece also be'
.

tween the time of the catalogue and the beginning of


contemporary
divisions
history.
a

Thus Thessaly, whose

different
is

form

most important part of the catalogue,

said to

have suffered an invasion at the hands of the half

Hellenic Thesprotians.

They

are said to have


itself,

become

the ruling people in Thessaly

and

to

have held a

supremacy over the neighbouring

lands, including the


It is

peninsula of Magnesia and the Phthiotic Achaia.

certain that in the historical period Thessaly lags in the

back ground, and that the true Hellenic


less

spirit is

much

developed there than

in

other parts of Greece. There

is less

reason to accept the legend of a migration out of


;

Thessaly into Boiotia

but in historic times Orchomenos but


is

no longer appears

as a separate state,

the second

city of the Boiotian confederacy, yielding the first place

to
also

Thebes with great unwillingness.

The Lokrians

now appear on

the Corinthian gulf as well as on

the sea of Euboia.

And

the land to the west of Aitolia,

so vaguely spoken of in the catalogue, has


seat of a

become the

Greek people under the name of Akarnania.

'

CHANGES
The Corinthian

IN

NORTHEEN GREECE.

31
chap.
II.

colonies alonj? this coast, the city of


island
is

AmbraHa,
B.C.,

the

or peninsula

of Leukas^

the

foundation of which

placed in the eighth centuiy

come almost within the time of trustworthy They are not Greek in tlie catalogue they history.
;

are

Greek w^hen we

first

hear of them in history.

Ambrakia forms the

last

outpost of continuous Hellas

towards the north-west; beyond that are only outlying


settlements on the Illyrian coasts and islands.

These changes in the geography of continental


Greece, botli witliin and without Peloponnesos,
the main differences between the Greece of

make
HochanKe^in
later times.

tlie

meric catalogue and the Greece of the Persian and


Peloponnesian wars.
Durini; "^
tlie sixth, fifth,
'

and fourth
_

centuries before Christ there


political relations of the

were constant changes


states to

in
;

Greek

one another

but there were


the geography.

nr)t

many changes which

greatly affected

Cities were constantly brouglit in sub-

jection to one another,

and w^ere again relieved from

the yoke.

In the course of the fourth century two


cities,

new
r.<..{70-

Peloponnesian
founded.

Messene and Megalopolis^ were

In IJoiotia again, Plataia and Orchomenos


itself

were destroyed by the Thebans, and Tliebes

was

destroyed by Alexander, but these were afterwards


rebuilt.

In Peloponnesos ^Mykene was destroyed by

the Argeians, and never rebuilt.

But most of these


in-

bc. 4G8.

changes do not

aflect

geography, as they did not

volve any change in the seats of the great divisions


of the Greek name.

The only exception


old

is

that of

the foundation of Messene^ which was accompanied

by

the separation of the


Sparta,

Messenian territory from

and the consequent establishment of a new or

restored division of the Greek nation.

32

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.


It
6.

The Greek Colonies.


re-

must

liave

been in the time between the days

presented by the catalogue and the beginnincfs of contem-

porary history, that most of the islands of the ^gaean

became Greek, and

that the

Greek colonies were planted

on the ^Ega^an coast of Asia.


catalogue, while

We

have seen that the

southern islands were already Greek at the time of the

some of the northern


did not
dates,

ones,
till

Thasos^
times to

Lemnos, and

otliers,

become Greek

which we can give approximate


to the fifth centuries.

from the eighth

During

this period, at

some time
coast of
to
i

before the eighth century, the whole


(Colonies

^gasan
cities,

Asia had become fringed with Greek


the south, Aioiian to the north,
i i

Dorian

in Asia.

Joman between
itself in

the

two.
is

The

story of the Trojan

war

the land

most likely a legendary account of the beginning of

these settlements,

which may make us think that the


this coast

Greek colonization of

began

in the north, in

the lands bordering on the Hellespont.

At
it

all

events,

by the eighth century these settlements had made the


Asiatic coast

and the islands adjoining


part, not only of the
itself.

a part, and a

most important

Greek world, but

we may
Their early

almost say of Greece

The Ionian

cities.

abovc

all, /S>?i?/r/i<2,

Epliesos^ 31iletos,

and the islands of

Chios and Samos^ were


cities,

among
all,

the greatest of Greek

more

flourishing certainly than

any

in

European

Greece.

Miletos, above
it

was famous
its

for the
turn.

number
But,
if

of colonies which
their

sent forth in

own
to

day of greatness came before that of the Eui'ofirst

pean Greeks, they were also the


the power of the Barbarians.

come under
fifth

In the course of the

century the Greek

cities

on the continent of Asia came


tlie

under the power,

first

of

Lydian kings and then of

THE yEG.EAN COLONIES.


their Persian conquerors,

33
several of the
^

who subdued
which led

chap.
^^

islands

also.

It

was

this

subjection of the Asiatic


to the

Glreeks to the Barbarians

Persian Lydianand
rersian
conquests.

war, with which the most brilliant time in the history


of European Greece begins.
cities

We

thus

know

the Asiatic
coasts of
colonies in

only in the days of their decline.

The

Thrace and Macedonia were also sprinkled with Greek


cities,

but they did not

lie

so thick together as those

on the Asiatic

coast, except only in the three-fingered

peninsula of Chalkidike, which became a thoroughly

Greek
history,

land.

Some

of these colonies in Thrace, as

Olynthos and Potidaia^ play an important part in Greek

and two among them


Therme, under
its

fill

a place in the history


later

of the world.
lonike,

its

name

of Thessa-

has kept on

importance under

all

changes

down

to our

own

time.

And

Byzaniion, on the Thra-

cian Bosporos, rose higher

still,

becoming, under the

form of Constantinople^ the transplanted seat of the

Empire of Eome.

The

settlements which have been thus far spoken of


all

may be

counted as coming within the immediate

Greek world.

They were planted

in lands so near to

the mother-country, and they lay so near to one another,

^gasan may be Some looked on as more or parts were wholly Greek, and everywhere Greek influences were predominant. But, during this same period of distant enterprise, between the time of the Homeric
that

the whole country round


less

the

thoroughly Greek.

Morethv
nies.

catalogue and the time of the Persian War,


settlements were

made

in countries

many Greek much further off


came within
no Greek ever
settle-

from continuous Greece.

All of course
;

the rang;e of the Mediterranean world

passed through the Straits of Herakles to found

34

GEEECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.


ments on the Ocean,

CHAP,

But a large part of

tlie

coast

.^ both of the Mediterranean itself and of the Euxine was gradually dotted with Greek colonies. These outposts of Greece, unless they

were actually conquered


;

by barbarians, almost always remained Greek they kept their Greek language and manners, and they often spread

them
But
in

to
it

some extent among


was not often
that

their barbarian neighbours.

any large

tract of country

these
as

Greek

more distant lands became so thoroughly We may the ^gcean coast of Asia became.
Italy,

say however that such was the case with the coast of
Sicily

and Southern

where many Greek colonies


be spoken of more
fully in

were planted, which


another chapter.

will

All Sicily indeed did in the end really

become a Greek country, though not till after its conBut in Northern and Central quest by the Eomans.
Italy, the Latins, Etruscans,

and other

Italian nations

were too strong


Colonies in
tic.

for

any Greek colonies

to

be made in

tliosc parts.

Ou

the other side of the Hadriatic, Greek


as

colonies

had spread before the Peloponnesian war

far north as Epidamnos.

The more northern

colonies

on the coast and among the


Illyrian Epidcniros, Pharos^

islands of Dalmatia, the

Black Korkyra^ and others,

were among the


the
strict sense.

latest ejETorts of

Greek colonization

in

In other parts

of the

Mediterranean coasts the


other.

Greek settlements lay further apart from each

But we may say that they were spread here and there over the whole coast, except where there was some
special hindrance to

keep the Greeks fi'om


of
the

settling.

Thus, in
I'ha-nician
((ilonies,
,
.

great

part

Mediterranean
r o

the

Phceniciaus had got the start of the Greeks, both in


,

their

own country on

the coast ot byria, and ni the

'

MORE DISTANT COLONIES.


colonies
sent forth

35
of Tyre and
^

by

their great

cities

chap.
<-

Sidon.

The PhcEnician
western half

colonists occupied a large part

of

the

of

the southern coast

of the
cities

Mediterranean, where lay the great Phoenician


Carthage^ Utica^ and others.
in

of

They had

also settlements
straits

Southern Spain, and one at least outside the


This
its
is

on the Ocean.
its

Gades or Cadiz, which has kept


as a great city
in

name and

unbroken position

from

an earlier time than any other city

Europe.

The
parts.

Greeks therefore could not colonize in these

In the great islands of Sicily and Cjqirus there were


both Phoenician and Greek colonies, and there was a
long struggle between the
settlers of the

two

nations.
settlers,

In Egypt again, though there were some Greek

yet there were no Greek colonies in the strict sense.

That

is,

there were no independent

Greek commoncoast of

wealths.

Thus the only part of the southern

the Mediterranean which was open to Greek colonization

was the land between Egypt and the dominions of


In that
land
accordingly several Greek
orecii coioAfvi"'.,

Carthage.
cities

were planted, of which the chief was the famous

Kyrene.

On

the

southern

coast

of Gaul

arose the

spaia."'

great Ionian city of Massalia or Marseilles, which also,


like the Phoenician Gades, has kept its

name and

its

prosperity

down

to our

own

time.
cities

Massalia became the

centre of a group of

Greek

on the south coast of

Gaul and the

east coast of Spain,

which were the means


civilization in

of spreading a certain

amount of Greek

those parts.

Besides these settlements in the Mediterranean


self,

it-

there were also a

good many Greek colonies on the


colonies on

western, northern, and southern coasts of the Euxine, of

which those best worth remembering are the


T.

city of

36

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.


Chersonesos in the peninsula called the Tauric Chersonesos,
coast.

now

Crimea, and Trapezous on the southern

These two deserve notice as being two most


Chersonesos, under

abiding seats of Greek influence.


the

name of Cherson, remained an independent Greek commonwealth longer than any other, and Trapezous or
Trebizond became the seat of Greek-speaking Emperors,
outlived those of Constantinople.

who

Speaking gene-

rally then,

we may

say that, in the most famous times of


in the time of the Persian

European Greece,

and Pelo-

ponnesian wars, the whole coast of the ^gaean was part


of the immediate Greek

world, while in Sicily and

Cyprus Greek colonies were contending with the Phoenicians,

and

in Italy with the native Italians.

Massalia

was the centre of a group of Greek


west,

states in the north-

and Kyrene

in the south, while the greater part

of the coast of the Euxine


cities

was

also dotted with

Greek

here and there.

In most of these colonies the

Greeks mixed to some extent with the natives, and


Beginning
(if

tlic

uativcs to

somc cxtcnt learned the Greek

the arti-

ficiai

Greek

and mauucrs.
call

nation.
.

We

an

artificial

^ thus get the beginnincr of what we c o Greek nation, a nation Greek in


'-'

lancruasre

speech and manners, but not purely Greek in blood,

which has gone on ever

7.

snice.

Growth of Macedonia and Epeiros.

civihzation,

But while the spread of the Greek language and and therewith the growth of the artificial
nation,

Greek

was brought about

in a great degree

by
Growth
of

the planting of independent


,

Greek

colonies,

it

was

brought about

Macedonia.

tar

to

still more fully by events which went , ./^ destroy the political independence of Greece

,..,.,

itself.

This came of the growth of the kindred nations

MACEDONIA AND EPEIROS.


to the north of Greece, in

37

Macedonia and Epeiros. The

Macedonians were for a long time

hemmed
also

in

by the

barbarians to the north and west of them and by the

Greek

cities

on the

coast,

and they were

weakened
Reisn of
Philip. B.C.

by

divisions

among

themselves.
its

But when the whole


,

nation was united under

ereat Kinof ^' Mace^ Philip, donia soon became the chief power in Greece and the

sgo-ssg.

neighbouring lands.

PhiHp greatly increased

his

domi-

nions at the expense of both Greeks and barbarians,


especially

by adding the peninsulas of Chalkidike


But
in

to his

kingdom.

Greece

itself,

though he took to him-

self the chief

power, he did not actually annex any of

the Greek states to Macedonia, so that his victories there

do not
ajider,

affect the

map.

and the Macedonian

manner held

garrisons in particular

...
;

His yet more fomous son Alexkinj^s

conquests
der,

after

him,
.

in
.

like

336-323.

Greek

cities,

and

brought some parts of Greece, as Thessaly and Euboia,

under a degree of Macedonian influence which hardly


differed

from dominion

but they did not formally

annex them.

The conquests of Alexander in Asia brought most of the Greek cities and islands under
as

Macedonian dominion, but some,


independence.

Crete, Ehodes,

Byzantion, and Uerakleia on the Euxine, kept their

Meanwhile

Epeiros

became

united
Epein
rhus.B.c.

under the Greek kings of Molossis^ and luider Pyrrlios,

who made Ambrakia his capital, it became a powerful state. And a little kingdom called Athamania, thrust in between Epeiros, Macedonia, and Thessaly, now
begins to be heard
of.

The conquests
ern Asia,
all

of Alexander in Asia concern us only ihe Mace"'


"''^
*

so far as they called into being a class of states in West- kingdoms

of which received a greater or less share of

Hellenic culture, and

some of which may claim a place

38
CHAP,
r^

GREECE AXD THE GREEK COLONIES.

in the actual
'

Greek world.

By

the division of the

em-

pire of

Alexander

after the battle of Ipsos,

Egypt be-

came the kingdom of Ptolemy, with whose descendants


it
n.c. 301.

remained down to the

Eoman

conquest.

The

civili-

zation of the Egyptian court

was Greek, and Alexandria Greek


cities.

K-vpt
r'toiemiel

became one of the

greatest of

Moreover

thc carhcr kings of the Ptolemaic dynasty held various


islands in the Jjlgean,

and points on the coast of Asia


entitled

and even of Thrace, which made them almost


to rank as a
The
ciyiLtty.

power

in

Greece

itself.

The great
and
liis

Asiatic

power of Alexander passed


ants.

to Seleukos

descend-

The

early kings of his house ruled from the

^goean
at all

to the Hyphasis,

though

this

great dominion was

times fringed and broken in upon


native princes,
Circa
ij.c.

by the dominions of by independent Greek cities, and by the


]3ut in thc tliird
in the

dominions of other Macedonian kings.


century
tlieir
tlie

dominion was altogether cut short

East by

revolt of the Parthians in northern Persia,

by whom

the eastern provinces of the Seleukid

kingdom
Great

were lopped away.


B.C.

And when

Antiochos

tlie

191-

provoked a war with Eome,


shore to the

his

dominion was cut

up

into a

West also. The Seleukid power now shrank local kingdom of Syria, with Tauros for its
cuttiug short of the Seleukid kingdom,

north-western frontier.
Cities of in-

^7
"^^"^s

^^^^

room

.Sel?"*

given for the growth of the independent states

The iTmH"'' which had already sprung up in Asia Minor. begim, and tlie had already rergamos. kingdom of Pergamos
dominions of
its

kings were largely increased by the

Eomans
Epeiros.

at the

expense of Antiochos.
state,

Pergamos might

count as a Hellenic

alongside of Macedonia and

But the other kingdoms of Asia Minor, Bi-

thynia,Kappadokia, Paphlagonia, and Pontos, the king-


THE MACEDONIAN KINGDOMS.
39

dom

of the famous Mithridates, must be counted as


Tlie Hellenic influence indeed spread itself tar

Asiatic.

cii.vi'.

to the East.

Even the Parthian


culture,

kinjis affected a certain

fp";^"'^."'"

amount of Greek
and
in several of
citie,s.

and

in all the
less

more western

^"'tinv.

kinffdoms there was a greater or

Greek element,

them the kings


which

fixed their cai)itals in

Greek
gamos.

Still in all

of them the Asiatic element


it

prevailed in a

way

in

did not prevail at Per-

Meanwhile other
still

states, either originally

Greek

or largely Ilelleuized,

remained Ea^t of

tlie

jEga3an.

Thus, at the south-western corner of Asia Minor, Lifkia^


thou<rh seemingly less thorouiihlv Hellenized than

some
the
NUM.k.ia.

of

its

neighbours,

became a

federal

state

after

Greek model.
whether under
its

Far

to the A\st, St'U'tdeia

on the

Tigris,

l^yrian or Parthian overlordship, kept


its

character as a Greek colony, and


called a free imperial
city.

position as

what

may be

Further to the

West other more purely


city,

(ireek states 8ur%'ived.

The
nemki.-iii.

Pontic Ilerakleia long remained an independent Greek

sometimes a commonwealth,
;

sometimes
city
till it

under
Ixicame

<*^-

tyrants

and Slnopc remained a Greek


t)f

the caj)ital nf the kings

Pontos.

On

the north of the

Euxine, Bosporus
S,

still

remained a Greek kingdom.


(ireece.
in the
i-nt.rpoUti.al.livi-

The

later

Geography of Jndependeni
t>f

The

i)olitical '
it
'

divisions
*

Greece, independent *
the

davs when
differ

LTaduallv

came under

power of Rome,

M'>n.)f
Grecirc.

almost as

mueh from

those to which

we

are used
last

during the Persian and Peliponnesian wars, as these


differ

from the earlier divisions

in

the

Uomeric

cat^i-

logue.

The

chief feature of these times was the

power

which was held, as we have before seen, by the Macedonian kings, and the alliances made by
tlie

different

10
CHAP.
II.

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.


Greek
yoke.
states in

order to escape or to throw off their

The

result

was that the greater part of Greece had ever seen


before.

was gradually mapped out among large confederations,

much
The
Achaian
Leacue.

larger at least than Greece


these,

The most famous of


the

the League of Achaia,


cities

began among the old Acliaian


Corinthian
Gulf.
It

on the south of
spread,
till

ii.(\2m.

gradually

it

took in the whole of


li.c.

Peloponnesos,
cities.

together with

191.

Megara and one or two outlying


Argos,
Elis,

Thus Corinth,
distinct

and even Sparta, instead of being


with a greater or
less

states as of old,

dominion over

other
The
Aitolian

cities,

were now

simply members of one federal

body.

In Northern Greece the League of Aitolia


itself far

now
and

League.

became very powerful, and extended


its

beyond

old

borders.

Akarnania,

Phokis,

Lokris,

Boiotia formed Federal states of less power, and so

did Epeiros, where the kings had been got rid

of,

and

which was now reckoned


times

as a thoroughly

Greek

state.

The Macedonian kings held


:

different points at different

Corinth

itself for

a good while, and Thessaly and

Euboia
Koman
in-

for longer periods,

might be almost counted as


Greece
in

parts of their kingdom.


terference iu Greece.

This was

the state

of things
to

in

at

the

time

when

the

Eomans began

meddle

Greek and

Macedonian
countries,

affairs,

and gradually

to bring all these

like

the rest of the Mediterranean world,

under their power.


this
B.C. 229.

But

it

should be remarked that

was done,

as the conquests of the

Eomans always
Kor-

were done, very gradually.


kyra and the
cities

First the island of

of

Epidamnos and Apollonia on


allies,

the Illyrian coast

became Eoman

which was

al-

ways a
first

step to

becoming Eoman
itself,

subjects.

The Eomans

appeared in Greece

as allies of the Aito-


LATER GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE.
lians,

41

but by the Peace of Epeiros


in

Eome
.

obtaiDcd no

dominion

Greece, and merely some increase of her

197.

chap.

The second Macedonian War made Macedonia dependent on Rome, and all those parts of Greece which had been under the Macedonian power
Illvrian territon^ *'

B.C. 200.

b.c 200-

j.^^^^^f
J5,7quLs.
a.c. 190.

were declared

free at

its

close.

As

the Aitolians

had

joined Antiochos of Syria against Rome, they were

c.

189.

Roman dependency. From that time Rome was always meddhng in the affairs of the Greek states, and they may be counted as really, though not formally,
made
a

dependent

on Rome.

After the third Macedonian

war, Macedonia was cut

up

into four separate


it

coma

b^-

i<59.

monwealths; and

at last, after the fourth,

became

"< '^i^-

Roman
League

province.

About

tlie

siime time the Leagues


;

<

i-*J-

of Ej)ein)s and Boiutia were dissolved


also

the Achaian

became formally dependent on Rome, and


for a time also.
It
is

was dissolved
time,

not certain
;

when
Rome.
Homnininfrif .tntcs
iM<-..r|M.i-

Achaia became formally a


this
all

Roman

province

but, from

Greece was practically


*
.

sul)ject to

Athens remained nominallv indrpendent,


Bvzanlion, and several other islands

Rhodes, ..... and


as did
outlviii<; cities, *
.

nte'i In-

some of which were not


the

ftirmally incorporated with

VespaMun.

Roman dominion

till

the time of the

Emperor

Vespasian.

As we go on with the geogniphy of other countries which came under the Roman dominion, we shall learn more of the way in which Rome thus enlarged
right
this

her
to

territories

bit

by

Ijit.

liut

it

seemed

begin with
not

the geogra[)hy of Greece, uiid

could

be carried

down

to

the time wlien

Greece became a
thing of the

Roman dominion without saying someRoman conquest. From B.C. 146 we must

look upon Greece and the neighbouring lands as being,

42
CHAP,
^'

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.


some of tliem formally and
part of the
to speak of
till

all

of

them

practically,

Eoman

dominion.

And we

shall not

have

them again

as separate states or countries

many

ages later,

when

the

Eoman dominion began

to fall in pieces.

Having thus traced the geography of

the most eastern of the three great European peninsulas

down

to the time wlien

it

became part of the dominion


around the Mediterranean,

which took

in all the lands


to

we
Special
clifii'fictpr

will

now go on

speak of the middle peninsula.


that dominion,

wliicli
of

bccamc the centre of

namely that

Greek

his-

of Italy.

Grcccc and the neiglibouring lands are the


be said to have a

only parts of Europe which can


history quite independent of
earlier

Eome, Of

and beginning

than the

Eoman

history.

the other countries


it

therefore which
will

became part of the Eoman Empire


in tlieir relation

be best to speak

to Italy, and,

as nearly as possible, in the order in

which they came

under the

Eoman

power.

43

CHAPTER

III.

FORMATIOX OF THE ROMAX EMPIRE.

The second
of Italy.

of the three great peninsulas of southern


lies

chap
III.

Europe, that which

between the other two,

is

that
Difreient

The name

of Italy has been used in several


it

meanings

meanings
either the
Italy.

at different times, but

has always meant


call

of the

name

whole or a part of the land which we now


itself

The name gradually spread

from the ex-

treme south to the north.^


survey
begins,

At

the time

when our
it

the

name
that.

did not

go beyond the
hardly

long narrow peninsula

itself;

and indeed

took in the whole of

During the time of the

Eoman commonwealth
little

Italy did not reach


side,

beyond the
its

rivers

Macra on one
side,
1

near Luna, and Ruhico

meaning

on the other
,

near Ariminum.
A T

The land

north, as lar as the Alps,


after the time of Csesar.

was not counted

to the Kcman commonfor Italy till wealth.

But the Alps are the natural


land from the
so that, looking at the

boundary which fence


matter as

off the peninsular


;

great mass of central Europe


a

piece of geography,

we may count
It will

the

whole land within the Alps as

Italy.

be at

once seen that the Itahan peninsula, though so long


^

We

shall

come as we go on
But

to

two uses of the name

in

which

Italy,

oddly enough, meant only the northern part of the land comso called.

monly

in both these cases the


it

name had

a purely

political

and technical meaning, and

never came into

common

use

in this sense.


44
CHAP,
^^

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

'^

and narrow,

'

by no means cut up into promontories and smaller peninsulas as the Greek peninsula is.
is
is
it

Nor

surrounded by so

many

islands.

It is

only

quite in the south,


splits off into

where the long narrow peninsula


at all

two smaller ones, that the coast has

the character of the


The
Italian islands.

mucli slighter dcofree.

the great island of Sicily^ whose history has always

no
all.

Greek

coast,

and there only


^

in a
lies

this end of Italy Close by J J

been closely connected with that of


lie

Italy.

Further off

the

two other great


in old times

islands of Corsica

and Sardinia,
to

which

were not reckoned


along the

belong to

Italy at
islands,

Besides these there are several smaller


others,
Italian

Elba and
lie

coast;

but they

a good

way from each

other,

and do not
There

form any marked feature in the geography.


is

nothing at

all

like

even the group of islands off


less like the endless multitude,

western Greece,

much

great and small, in the ^ga^an.

Through the whole


off

length

of the

peninsula, like a backbone, runs the

long chain of the Apennines.

These branch

from

the Alps in north-western Italy near the sea, and run

through the whole length of the country to the very


toe of the boot, as the Italian peninsula has been called

from
Italy

its

shape.

From
all

all

this

it

follows that, though


in the

was the land which was destined


likely to begin to

end

to

have the rule over

the rest, yet the people of Italy

were not

make themselves
all

name
and

so

early as the Greeks did.


to take in the

Least of

were they
life,

likely

same way

to a sea-faring

to

plant colonies mi far off lands.

j,^^
Italy.

1.

The Inhabitants of Italy and

Sicily.

We seem to have somewhat clearer signs in Italy than

IXHABITANTS OF ITALY.

45
in the land

we have
ants

in

Greece of the

men who dwelled

before the Aryans

came

into

it.

who appear as its historical inhabitOn the coast of Liguria, the land on
we
find people

^-^

chap.

Ligurians.

each side of the city of Genoa, a land which was not

reckoned

Italian in early times,

who

seem not

to

have been Aryan.

And

these Ligurians

seem and

to

have been part of a race which was spread


settlements,-

through Italy and Sicily before the Aryan


to

have been akin

to the

non-Aryan inhabitants of
the Basques on each

Spain and southern Gaul, of


side of the

whom

Pyrenees remain as a remnant.

And in

his-

torical times a large part of Italy

was held, and

in

earlier times a

still

larger part seems to have been held,

by the Etruscans.
origin

These are a people about whose


theories, but

Etruscans,

and language there have been many

nothing can as yet be said to be certainly known.


Etruscans, in
historical times,

These

formed a confederacy

of twelve cities in the land west of the Apennines, be-

tween the Macra and the Tiber


in earlier times they

and

it is

believed that
to the

had settlements both more

north, on the Po, and


If they

more

to the south, in

Campania.
tlie

were a non-Aryan race, the part of


in the
it

non-

Aryans

geography and history of Italy becomes


has been in any part of Western Europe

greater than

except Spain.

But whatever we make of the Etruscans, the


Italy in the older sense

rest of

was held by various branches of


to the Greeks,

an Aryan race nearly ahied


call the Italians.

whom we may
The
itai-

Of

this race there

were two great

branches.

One
all

of them, under various names, seems to

have held
Italy,

the southern part of the western coast of


Sicily.

and

to

have spread into

Some

of the tribes

of this branch

seem

to have

been almost as nearly akin

46
CHAP,
^^

foe:matiox of the
to the

romax empire.
and other kindred nations

Greeks

as the Epeirots

'-^-"

on the

east side of the Hadriatic.

Of

this

branch of the
;

Latins.

Itahan race, the most famous people were the Latins

and

it

was the greatest Latin

city,

the border city of

the Latins against the Etruscans, the city of

Home on
The

the Tiber, wdiich became, step

by

step, the mistress of

Latium, of

Italy,

and of the Mediterranean world.

other branch, which held a

much

larger part of the


Volscians,

peninsula, taking in the Sabines,

Squirms,

Samnites, Lucanians^ and other people


great part in the
Opicans.

who

play a
classed

Eoman

history,

may perhaps be
to

togcthcr as Opicans or Oscans, in distinction from the


Latins,

and the other


of Italy,

tribes

allied

them.

These

tribes seem to have pressed from the eastern, the


driatic, coast

Ha-

down upon

the nations to the

south-west of them, and to have largely extended their

borders at their expense.

But part of ancient


Italy in the

Italy,

and a

still

larger part of

modern

sense,

was inhabited by nations

other than the Italians.


lapygians.

In the heel of the boot were

the lapygicins, a people of uncertain origin, but

who

seem
the

in

any case

to

have had a great

gift

of receiving

Greek
in

lan<j;uage

and manners.

And

in the northern

part,
Gauls.

the

lands which were not then counted as

part of Italy, were the Gauls, a Celtic people, akin


to the

Gauls beyond the Alps, and whose country


called Cisalpine

was therefore
Po,

Gaul or Gaul on
to

this

side of the Alps.

They were found on both

sides of the

and on the Hadriatic coast they seem

have

stretched in early times almost as far south as Ancona.

In the north-east corner of Italy were yet another


veneti.

peoplc, the Veueti, perhaps of Illyrian origin,

whose

name long

after

was taken by the

city of Venice.

But

GREEKS IN ITALY AND


durino' the

SICILY.
to do, there
. .

47
chap.
HI.
'
<

whole time with which we have

was no
the

city so called,

and the name of Venetia

is

always

-"

name

of a country.

All these nations


inhabitants of Italy
;

we may
that
is,

look on as the original

Greek
itaiy.

colo-

nies in

all

were there before any-

thing like contemporary history begins.^

But besides

these original nations, there were in one part of Italy

many Greek colonies, and also in the island of Sicily. Some cities of Italy claimed to be Greek colonies, without any clear proof that they were
so.

But there seems

no reason to doubt that


coast of Italy, and

Kyme
or

or

Cumce on the western


Hadriatic,

Ankon

Ancona on the
far

were

solitary

Greek colonies

away from any other


far off, is snid to

Greek

settlements.

Cuma3, though so

have been the earhest Greek colony in

Italy.

But
lesser

where the Greeks mainly


peninsulas, the heel

settled

was

in tlie

two
into

and the toe of the boot,


its

which

the great peninsula of Italy divides at

southern end.

Here, as was before

said, there is a

nearer approach to

the kind of coast to which the Greeks were used at

home.

Here then arose a number of Greek


up

cities,

stretching from the extreme south almost

to Curase.

As

in the case of the

Greek

cities in Asia,

the time of

greatness of the Italian Greeks


of the Greeks in Greece
itself.

came

earlier

than that
B.C.

In the sixth century

some of these Greek

colonies in Italy, as Taras or

Tarentum^ Krotun or Croto?ia, Syharis^ and others, were


'

as the

Some may think that the Cisalpine Gauls ought to be excepted, common Roman story represents them as having crossed the

Alps from Transalpine Gaul at a time which almost comes within But this is a point about the range of contemporary history.

which there

is

no

real certainty

and

it

seems quite as likely that the

Gaulish settlements on the Italian side of the Alps were as old as


those on the other side.

48
CHAP,
III.

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

among

tlie

greatest cities of the

Greek name.

But, as
cities lost

the Itahan nations grew stronger, the Greek


their power,
fell

and many of them, Cumse among them,

into the hands of Italian conquerors,

and

lost their

Greek character
remained Greek

more or
till

less

thoroughly.
to

Others

they

became subject

Rome,
sera.

and the Greek speech and manners did not quite die
out of southern Italy
Inhabitants
till

ages after the Christian

Tlic
Sicily,

geography and history of the great island of


lies so

which

near to the toe of the boot, cannot


Italy.

be kept apart from those of

The mainland and


by the same
western part of the

the island were, to a great extent, inhabited


nations.
island
rians

The Sikcmians

in the

may

not unlikely have been akin to the Ligu;

and Basques

but the Sikels,

who gave

their

name
the

to the island,

and who are the people with

whom

Greeks had most to do, were clearly of the Italian


Phrenician
coioukis.

stock,

and wcrc nearly


of Carthage

allied to the Latins.

The Phoein

nicians

planted

some colonies
the

the

western and northern parts of the


of

island, the chief

which was

the

city

which
capital

Greeks

called

Panormos, the modern


of Greek

Palermo.

But the
full

western and southern sides of the triangle were


cities,

which are

said to

have been founded


Several of

from the eighth century


these, especially

B.C. to

the sixth.

Syracuse and Akragas or Agru/entum,


cities
;

were among the chief of Greek


selves over the natives,

and from them


was

the Greek speech and manners gradually spread themtill

in the

end
for

Sicily

rec-

koned

as

wholly a Greek land.


is

But

some centuries
Greek

Sicilian

history

chit^fly

made up

of struggles for
cities.

the mastery between Carthage and the

This was in truth a struggle between the Aryan and

GROWTH OF
the Semitic race, and
after,

ROME.
see that,

49

we

shall

many

ages
^

^^u^'
'

the same battle was again fought on the same

'

ground.

2.

Growth of
^

the

Boman power
^
'
.

in Italy.

The
is

history of ancient Italy, as far as

we know
its

it.

Gradual
conquest of

the history of the gradual conquest of the whole land ^*%its

by one of

own

cities

and the changes

in

political

geography are mainly the changes w^hich followed the


gradual bringing of the whole peninsula under the

Eoman dominion. But the form which the conquests of Eome took hindered those conquests from having so great an effect on the map as they otherwise might
have had.

The cities and

districts of Italy, as

they were
left

one by one conquered by Eome, were commonly

as separate states, in the relation of dependent alliance,

from which most of them were step by step promoted


to the rights of
.

Eoman

citizenship.
r>-r

An

Italian city

might be a dependent

ally of

Eome
or
it

it

might be a

Different positions of the Italian

Eoman
actually

colony with the

full fi^anchise
;

or a colony hold-

ing the inferior Latin franchise

might have been


All these were

made

part of a

Eoman

tribe.
;

very important political differences

but they do not

make much difference in the look of thinfjs on the map. The most important of the changes which can
be called
of
strictly

geographical belong to the early days

Eome, when there were important national movements among the various races of Italy. Eome arose
at the point of
1
-ri

union of the three races, Latin, Oscan,


1

origin of

and Etruscan, and

it

arose irom an union between the

Kome.

Latin and Oscan races.


settlements

Two
E

Latin and one Sabine


to

seem

to

have joined together

form the

50

FOEMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


city of
'

'

CHAP,
III

Eome
city,

but the Sabine element must have been

r^

thoroughly Latinized, and


a Latin
est,

Eome must be

counted as

Latin

city,

the greatest, though very likely the young-

Her early Latin dominion,

among the cities of Latium. Eomc, planted OH a march,


marchlands oiten

rose, in the

way

in

which

do

rise, to

supremacy among

her fellows.

Our
sets

first

authentic record of the early

commonwealth
to

Eome

before us as bearing rule

over the whole of Latium.

This dominion she seems

have

lost

soon after the driving out of the kings,

and some of her territory right of the Tiber seems


to

have become Etruscan.

Presently

Eome

appears,

no longer as mistress of Latium, but as forming one


meml)er of a
triple

league concluded on equal terms

with the Latins as a body, and with the Hernicans.


Wars with
lier

This Icaguc was engaged

neighhours.

neighbours of the
sciajis,

^ Oscan

in

constant wars with


,

its

race, the ud^guians

and Vol-

by

whom many
'~'

of the Latin cities were taken.

More

dis-

jg^t tlic first s^rcat

advance of Eome's actual dominion

tant wars.

was made on the right bank of the Tiber, by the


B.C. 396.

taking of the Etruscan city of Veii.

Fifty years later


;

B.C. 343.

B.C. 29G.

Eome began to engage in more distant wars and we may say generally that the conquest of Italy was going By the end on bit by bit for eighty years more.
of that time,
all Italy, in

the older sense, was brought

in one shape or another under the

Eoman

dominion.

The neighbouring
races,

districts,

both Latin and of other

had been admitted

to citizenship. in

Eoman and

Latin colonies

were planted

various parts of the

country; elsewhere' the old

cities,

Etruscan, Samnite,
allies

Greek, or any other,


Jfthe'"'''

still

remained as dependent
to

<^f

Eome.

Presently

Eome went on

win dominion
remained in

stater

^11^'

^f Italy; but the Itahan states

still

THE PROVINCES.
their

51
the
Italian
allies

old

relation to

Eome,

till

received the
siayi

Eoman

franchise after the Social or


out,

Marin

--

r^

chap.

war.

The Samnites alone held

and they

b... 89.

may be

said to

have been altogether exterminated

the wars of Sulla.

The

rest of Italy

was Eoman.

3.

The Western Provinces.


in

The great change


geography

Eoman
by
it,

policy,

and

in

Em'opean

as affected

took place
Italy.

began

to

win temtory out of


from that of the
of

when Eome The relation of


was
quite

these foreign possessions to the ruling city


different

Italian states.

The

foreign

conquests

Eome were made

into

provinces.

xntureof
rrovinceL

province was a district which was subject to Eome,

and put under the rule of a

Eoman

governor, which

was not done with the dependent


it

allies in Italy.

But

must be borne

in

mind

that,

though we speak of

a province as having a certain geographical extent,


yet there might be cities within
relation
to
its

limits

whose formal
or even

Eome was

that

of dependent,

of equal, alhance.

There might also be

Eoman and
cities

Latin colonies, either colonies really planted or

which had been raised


chise.

to the

Eoman

or Latin franas
re-

AH

these were important

distinctions

garded the internal government of the


still

different states

practically all

alike

formed part of the Eomar


it

dominion.
fore be

In a geographical survey
to

will

there-

enough

mark

the extent of the different


to

provinces,

without

attending

their

political,

or

more
cases

truly

municipal, distinctions, except in a few


special importance.

where they are of

The provinces then are the foreign dominions of Eome, and they fall naturally into two. or rather three,
E 2

52
divisions.

FORMATION OF THE

ROIVIAN EMPIRE.

There are the provinces of the West, in which the Eomans had chiefly to contend with nations much less civihzed than themselves, and in which therefore the
provincials gradually adopted the language

and manners

of their conquerors.

But

in the provinces to the east

of the Hadriatic, the Greek language and Greek


ners had

man-

become the language and manners of civilized life, and their supremacy was not supplanted by those And in the more distant parts, as in Syria of Eome.
and
Eo'ypt, the

Greek

civilization
still

was a mere varnish

the mass of the people

kept to their old manners

and languages
conquests.

as they

were before the Macedonian

In these countries therefore the Latin tongue


civilization

and Eoman

made but
it

httle progress.

The

Eoman
beo-an.

conquests went on on both sides of the Hadri-

atic at the

same

time, but

was

to the west that they

The

first

Eoman

province however forms a


itself,

sort of intermediate class by

standing between

the eastern and the western.


Sicily.

This

first

Eoman

province was formed in the great


its

island of Sicily^ which, by

geographical position,
of Europe, while

belongs to the western part


fact that
First

the
in
it

Greek became the prevaihng language


it

rather connects

with the eastern part.

The Eoman
as the result

po"rssions
is'iand.

dominion

in Sicily

began when the Carthaginian posses-

sions in the island

were given up

to

Eome,

Bc

241.

of the

first

Punic war.

But, as Hieron of Syracuse

had helped Eome against Carthage, his kingdom remained in alliance with Eome, and was not dealt with
Conquest
cusef"^

as a

couqucrcd land.

It

was only when Syracuse


second Punic war that
it

turned against
was, on
its

Eome

in the

conquest, formally

made

a Eoman

possession.

B.C. 132.

Eighty years later the condition of Sicily under the

SICILY.

53
and
it

Eoman government was


which the

finally settled,

may be
^

taken as a type of the endless variety of relations in


different districts

chap.

and

cities

throughout the

Eoman
The

dominions stood to the ruhng commonwealth.

greater part of the island

became simply

subject;

state of

the land was held to be forfeited to the

Eoman

People,

and the former inhabitants held

it

simply as tenants on

payment of a
and kept
pendent

tithe.
;

But some

cities

were

called free,

their land
allies

others remained in

name
Other

indecities
;

of the

Eoman
to

People.

were afterwards raised


others Latin

the

Latin

franchise

in

or
city,

Eoman
that
It

colonies

Avere planted,

and

one

Sicilian

of Messa?ia, received the full

citizenship of

Eome.

must be borne

in

mind

that

these different relations, these exceptionally favoured


cities

and

districts,

are foimd, not only in Sicily, but


Sicily,

throughout

all

the provinces.

by the time of

Greek
siciiy

civi-

the conquest, was looked on as a thoroughly Greek


land.

The Greek
other

lanQ;uaf;fe

and manners had now

spread themselves everywhere


the
inhabitants

among
till,

the Sikels and

of

the

island.

And

Sicily

remained a thoroughly Greek land,


it

ages afterwards,

again became, as

it

had been

in the days of the

Greek

and Phoenician

colonies,

a battle-field of Aryan and

Semitic races in the days of the

Mahometan

conquests.
Sardinia
sica.

The two great


seem almost
itself;

islands

of Sardinia

and Corsica

as natural

appendages to Italy as Sicily


is

but their history

very

different.

They have

played no important part in the history of the world.

The

original stock of their inhabitants


to the

seems to have

been akin

non-Aryan element

in Spain

and

Sicily.

The attempts
feeble,

at

Greek

colonization in

them were but


first

and they passed under the dominion,

of


54
CHAP.
III.

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


Carthai^e and
'

then of Eome, without any important

^-

change
a

in their condition.

These two islands became

Eoman

province, which was always reckoned one of

the most worthless of provinces, in the interval between


B.C. 238.
tj-^e fij-st r^iK^i

second Punic wars.


tlic

Cisalpine

Tlius far

Eouiau

dominions

did
as

not
the

reach
natural

beyond what we should look upon

extent of the dominion of an Italian power.


as long as Italy did not reach to the Alps,

Indeed,

we

should

say that

it

had not reached the natural extent of an


But the conquest of Cisalpine Gaul

Italian dominion.

cannot be separated from the general conquest of

Western Europe.
Spain,

The Eoman conquest of Gaul and

by gradually spreading the Latin language and Eoman civilization over those countries, created two
of the chief nations and languages of

modern Europe.

But the process was simply the continuation of a process wdiich


call

began within the borders of what we now

Italy.

Gaul within the Alps was

as

strictly

foreign conquest as Spain or as Gaul

beyond the Alps.


al-

Only the geographical position of Cisalpine Gaul


lowed
it

to

be easily and speedily incorporated with


the lands beyond the Alps could
in this direction

Italy in a

way which

not be.
rouiKiation
(laiiiia.

The beginnings of conquest

took placc after the end of the Samnite wars.


the

Then

colony of

Sena Gallica, now Sinigaglia, was


soil,

founded on Gaulish

and

it

was presently followed


or Rimini.

by

the

foundation

of

Ariminum

The
after

Eoman arms were


between the
(^oiunust
nfCisiilpine

carried

beyond the Po

in the time
;

first

and the second Punic war


'

the second Punic war, Cisahiine Gaul

was thoroughly ^ ^

r '('"201^'1-

conquered, and was secured by the foundation of

many

Eoman and

Latin colonies.

The Eoman and Latin

CONQUEST OF CISALPINE GAUL.


franchises

55
chap.
r^
b.c. 43.

were gradually extended

to

most parts of

the country, and at last Cisalpine Gaul was formally

incorporated with Italy.


Closely connected with the conquest of Cisalpine

Conquest of
Venetia.

Gaul was the conquest of the other non-Itahan lands


within the boundaries of modern Italy.

These were

Liguria to the south-east of Cisalpine Gaul and Venetia


to the north-west.

Both these lands held out


;

long;er

than Cisalpine Gaul

but by the time of Augustus they

were

all,

together with the peninsula of Istria, counted

as part of Italy.

The dominion

of

Eome

in this region

was secured

at

an early stage of the conquest by the

foundation of the great colony of Anuileia.


.
.

We
.

thus

Foundntion

ofAqui^^ia, b.c.

see that, not only Venice, but Milan, Pavia, Verona,

Eavenna, and Genoa,

cities

which played so great a

part in the after history of Italy, arose in lands which

were not originally

Italian.

But we
it

also see that Italy, in a

with the boundaries given to

by Augustus, took

somewhat larger

territory to the north-east than the

kingdom of
to

Italy does

now.
fairly

The lands within the Alps may be


have been conquered by
help looking

said

Eome

in self-defence,

and

Spaiu.

we cannot

on the three great islands

as natural parts of

an Itahan dominion.
in lands altogether said

The contlieir

quests of the

Eomans

beyond

own

borders

may be

to have begun in West-

ern Europe with the conquest of Spain, which began


before that of Transalpine Gaul.

Spain and Gaul,

connexion
of Spaiu

using the names in the geographical sense, have

much
nonIan-

and Gaui.

which binds them together. o

On

the borders of the

two countries

traces are

still

left

of the
the

old

Aryan
guage.

inhabitants

who

still

speak

Basque

Iberians lu
Spain..

These represent the old Iberian inhabitants of

56
CHAP.
III.

FOKMATION OF THE EOMAN EMPIRE,


Spain aud Gaul, wlio,
as far into

when our history


Garonne.

begins, stretched
Celts,

Gaul

as the

But the
in

the

Celts.

wave of the Aryan migration pressed into both Gaul and Spain in Gaul they had,
first
;

Europe, had

when trustworthy
coasts of
Greek and

history begins, already occupied

by

far the greater part of the country.

The Mediterranean

Gaul and Spain were

also connected together

by the sprinkling of Greek colonies along those shores, And, beside the of which Massalia was the head. primitive non- Aryan element, there was an intrusive
non- Aryan element
also.

In southern Spain several

Phoenici<an
.settle-

Phoenician settlements

had been made, the chief of


straits,

ments.

which was Gades or Cadiz, beyond the


great Phoenician city on the Ocean.
lirst

the one
the

And between

and second Punic wars Carthage obtained a large

Spanish dominion, of which

New

Carthage or Cartha-

gena was the


It
First Roman province in Spain.

capital.
last settlements

was the presence of these

which
Sa-

first

brought Spain under the

Eoman
its

dominion.
taking

guntiun w^as an ally of Eome, and


nibal

by Hanled to

was the beginning of the second Punic war.


of the Scipios during that

The campaigns
B.C.

war

218-

the gradual conquest of the whole country. thaginian possessions


first

The Car-

206.

became a Eoman province,

B.C. 49.

while Gades became a favoured ally of Eome, and at


last

was admitted

to the full

Eoman

franchise.

MeanSpain,

while, the gradual conquest of the rest of the country


I5.C.133.

went
a

on,

till,

after the taking of

Numantia,

all

except the remote tribes in the north-west, had become


Final conquest.
B.C. 19.

Eoman

possession.

These

tribes,

the Cantahrians

and their neighbours, were not


time of Augustus,
Latin language

fully

subdued

till

the

But long before that time the


fast

and Eoman manners had been


SPAIN AND TRANSALPINE GAUL.
spreading through the country, and in Augustus' time

57
chap.
^

southern Spain was

aUogether Eomanized.
close to

It

was

-^

only in a small district


the ancient
since.

the
it

Pyrenees that
has done ever

tionof

language held out, as

The conquest of

Spain, owing to the connexion of

Transalpine

the country with Carthage, thus began while a large


part even of Cisalpine Gaul was
still

Gaui.

unsubdued.

And

the

Eoman
till

arras

were not carried into Gaul beyond the

Alps

the conquest of Spain was pretty well assured.

The foundation of the first Eoman colony at Aquce Sextice^ the modern Aioc, w^as only eleven years later
than the
fall

b.c. 122.

of Numantia.

The Eomans stepped

in as

alhes of the

Greek

city of Massalia, and, as usual,

from

helping their

allies

they took to conquering on their


province, including the colo- xheXransin the
Vince.
165.

own

account.

A Eoman

nies of

Narhonne and Toulouse, was thus formed


in this direction

south-eastern part of Transalpine Gaul.

The advance

of

Eome

seems to have been checked

by the invasion ofthe Cimbri and Teutones, but through


that long delay

Eoman

influences

were able

to establish

themselves more firmly.

This part of Gaul was early


it
still

and thoroughly Eomanized, and part of


in
its

keeps,

name

of Provence, the

memory
till

of

its

having been

the

first

Eoman
left

province beyond the Alps.

The

rest

of Gaul was
Caesar.
It is

untouched

the great campaigns of

from

Csesar, ethnologer as well as conqueror, conquests


it
b.c. 58-51.

that

we

get our chief knowledge of the country as

was

in his day.

Transalpine Gaul, as a geographical

Boundaries
aipine*'

division, has

well-marked boundaries in the Mediterra-

nean, the Alps, the Ehine, the Ocean, and the Pyrenees.

But

this

geographical division has never answered to


58

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


any
divisions of blood
is

and language.

Gaul

in Csesar's

day, that
three

Gaul beyond the Eoman province, formed


Aquitaine to
the

divisions

south-west,

Celtic

Gaul

in the middle,

and Belgic Gaul

to the north-east.

Aquitaine, stretching to the Garonne

under Augustus extended to

name was the Loire was


the
Celtic Gaul,

Iberian,

akin to the people on the other side of the Pyrenees:


a trace of
district
its

old speech remains in the small Basque

north of the Pyrenees.

from the

Loire to the Seine and Marne, was the most truly Celtic
land,

and

it

was in

this part of
its

Gaul that the modern


Li the third division,

French nation took

rise.

Belgic Gaul, the tribes to the east, nearer to the Ehine,

were some of them purely German, and others had been


to a
2i;reat

extent brought under

German

influences or
in fact,

mixed with German elements.


with them.
land,

There was,

no

unity in Gaul beyond that which the


Romanization of

Eomans brought

In seven years Ccesar subdued the whole

Gaul.

and the work of assimilation began. The Eoman


all

language gradually displaced


except
corners
;

the native languages,

where Basque and

Breton survive in two

but in a large part of Belgic Gaul the events

of later times brought the

There

is

changes,
Pemianenceof the
ancient

German tongue back again. no Eoman province in which, among all the ancient geography has had so much effect
In southern Gaul most
little
still

upon

that of all later times.

of the cities

keep their old names with very

geography.

change.

But

in northern

Gaul the

cities

have mostly

taken the names of the tribes of which they were the


heads.

Thus Tolosa

is

still

Toulouse;

but Lutetia

Parisiorum has become Paris.


Roman
Africa.

The lands which we have thus gone through,


alpine

Cis-

Gaul with Liguria and Venetia, Spain,

and


AFRICA.
Gaul, form a marked division in historical Transalpine ^

59

geography.

They

are those parts of Western

Europe

chap.
HI.

"

which

Eome

conquered during the time of her Comthose


parts

monwealth, and they are


mainly kept their
did not

which have
But these

Eoman

speech to this day.

make up

the whole of the lands where

Eome
;

planted her Latin speech, at least for a while.

conquest of Britain belongs to the days of

The the Empire


counted

but Eome, during the Commonwealth, made another


conquest, which, though not in Europe,
as belonging to the

may be

Western or Latin-speaking half of


is

her dominion. Africa which

This

the conquest of that part of


as the result of her

Eome won

wars

with Carthage.

The only African


1
.

possession w^on

by
Province of
Africa.,

Eome
I

dm-ing the days of the Commonwealth was Africa


. . .

^-^

in the strictest sense, the

immediate dominion of Car-

u-^-

hg

thage.

This became a province

when

the Punic wars

were ended by the destruction of Carthage.


thage

The

neighbouring state of Numidia, after passing, like Caritself,

through the intermediate state of a de-

pendency, was
called

made

province

by

Csesar,

being
of

New

Africa^ the former African province beCaasar also restored


tlie

New

coming the Old.


thage as a

city of Car-

.c. 13!

Re.storatioa

Eoman

colony, and

it

became the

chief

andgreatCartilage-

of the Latin-speaking cities of the Empire, second only


to

Eome

herself.

But

in

Africa, just as in Britain,

the laud never

became thoroughly Eomanized hke

Gaul and Spain.

The Eoman tongue and laws

there-

fore died out in both lands at the first touch of an

invader, the English in one case

and the Saracens in

the other.

The

strip of fertile

land betAveen the sea

on one side and the mountains and the Great Desert

on the other received,

first

Phoenician and then

Eoman

60
cHAr.

FORJUATION OF THE
civilization.
'

ROMAN EMPIRE.
could really take root
civilization

But neither of

tliem,

^-^

there in the
in

way

that the

Eoman

took root

Gaul and Spain.


4.
Tlie

Easlern Provinces.
as the

Contrast

The Hadrlatic Sea may be roughly taken

Eastern
{ind.

bouudary between the Eastern and Western parts of


tlic

West-

tern pro-

Eomau

dominiou.

In the West, the

Romans

car-

ried with

them not only


and

their arms, but their tongue,

their laws,

their manners.
civilizers.

They were not only


native

conquerors but
Celts adopted

The

Iberians and
isolated

Roman
cities,

fashions,

and the

Greek

and Phoenician
dually became

like Massalia
also.

and Gades, gra-

Eoman

East of the Hadriatic

the state of things was quite different.

Here the

lan-

guage and

civilization

of Greece

had, through

the

conquests of the Macedonian kings, become everywhere


(Jreek civilization in

predominant.

Greek was everywhere the

polite

and

the East,

literary language,

and a certain varnish of Greek man-

ners

had been everywhere spread. In some parts indeed it was the merest varnish still it was everywhere strong enough to withstand the influence of Latin.
;

Sicily

and Southern Italy are the only lands which have

altogether thrown

away

the Greek tongue, and have

taken to Latin or any of the languages formed out of


Latin.

No

part of the eastern half of the

Eoman

dominion ever became

Eoman

in the

same way as

Gaul and Spain.

The whole of the lands


thus,
Distinc-

east of the Hadriatic

may

as

opposed to the Latin-speaking lands of the


called

west,
_,.

be

Greek- speaking lands.


i

But there

among

the

arc soiiic wldc distiuctious to be


iurst,

drawn among them.


and
the

Eastern
provinces,

there

was

old

Greece

/^

itself

Greek

THE EASTERN PEOVINCES.


colonies,

61
chap.
III.

and lands

like Epeiros,

which had become


in Asia,

thoroughly Greek.
like

Secondly, there were the kingdoms,

Macedonia

in

Europe and Pergamos

which

had adopted the Greek speech and manners, but which did not, like Epeiros, become Greek in any political
sense.

Thirdly, there were a

number

of native states,

Bithynia and others, whose kings also tried to imitate

Greek ways, but naturally could not do so


as the kings of
^

as thoroughly

Macedonia and Pergamos.

Fourthly,
i^-mds

beyond Mount Tauros lay the kinfjdoms of Svria and J tD i) Egypt^ which were ruled by Macedonian kings, which
.

beyond
lauros.

contained great Greek or Macedonian

cities like

Antioch

and Alexandria, but where there were native


and an old native
civilization,

laniiuasfes,

which neither Greek nor

Eoman
as

influences could ever root out.

We

shall

see

we go on
The

that Tauros

makes a great
it

historical

boun-

dary.

lands on this side of

really came,

though

very gradually, under the dominion of the Greek speech

and the Eoman law. and therefore those

Beyond Mount Tauros both the


surface,
lands, like Africa, easily fell

Greek and the Eoman element lay merely on the

away when they were attacked by the Saracens.^ We must now go through such of the lands east of the Hadriatic as were formed into Eoman provinces during the time of the Eoman Commonwealth.
But again, between the Latin and the Greek parts of the Eoman dominion there was a border land,
namely, the lands held by the great Illyrian race.
^

The
Provinces.

In a more minute study of the history

it

will be

found that

Latin Africa held out against the Saracens very


Syria and Egypt.

But

lor

our purpose the

much longer than two may be classed to-

gether in opposition to those lands in Europe and Asia which always

remained

Eoman

or Greek.

62
CHAP.
111.

FORMATION OF THE EOMAN EMPIRE. The southern


Illyria that

parts of Illyria
it

came within the reach


affairs

of Greek influences, and

was through the

of

Eome was
;

first

led to meddle in the affairs

of Greece.

The use of
but
it

the

name

Illyria

is

at

all

times very vague


The king-

has a more definite meaning


capital

as the

name

of a

kingdom whose

was Skodra,

dom

of

kjkodra.

and which,
on that

in the second half of the third century,

was

a danfjerous nei2;hbour to the Greek cities and islands


B.C. 1C8.

coast.

This kingdom was involved in the third

Macedonian

w^ar,
is

and came to an end

at the

same

time.

As

usual,

it

not easy to distinguish

any, of the country actually


vince,

how much, if became a Eoman proa while in the inter-

and how much was

left for

mediate state of dependent alhance.


tical

But, for

all

prac-

purposes, the Illyrian


this

kingdom

of Skodra formed

from
the

time a part of the

Eoman

dominion.

With

fall

of Skodra, the parts of Illyria which lay further

to the north,
first

beyond the bounds of the Greek world,


notice.

came

into

The Greek
to

colonies in DalIllyrian

Dalmatian Wars.

matia had played their part in the

first

war

but the land

itself,

which was

become an outlying
is

fringe of Italy lying east of the Hadriatic,

now

first

heard of as a distinct country formed by a separation


B.C. 156.

from the kingdom of Skodra.


;

The

first

Dalmatian

B.C. 34.

war soon followed but it was not till after several wars that Dalraatia became a province, and even after that
time there were several revolts.

Koman
colonies in Dalniatia.

Before long, Dalmatia


colonies,
as

was

settled

with several
all,

Eoman

Jadei^a

or Zara, and, above

Salona, which became one of

the chief cities of the


Istria in-

Eoman

dominion.

The

neigh-

bouring: lands of Liburnia, Istria,

and the land of the

corporated

with

Italy.

lapodes,
period.

were gradually reduced during the same


Istria, like

the neighbouring land of Venetia,

'

ILLYRIA.

63
Italy,

was actually incorporated with


the

and Pola, under

chap.

name

of Pietas Julia,
^

became a Eoman colony.

"
The

We

which old by have already traced the process X ^


first

outlying
J''"pfk

Greece and the neio;hbourino; o lands of Macedonia and o


Epeiros gradually sank,
mally, into parts of the
practically,

lauds.

and then
It

for-

Eoman

dominion.

would be

hard

to say at
cities

what particular moment many of the

Greek

and islands sank from the relation of obe-

dient allies into that of acknowledged subjects.

We
Their latc
nexa'tion.

have seen that some of them, as Ehodes and Byzantion,

were not formally annexed

till

the reign of Vespasian,


to liave

The Greek

cities

on the Euxine do not seem


at all
till

been formally annexed

a late period of the


cities

Eastern Empire. Other outlying Greek lands and

became
Asiatic

so

mixed up with the history of some of the


in for a

kingdoms that they will come


them.
nest

mention
conquest
b.c. er,'

along with

Crete

kept

its

independence, to
specially con-

become a
quered.
It

of pirates, and to be

then formed one province with the then

recent conquest of Kyrene, the one great Greek settle-

ment

in Africa,

which had become an appanage of the


Eg\'pt.

Macedonian kings of
fate of Cyprus, an

island

wliich

The same had been the had always been


Cyprus too became a
lost

partly Greek, and which had been further Hellenized

under

its

Macedonian kings.
Thus, before

of Cyprus,

province.

Eome

her

own freedom,
of

she
all

had become the formal or


the earlier abodes of freedom.
that

practical mistress

Men

could not yet

foresee

time would

come when Greek and

Roman

should be words having the same meaning,

and when the place and name of


sian formally reduced

Eome
cities

herself should

be transferred to one of the Greek

which Vespa-

from alliance

to bondage.

64
CHAP.
III.

FORMATION OF THE EOMAN EMPIRE.


Ill

Eoman

history

one war

and one conquest


affairs

always led to another, and, as the


The
Asiatic Provinces.

of Illyria

had

led to

Eoman

interference in Greece, so the afHiirs of

B.C.

191-

188.

Greece led to Eoman interference in Asia. The first war wliicli Eome waged with Antiochos of Syria led to no immediate increase of the Eoman territory, but all
the Seleukid possessions on this side Tauros were divi-

ded among the alUes of Eome.


first

This, as usual,

was the
is

step towards the conquest of Asia,

and

it

quite
first

according to the usual course of things that the

Eoman
Province
of Asia.
B.C.

province beyond the ^g^ean, the province of


first

Asia^ was formed of the dominions of Eome's

and

133-

most

useful allies, the kings of

Pergamos.

The mission

129.

of Alexander and his successors, as the representatives

of Western civilization against the East,


into the hands of

now

passed

Eome.

Step

by

step, the other lands

west of Tauros came under the formal or practical doBithynia.


B.C. 74.

minion of Eome.

Bithynia was the

first

to

be annexed,
led to

and
Overthrow
of Mithridates.
B.C. 64.

this acquisition

was one of the causes which

the second war between


dates of Pontos.

Eome

and the famous Mithrior influence.

His

final

overthrow brought a number

of other lands under

Eoman dominion

The Greek

cities

of Sinope and Eerakleia obtained a

nominal fi"eedom, and vassal kings went on reigning in


part of Pontos
itself,

and

in the distant

Greek kingdom

of Bosporos.

Eome was now

mistress of Asia Minor.

The land was divided among her provinces and her vassal kings, save that the wise federal commonwealth
Lykia.

of

Lykia

still

kept the highest amount of independence


witli

which was consistent

the practical supremacy of

Eome.

The Mithridatic war, which made Eome

mistress of

Asia in the narrower sense, at once involved her in

'

THE ASIATIC PROVIXCES,


the affairs of the further East.

65
chap.
III.

Tigranes oi Armenia
;

had been the chief


his

ally of Mithridates

but,

though

power was
come.

utterly

humbled, no Armenian pro-

vince was added to the

Eoman dominion

for a long

time to

But

tlie

remnant of the Seleukid

monarchy became the Eoman province of Syria.


usual, several
to
cities

As

Province

and

principalities

were allowed

B.a64.

remain in various relations of alliance and depen-

dence on the ruling commonwealth.

Among

these
Palestine.

we

find Judcea

and the

rest of Palestine.,

sometimes

under a

Eoman
and

procurator, sometimes united under

a single vassal king, sometimes parted out

ous kings

tetrarchs,

as

suited
all

the

among varimomentary
city

caprice or policy of
tions

Eome.

In

these various rela-

between the native


lively

states

and the ruling

we
comparison
ilh

have a

foreshadowing of the relations between

England and the subject and dependent princes of


India.

The conquests of Eome


against the East,

in these regions

made her

indlL

more

distinctly than ever the sole representative of the

West

and these conquests presently


meet her on equal

r,^,^^ the

brought her into

collision

with the one power in the offh^wek


at all

known world which could


terms.

She had stepped into the place of Alexander


far as that
all

and Seleukos so
ander's

those parts of Alex-

Asiatic conquests

which had

received even
lier

a varnish of Hellenic culture had become parts of

dominion.

The

further East

beyond the Euphrates

was again under the command of a great barbarian


power, that of Parthia, which had stepped into the
place of Persia, as
Her rivalry
thia.

Greece and
in a sense

Eome had stepped into the place of Macedonia. Eome had now again a rival,
rival since

from which she had not had a

the overthrow of Carthage and Macedonia.

no
CHAP.
III.

FORMATION OF THE EOIMAN EMPIRE.

One only
mained
to

of the

Macedonian kingdoms now


in.

re-

be gathered

The annexation of Egypt^

<if

Conquest Ksypt.
31.

an annexation made famous by the names of Kleopatra,


Antonins, the elder and the younger C^sar, completed
the work.

is.c.

Eome was now


sea.

fully mistress

of her

own

civilized world.

Her dominion took


If,

in all the lands

round the great inland

here and there, her

formal dominion was broken by a city or principality

whose nominal
principality.

relation

was that of

alliance, the dis-

tinction concerned only the local affairs of that city or

Within the whole

historic

world of the
begun.

Pax Romana.

three ancient continents, the

Eoman Peace had

Eome had
vinces
;

still

to

wage
off

wars, and even to annex pro-

but those wars and annexations were


to

now done

rather

round

and

to

strengthen the territory


in the strictest

which had been already gained, than


sense to extend
it.

5. Conquests wide?' the

Empire.

At

the

same moment when the Eoman commonthus brought,

wealth was practically changed into a monarchy, the

Eoman dominion was


its

not indeed

to
fur-

greatest extent, but to an extent of


a

which

its

ther extension was only


Conquests under Au^

natural completion.

There

sccms a ccrtaiu inconsistency when we find Augustus laying

gustusand
Tiberius.

down

rule against the enlargement

of

the Empire, while the Empire w^as, during his reign

and that of
tion.

his successor,

extended
this

in

every

direc-

But the conquests of


the
occasional changes

time were mainly


tlie

conquests for the ]nu-pose of strengthening


tier
;

froncity

of

this

and
the

tliat

or

district

from

the

dependent

to

provincial
to

relation,

or sometimes

from

the

provincial

the

CONQUESTS UNDER THE EARLY EMPIRE.


dependent, are

67
Bechap.

now

hardly worth mentioning.


or, at
all

tween Augustus and Nero,


Augustus and Vespasian,
Lykia, and others, were
Asia and Africa, such as

events,

between

all

the dependent states in

incorpora-

Mauritania^ Kappadokia,
incorporated with the

dependent
"^

finally

Empire
ject.

to

which they had long been practically sub-

These annexations can hardly be called con-

quests.

And

it

was merely

finishing a

work which had

been begun two hundred years before, when the small


corner of Spain which
still

kept

its

independence was

brought under the

Eoman

power.

The

real conquests
gtren-th-

of this time consisted in the strengthening of the Euro-

pean
the

frontier.

No
;

frontier nearer than the


as safe.

Ehine and Sle"!'^^


This lesson

Danube could be looked on


easily learned

was

but

it

had

also to

be accompanied

by another lesson which taught


Danube, and no more distant
real frontiers of

that the
points,

Ehine and the


to

were

be the

Eome.
which became our own in
after

This brings us both to the lands which were then our

own and
times.

to the lands

During the reign of Augustus two conquests

which most nearly concern our own history were


planned, and one of them was attempted.

The an-

nexation of the land which was to become England

was talked
lands,

of; the annexation of the land


rest

which then

was England, along with the

of the

German
to
Attempted
of cjI"-'*^

was

seriously

attempted.

But the conquest

of Britain

was put

off

from ihe days of Augustus

The attempt at the conquest of Germany, which was deemed to have been already
the days of Claudius.
carried out, was shivered

when Arminius overthrew

n.t.iiA.D.
f.

the legions of Varus.

Germanicus into

The expeditions of Drusus and Northern Germany must have brought


y 2

'^"'

^^''

08
OHAP.
III.

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


the
-

Eoman

armies into contact with our

own

fore-

fathers, for the first time, and, for several ages, for the
last time.

But from

this

time the relations between

Eome

and soutliern Germany


importance.
frontier.

begin, and constantly increase in

The two

great rivers were fixed as a real


the Alps and the Danube,

The lands between


all

Ra'tia, Vindelicia,
Conquests on the Danube.

Noricum, Pannonia^ with Moesia on

the lower Danube, were


the reign of Augustus.

added

to the

Empire during
remove the

These were

strictly defensive

annexations, annexations

made

in order to

dangerous frontier further from

Italy.

Beyond the Ehine


between the two

and the Danube the Eoman possessions were mere outposts lield for the defence of the land

OTeat streams.

Meanwhile, while the attempt of the conquest of

Germany came
Atteinjit

to

so

little,

an attempt

at

conquest

at the other end of the world, in the Arabian peninsula,

on Arabia.
i',.c.

24.

came

to

even

less.

It

marks the policy of Eome


were made or attempted,
the

and the gradual nature


these
Thrace.

of her advance that, while

more
still

distant conquests

Thrace

retained her dependent princes, the only

land of any extent within


of

European dominions

Eome which did so. But Thrace, surrounded by Eoman provinces, was in no way dangerous it might
;

remain a dependency while


incorporated.
It
till,

more
till

distant lands

were

was not
and

uniformity was

more

sought
of so

after,

under Vespasian, the nominal freedom


principalities

many

cities

came
It

to

an end,
that,

that Thrace
Annexation nf
zantioii.

became a province.
latest

was then

By

among her
take her

formal acquisitions in Europe,

Eome

annexed the
(

city

which was,

in the course of ages, to

Conquest
liritain.

if

own
in

place and name.

Thus,

the days between Augustus and Trajan,

'

BRITAIN.
the conquests which

G9

Eome

actually

of a defensive and strengthening


rule there
tance.
is

made were mainly character. To this

chap.
"
>

one and only one exception of any imporis

This

the annexation to the

Eoman world
Isle

of

the land which was looked on as another world, the

conquest of the greater part of the

of Britain,

But
law

Britain,

though

it

did not

come under the same


and Pan-

as the defensive annexations of Esetia

nonia,

was naturally suggested by the annexation of


visits

Gaul and by the

of the

first

Ctesar to the island.


till

No

actual conquest

however took place

the reign

ciaudius.

of Claudius.
in Britain

Forty years later the


.
.

Eoman

conquests
Agricoia.
B.C. 84.
.

were pushed by Aqricola ^

as far as the isth-

mus between
lasting

the friths of Forth and Clyde, the boun-

dary marked by the later rampart of Antoninus. But the

boundary of the Eoman dominion

in Britain can-

not be looked on as reaching beyond the line of the

southern wall of Hadrian, Sevenis, and Stilicho, between


the Solway and the

mouth of the Tyne.

The northern
For us

part of Britain thus remained unconquered, and the

conquest of Ireland was not even attempted.

the conquest of the land which afterwards became our

own

has an interest above

all

the other conquests of

Eome.
not

But

it is

a purely geographical interest.


Caesar and Agricola

The

British victories of

were won,

over our

own

forefathers, but over those Celtic

Britons

whom
The

our forefathers more thoroughly swept

away.

history of our

own
of

nation

is still

for

some

ages to be looked for


the

by the banks of the Elbe and


those
the

Weser,

not by

Severn and the

Thames.
Britain

was the

last to
-I

be won of the Western pror'

vmces

or

f-r>

Eome, and

the

iirst

to

11 be lost,

TheEastem
conquests of Trajan

!!

otili it

was,

70
CHAP.
III.

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


for

more

tlian three

hundred years, thoroughly incorits

porated with the Empire, and


till

loss did

not happen
its

that general break-up of the

Empire of which

loss

was the and

first
its

stage.

But between the conquest of

Britain

loss there was a short time in which

Eome
Conquests
of Trajan. A.D. 98117.

asain extended her dominion in the old fashion,

botli in

Europe and Asia. This was during the reign of

Trajan,

when
in

the

Roman

borders were again widely ex-

tended

both Europe and Asia. Under him the Danube

ceased to be a boundary stream in one continent and


the Euphrates in the other.
His Asiatic and European conquests.

But a marked
and
his

distinction

must be drawn between


warfare.

his Asiatic

European

Trajan's Asiatic conquests


;

were

strictly

mo;

mentary

they were at once given up by his successor


will

and they

be better dealt with when


strife

we speak

in

another chapter of the long

between

Eome and
The

her Eastern

rival, first

Parthian and then Persian.

only lasting Asiatic conquest of Trajan's reign was not


Conquest
of Arabia Petrtea. A.D. 106.

made by Trajan
Tlie

himself,

namely the small Eoman

province in Northern Arabia.

European conquests of Trajan stand on another


If not strictly defensive, like those of
so.

ground.
Dacia.

Augusto

tus,

they might easily seem to be

The Dacians,

the north of the lower Danube, were really threaten-

A.I).

IOC.

Eoman power in those regions, and they had dealt Eome more than one severe blow in the days of Domitian. Trajan now formed the lands between
ing to the the

Thiess

and the Danube,

the

Dniester and the

Carpathian Mountains,

into the
to

Dacia.
to
A.D. 270-

The
its

last
;

province

Eoman province of be won was the first


it,

be given up

for Aurelian

withdrew from
Dacia was in

and

transferred

name

to the Moesian land

immediately
this

south of the Danube.

But

if

way

'

CONQUESTS OF TRAJAN.
one of the most short hved of
in another

71
it

Eoman
all

conquests,

was
as
'

chap.

has

way one of the most been for so many ages, from


it

lasting.

Cut

off,

it

Eoman

influences,

forming, as

has done, one of the great highways of


Later bisDalia.

barbarian migration, a large part of Dacia, namely


the

modern Rouman
less
is

principality,

still

keeps

its

language no
the land

than Spain and Gaul.

In

Eoman one way


Eoman

to

this

day more Eoman than Spain or


still

Gaul, as

its

people

call

themselves by the

name.

Dacia, in fact, though geographically belong-

ing to the Eastern half of the Empire, stood in the same


position as the

Western provinces.
so far north, nor
civilization,

Greek

influences
in

had not reached


in Syria

was there

Dacia

any old-standing native

such as there was

and Egypt.

There was therefore nothing that

was

at all able to liold

up against Eoman

influences.

The land was


it

speedily and thoroughly Eomanized, and


in

remains

Eoman

speech and

name

sixteen

hundred

years after the withdrawal of the

Eoman

power.

The Eoman Empire was thus gradually formed


by bringing,
city.
first

SumDiary.

Italy

and then the whole of the Medi-

terranean lands, under the dominion of the one

Eoman

In every

part

of that dominion

the process

of conquest was

gradual.

The lands which became


fully incorporated.

Eoman provinces passed


But, in the end,
all

through various stages of alliance

and dependence before they were

the civihzed world of those times


rivers,

became Eoman.

Speaking roughly, three great

the Ehine, Danube,

and Euphrates, formed the EuioIn Africa


consisted only of the strip of

pean and Asiatic boundaries of the Empire.


the

Eoman dominion

fertile

land between the Mediterranean and the moun-

72
CHAP,
tains
-

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


and
deserts.

Britain and Dacia, the only

two

'
.

great provinces
last

lying

beyond
first

this

range, were the

conquered and the


in Africa

given up.

In Western

Europe and
speech

Eome
and

carried her language and


in those lands the
it

her civilization
still

Avith her,

Eoman
In the

remains, except where

has been swept

away by Teutonic

and Saracen conquests.

lands from the Hadriatic to

Mount Tauros, which had


ground, and in
it

been brought more or

less

under Greek influences, the

Greek speech and

civilization stood its


still

those lands Greek

survives wherever

has not

been swept away by Slavonic and Turkish conquests.


In the further
east, in Syria

and Egypt, where there

was an old native

civilization, neither

Greek nor Eoman


between

influences took real root.

The

differences

these three parts of the

Eoman

Empire, the really

Eoman,

the Greek, and the Oriental, will be clearly

'

73

CHAPTER

IV.

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

1.

The Later Geography of


as

the

Empire.

The Eoman dominion,


cities,

we have
its

seen,

grew up by the
retained,

chap.

successive annexation of endless kingdoms, districts, and

each of wliich, after

annexation,

still

whether

as an allied province or a subject state,


it

much

of

the separate being which


dent.

had while

it

was indepenin a va-

The

alHcft

and subjects of

Rome remained

riety of different relations to the ruling city,

and the old

names and the old geographical boundaries were largely


preserved.

But, as the old ideas of the

commonwealth

wiping out
-livisions

gradually died out, and as the power of the Emperors

gradually grew into an avowed monarchy, the political

Empire.

change naturally led

to a geographical change.

The

Eoman dominion

ceased to be a collection of allied and


;

subject states under a single ruling city


into a single Empire, all
ants,

it

changed

whose parts,
to
its

all

whose inhabit-

were equally subject

Imperial head.

The

old distinctions of Latins, Italians, and provincials died

out

when

all

free inhabitants of the

Empire became
privilege
;

alike

Romans.

Italy

had no longer any


like

it

was simply part of the Empire,

any other
first

part.

The geographical
ministrative

divisions

which had been,

inde-

pendent, then dependent states, sank into purely addivisions,

which might be mapped out


74
CHAP,
IV
-'^

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

afresli

at

any time when


itself,

it

was found convenient

to

'

do

so.

Italy

in the

extended sense which the


to bear,

word
These
Newdivi.sion

Italy

had then come

was mapped out

afresh into regions as early as the time of Augustus.


divisions, eleven in ninnber,

mark an epoch
i

in

of Italy

under Aiigiistus.

by which the detached elements out of i grown were fused tohad ^ which the Eoman Empn-e ^
the process

gether into one whole.


tion of separate

As long

as Italy

was a

collec-

commonwealths, standing

in various

relations to the ruling city, there could

not be any

systematic division of the country for administrative


purposes.

Now

that the

whole of

Italy stood

on one

level of citizenship

or of subjection, the land might

be mapped out
The eleven

in

whatever way was most conve-

nicut.

But

tlic

elcvcn re^ious of Auo;ustus did not

work

any violent change.


largely

Old names and old boundaries

remained.

The famous names of Etntria,

Latium, Samnium, Umbria, Picenum, and Lucania


still

lived

on,

though not always with their ancient


all

boundaries.

And, though

the land as far as the


divisions
this

Alps was
kept
their

now

Italy,

two of the

of Italy
side
the

ancient

names of Gaul on

Po and Gaul beyond the Po. Liguria and Venetia, now Italian lands, make up the remainder of Northern
Italy.

Italy

had thus been mapped out


wholc Em])ire

afresh

what was

done with Italy in the time of Augustus was done


Divisions

with

tlic

in

the time of Constantine.

under Constantine.

What
was
out,

Italy

was

m
.

the earlier time the whole

Empire

in the later;

the old distinctions had been wiped

and the whole of the Eoman world stood ready to


into four parts, forming the realms

be parted out into fresh divisions. Under Diocletian, the

Empire was divided

'

NEW

DIVISIONS OF

THE EMPIRE.

75
chap.
~>-

of the four Imperial colleagues of his system, the two

Augusti and their subordinate

Ggesars,

Diocletian's

system of government involved a practical degradation

Division of

of

Eome from
Csesars

the

headship

of
at

the

Empire,

under Diocletian.

August! and
their presence

now dwelled
to

points

where

a.d. 292.

was more needed

ward
;

off Persian
for-

and German attacks from the and

frontiers

Eome was

saken for Nikomedeia and Milan, for Antioch, York,


Trier.

The

division

Ijetween the four Imperial

colleagues lasted under anotlier form after the

Empire
Reunion
stantine. A.D. 323.

was re-united under Coustantine, and


erroundwork of the more
.

it

formed the

lastino; division

of the Empire ^

into East

and West, between the sons of Theodosius.

Division
bctwe6n.

The

wliole
in

Empire was now mapped

out according to a *"

the sons of Theodosius,

scheme

which ancient geographical names were largely

^^-

'^^^

preserved, but in which they were for the most part used
in

new or, at least, extended meanings. The Empire was


Four

divided into four great divisions called Praetorian Pre- The


J.

features.

rm
this

7-1 T 1 T Inese were divided into Dioceses


rnetorian

name

Prefectures.

used in

nomenclature without regard to the eccle-

siastical sense

which was borrowed from

it

and the diowhile

ceses again into Provinces.

The

four great prefectures

of the East., Illyricum, Italy, and Gaul, answer nearly


to the fourfold division

under Diocletian

we may

say that, in the final division, Illyricum and the East

formed the Eastern Empire, and Italy and Gaul formed


the Western.

But

it is

only roughly that either the pre-

fectures or their smaller divisions answer to any of

the great national or geographical landmarks of earlier


times.

The Prefecture of the East is that one among the four


which
least

Prefecture

answers to anything in earlier geography,


Its

natural or historical.

boundaries do not answer to

76
CHAP,

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.


those of any earlier dominion, nor
'

j'-et

to

any great

r^

division of race or language.

It stretched into all the


all

three continents of the old world, and took in


parts of the Empire which were never
fully

those

brought
it

under either Greek or Eoman


took in large tracts which
as part of the Hellenic

influences.

But

also

we have

learned to look on

world

not

only lands which

had

been, to a great extent, Hellenized in later times,


earliest

but even some of the

Greek

colonies.

The four

dioceses into which the Prefecture


far
Dioceses of the East,

was divided formed

more natural
Tlircc of tlicsc
,

divisions than the Prefecture itself.

wcrc Asiatic. The


.

first,

specially called

the East^ took in all the possessions of

Kome beyond

Mount Tauros,
island of

together with Isauria, Kilikia, and the


Its

Cyprus.

eastern boundaries natu!'ally

fluctuated according as

Eome

or Persia prevailed on

the Euphrates and the Tigris, fluctuations of which


shall
Egypt,

we

have again to speak more

specially.

The

diocese

of Egypt, besides

Egypt

in tlie elder sense, took in,

under the

name

of Libya, the old Greek land of the

Kyrenaic Pentapolis.
Asia.

The

diocese of Asia, a reminder

of the elder province of that

name and

of the

kingdom

of Pergamos out of which

it

grew, took in the Asiatic

coasts of the Mgseim, together with

Pamphyha, Lykia,

and the ^ga^an


serving the
in the lands

Islands.

name

of the

The diocese of Pontos, prekingdom of Mithridates, took


fluctuatino'

on the Euxine, with the

Arme-

nian possessions of Eome.


Besides
Dioceseof Thrace.

these

Asiatic lands, the Eastern Prefec-

turc Contained one


.

European
i

diocese, that of Thrace,

which took
the

the lands stretching from the Propontis to

Lower Danube.

The names

of

two of

its

provinces

are remarkable.

Eome now

boasts of a province of


PREFECTURE OF THE EAST.
Scythia.
it

77
chap.
"-

But,

among

the varied uses of that name,


to

has

now shrunk up
a

mean
as a

the land immediately

'^"^'"'

-'

south of the mouths of the Danube.

The other name


province,

hEuropa,
Stan tine

name which,

Roman

means
Con-

province of

the district immediately round the

New Rome.
site

had now fixed


site

his capital

on the

of the old

Byzantion, the

from which the city on the Bos-

poros might seem to bear rule over two worlds.

With
it

whatever motive, the name of Europe was specially


given to that corner of the Western continent where

comes nearest
chosen
to be the

to the Eastern.

Nor was
city

the

name

ill-

for the district

round the

which was so long

bulwark of Europe against invading Asia.

And, besides the


to the great

New Rome,
,

this Prefecture,

as

con-

tainino; ^ those ijarts of the


.

Empire which had belonged "


.

Great cities of the Eastern


Prefecture.

Macedonian kingdoms, contained an unusual


cities

proportion of the great

of the world.
it

Besides a

crowd of

less

famous

places,

took in the two great

Eastern seats of Grecian culture, the most renowned

Alexandria and the most renowned Antioch, themselves only the chief

among many
it

others cities bearing

the same names.

All these,

should be remarked,

were comparatively recent

creations, bearing the

names

of individual men. That cities thus artificially called into

being should have kept the position which


to the great

still

belonged

Macedonian capitals

is

one of the most speak-

ing signs of the effect which the dominion of Alexander

and

his successors

had on the history of the world.


of the second Prefecture marks
Prefecture

The nomenclature

how

utterly Greece, as a country


all

and

nation,

had died

cum.

out of

reckoning.

The Prefecture of
It

the Eastern
its

Illyricum answered roughly to European Greece and

immediate nei^^hbours.

took in the lands stretchinjj

78

THE DISMEMBEEMENT OF THE EMPIRE.


from the Danube to the southern point of Peloponnesos.
Greece, as part of the

"

CHAP,

'

under the name of the

Eoman Empire, was inchided barbarian hmd through which


affairs.

Eome was

first

brought into contact with Greek

She was further included under the name of the


barbarian neighbour

half-

who had become Greek

througli

the process of conquering Greece.

In the system of

Prefectures, Greece formed part of Macedonia, and

Macedonia formed part of Illyricum.


Greece, as a land, fallen at the very

So low

liad
lier

moment when
all
its

tongue was making the greatest of

conquests,

when
Eome.
Dioceses of

a Greek city

was

raised to the rank of another

The

Illyrian Prefecture contained the

two
it

dio-

ccscs oi Macedonia

and Dacia. This


.

last

name,
i-

will

be

Macedonia and Dacia.

remembered, had, since the days of Aurehan, withdrawn


to the south of the

Danube.

The Macedonian diocese


besides the fami-

contained six provinces,


liar

among which,

and venerable names of Macedonia and Epeiros, we


still

find the names,

more venerable and

familiar, of
lives

Thessaly and Crete.

And

one yet greater name

on with
from the

tliem.

Hellas and Grcecia have alike vanished


;

map

but the most abiding name in Grecian

history, the tlieme of


Province of Achaia.

has uot pcrishcd.


.

Homer and the theme of Poly bios. Among all changes, Achaia is there
Italv
,

still.

Prefecture of Italy.

In

tlic
.

ucw svstcm
''

aud Eome herself were

in

no way

privileged over the rest of the Empire.

The

Italian Prefecture took in Italy itself

and the lands

which might be looked on


and maintenance of and
Italy.

as necessary for the defence


It

took in the defensive

conquests of the early Empire on the Upper Danube,


it

took in the granary of Italy, Africa.


Italy, Illyricum^

Its

three dio-

ceses

wore

and Africa.

Here Illyricum


ILLYRICmi, ITALY, AND GAUL.
strangely gave
its

'

79
chap.
~

name both

to a distinct Prefecture
Italy.

and

to

one diocese of the Prefecture of


diocese

Italian

contained

seventeen

provinces.

The The

Dioceses of
Italy,

Gaulish

name has now wholly vanished from the lands The lands between the older and south of the Alps.
newer boundaries of
Italy are

now divided into Liguria and Venetiaihe former name being used in a widely extended sense and the new names of Emilia
the

and Maminia, provinces named But the new

after the great

Eonian

roads, as the roads themselves were magistrates.

named

after

Eoman

Italy has spread

beyond the

Alps, and reaches to the Danube.


vinces form

Two

Esetian pro-

part of

it.

Three other provinces are


islands, Sicily, Sardinia,

formed by the three great


Corsica.

and

The

diocese of the Western Illyricum took in inyncum,

Pannonia, Dalmatia, and Noricum. The third diocese,


that of Africa^ took in the old Africa.

Nwnidia^ and

Africa.

western Mauritania.
Italy

The union of
strange

these lands with


that
Greatness
of Car-

may seem

less

when we remember

the colony of the hrst Ca3sar, the restored Carthage, 1 T was the greatest of Latm-speakmg cities after Eome
f>

thage.

herself.

The
in

fourth Prefecture took in the

Eoman dominions

Prefecture

Western Europe, the great Latin-speaking provinces

beyond the Alps.

Among

the seven provinces of Spain

Diocese of

are reckoned, not only the Balearic islands, a natural

African'

ajjpendage to the Spanish peninsula, but a small part


of the African
continent, the province of Tingitana,

stretching from the

now

Italian Africa to the Ocean.

This was according to the general law by which, in

almost

all

periods of history, either the masters of Spain


in Africa or the masters of Africa

have borne rule

have
its

borne rule in Spain.

The

diocese of Gaid, with

80
CHAP,

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

'^

seventeen provinces,

keeps, at

least

in

name, the
It still

'

boundaries of the old Transalpine land.


bers
its

GauT-^^^

the

two Germanies west of

numthe Ehine among


the

provinces.

The
fall

five

provinces of the diocese of

of Britain.

Britain took

in, at

the

moment when
a
island
in

Empire was
days
of her

beginning

to

asunder,

greater territory than

Eome had
who
sea,

held in the

the

greatest power.

The

exploits of the elder Theodosius,

drove back the Pict by land and the Saxon by


for

moment added

to the

Empire a province
in

beyond the wall of Antoninus, which,


Province of
Valentia. A.D. 367.

honour of the

rciguiug Empcrors Valentiuiau and Valens, received the

name

oi

tt

Valentia.

Change
tlip

2.

The Division of

the

Empire.

in position

ofjiome.

Thc mapping out of the Empire into Prefectures, ,.,..., division between two or more imperial coland
T

its

leagues, led naturally to

its

more

lasting division into

what were

practically

two Empires.
over subject
all

The old
states.

state

of things had

altogether passed
city ruling

away.

Eome was
From
Eome,

no longer the

the Ocean to the Euphrates


at least
maiis.

was

alike, if not

Romania
But
to

all its

inhabitants were equally Eo-

be a

Eoman now

meant, no longer to be

a citizen of a commonweaJth, but to be the subject of an

Emperor.

The unity
its
;

of the Empire was not broken

by the

division of

administration between several

Imperial colleagues

but

Eome

ceased to be the only

Imperial dwelling-place, and, from the latter years of


the third century,
})lace at all.
it

ceased to be an Imperial dwellingas

As long

Eome

held her old place, no

lasting division, nothing

more than an administrative


There

partition

among

colleagues, could be thought of.

THE EASTERN AXD WESTERN EMPIRES.


But, when new system had fully taken root at the end of the fourth century, we come to a division which was comthe
paratively lasting, one which
history,
fills

81
chap.
-

could be no division to

mark on

the map.

^^-^-^

an important place in

and which

is

capable of being marked on the


Division of

map.

On

the death of Theodosius the Great, the


his

Empire was divided between

two

sons,

Arcadius

bet^'^the
Theodo^^-

taking the Eastern pro\inces, answering nearly to the


Prefectures of the East and of Illyricum, while Honorius

d- 395.

took the Western provinces, the Prefectures of Italy and


Gaul.

Through the greater part of the


Emperors, of

fifth

century,

the successors

of Arcadius and of Honorius formed

two

distinct lines of

whom

the Eastern

reigned at Constantinople, the Western most


at

commonly

Eavenna.

But

as the

dominions of each prince were

alike
still

Eoman, the Eastern and Western Emperors were

looked on in theory as Imperial colleagues charo-ed

with the administration of a


Practically

common Eoman

dominion.
practioaiiv
pTres!"^'""

perors

may be

however the dominions of the two Emlooked on as two distinct Empires, the
its

Eastern having

seat at the

New Eome
its

or Constan-

tinople, while the

Western had
at the

seat

more commonly

at

Eavenna than

Old Eome.
is

This division of the Empire


feature of the fifth century
;

the great political

but the fate of the two

Empires was widely


ning of the Empire,

different.

From

the very beointo struggle with


Enemies of

Eome had had

two chief enemies, Europe and


widely

in

the East and in the West, in

in Asia, the nature of

whose warfare was


first

different.

In the East she had,


as

the Parthian

and then the regenerate Persian,

strictly

a rival

Rivairy

power on equal terms.

This rivalry went on from the twa^amr


into the place of the
^^^^"^'

moment when Eome stepped


Q

82
CHAP.
IV.

THE DISMEMBERISIENT OF THE EMPIRE.


Seleukids
till

the time

when Eome was

cut short, and

Persia overthrown, by the Saracenic invasions.

But,

except during the momentary conquests of Trajan and during the equally momentary alternate conquests of

Ptome and Persia


strife

in

the seventh century, the whole

was a mere border warfare which did not threaten the serious dismemberment of either power. This and this and that that fortress was taken and retaken
;

province was ceded and ceded back again

but except

under Trajan and again under Chosroes and Herachus,


the existence and dominion of neither
Rivalry
passes onto

power was ever


naturally

scHOusly threatened.
inherited
this
tlic

The Eastern Empire

part
.

of the calling of the undivided


.

the Eisteru

_-^

Empire.

Empu^c,

loug

striie

With Persia.

At the other end


quite another kind.
Teutonic
incursK.ns

of the Empire, the

enemy was of
There was

The danger
wliicli

there was tlirough the

iiicursioiis
^^^

of the various Teutonic nations.

^^^ Tcutouic powcr

could be a rival to

Eome

Empire.

in the same sense in which Persia

was

in the East;

but a crowd

of

independent Teutonic tribes were

pressing into the


striving to

Empire from

all

quarters,
its

and were

make

settlements within
fell

borders.

The

task of resisting these incursions

of course to the

Western Empire.
often traversed

The Eastern Empire indeed was


;

by wandering Teutonic nations but no permanent settlements were made within its borders, No Teutonicsettleno dismemberment of its provinces capable of being nients in Em^r'r marked on the map was made till a much later time. But the Western Empire was altogether dismembered
and broken
in pieces
it.

nations within

by the settlement of the Teutonic The geographical aspects of the two


fifth

Empires during the


unlike one another
;

century are thus strikingly

but each continues one side of the

'

THE TEUTONS IX EAST AND WEST.


history of the undivided Empire.
It will therefore

83
be

well to trace those two characteristic aspects of the

-^

r^

chap.

two Empires

separately.

We will first speak of tlie


which
in the

Teu-

tonic incursions, through

end

tlie

Western

Empire was

split

up and the

states of

modern Europe
Persia in

w^ere founded.

We

will

then trace the geographical

aspect of the long rivalry between

Eome and

the East.

3.

The Teutonic Settlements within


subject
is

the

Empire.

Our

historical

geography, and neither

ethnology nor pohtical history, except so far as either


national migrations or political changes produce a directly geographical effect.

the Wandering of the


settlement

The great movement called Xations, and its results in tlie


Teutonic nations
within
the

Ti.f-wauthe'xa-''

of

various

bounds of the
far as they

Eoman

Empire, concern us
visible

now

only so

wrought a

change on the map.

The

exact relations of the different tribes to one another,


the exact course of the migrations which led to the
final settlement of each,

of inquiry.

belong rather to another branch But there are certain marked stages in
of the

the
its

relations

Empire

to

the nations beyond

borders, certain

marked

stages in the

growth and

mutual relations of those nations, which must be borne


in

mind

in order to explain their settlements within


It will

the Empire.

be at once seen that the geotlie

chnnfroNin
ciaturTof"'
ni'cnation*.

graphy and nomenclature of


tlie

German

nations in
different

third century
their

is

for the

most part quite

from
it

geography and nomenclature as we find

in

CiEsar

and Tacitus.

New names
;

have come

to the front,

names

all

of which play a part in history,

many

of which remain to this day


G 2

and, with one or

84
CHAP,
IV

THE

DISMEI^IBERINIENT OF

THE EMPIRE.
into
tlie

two exceptions, the older names sink


'

back-

ground.

It is

therefore hardly needful to go through

the ethnology and geography of Tacitus, or to deal

with any of the controverted points which are suggested


thereby.

We

have to look

at

the

German

nations

purely in their relations to

Eome.

We
Warfare on
andthe"*^

have seen that the history of

Eome

in her

western provinces was, from an early stage of the

Empire, a struggle with the Teutonic nations on the

Ehluc aud the Danube.


tempts
at

We

have seen that

all

at-

serious

conquest beyond those boundaries

Roman
possessions

camc
two

to uothiug.
.

The Eoman
,

possessions
/>

beyond the
i i
,
.

beyond
those
rivers.

crrcat
"^

rivcrs

were mere outposts lor the better


.
.

sccurity of the land wathin the rivers.

The

district

beyond them, fenced in by a wall and known as the Agri Decumates^ was hardly more than such an outlying post on a great scale.

The

struggle along the

border was,

almost from the beginning, a defensive

struggle on the part of

Eome.

We

hear of

Eoman
;

conquests from the second century to the

fifth

but

they are
of lost

strictly defensive conquests, the

mere recovery
of

possessions,

or at most the establishment


the

fresh outposts.

From

moment

of the

first

appear-

ance of

Eome on

the two rivers, the Teutonic nations

were

really threatening to

Eome, and the warfare of


;

Eome was
Formation
racies"^"^

really defensive

and from the very beto

giuulng too a proccss sccms

have been at work

amoug

thc

German

nations themselves which greatly


as enemies of

Germans,

strengthened their

power

Eome.
be
far

New
more

nations or confederacies, bearing, for the most part,

names unknown
of the
earlier

to earlier times, begin to

dangerous than the smaller and more scattered tribes


times

had been.

These movements

NATIONS OX THE RO]\L\X FRONTIER.

85

among

the

German

nations themselves, hastened

by
^

pressure of other nations to the east of them, caused


the Teutonic attacks on the

chap.

Empire

to

become more
into Teutonic

and more formidable, and

at last to

grow

settlements within the Empire.


this process, several stages

But, in the course of


noticed.

may be

Thus the
iMardQuadi.

Marcomanni and the Quadi play a part in this history from the very beginning. The Marcomanni appear in C^sar, and, from their name of Markmen, we may be
sure that they were a confederacy of the same kind as the later confederacies of the Franks and Alemanni.

In the

first

and second centuries the Marcomanni are


neiglibours,

daiig)us

threatening
its

the

Empire

and

iten penetrating

beyond

borders, and their


fifth

name

appears in history as late as the

century.

But they
they had

play no part in the Teutonic settlements within the

Empire.

They do not
in

affect

the later

map

no share

bringing about the changes out of which


arose.

modern Europe
the time

Their importance ceases just at

when
tlie

a second stage begins, when, in the

course of

third century,

we begin

to hear of those

nations or confederacies
affect later history

whose movements

really did

and geography.
Bfi-inniii-

In the third and fourth centuries the history of

modern Europe
Saxons,
tribes.
all

begins.

We

now

begin to hear names

European

which have been heard ever smce, Franks, Alemans,


of

them great confederacies of German

The new
^'^"

Defence against German inroads


,
-,

now becomes
The invaders

de".^

the chief business of the rulers of


.

were constantly driven


as constantly

Ill back
;

Eome.

but

new mvaders were

Defensive warfare of

Rome,

found to renew their incursions.

Men

of

Teutonic race pressed into the Empire in every conceivable character.

Besides open enemies,

who came


86
CHAP,

'

THE DISMEISIBEEMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

with the hope either of pkuider or settlement, crowds


'

of

Germans served

in the

Eoman

armies and obtained

within the Empire.

hinds held by military tenure as the reward of their


services.

Their chiefs were promoted to every rank


civil,

and honom% military and


dignity
itself.

short of the Imperial


of
still

These were

changes
;

the

utmost

importance in other points of view


directly affect the
cities

they do not

map
lost

of the Empire.

Lands and
;

were won and

over and over again


;

but such

changes were merely momentary


boundaries
altered
;

the acknowledged

of

the

Eoman dominion were

not yet

it is

not

till

the next stage that geography

begins to be directly concerned.


I?e2;inning

This
fifth

last stage

begins with the early years of the

of natiimal
kinfcdonis.

century, and thus nearly coincides with the divi-

sion of the

Empire

into East

and West.

Gothic and
at pleasure at

other Teutonic kings could

now march
titles

the head of their armies through every corner of the

Empire, sometimes bearing the


sometimes sacking the Old

sometimes dictating the choice of

Eoman officers, Eoman Emperors,


of

Eome

or threatening the

New.
settled

It was when these armies under their kings down and formed national kingdoms within the

limits of the
effect

Empire, that the change comes to have an


In the course of the
fifth

on the map.

century

away from In most cases the loss was cloaked by some Imher. perial commission, some empty title bestowed on the victorious invader but the Empire was none the less
the Western provinces of
rent
;

Eome were

practically dismembered.

Out of these dismemberEurope gradually grew.


It

ments the modern


will

states of

now be our

business to give

some account of

those nations, Teutonic and otherwise,

who had an

THE TEUTONIC SETTLEMENTS.


immediate share in
questions,
to
this
all

87
all

work, passing hghtly by

and indeed

nations, which cannot be said


in
it.

chap.
-^

have had such an immediate share

The nations which

in the fourth

and

fifth

centuries

Teutonic
Settle-

made
fall

of settlements in the Western provinces '


;

Kome
,

mentsin
the
\Ve.st.

under two chief heads

those

who made

their setsea.

tlements

by

land,

and those who made them by


pretty well

This

last

class

is

coextensive with

the

settlement of our

own
.

forefathers in Britain,

which
Settlements within the Empire,

of separately. must be spoken ^


nations
fifth

Anions^ the others, the


.

who

play an important part in the fourth and

centuries are the Goths, the Vandals^ the

Bur-

gundians^ the Suevi, and the Franks.

And

their settle-

ments again

fall

into

two

classes, those wdiich

passed

away within a century


had a
is

or two, and those which have


history.

lasting

effect
first

on European

Thus

it

plain at the

glance that the Franks and the


their
left

Frjni,

Burgundians have

left

names on the modern


:

Bur-unsuevi',

name also but it is now found only in their older German land it has vanished for ages from their western settlement. The name of the Goths has passed away from the kingdoms
map.

The Suevi have

their

Goths,

Avliich

they founded, but their presence has affected the

history of both the Spanish and the Italian peninsulas.

The Vandals
left

alone, as a nation

and kingdom, have


it

Vandais.

no traces whatever, though


left

may be

that they

have

their

name

to a part of

one of the lands


Their king-

of their sojourn.

All these nations founded kingdoms


first

within the Western Empire, kingdoms which at

admitted a nominal superiority in the Empire,

but
various

which were practically independent from the beginning,

But the history of the several kingdoms


ent.

is

very

differ- stances of
t.'ry.

Some

of

them soon passed away

altogether, while

88
CHAP,
"

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

others

became the beginnings of the great nations


Gaul and Spain
fell

'

of

modern Europe.
century,

off

very

gradually from the Empire.


fifth
all

But, in the course of the

the nations of which

we have been
within

speaking formed more or


those provinces.

less lasting settlements

Pre-eminent among them are the great

settlements of the Goths and the Franks.

Out of the

settlement of the Franks arose the

modern kingdoms
the settlement ot

of

Germany and France, and out of

the Goths arose the various kingdoms of Spain.

Those

of the Burgundians, Vandals, and Suevi were either

smaller or less lasting.

All of

them however must be


It is not needful

mentioned
Migrations
of the

in their order.

First

and "^ greatest come the Goths.

West^-

for our purpose to

examine

all

that history or legend


all

has to

tell

us as to the origin of the Goths, or

the theories

which ingenious men have formed on


It is

the subject.
Defeat of the Goths by ClanA.D. 269.

enough

for

our purpose that the

Goths bcgau to show themselves as dangerous enemies


p

01

the
;

Empire

-r^

in the

second half of the third centill

tury

but their continuous history does not begin

the second half of the fourth.


Gothic

We

then find them

forming a great kingdom in the lands north of the


^^'^i^^^^^.

Dan'ube

Presently a large

body of them were driven

Goths driven onwards by the Huns.

to seek shelter within the bounds of the Eastern Empire irom the pressure of the invading Huns. These last were a Turanian people who had been driven from
j?
i
.

their

own

older

settlements

by movements

in

the

further East which do not concern us, but who become an important element in the history of the fifth century.

They

affected the

Empire, partly by actual innations before


it.

vasions, partly

by driving other

them

but they made no lasting settlements within

Nor

'

THE GOTHS.
did the Goths themselves
in the Eastern

89
lasting settlement
~

make any
the

Empire.

While one part of the Gothic


to

cross
_

chap.

nation

became subject

Huns, another
it

part
They
nube.

crossed the
rial licence,

Danube
and
if

but they crossed


it

by Impeto

they took to arms,

was only

punish the treachery of the

Eoman
;

officers.

Presently

we

find Gothic chiefs

marching

at pleasure

through the

dominions of the Eastern Caesar

but they simply march

and ravage

it

is

not

till

they have got within the

boundar}^ of the

West

that they found

any

lasting kingtribes

doms.

In

fact,

the Goths, and the Teutonic


real mission in the East
;

generally,

had no

to

them the
.

East was a mere hisrhway to the West.


.

The movements
.

of Alaric in Greece, Illyricum, and Italy, his sieges and


his capture of

Career of Alaric. a.d. 394-

Eome,

are of the highest historical im-

portance, but they do not touch geography.


first

The Goths
and a place
them-

win

for themselves a local habitation


left Italy

on the map when they

to

establish

selves in the further West.

Under
tions

Alaric's successor, Athaulf, the first founda- Beginning


laid of that

were

great West-Gothic

kingdom

Gothic

which we are apt


which
in truth

to look
.

on

as specially Spanish, but under

had

its

first

beginning in Gaul, and


it

...

Athaulf.
a.d. 412.

which kept some Gauhsh

territory as long as

lasted.
.

But the Goths passed into those


racter of

lands, not in the chaas founders

avowed conquerors, not


state,
its

of an

avowed Gothic
sent to

but as soldiers of the Empire,


lost

win back

provinces.
in pieces

Those provinces

Condition
of

Gaul and

were now occupied or torn


invaders, Suevi,

by a crowd of
These
are

Spain.

Vandals, and Alans.

last are The Aians.

a puzzling race, our accounts of


contradictory, but

whom
rate, a

somewhat
set

who may

perhaps be most safely

down

as a non-Aryan, or, at

any

non-Teutonic

90
CHAP,
r^

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

people,
'

who had been


But early

largely brought under Gothic


in the
fifth

influences.

century they pos-

sessed a

dominion in central Spain which stretched


to sea.

from sea
TheSucvi
in Spain.

Their dominion passed for a few

years into the hands of the Suevi,

who had

already

formed a settlement
still

in north-western Spain,

and who

kept a dominion in that corner long after the

greater part of the peninsula

had become Gothic.

The

Vandals occupied Bsetica


The Vandais in Afrioi. A.D. 425.

but they presently passed into

Africa,

and there founded the one Teutonic kingdom


Carthage to
its capital,

in that continent, with

a king-

dom which
indepenBasques,

took in also the great islands of the western


itself.

Mediterranean, including Sicily

Through

all

these

changes the unconquerable people of the Basque and


Cantabrian mountains seem never to have fully submitted to any conquerors
;

but the rest of Spain and


fifth

south-western Gaul was, before half of the

cen-

tury had passed, formed into the great West-Gothic

kingdom.

That kingdom stretched from the

pillars of
its

Herakles to the Loire and the Ehone, and

capital
at

was placed, not on Spanish but on Gaulish ground,


Gothic
of Toulouse,

the Gaulish Tolosa or Toulouse.


in

The Gothic dominion


;

Gaul was doomed not


in Spain lasted

to

be lasting

the Gothic

dominion

down

to the Saracen conquest,

and

all

the later Christian kingdoms of Spain


it.

may be

looked on as fragments or revivals of


never changed her name for
tliat

Spain however

of her conquerors.

The only
Gothia.

parts of the Gothic

kingdom which ever bore


later

the Gothic

name were

those small parts both of Spain

and Gaul which kept the name of Gothia through


causes.

The Vandals, on
its

the other hand, though they


left their

passed altogether out of Spain, have


Andalusia,

name

to

this

day in

southern part under the form of An-


THE FRANKS.
clahisia, a

'

91
chap.
-

name which, under

the Saracen conquerors,

spread

itself

over the whole peninsula.


.

^^

great Teutonic The other

nations or confederacies of The


Franks.

which we have
effect

to

speak have had a far more lasting

on the nomenclature of Europe.

We

have

now

to trace the steps

by which the Franks gradually beof Gaul.


Uses of the

came the ruhng people both of Germany and

They have stamped


, ,

dominions of the
a

name on both countries. The Franks got the name of Fra?icia,


their
.

word
Francia.

name whose meaning has


tlie

constantly varied accord-

ing to the extent of


times.

Frankish dominion at different


it still

In modern use

cleaves to

two parts of
is still

their dominions, to that part of

Germany which
and
to

called Fraiiken or

Frauconia,

that part of
history

Gaul which
is

is

still

called France.

And their

closely

mixed up with

that of another nation or con-

federacy, that of the Alemanni,

French tongue, given their

who again have, in the name to the whole of Ger-

The Aie-

many.

Franks and Alemanni alike begin to be heard of

in the third century,

and the Alemanni even attempted


;

^^-

'^'<''-

an actual invasion of Italy

but the geographical imtill

portance of both confederacies does not begin


fifth.

the

All through the fourth century

it

is

the chief
to defend

business of the

Emperors who ruled

in

Gaul

the frontier of the Rhine

ajiainst their incursions, ajiainst


its

the Alemanni along the upper part of


against the Franks along
its

course, and

lower part.

To
'

the east of
Thurin^ians.

the Franks and Alemanni lay the Thurinrjians-^ to the


north, along the coasts of the

German Ocean,
also

the

Low-

TheLowtribes.

Dutch
the

tribes,

Saxons and Frisians.

In the course of

fifth

century, their

movements

began

to affect

the geography of the Empire.

During the whole of that century the Franks were


92
CHAP,
'

THE dismemberjnient of the empire.


pressing into Gaul.
'

The Imperial

city of Trier

was

more than once taken, and the seat of the provincial government was removed to Aries. The union of
the two chief divisions of the Frankish confederacy,

and the overthrow of the Alemanni, made the Franks,


Keignof
A.D. 481-

under their

first

Christian king, Chlodwig or Clovis,

the ruling people of northern Gaul and central Ger-

many.
]iad
ancrditiFrankfsh'^^ ing om.

Their territory thus took in both lands which

been part of the Empire, and lands which had


This
is

ncvcr bccu such.


thc

a special characteristic of

Fraukish

settlement,
tlicir later

and

one which influences

^^

whole of

history.

There was, from the

very beginning, long before any such distinction was


consciously

drawn, a Teutonic and a Latin Francia.


to the East
in

There were Frankish lands

which never had

been Eoman.
remained
Romau
Germauy
Teutonized
afresh.

There were lands

northern Gaul which

uiou.

Eoman And between them


practically
tlic

under the Frankish domilay,

on the

left

bank of
'-

the Ehiuc,

Tcutouic lands which had formed part


province of Gaul, but which

of the

Eoman

now became
soil,

Teutonic again.

Moguntiacurn, Augusta Treverorum,


cities

and Colonia Agrippina,

founded on Teutonic

now
litan
Eastern

again became German, ready to be in due time,


3Iainz, Trier, and Koln, the metropo-

by the names of
and

electoral cities of

Germany.

These lands.

"with tlic Original

German

lands,

formed the Eastern

om
cia.

Fran-

OT Teutouic Fraucia, where the Franks, or their Ger-

man

allies

and

subjects,

formed the real population


Western Francia, between

of the country.

In the

the Loire aiad the Channel, though the Franks largely


settled

and influenced the country

in

many

ways, the

mass of the population remained Eoman.

Over the

western peninsula of Annorica the dominion of the

'

'

TEUTONIC CONQUEST OF GAUL.


Franks was always precarious and, at most, external,

93
chap.

Here the ante-Eoman population


language, and
it

still

kept

its

Celtic

-^

was further strengthened by colonies


its

Armorica
tanny"

from Britain, from which the land took


of the Lesser Britain or Britanny. of the
fifth

later

name

Thus, at the end

Extent of
kish domi-

century, the Frankish dominion

was firmly

established over the whole of central

Germany and

a.d.5oo.

Northern Gaul.

Their dominion was fated to be the

most

lasting of the Teutonic

kingdoms formed on the


is

Eoman

mainland.

The reason

obvious

w^hile the

Goths in Spain and the Vandals in Africa w^ere isolated


Teutonic
settlers in a

Eoman

land, the Franks in

Gaul

were strengthened by the unbroken Teutonic mainland


at their back.

The greater part of Gaul was


fifth

thus, at the

end of the

The Bur-

century, divided between the Franks in the north


in the south.

and the West-Goths


fifth

But, early in the


in south-

century, a third Teutonic

power grew up

eastern Gaul.

course of the

The Burgundians, a people who, in the Wandering of the Nations, seem to have
the shores of tlie Baltic, established

Their king-

dom,

made
Alps,

their

way from

themselves in the lands between the Ehone and the

where they formed a kingdom which bore


Their dominion in Gaul
lasting

their

name.

may be
still

said to

have

been more

than that of the Goths,

less lasting
of

than that of the Franks.

Burgundy is

a recognized Meaning
shifted
its

name but no name


;

in

geography has so often


it

Burgundy.

place and meaning, and


itself

has for some centuries settled

on a very small part of the ancient kingdom of

the Burgundians.

At the end

of the
;

fifth

century the

provenr-e

Ehone was

Burgundian

river

Autun^ Besanqon^
cities
;

di^if"
sio!

Lyons, and Vienne were Burgundian


sea coast, the original

but the

Eoman

Province, the land which

94
CHAP.
^-

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF
Jias

TILE EMPIKE.
fell

so steadily kept

that name, though


i)0\ver,

it

for

" nioinent under the Ikirgundian

followed at this

5U)-:.oG.

time, as

became the

first

Eonian land beyond the Alps,

the fortunes of Italy rather than those of Gaul.


Invasion
<>f

the

Huns

and shiftiims conquests Aniono" ^ ^ of do tliese vaiions map tiie tune, the at some minion, all of Avhich aflected
.

(^f It

which have

aflected history
if

and geography ever


only by

since,

may be

well to mention,
lills

way

of contrast,

an inroad which
ilfth

a great place in the history of the

century, but whieli

had no direct

effect

on geogra-

phy.
Battle of
A.I.. 4.31.

This

Avas the invasion of

Italy

and Gaul by

the lliius uudcr Attila, and

their defeat at ChTdons

by the combined
Franks.

forces of
is

Eomans, West-Goths, and


is

This battle

one of the events whic^h

re-

markable, not for working change, but for hindering


it.

Had
it

Attila succeeded,

tlie

greatest of
all

all

changes

would have taken place throughout

Western Euro}K\

As
De.stnuni.m
ot'

was, the

inroad.
ellcct
;

map On the map

of Gaul was not affected of Italy


it

by

his

did have an indirect


its
^

lic

dcstroycd the city of Aquileia, and


i

inhar

Aquili'ifi,

andori-in

bitauts, ileemiT to the Venetian islands.

t-^

laid the lounin the

-\

dation of one of the later ])owers of Europe

form of the commonwealth of Venice.

While Spain and Gaul were thus rent away from the
Empire, Italy and liome
also,
Reunion of
the Empire.

itself

were practically rent away


difl'erent.

though the form which the event took was

vote of the Semite reunited the Western Empire to the ^


;

Eastern the Eastern Emperor Zeno became sole Emperor,

and the government of the chocese of Italy

that is, it will

be remembered, of a large territoiy besides the Italian


Rule of
.(;.

peninsula

was

entrusted by his commission to Odo-

47C-

acer, a o'cneral of barbarian mercenaries, with the


. .

rank
iiide-

433.

of Patrician.

No

doubt Odoacer was practically

' -

TJIi:

EAST-GOTIIS IX ITALY.

05
tlie

pendent of the

I'^iupirc

LuL

tlie

union of

Ein|i)re

was preserved
Italy

in form,

and no separate kingdom of

^^

r^

cn.w.

was set up. Presently Odoucer was overthrown by Theodoric king of the East-Goths, who, though king of his own people, reigned in Italy by an Imperial

ooths ki "''

commission

as Patrician,

Practically,

he founded

i;uif;of

an East-Gothic kinf^dom,
lUyricum.

takinj' in Italy

and the other

a.i^

i^j-.i-

lands which formed the dioceses of Italy and Western


Ilis

dominion
call

also

took in the coast of


liis

Extent of
hi-t

donii-

what we may now

Provence, and

influence

"'''"

was extended

in various

ways over most of the kingseat of the Gothic dominion,


at

doms of

the West.

The
and

like that of the later

Western Empire, was


his successors

Pavenna.

Practically Theodoric

were indepenpeople, they


f<jrmed part Thw.rvof

dent kings, and, as chiefs of their

own

bore the kingly

title.
it

Hence, as
is

Pome

of their dominions,

true to say that luider

them
Still

^ -"'i'"'*'-

Eome
in this

ceased to be part of the

Roman

Empire.

theory the Imperial supremacy went on, and in

way

it

became much
Empire
at a

easier for Italy to


later time.

be

won

back

to the

somewhat

4. Settlement of the English in Britain.

Meanwhile,

in

another part of Europe, a Teutonic

settlement of quite another character from those on The

the

mairJand was going on.


.

Spain and Gaul


;

fell

withdrawn
from
Britain.

away from the Empire by slow degrees

but

the
defi-

Poman dominion

in Britain

came

to

an end by a

nite act at a definite

moment.

The Eoman armies


its

were withdrawn from the province, and

inhabitants

were

left

to themselves.

Presently, a

new
left

settlement

took place in the island which was thus


It is specially

undefended.

important to mark the difference between

96
CHAP,
',

THE

DISMEIMBETII^IENT

OF THE EMPIRE.

the Teutonic settlements in Britain and the Teutonic


-

conquests on the mainland.

The Teutonic conquests

in

Difference
conquest*^'*"

Gaul and Spain were made by Teutonic neighbours who had already learned to know and respect the Eoman
civihzatiou,

and other
conquests.

who were

either Christians already or be-

cauic Christians soon after they entered the Empire.

They pressed

in gradually

by land

they left the

Eoman

inhabitants to live after the


selves gradually

Eoman

law, and they them-

adopted the speech and much of the

manners of Eome.
the continent
is

The only exception

to this rule

on

to be found in the lands immediately

on the Ehine and the Danube, where the Teutonic settlement was complete, and where the Eoman tongue

and

civilization

were pretty well wiped

out.

This same

process happened yet more completely in the Teutonic The great island possession of conquest of Britain.
Character

Eomc had been


'

virtually

abandoned by
it

Eome

before

Engibh
iong^'"^
witif the

the Teutonic settlements in

began.

The invaders

had

therefore to struggle

rather with native Britons

than with Eomans.

Moreover, they were invaders

who
or

came by
therefore

sea,

and who came from lands where

little

nothing was

known of the Eoman law or religion. They made a settlement of quite another kind from
They met with
a degree of strictly national

the settlement of the Goths or even from that of the

Franks.

resistance such as

no other Teutonic conquerors met


in

with

therefore

the

end

they swept away

all

traces of the earlier state of things in a


The En^^'

way which took


is

placc nowhcrc
slblc,

else.

As

far as such a process

pos-

nmin
eu onic.

they slew or drove out the older inhabitants

^j^^^

^ept their heathen religion and Teutonic language,


to

and were thus able


nation in
their

grow up

as

new Teutonic

liew

home without any important

'

THE ENGLISH IN BRITAIN.


intermixture with the
British.

97

earUer inhabitants,

Eoman

or

chap.
.

Tlie conquerors

who wrought

this

change were our


the The LowDutch
settlements
iu Britain.
*'

own

forefathers,

the

Low-Dutch

inhabitants of

away border lands of Germany and Denmark, quite ^


from the

Eoman

frontier;

and among them three


saxons.

tribes, the Angles^ the

Saxons^ and the Jutes^ had the

chief share in the conquest of Britain.

The Saxons

had, as has ah'cady been said, attempted a settlement


in the fourth century.

They were
to the

therefore the tribe


Celtic inha-

who were

first

known
;

Eoman and

bitants of the island

the Celts of Britain and Ireland


all

have therefore called


to this day.
in the

the Teutonic settlers Saxons


origin of

But, as the Angles or English occupied


it

end much the greater part of the land,

was

Engit^L

they who,

when

the Teutonic tribes in Britain began to

form one nation, gave their name to that nation and


its

land.

That nation was the English^ and

their land

was England.
the

While Britain therefore remains the

proper geographical
is

name
part

of the whole island,

England

name
fifth

of that

of Britain which was step

by

step conquered

by the English.

Before the end

of the

century several Teutonic kingdoms had

begun

in Britain.

The Jutes began the conquest by


and presently the Saxons began

jutesin
a.u" 419.

their settlement in Kent,

to settle

on the South coast and on a small part of the

East coast, in Sussex, Wessex, and Essex.

And

along
settle- saxon
settTe-

a great part of the eastern coast various Anglian

.ind

mentswere made, which gradually grew

into the king-

doms of East-Anglia, Deira, and Bernicia, which two last formed by their union the great kingdom of Northhnmberland.
But, at the end of the sixth century, the

English had not got very far from the southern and

98
CHAP,

THE DISMEMBERIMENT OF THE EMPIRE.


eastern coasts.
TJie Britons,

whom
The

the English called

IV. r-^Scots.

Welsh or strangers, held


Picts

out in the

West, and the

and

and Scots

in the North.
;

Scots

were properly
Britain, and,

the

people of Ireland

but a colony of them had

settled
in

on the western coast of northern

the end, they gave the


island.

name

of Scotland to the

whole North of the


5.
Contrast

The Eastern Empire.

Wc
this

havc already seen the differences between the


of the

ELternand posltiou
Empires,

Eastcm and Western Empires during


in

period.

While

the

West the provinces were


the Teutonic
settlements,

gradually lopped

away by

the provinces of the East, though often traversed

by
can

Teutonic armies, or rather


the seats of lasting

nations, did not

become

Teutonic settlements.

We

hardly count as an
TheTetraxite Goths.

exception the settlement of the


the

Tetvaxite

Goths

in

Tauric

Chersonesos,

a land
tha^n

which was rather


actually part of

in

alliance with the

Empire

it.

The

distinctive

history

of the
said,

Eastern Empire consists, as has been already

in

the long struggle between East and West, in which


Rivalry
\\i til

Eouic had succccdcd to the mission of Alexander

Persia.

and the Seleukids


civilization.

as

the

representative of Western

To

this mission

was afterwards added the


first

championship of Christianity,

against the

Fire-

worshipper and then against the Moslem.


history no event
is

In Eastern

more important and more remarkBut, as far as eitlier the

able than the uprising of the regenerate Persian nation


against
Revival of
the Persian

its

Parthian masters.

kingdom.
A.D. 226.

historv or the ffeo^raphv & O i J of


-^
_

Eome

is

concerned, the
?

Persian simply steps into the place of the Parthian as


the representative of the East against the West.

From

'

PERSLA.

AND THE EASTERN EMPIRE.

99

our point of view, the long wars on the Eastern frontier

Eome, and the frequent shiftings of that frontier, form one unbroken story, whether the enemy that was striven
of
against
is

r^

chap.

the successor of Arsakes or the successor of

Artaxerxes.

And besides the natural rivalry of two great


position, the

powers in such a

border kingdom of
its

Position of

Armenia.

Armenia, a name which has changed


frontiers almost as often as

meaning and

its

Burgundy or

Austria, sup-

plied constant ground for dispute between

Eome and

her eastern
In the

rival,

whether Parthian or Persian.


of this long struggle

geographical aspect

three special periods need to be pointed out.

The first Under is that of the momentary conquests of Trajan. him Armenia, hitherto a vassal kingdom of Eome, was

conqm-sts
A.n/i'il^' 1 17

incorporated as a

Eoman

province.

Albania and Iberia

took

its

place as the frontier vassal states.

Beyond the The

Euphrates, even beyond the Tigris, the Eoraan dominion

took in Mesopotamia^ Atropatene^ and Babylonia.

Parthian capital of Ktesiphon and the outlying Greek


free city of Seleukeia

were included within the bounfor a

daries of an

Empire which

moment touched
as the

the

Caspian and the Persian Gulf.

Eome,

champion

of the West, seemed to have triumphed for ever over

her

kingdom was thus shorn of the border lands of the two worlds, and when its king was forced to become a Eoman vassal for
Eastern
rival,

when

the Parthian

the dominions that were extension of the

left

to him.

But

this

vast

moment.

Eoman power was strictly only for a What Trajan had conquered Hadrian at
;

conquests
surrenderfd

once gave back

the Euphrates, and

Empire was again bounded by Armenia was again left to form matter of dispute between its Eastern and its Western
the
claimant.

a^d.iV?.

The second stage begins when, under Marcus,


H
2

100
CHAP.
IV.

THE DISI^IEIMBERMENT OF THE EMPHIE.


the

Eoman

frontier again

began to advance.

Between

the Euphrates and


Conquests of Marcus. A.u. 162160.

the Tigris Osrhoene

became a Eoman
it

dependency

under the house of Severus


;

became a
famous

Eoman

province

and the

fortress of Nisibis, so

Of Severus.
A.D. 197202.

in later wars,

was planted

as the Eastern outpost of

Eorae against the Parthian.


;

Ten years

later the Parthian

power was no more but, as seen witli Western eyes, the revived monarchy of Persia had simply stepped into its
place.

The wars
left

of Alexander Severus, the captivity of

Valerian, the wasting march of Sapor through the


provinces,
Conquests under Diocletian A.D. 297.
.

Eoman

no trace on the map.

But under the

mighty rule of Diocletian the glories of Trajan were


renewed.

Mesopotamia again became Eoman

five
;

provinces beyond the Tigris were added to the Empire

Armenia, again the vassal of


the expense of Persia,

Eome, was enlarged at and Iberia was once more a

Eoman
frontier

dependency.

In the third stage the

Eoman

again went back.


little

The wars of the second

Sapor did
Surrender
ofprovinci'S

but deprive

Eome
the

of two Mesopoof Julian the

tamian

fortresses.

But

after

fall

by Jovian.
A.D. 363.

lands beyond the Tigris were given back to Persia

even Nisibis was yielded, and the Persian frontier again


Division
of Armenia.
6S7.

reached the Euphrates.

Armenia was now


till

tossed to

and
Hun-

fro,

conquered and reconquered,

the

kingdom

'J'lie

dred Years' Peace.


421.

was divided between the vassals of the two Empires, a division which was again confirmed by the hundred This was the years' peace between Eome and Persia.
state of the Eastern frontier of

Eome

at tlie

time

when

the West-Goths were laying the foundation of their

dominion

in

Spain and Aquitaine,

when Goth and


first

Eoman
were on

joined together to overthrow the mingled host

of Attila at Chalons, and


their

when

the

English keels

way

to the shores of Britain.

SmBIARY.
This then
the end of the
is

101
chap.
IV.

the picture of the civilized world at


century.

fifth

The whole of
Italy

the West-

ern dominions of
herself,

Eome, including
if

and

Kome

have practically,

not everywhere formally,

fallen

away from
is

the

Eoman

Empire.
Teutonic

The whole
kinsrs.

West

under the rule of

The

Frank has become supreme


losing his ancient hold

in northern Gaul, without

on western and central Gerreigns iu Spain

many.

The West-Goth
Italy

and Aquitaine

the Burgundian reigns in the lands between the

Ehone

and the Alps.

and the lands

to the north of the


in substance

Alps and the Hadriatic have become,

though not in name, an East-Gothic kingdom.


from
off

But

the countries of the European mainland, though cut oif

Eoman political dominion, are far from being cut from Eoman influences. The Teutonic settlers, if
Their rulers are every;

conquerors, are also disciples.

where Christian
Orthodox.

in

Northern Gaul they are even


is

Africa,

under the Arian Vandal,


from the traditions of

far

more

utterly cut off

Eome
lie

than

the lands ruled either

by the Catholic Frank or by the


north
of the Franks
still

Arian Goth.

To

the

the

independent tribes of Germany,

untouched by any
the

Eoman
selves

influence.

They
in

are beginning to find them-

new homes
of a
to

Britain,

and,

as

natural

consequence
conquest,

purely

barbarian

and
all

heathen
that
itself

sever

from the Empire

they

conquered yet more thoroughly than Africa


severed.

was

Such

is

the state of the West.


lives

In the East with a

the

Eoman power

on

in the

New Eome,

dominion constantly threatened and insulted by various


enemies, but with a frontier which has varied but
since the time of Aurelian.
little

No

lasting Teutonic settle-

102
CHAP,

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.


ment has been made within
-

its

borders.

In

its

endless

IV.
'

wars with Persia,


sometimes

its

frontier

sometimes advances and

retreats.

In our next chapter

we

shall see

how much of life still clung to the majesty of the Eoman name, and how large a part of the ancient dominion of Eome could still be won back again.

'

103

CHAPTER
THE

V.

FIXAIi DIVISION

OF THE EMPIRE.
the

The Reunion of

Empire.

The main
history,

point to be always borne in


in the historical
is

mind

in

the

chap.
<

and therefore

geography, of

the sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries,


existence of the

the continued o^Rom^an^ the

Eoman

Empire.
its

It

was

still

Eoman

Empire, although the seat of

dominion was no longer


tlie

at the Old Eome, although for a while

Old

Rome was
Gaul,

actually separated from the

Roman
process.

dominion.

Spain, Africa, Italy

itself,

had been lopped away. Britain But the Roman


in tlie Eastern part of the

had
rule

fallen

away by another

went on undisturbed

Empire, and even in the West the

memory

of

tliat

rule
Position of
nic kings

had by no means wholly died


ruled in
all

out.
;

Teutonic kings

West but nowhere on the continent had they become national sovereigns.
the countries of the

They were

still

simply the chiefs of their

own

people

reigning in the midst of a

Roman

population.

The

Romans meanwhile everywhere looked


the

to the Cgesar of

New Rome
in Italy the

as their lawful sovereign,

from whose
in Spain

rule they

had been unwillingly torn away. Both

and

Gothic kings had settled in the country

as Imperial lieutenants with an Imperial commission.

The formal aspect of the event of 476 had been the


union of the Western Empire with the Eastern.
It

re-

was

104
CITAr.
V.

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


perfectly natural therefore that the sole Eomaii

Emperor

reigning in the
Recoveiy
of territory by the

New Eome
to

should

strive,

whenever he

had a chance,

win back

territories

which he had

Empire.

never formally surrendered, and that the


habitants of those territories should
deliverer from barbarian masters.
limits within which, at the

Eoman

in-

welcome him as a The geographical

beginning of the sixth cenpractically confined, the


limits,

tury, the

Eoman power was

pheenomena of race and language within those


might have suggested another course.
tions of that kind are

But considera;

seldom

felt

at the time

they

are the reflexions of thoughtful


Extent of
the

men

long

after.

The

Eoman
Empire
of
its

dominion, at the accession of Justinian, was

Roman

dominion
at the accession of Justinian, 627.

shut up witliin the Greek and Oriental provinces of the


;

its

enemies were already beginning to speak


Its truest policy

subjects as Greeks.

would have
defending

been to have anticipated several centuries of history, to

have taken up the position of a Greek


its

state,

borders against the Persian, withstanding or inviting


settlement
of the
Slave,

the

but leaving the


itself

now
But

Teutonic West to
in such cases the

develope

undisturbed.

than the
of the
to
Conquests
of Justi-

known past is always more powerful unknown future, and it seemed the first duty
to restore the

Eoman Emperor

Eoman Empire
this

its

ancient extent.

It

was during the reign of Justinian that


carried

work was

out

through a large part of the

Western Empire.
tAvo continents.

Lost provinces were

won back
it

in

The growth

of independent Teutonic

powers was
r.o

for ever stopped in Africa,

and

received

small check in Europe.

The Emperor was enabled,

througli the Aveakness

and internal dissensions of the

Vandal and Gothic kingdoms, to win back Africa and

'

CONQUESTS OF JUSTINIAN.
Italy to

105
the
"^

the Empire.

The work was done by


ISTarses

swords of Behsarius and


Persian being

the

Slave and the

chap.

now

used to win back the Old

Rome

to re- Vandai
war. 533-535.

the dominion of the


stored Africa in the

New.

The

short

Vandal war

Eoman

sense,

and a large part of

Mauritania, to the Empire.

The long Gothic war won


Italy

Gothic war.
537-56-4.

back Illyiicum,
Africa were
still

Italy,

and the Old Eome.

and

ruled from Eavenna and from Car-

thage

but they were

now

ruled not by Teutonic kings,

but by Byzantine exarchs.

Meanwhile, while the war

conquest of
spain.

with the East-Goths was going on in Italy, a large part


of southern Spain

was won back from

the West-

Goths.
a third

Two

Teutonic kingdoms were thus wiped out


acquisition of so great

was weakened, and the

a line of sea-coast, together with the great islands,


Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica,

and the Balearic

Islands,
sea.

gave

the Empire an undisputed supremacy

by

In one

corner only did the Imperial frontier even nominally

go

back,

or

any Teutonic
lost to the

power advance

at

its Provence
Franks,

expense.

The sea-board of Provence, which had long


Empire, was
this

been practically

now

formally

ceded to the Franks.

In

one corner

tlie

Eoman
Geo<riaphi-

Terminus withdrew.
In a geographical aspect the
.

map
.

of Europe has
-p
.

seldom been so completely changed within a single


generation as
it

under'
Justinian.

was durmg the reign


was
far

,,

ot Justinian.

his accession his

dominion was bounded to the

At west by

the Hadriatic, and he

from possessing the whole


his reign the

of the Hadriatic coast.

Under

power of the

Eoman arms and


to the Ocean.

the

Eoman
tlie

law were again extended

The Eoman dominion was indeed no


whole shore of the Mediterra-

longer spread round

nean

the Imperial territories were no longer contin-

106

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


nous as of old
'

CHAP,

but,

if

the

Empire was not

still,

as

it

had

once been, the only power in the Mediterranean lands,


it

had again become beyond


.

all

comparison the greatest


.

Effects of Justiniau'a <>onquests.

power.

Moreover, by the recovery of so large an extent

of Latin-speakuig territory, the tendency oi the Jimpire


to

chanse into a Greek or Oriental


centuries.

state

was checked

for several

We

are here concerned only

with the geographical, not with the political or moral


aspect of the conquests of Justinian.

Some

of those

conquests, like those of Trajan, were hardly

more than
for the

momentary. But the changes which they made

time were some of the most remarkable on record, and


the effect of those changes remained, both in history

and geography, long


again undone.

after their

immediate

results

were

2.

Settlement of the

Lombards

in Italy.

The conquests
in

of Justinian hindered the growth of

a national Teutonic

kingdom

in Italy,

such as grew up

Gaul and Spain, and they practically made the cradle

of the Empire,

Eome

herself,

an outlying dependency

of her great colony


of
all

by the Bosporos.
Empire
just over

But the reunion

Italy with the

lasted only for a

moment.
set of

The conquest was only


PanTinnian
kiiiftdom of

when

new

Teutonic conquerors appeared in Italy.


tlic
.

These were

Lombavds^ who,
.

in the great wandering,


.

had made
.

the

Lom-

their

way

into the ancient 1 annonia about the time

bards.

that the East Goths passed into Italy.

They were thus


Western

settled within the ancient boundaries of the

Empire.

But the Eoman power had now quite passed


regions,

away from those


Pannonia
rial

and the Lombard kingdom in

Avas practically altogether


;

beyond the Impe-

borders

it

had not even that Eoman im^Q which

'

THE LOjMBAEDS
affected the Frankish east of the

IN ITALY.

107

and Gothic kinojdoms.

To

the
'^

Lombards,

in the ancient Dacia, another


;

chap.

Teutonic kingdom had arisen

that of the Gepidce^ a

GepidiB.

people seemingly closely akin to the Goths.


cess of

The

proAvars.

wandering had brouofht the Turanian Avars into


all later

those parts, and their presence seriously affected


history and geography.

With the Gepidce

in Dacia

and the Lombards


two Teutonic
and West.
states

in Pannonia, there

was a chance of
Teutonic powers on the

growing up on the borders of East -^ f These might possibly have played the same
.

part in the East which the Franks and Goths played in the West, and they might thus have altogether changed

Danube.

the later course of history.

But the Lombards alhed


In partnership with their
TheGepidne overthrown by the

themselves with the Avars.


barbarian
allies,
^

of the they overthrew the kingdom ^ Thus Gepid[B, and they themselves passed into Italy.

Lombards
;}|.>tj

Avars.

the growth of Teutonic powers in those regions was


stopped.

J^^^j^^"^^'

new and

far

more dangerous enemy was


Slavonic races to play
in the East

"^i*

^'''^-^

brought into the neighbourhood of the Empire, and


the
in

way was opened

for the

some degree the same part

which the
lost

Teutons played in the West.


this

But while the East


it

chance of renovation, for such

would

liave been,

Lombard settlement in Italy was the beginning of a new Teutonic power in that country. But it was not a which could possibly power into a national grow up ^ 1 i ^ o Teutonic kingdom of all Italy, as the dominion of the East-Goths might well have done. The Lombard conthe
.

Character
ot

the

Lombard
kingdom.

quest of Italy was at no time a complete conquest


of the land was

part

incomplete
it^iy.

won by
;

the

Lombards

part was kept

by the Emperors

and

tlie

Imperial and

Lombard

pos-

sessions intersected

one another in a way which hindered

the growth of any kind of national unity under either

108
CHAP.
V.

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


power.

The new
in the

settlers

founded the great Lombard


Italy,

kingdom
Lombard
duchies.

North of

which has kept the

Lombard name
Italy
still

to this day,

and the smaller Lombard

states of Spoleto

and Beneventum.
to

But a large part of


Eavenua, the
Naples, and

remained

the

Empire.

dwelling-place of the Exarchs,


Imperial
possessions in Italy.

Eome
all

itself,

the island city of Venice were

centres of districts
rule.

which

still

acknowledged the Imperial

The Em-

perors also kept the extreme southern points of both


the peninsulas of Southern Italy, and, for the present,

the three great islands.


stantly threatening
fell

The Lombard Kings were conEavenna.

Eome and

Eome
it

never

into their hands, but in the

middle of the eighth


the district

Ravenna
taken by
the Lombards. f. 753.

century Eavenna was taken, and with


specially

known

as the

Exarchate was annexed to the


extent of the
for
it

Lombard dominion. But this greatest Lombard power caused its overthrow
:

led to a

chain of events which, as

we

shall presently see, ended

in transferring not only the

Lombard kingdom, but

the

Imperial crown of the West to the hands of the Franks.

3.

Bise of the Saracens.


of the revolutions
existing

we give any account which took place among the already


But, before

powers of

Western Europe,

it

will

be well to describe the geogra-

phical changes which were caused


absolutely

by the appearance of
Empire.

new

actors on

two

sides of the

One

point however

may

be noticed here, as standing apart

from the general course of events, namely, that the


Roman
province in Spain recovered by the (ioths.
534-57-->.

Eoman

province in Spain was

won
cities,

gradually back
as Cordova,

by

the West-Goths.

The

inland

were

hardly kept forty years, and


possessions
in

tlie

whole of the Imperial


during the reign of

61C-C24.

Spain were

lost

EWALRY OF EAST AND


Heraclius.
.

WEST.

109

Thus the great dominion which Justinian


in the

had won back


torical results,

West, important as were


of very short duration
it
;

its his-

.V.
chap.
^

was

itself

a large

part of Italy was lost almost as soon as

was won, and

the recovered dominion in Spain did not abide

more

than ninety years.

But meanwhile,
tury,

in the course of the seventh cen-

nations which had hitherto been

unknown

or

unimportant began to play a great part in history and


greatly to change the face of the map.

These new

powers

fall

under two heads

the northern and those


frontier of the

those who appeared on who appeared on the eastern Empire. The nations who appeared
;

on the North were,

like the early Teutonic invaders


if

of the Empire, ready to act,


partly
also

partly as conquerors,

as

disciples

those

who appeared on
else.

the East were the champions of an utterly different

system in religion and everything


old rivalry of the East and

In short, the

West now

takes a distinctly

aggressive form on the part of the East.

As long
still

as
be-

the Sassanid dynasty lasted,

Eome and

Persia

con- wars

tinued their old rivalry on nearly equal terms.

The

Komeand

long wars between the two Empires ence in their boundaries. In the

made

little differof

last stage of their wars

warfare Chosroes took Jerusalem and Antioch,

and

and He603-628.

encamped
victories

at

Chalkedon.

Heraclius pressed his eastern

beyond the boundaries of the Empire under But even these great campaigns made no
in

Trajan.

lasting difference

the

map, except so

far

as,

by

weakening

Home and

Persia alike, they paved the


all.

way
Extension
\il^^^^

for the greatest

geography was a
earlier

More important to change which took place at somewhat


change of

time when, during the reign of Justinian, the

ThrEuxhie.

no
CHAP.
V.

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.

Eoman power was extended


Euxine
in Colchis or

on the Eastern side of the

Lazica.

The southern borders of

each Empire were to some extent protected by the


The Arabian vassals
of

dominion of dependent Arabian kings, the Ghassanides

Kome

and Persia.

Eome, and the Lachmites to the east of them being vassals of Persia. But a change came
beino; vassals of

presently

which

altogether

overthrew

the

Persian
its

kingdom, which deprived the Eoman Empire of

Eastern, Egyptian, and African provinces, and which

gave both the Empire and the Teutonic kingdoms of


the

West an enemy

of a kind altogether different from


strive.

any against

whom

they hitherto had to

The cause which wrought such abiding changes was


Eise of the Saracens.

the rise of the Saracens under


followers.

Mahomet and
of the

his first

new

nation,

that

Arabs,

now

became dominant
lands far beyond
Arabia
united under

in a large part of the lands

which

had been part of the Eoman Empire,


its

as well as in

boundaries.

The

scattered tribes

of Arabia were

first

gathered together into a single

Mahomet,
622-632.

power by Mahomet
they undertook
to

himself,

and under
the

his successors

wherever their

Mahometan religion swords could carry it. And, with the


spread

Mahometan

religion,

they

carried
call

also

the

Arabic

language, and what

we may

Eastern civilization as
in short,

opposed to Western.

strife,

now

begins
Persia,

between Aryan and Semitic man.


with
Conquests
of the Saracens.

Eome and
is

all

their differences,

were both of them Aryan


the extraordinary

powers.

The most amazing thing


expense of both

speed with which the Saracens pressed their conquests


at the

Eome and

Persia, forming a

marked

contrast to the slow advance both of

Eoman con-

quest and of Teutonic settlement.

In the course of less

than eighty years, the Mahometan conquerors formed

'

RISE OF THE SARACENS.


a dominion greater than that of

Ill
for a short

Eome, and,

time, the will of the Caliph of the Prophet

was obeyed
In a few
,
.

chap.

from the Ocean


1

to lands
-p^
.

beyond the Indus.


,,
.

campaigns the ILmpire

Loss of the Eastern


provinces of Rome. 632-639.

lost all its possessions

beyond

Mount Tauros

that

is, it

lost

one of the three great

divisions of the

Empire, that namely in which neither


civilization

Greek nor Eoman


taken root.

had ever thoroughly

While the Eoman Empire was thus dismembered,


the rival

power of Persia was not merely dismembered,

but utterly overwhelmed.

The Persian
,

nationality '

was

snracen conquest of
Persia.

again, as in the days of the Parthians, held

-^

down under
But the

'
,

'

632-651.

a foreign power, to revive yet again ages

later.

Saracen power was very far from merely taking the


place of
its

Parthian and Persian predecessors.

The

mission of the followers of

Mahomet was

a mission of

universal conquest, and that mission they so far carried

out as altogether to overthrow the exclusive dominion


of
if

Eome

in her

own

Mediterranean.

Under

Justinian,

the Imperial possession of the Mediterranean coast


in

was not absolutely continuous, the smaU exceptions


Africa, Spain,

and Gaul

in

no way interfered with the

maritime supremacy of the Empire, and Gaul and


Spain, even
Christian.

where they were not Eoman, were

at least

But now a gradual advance of sixty-four


in Africa to
Saracen
Africa.

years
the
into

annexed the Eoman dominions


Spain, and found

Mahometan dominion. Thence


prey than the
after

the Saracens passed

617-711.

the West-Gothic
provinces.

kingdom an
Within three

of Spain.

easier

Eoman

years

the

final

conquest of Africa, the whole


still

peninsula was conquered, save where the Christian

held out in the inaccessible mountain fastnesses.

The

Saracen power was even carried beyond the Pyrenees

112

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


into the province of Septimania, the

remnant of the
Narbonne,

GauUsh dominion
Aries, Nimes, all

of the West-Gothic kings.

became

for a while Saracen cities.

In

this

way, of the three continents round the

Mediterranean,
Effects of

Eome

lost all

her possessions in Africa,

while both in Europe and Asia she had

now

a neigh-

Saracen
conquest.

bour and an enemy of quite another kind from any

which she had had before. The Teutonic conquerors, they became if conquerors, liad been also disciples
;

part of the
rivalry

Latin world.
religious
as

The
well

Persian,

though his

was

as

political,

was

still

merely a

rival, fighting

along

a single line of frontier.

But

every province that


utterly lopped

was conquered by the Saracens


;

was

men

altogether

away it became the possession of alien and hostile in race, language,

manners, and religion.

large part of the

Eoman

Different fates of the

world passed from Aryan and Christian to Semitic and Mahometan dominion. But the essential differences

Eastern,
Latin, and

among
either

the three main parts of the Empire now^

showed

Greek
provinces.

themselves very clearly.

The Eastern provinces, where


life

Eoman

or Greek

was always an
years.

exotic, fell

away
647-709.

at the first touch.

Africa, as being so greatly

Eomanized, held out for sixty


of Asia Minor,

The provinces

now
easily

thoroughly

Greek, were often

ravaged, but never conquered.

Spain and Septimania

were

far

more

conquered than Africa

sign
as

perhaps that the West-Gothic rule was


foreign

still

felt

by the With the conquest

Eoman

inhabitants.

of Spain the undivided Saracenic


its

Empire, the dominion of the single Caliph, reached


Greatest

greatest extent in the three continents.

Detached conbut on the

extent of Saracen
provinces.

quests in

Europe were made long

after,

whole the Saracen power went back.

Forty years

EXTENT OF SARACEN CONQUEST.


later they lost Sind, their furthest possession to the East.

113
chap.
y.
750.

Five years later Spain became the seat of a rival dynasty,

which
back

after a while

grew

into a rival Caliphate.

In the

separat ion
'

same year the Saracen dominion


in

for the first time

went

755.

Europe.

The

battle of
;

Tours answers to the

Battle of

repulse of Attila at Chalons

it

did not

make

changes,

7^2^'"

but hindered them

but before long the one province

Prankish

which the Saracens held beyond the Pyrenees, that of


Septimania or Gothia, was
Franks.

SepUma765.

won from them by

the

4.

Settlements of the Slavonic Nations.


sixth century

The movements of the


into notice a

began

to bring

branch of the Aryan family of nations


an important part in the
affairs

which was

to play

both
Movements
slaves.

of the East and of the West.


Slaves.
It is

These nations were the

needless for our purpose to attempt to


;

trace their earher history

but the movements of the

Avars
same

in the sixth century

seem

to

have had much the

effect

Huns

in

upon the Slaves which the movements of the the fourth century had upon the Teutons. The

inroads of the Avars had, as

we have

seen, checked the

growth of Teutonic powers on the Lower Danube, and

had led

to the

Lombard

settlement in Italy.

But the

Avars only formed the vanguard of a number of Turanian nations, some at least of them Turkish, which were

now pressing westward. The Avars formed a great kingdom in the lands north of the Danube to the east of
;

Kingdom of

these, along the northern coasts of the

Euxine, borderof the

ing on the outlying possessions and

allies

EmMagyars,

pire in those regions, lay Magyars., Patzinaks,

and the

greater dominion of the Chazars.


in

All these play a part


in the seventh

Byzantine history

and the Avars were


I

114

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


century the most dangerous invaders and ravagers of
the

r^

CHAP,

Koman

territory.

But south of the Danube they


;

appeared mainly as ravagers

geography knows them

only in their settled kingdom to the north of that river.

Even

that

kingdom
all

lasted

no very great time

the real

importance of

these migrations consists in the effect

Northui^souths'laveT

which they had on the great Aryan race which now The Slaves seem to begins to take its part in history.
have been driven by the Turanian incursions
directions
;

in

two

to

the North-west

and

to the South-west.

The North-western
European
state,

division gave rise to


their relations

and

more than one with Germany form

an important part of the history of the Western Empire.

These North-western Slaves do not become of importance


till

little later.

But the South-western division

plays a great part in the history of the sixth and seventh


centuries.

Their position with regard to the Eastern


a kind of shadow of the position held by the

Empire
Analogy
between Teutons

is

Tcutouic uatious With regard to the Western Empire.

Thc Skvcs plav


and
less

in

the East, though less thoroughly the same


part, half conquerors,

and Slaves.

brilliantly,

half disciples,

which the Teutons played

in the

West.

During the sixth century they appear only


in the seventh they appear as
Slavonic

as ravagers

settlers.

There seems no

doubt that Heraclius encouraged Slavonic settlements


soutli of the

under
Heraclius.
'

Dauubc, doubtless with a view


the West, the Slaves

to defence

-''-o-

asainst the

more dans^erous Avars. Much

like the

Teu-

tonic settlers in
colonists

came

in at first as

under Imperial authority, and presently became

practically independent.

A number

of Slavonic states

thus arose in the lands north and east of the Hadriatic,


as Servia, Chrohatia or Croatia, Carinthia, of
first

which the

two are

historically

connected with the Eastern,

SETTLEMENTS OF THE SLAVES.


and the third with the Western Empire.
the maritime
Istria

115
and
chap.
^

Dalmatia now became Slavonic, with the exception of


cities,

'.

which,

clave to the Empire.

And

even

among many vicissitudes, among them considerThus Salona was


its

able revolutions took place.


stroyed,

de-

Destruction of

and out of

Diocletian's palace in
city of Spoilato.

neigh-

saiona, 639.

bourhood arose the new


Epidauros was
place.

also destroyed,

The Dalmatian and Ragusa took its

origin of

kndRa-

In

many

of these inroads Slaves and Avars were


;

mixed up together
all

but the lasting settlements were

Slavonic.

And
;

the state of things which thus began

has been lasting


atic
is still

the north-eastern coast of the Hadri-

a Slavonic land with an Italian fringe..


Dispiace-

In these migrations the Slaves displaced whatever

remnants were

left

of the old Illyrian race in the lands


to

niyrians

near the Danube.

They have themselves


But
at the time the

some extent

taken the Illyrian name, a change which has sometimes


led to confusion.

movement went
into

much further south than this.

The Slaves pressed on

a large part of Macedonia and Greece, and, during the

seventh and eighth centuries, the whole of those countries,

Extent of
settlement.

except the

fortified cities

and a fringe along the


Empire. The name
to Peloponnesos,

coast, were practically cut off from the

of Slavinia reached from the

Danube

leaving to the Empire only islands and detached points

of coast from

Venice round to Thessalonica.

Their

settlements in these regions gave a

new

meanino; to an
to

ancient name, and the

word Macedonian now began


it

mean

Slavonic.

And

must have been

at

this

time
Albanians.

that the Illyrians, the Skipetar or Albanians^ pressed

southward and formed those colonies

in Greece,

some of

which

still

keep the Albanian language, while the Sla-

vonic language has vanished from those lands for ages.


I


113
CHAP.

THE FINAL DIYISIOX OF THE EMPIRE.

-r^

The Slavonic occupation of Greece


'

is

a fact

which must
but

neither be forgotten nor exaggerated.

It certainly did
;

Nature of
Slavonic
f^ettiement

uot amouut to au extirpation of the Greek nation


.
.

it

certainlv did

amount

to

an occupation
i

oi a large part
i

jn Greece.

of the country, which was Hellenized afresh from those cities and districts which remained Greek or Eoman.

While these changes were going on


and ^gean
lands, -another

in the Hadriatic

immigration later in the

seventh century took place in the lands south of the

lower Danube, and drove back the Imperial frontier


Settlement
garians.

to

Haimos.

This was the incursion of the Bulgarians,

auothcr Turauiau people, but one wdiose history has

been

different fi^om that of

most of the Turanian immi-

grants.

By mixture

with Slavonic subjects and neighstill

bours they became practically Slavonic, -and they


The East-

em
cut

rcmaiii a people speaking a Slavonic language.


*^
.

Thus

Empire
.short
ill

the Empire, though


Italy witli
tlic

-n
still

it

kept

its

possessions in
its

peninMiia.

great Mediterranean islands, though

hold on Western Africa lasted


century, though
it

on into

the eighth

still

kept outlying possessions

on

the northern and eastern coasts of the Euxine,


cut short in that great peninsula which seems
to
Moral
in-

was

be

tlie

immediate possession of the

made New Eome.

But, cxRctly as happened in the West, the loss of


poUtical domiuiou carried with
it

consTanti-

the growth of moral

"

'*

*'

dominion.

The

nations which pressed into these proits

vinces gradually accepted Christianity in

Eastern

form, and they have always looked up to the

New Eome
to the

with a feeling the same in kind, but


gree, as that with
Extent of
knipir?^'"

less strong in de-

which the West has looked up

Old Eomc.

But, at the beginning of the eighth century,

though the Imperial

power

still

held posts here and

there from the pillars of Herakles to the

Kimmerian

POSITION OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE.


Bosporos, Saracens on the one side and Slaves on the
other had cut short the continuous

1 1

Eoman dommion

to

>

chap.
-'

a comparatively narrow space.


sions of Caesar

The imbroken

posses-

were now

confined to Thrace and that

sohd peninsula of Asia Minor which the Saracens constantly ravaged, but never conquered.

Mountains had

taken place of rivers as the great boundaries of the


pire
:

Em-

instead of the

Danube and

the Euphrates, the

Eoman Terminus had fallen back to Haimos and

5.

Tam^os.

The Transfer of
the

tlie

Western Empire

to

Franks.
Growth

Meanwhile we must go back to the West, and trace the growth of the great power which was there growing
.
.

the Fr;ink.-.

up, a
cut

power which, while the


was

elder

Empire was thus


to supplant
it

short in the East,

in the

end

in the

West by

the creation of a rival Empire.

For

a while the Franks and the Empire had only occasional dealings with each other.

Next

to Britain,

which
world,

had altogether ceased

to

be part of the

Eoman

the part of the Western Empire which was least affected

by

the re- awakening of the

Eoman power
both

in the

East

was the former province of Transalpine Gaul.

The
old
Prankish conquest of the Aie-

power of the Franks was

fast spreading,

in their

home

new home in Gaul. The victoiy of Chlodwii^ over the Alenianni made the Franks the leading people of Germany. The two German
in

Germany and
^_

in their

powers which had so long been the chief enemies of


the

Eoman power

along the Ehine were

now

united.

Throughout the sixth century the German dominion of


the Franks was growing.

The Frankish supremacy was


and
later in the century over
ringians/"'
ofB-u-arMi.

extended over

Thiirinr/ia,

Bavaria.

The Bavaria of

this age, it

must be remem-

118

THE FINAL CmSION OF THE EMPIRE.


bered, has a

much wider

extent than the

name has

in

modern geography, reaching


Italy.

to the northern borders of


to

The Bavarians seem


settlers in the

have been themselves

but recent

land between the Alps and the

Danube

but their immigration and their reduction

under Frankish supremacy made the lands immediately

Danube thoroughly Teutonic, as the earlier Frankish conquests had done by the lands immediately west of the Ehine. Long before this time, the Franks
south of the

had greatly extended


Conquest
taine'[r!o7-

their

dominions in Gaul

also.

In the later years of Chlodwig the greater part of

Aquitame was won from the West-Goths.


couqucsts at
'their

Further

Bnrgiindy.
i4.

expense were afterwards made, and

about the same time Burgundy came under Frankish supremacy.

The Franks now


were

held, either in possession or de;

pendence, the whole oceanic coast of Gaul


still

but they

shut out from the Mediterranean.

The West-

Goths

still

kept the land from the Pyrenees to the

Eh one,
name The

the land of Septimania or Gothia, to whicli the


clave as being

last

now

the only Gothic part of Gaul.


first

land which was specially Provincia, the


session in Transalpine Gaul, the coast

Eoman pos-

from the Ehone to

the Alps, formed part of the East-Gothic dominions of

Theodoric.

An

invasion of Italy during

th<?

long wars
establish

between the Goths and Eomans


Frankish dominion on the

failed to

It.alian

side

of the Alps.

But

as the Franks,

by

their conquest of Burgundy,

were

now

neighbours of

Italy, it led to a further

enlargement
acquisition
that Massa-

of their Gaulish dominions, and to their of a Mediterranean sea-board.


Cessioii of

first

It

was now

lia,

Arelate, and the rest of the Province were,

by an

Provence.
.ooG.

imperial grant, one of the

r>

last

exercises of Imperial

CONQUESTS OF THE FRANKS.

110
of the

power
Italy ^

ill

those regions, added to the

kingdom

chap.
'

Franks.

By

the time that the

Eomau
.

reconquest of
Extent of
the Frank
i-* ^^mjnions.

was completed, the Frankish dominion, united for ^


.

moment under

sin(]^le

head, took in the whole of

Gaul, except the small remaining West-Gothic territory,

Germany and a supremacy over the Southern German lands. To the north lay the still independent tribes of the Low-Dutch stock, Frisian and
together with central

Saxon.

As

the Frankish dominion plays so great a part in


in truth

European history and geography, a part


only to that played by the

second
it

Eoman

dominion,

will
Position of

be needful to
Franks.

consider the historical position of the

German people who had made themselves dominant alike in Germany


Their dominion was that of a

and

in Gaul.

But

it

was only

in

a small part of

the Frankish territory that the Frankish people


actually settled.
central
It

had
Thecessimi of Gaulish
possessions.

was only

in northern

Gaul and

Germany,

in the countries to

which they have


In their
;

permanently given their name, that the Franks can be


looked on
as

really occupying

the

land.

German

territory they of course

remained German

in

northern Gaul their position answered to that of the


other Teutonic nations which had formed settlements

within the Empire.


race in a

They were a dominant Teutonic


land.

Eoman

Gradually they adopted the


the

speech

of the

conquered, while

conquered in

the end adopted the


the fusion of

name

of

tlie

conquerors.

But
in the siow fusion
of Franks

German and Eoman was slower

Frankish part of Gaul than elsewhere, doubtless be- andRo^


mans.

cause elsewhere the Teutonic settlements were cut off

from their older Teutonic homes, while the Franks


in

Gaid had

their older Teutonic

home

as a

back-

120
CHAP,
;

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.

ground.
-

Beyond the bounds of these more

strictly

Frankish lands,
_

German and

Gaulish, the dominion of


,.
.

(Jerman nndGauiish
ilependen-

the ranks was at most a political supremacy, and

m
.

.iesofthe
Franks.

no scnsc a national settlement.


. .

In
;

Germany Bavaria
''

was ruled by
Loire
the

its

vassal princes

in

Gaul south of the


external
ruler.

Frank was

at

most an

Aquitaine had to be practically conquered over and

over again, and


Ethnoioffy
of Southern
<;aui.

new

dynasties of native princes were

constautly rising up.


lands,

The Teutonic element

in these

an element

much
The

slighter
is

than the

m Teutonic

element in Northern Gaul,

not Frankish, but Gothic

and Burgundian.
those
lands
is

native

wholly different

Eomance speech of from the Eomance

speech of Northern Gaul.

In short, there was really


the two great parts of

nothing in

common between
first

Gaul, the lands south and the lands north of the Loire,

except their union,

under
in

Eoman and

then under
Celtic

Frankish dominion.

And

Armorica the old

population, strengthened b}^ the settlers from Britain,

formed another and a yet more


Divisions of the Frankish

distinct element.

Thus there were within the Frankish dominions


wide national
divisions.
It

domi-

diversities,

nions.

containing the germs of future to"

needed a strong hand even to keep the


the dependent lands,

Teutonic and the Latin Francia together,

keep together
Gaulish.

all

much less to German and

During the ages while the Empire was being

cut short

by Lombards, Goths,

Slaves,

and Saracens,
whole history

the Frankish dominion was never in the like sort cut


short

by foreign settlements

but

its

under the Merowingian dynasty is a history of divisions

and reunions.

The tendencies

to division

which were

inherent in the condition of the country were strength-

ened by endless partitions among

tlie

members of the

THE FRANKS
reigning house.
that

IN

GERMANY AND GAUL.


it

121
said

Speaking roughly,
strictly

may be

chap.
^

the

more

Frankish territory sliowed a

tendency to divide

itself into

two

parts, the

Eastern or
Austria
'jveustria.

Teutonic land, Austria or Aiistrasia, and Neustria, the

Western or

Eomance
for the

land.

These were severally the

germs which grew


France.

into the

kingdoms of Germany and


like other useofthe

As

mere name of Francia,


it

names of the kind,


was derived.
After

shifted

its

geographical

use

Franda.

according to the wanderings of the people from


it
it

whom

gradually settled

many such changes of meaning, down as the name for those parts of
it still

Germany and Gaul where


the

abides.

There are the


still

Teutonic or Austrian Francia^ part of which

keeps

name

of

Franken or Franconia, and the Eomance

or Xeustrian Francia, w]iich by various annexations

has grown into modern France.

At

last, after

endless divisions, reconquests, and re- The


"^
. .

Kari-

miions of the different parts of the Frankish territory, the

Dukes,
(J87-7o2;
Kinoes,

whole Frankish dommion

Avas

a^am, ^
'

the second half

752-987.

of the eighth century, joined together under the Austrasian, the

purely German, house of the Karlings.


that house

The

Dukes and Kings of

consolidated and ex-

tended the Frankish dominion in every du-ection. Under


Pippin and Charles the Great, the power of the ruling
race was
states,
,T

more
.

firmly established over the dependent

such as Bavaria and Aquitaine.


L^

Under Pippin
^

tne conquest oi

the fearacen province oi beptnnama


;

c\

pippin conquers Septima752.

extended the Frankish power over the whole of Gaul

and under Charles the Great, the Frankish dominion

Conquests
of Charles

was extended by a
rection.

-,

series

01

conquests ^

m
.

..

every
''

di- the Great.


768-814.

Of

these, his Itahan conquests

were rather
But the

the winning of a

new crown

for

the Frankish king

than the extension of the Frankish kinoxlom.

122

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


conquest of Saxony at the one end and of the Spanish

"

CHAP,

'

March
sense

at the

other, as well as the overthrow of the


in the strictest

Pannonian kingdom of the Avars, were


extensions of the

Frankish dominions.

The

German
character of the Frankisli power.

Frankisli

powcr plays which now i ^ J


"J

in the so 2;reat a part o i

world was a iDOwer essentially German. ^

The Franks
speech,

and
to

their kings, the kings

who

reigned from the Elbe


in

the
;

Ebro,

were Gernian

blood,

and

feeling

but they bore rule over other lands, German,

Latin,

and

Celtic,

in

many

various

degrees of

in-

corporation and subjection.


The three great powers of the ill

Thus thc

cffcct of the

Saraccu conquests was to leave

Europe one purely European power, namely the


'

tury;

Romans,
Franks,
Saracens.

and kingdom of the Franks, one power both European ^ ^


Asiatic, '

namely the Roman Empire with


>'
J-

its

seat at

Constantinople, and one

power

at

once Asiatic, African,

and European, namely the Saracen Caliphate.

Through

the eighth century these three are the great powers of

the world, to which the other nations of Europe and

Asia form, as far as


character of the
Caliphate.
,

we

are concerned, a

mere back-

o-round. But the Caliphate, " as a Semitic and Mahometan ^ pQwcr, could bc Europcau only in a geographical sense.

Even
The Saracen
dominion
in Spain,

after the establishment of the


*

independent Saracen
still

domiuiou iu Spain, the new power ^


exotic.

remained an

great country of Western Europe was no


;

longer ruled from Damasctis or Bagdad


ate,

but the emirking-

afterwards Caliphate, of Cordova, and the


into

doms
Asia

which

it

afterwards broke up,

still

remained

only geographically European.

They were

portions of

in

after times rather of Africa

thrusting themdominion of Car-

selves into Europe, like the Spanish

thage in earlier times.

Tlie

two great Christian powers,

the two great really European powers, are the Roman and

FRANKISH
the Frankish.

CONOTTF.ST OF LO]\LBAEDY.

123
for

We now

come

to the process

which

chap.
^-

a while caused the

Eoman and

Frankish names to have

the same meaning within a large part of Europe, and

by which

the two seats of

Eoman dominion were

again

parted asunder, never to be reunited.

The way by which the Eoman and Frankish powers came to affect one another was throusfh the affairs of Italy. The steps by which the Imperial power was, during the eighth century, weakened step by step in the territories which still remained to the Empire in
''

"^

'-

'-'

Relations of the Franks and the Lnipire.

central Italy are, either from an ecclesiastical or from The

impe-

rial posses-

a strictly historical point of view, of surpassing interest, But, as long as the authority of the

sions in

Emperor was not

openly thrown

off,

no change was made on the map.

The events of those times which did make a change on the map Avere, first the conquest of the Exarchate by
the Lombards, and secondly, the overthrow
''

Lombard
conquest
of the

of

the

Exarchate.

the Frank kin^ Lombard kinsidom itself by & J ^ the Great. The Frankish power was thus
established on the Italian side of the Alps, but

Charles
at
it

Overthrow
of the

last
J,'!'^^Jj*}gg

must

'^'^'^

be remarked that the new conquest was not incorporated with the Frankish dominion.
. .

Charles
1

his Italian

dominion as a separate dominion, and called

held Lombardy separate n 1 kingdom.


**

himself King of the Franks and Lombards.

He
;

also

bore the

title

of

Patrician

of
that

the
title

Eomans

but,

though the assumption


political significance,
title
it

of

was of great

did not affect geography.

The

Title of Patrician.

of Patrician of itself implied a commission from

the Emperor,

and, though

it

was bestowed by the


without
title

Bishop and people of


consent,

Eome

the

Imperial

the

very choice

of the

showed that
off.

the Imperial authority was not formally thrown


Charles, as Patrician,

was

virtually sovereign of

Eome,

'

124
CHAP,

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.

and
'

liis

acquisition of the patriciate practically extended

his

dominion from the


But,

Ocean

to

the

frontiers

of

Nominal
authoritv ' of the

Bcneventum.
in the last

down

to his Imperial coronation


-^

week
_

Empire.

century, the of the eighth ^

Emperor ^
.

who
with

reigned in the

New Eome

was

still

the

nomi-

nal sovereign of the old.


all
its

The event of

the year 800,

weighty significance, did not practically

either
his
Effect of the Impsrial

extend the territories of Charles or increase

powers.
Still

the Imperial coronation of Charles


'-

is

one of

coronation of

800^^*^^'

^he great landmarks both of history and of historical o geography. The whole political system of Europe was
./

changed when the Old

Eome

cast off

its

formal

alle-

giance to the JSFew, and chose the King of the Franks

and Lombards

to

be Emperor of the Eomans.

Though
his

the powers of Charles

were not increased nor

domi-

nions extended, he held everything


Final division of the

by a new title.
i

The
i

Eoiuan Empire was divided, never


,

to

be joined together
in,

Empire.

again.

But

its

Western halt now took

tip

not only

the greatest of

its lost

provinces, but vast regions


in the

which

had never formed part of the Empire


Trajan himself.
older
lity.

days of

Again, the distinctive character of the


the absence of nationa-

Eoman Empire had been


The whole
this

civilized

world had become Eome,

Growing
of the two

aiid all its free inhabitants

had become Eomans.

But

from

time each of the two divisions of the Empire

German' and Greek.

bcgius to assuiiic Something like a national character.

East and
political

West

alike

traditions.
;

centre of one

the

Eoman in name and in The Old Eome was the nominal New Eome was both the nominal
remained

and the
sense in

real

centre of the other.


alike ceased

But there was a


this

which both

from

time to be

Eoman.

The Western Empire has passed

to a

German

'

FINAL DIVISIOX OF THE EMPIRE.


kino-,

125
chap.

and

later chaiiQ;es

tended to make his Empire

more and more German.

The Eastern Empire mean-

'

while, by the successive loss of the Eastern provinces, of

Latin Africa, and of Latin Italy, became nearly con-

terminous with those parts of Europe and Asia where


the

Greek speech and Greek

civilization

prevailed.

From one

point of view, both Empires are

still

Eoman

from another point of view,

one

is

fast

becoming

German, the other


two powers
split

is

fast

becoming Greek.

And
is

the

Rivain- of
the two

into

which the old Eoman Empire


divisions of an

thus
are

Empires,

are in the strictest sense two Empires.

They

no longer mere

Empire which has been

found to be too great for the rule of one man.

The

Emperors of the East and West are no longer Imperial colleagues dividing the administration of a single Empire
between them.

They

are

now

rival potentates,

each

claiming to be exclusively the one true


the one true representative of the of both in the days
divided.
It is further to

Eoman Emperor, common predecessors


still

when

the

Empire was

un-

be noted that the same kind of


.
.

The two
CalipJiates.

change which now happened to the Christian Empire,

had happened
metan Empire.
at

earlier

in

the

century to

the

Maho-

The establishment

of a rival dynasty

Cordova, even though the assumption of the actual


of Caliph did not follow at once, was exactly
to

title

analogous
in the

the

establishment

of

a rival

Empire

Old Eome.

The Mediterranean world has now

four great powers, the two rival Christian Empires,

and the two


these,
it

rival

Mahometan

Caliphates.
is

Among
to its

naturally follows that each

hostile

neighbour of the opposite religion, and friendly to


its

neighbour's

rival.

The Western Emperor

is

the

126

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


enemy of the Western Caliph, the friend of The Eastern Emperor is the enemy of
the Eastern.

the Eastern

ofthe'EmCaliphates,

Cahph, the friend of the Western.


great

Tlius

the four

powers stood

at

the

beginning of the ninth

century.

And

it

was out of the dismemberments of

the

two great Christian and the great Mahometan


later states, Christian

powers that the

and Mahometan,
of historical

of the Mediterranean world took their rise.


Extent of
the Carolingian
.

It is

a poiut of geographical as
i

w^ell as

importancc that Charles the Great, after he was crowned

z-ni

/-n

Empire.

Emperor, caused

all

those
as

who had been

hitherto
to

bound
swear

by

allegiance to

him

King of the Franks

allegiance to

him

afresh as

Eomaii Emperor. This m?rks

that all his dominions, Frankish,

Lombard, and

strictly

Eoman,
all

are to be looked on as forming part of the


in

Western Empire. Thus the Western Empire now took


those

German

lands which the old

Eoman Emperors
part of the

never could conquer.

Germany became

Eoman Empire, not by Eome conquering Germany, but by Eome choosing the German king as her Emperor.
Contrast of itsboundarieswith those of the
elder
pire.

The bouudarics
i
i

of the
i

Empire thus became


i
r>

different

from what they had ever been before.


^

Of the old

r\

Em-

proviuccs of

tlic

Wcstcm

Emi^ire, Britain, Africa, and

all

Spain save one corner, remained foreign to the


of the Franks.

new

Eoman Empire
the

But, on the other hand,

Empire no^v took

in all the lands in

beyond Germany over which the

Germany and Fi^nkish power now

reached, but which had never formed part of the elder

Empire. The long wars of Charles with the Saxons led to


Conquest of
772-804.

their final conquest, to the incorporation o{

Saxony with

the Frankish kingdom, and, after the Imperial coronation of the Frankish king, to
its

incorporation with the

Western Empire.

'

THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE.


The conquests of Charles had thus, among their other results, welded Germany into a single whole. For
though the Franks had long been the greatest power
in

127
chap.

Germany, yet Germany could not be


single

said to

form a

whole as long as the Saxons, the greatest people

of Northern Germany, remained independent.

The

conquest of Saxony ])rought the Frankish power for


the
first

time in contact with the Danes and the other


Tlie dominions of Charles took

people of Scandinavia.

in what was then called Saxony beyond the Elbe, that


is

the

modern Holstein,and the Eider was

fixed as the Boundary


Eider.

northern boundary of the Empire.

More than one


to

Danish king did homage to Charles and


the Emperors after

some of

him

but

porated with the Empire or even


dependent.

Denmark was never incormade permanently


Slavonic
neighbours.

To

the east, the immediate dominions of the Elbe


;

way beyond here the Western Empire came in contact,


Charles stretched but a httle

but

as the Eastern

had done

at

an earlier time and by a different process,

with the widely spread nations of the Slavonic race.

The same movements which had driven one branch of that race to the south-west had driven another branch
to the north-west,

and the

w\ars of Charles in those

regions gave his Empire a fringe of Slavonic allies and

dependents along both sides of the Elbe, forming a


barrier between the immediate dominions of the
pire and the independent Slaves

Emthe
;

to the east.

To

Overthrow
of the Avar kingfiom.
(

of the Avars he south Charles overthrew the kincrdom ^ thus extended his dominions on the side of south-eastern

96.

Germany, and here he came

in contact with the southern

branch of the Slaves, a portion of

whom,

in Carinthia his

and the neighbouring lands, became subjects of


Empire.

In Spain he acquired the north-eastern corner

128

TPIE

FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


forming the Spanisli Marcli,
after-

as for as the Ebro,

wards the county of Barcelona.

Thus the new Western Empire took


that

in all Gaul, all


Italy,

was then Germany, the greater part of


It

and

a small part of Spain. ^

thus took in both Teutonic


in
it

and Romance

lands,

and contained

the germs of
It

the chief nations of

modern Europe.

was a

step

towards their formation when Charles, following the

example both of

earlier

Roman Emperors and


Owing

of earlier

Frankish kings, planned several divisions of his dominions

among

his sons.

to the deaths of all his


effect.

sons but one, none of these divisions took


it

And

should be noticed that as yet none of these schemes of

division

agreed with

any great natural or national


as yet

boundary.
sion

They did not

foreshadow the

divi-

which afterwards took place, and out of which


of Western Europe grew.
like

the chief states


cases

In two

only
of.

was anything
Charles's son

national

kingdom
in

thou2:ht
KiiiEfdomof Aquitaine.

Lewis reigned under him


all

as

king in Aquitaine^ a kingdom which took

Southern Gaul

and the

Spanish March,

answering

pretty nearly to the lands of the Provencal tongue or


Death of Charles.
814.

tongue of Oc.

And when

Charles died, and was suc-

ceeded in the Empire by Lewis, Charles's grandson

Bernard
Kiiiijdom
of Italv.

still

went on reigning under


Italy

his uncle as

King

of Italy.

The Kingdom of

must be understood

as taking in the Italian mainland, except the lands in

the south which were held by the dependent princes of

Beneventum and by the


Use
of the

rival

Emperors of the

East.

During
'

this

period Francia

commonly means

the strictly

name
FruHcia.

The geographical extent of


is
c.

af tei- the conquest of Charles

tlie Frankisli dominion before and most fully marked by Einhard, Vita

Karoli,

15.

'

THE ENGLISH KINGDOMS

IN BRITAIN.

129

Frankish kingxloms, Gaulish and German.

The words

Gallia and Gennania are used m a strictly geographical


sense.

'-

chap.

6.

Northern Europe.
'-'

Meanwhile other nations were beo-inning *the Empire.

to

show

themselves in those parts of Europe which lay beyond

Scandinavians and English.

In north-western Europe two branches


;

of the Teutonic race were fast growing into importance

the one in lands which had never formed part of the

Empire, the other

in a

land which had been part of


it

it,

but which had been so utterly severed from


all

as to

be

one as

if it

had never belonged

to

it.

These were

the Scandinavian nations in the two great peninsulas of

Northern Europe, and the English

in the Isle of Britain.

The
it

history of these

two races

is

closely connected,

and

has an important bearing on the history of Europe in

general.

In Britain

itself

had been ^ gradual. Britons were made with great speed

Tin-

the progress of the English arms

from the Sometimes conquests ^


.

siapes of English conquest of


*^'"^

Britain.

sometimes the

English advance was checked by successes on the British side,


different

by mere

inaction, or

by wars between the


victory,

Enghsh kingdoms.
as

The fluctuations of
as the warfare

and consequently of boundaries, between the English


kingdoms were quite
the

marked

between
The
kingdoms.

Enghsh and the


in

Britons.

Among the many Teutonic


and three

settlements

Britain, small and great, seven king-

doms stand out

as of special importance,

of these, Wessea;, Mercia, and Northumberland, again

stand out as candidates for a general supremacy over


the whole English name.

At
K

the end of the eighth


.

century a large part of Britam remained, as

-i

.I,

it

still

the end of the eighth century.

130
CHAP.
V.

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


remains, in the hands of the elder Celtic inhabitants

but the parts which they


Celtic
states.

still

kept were

now

cut off

from each other. Cornwall or West- Wales, North- Wales (answering nearly to the modern principahty), and Strathclyde or

Cumberland

(a

much
were

larger district than the


all

modern county
though

so called)

the seats of separate,

fluctuating, British states.

Beyond the Forth


Scots,

lay the independent

kingdoms of the Picts and

which, in the course of the ninth century, became one.


WestSaxon supremacy under
Ecgberht. 802-8^7

It

was the West-Saxon kingdom to which the


all

su-

premacy over
and
Celtic,

the

kingdoms of

Britain, Teutonic
its

came

in the end.

Ecgberht,

king,

had

been a friend and guest of Charles the Great, and he

had most
his

likely

been

stirred

up by

his

example to do

in

own

island

what Charles had done on the mainland.

In the course of his reign, West- Wales was completely

conquered

the other English kingdoms, together with


less

North- Wales, were brought into a greater or


of dependence.

degree

But both

in

North- Wales and also in


local

Mercia, Northumberland,

and East-Anglia, the

kings went on reigning under the supremacy of the King


of the West-Saxons,

who now began sometimes

to call

himself King of the English.

In the north both Scot-

land and Strathclyde remained quite independent.


The Scandinavian
nations.

That part

also

of the Teutonic race which lay

alto-

gether beyond the bounds of the Empire


to

now

begins

The Danes.

be of importance.

The Danes
;

are heard of as

early as the days of Justinian

but neither they nor

the other Scandinavian nations play

any great part

in history before the time of Charles the Great.

great

number of

small states gradually settled

down

into three great kingdoms,


their

which remain
changed.

still,

though

boundaries have greatly

The boun-


THE SCANDINAVL\N KINGDOMS.
dary between Denmark and the Empire was, as have seen, fixed
at the Eider.

chap.
V.
'

131

we
it,

Besides the peninsula


still

of Jutland and the islands which

belong to

Denmark took

in

Scania and other lands in the south

Extent of

of the great peninsula that now forms Sweden and Norway. Norway, on the other hand, ran much further
inland,

andxor-

and came down much further south than

it

does

now.

These points are of importance, because they


later

show the causes of the


Scandinavian
states.

history

of the

three

Both Denmark and Norway had a

great front to the Ocean, while Swithiod and Gauthiod,

the districts which formed the beginning of the

kingdom
Sweden.

of Sweden, had no opening that way, but were altogether

turned towards the Baltic.

It

thus

came about that

for

some

centuries both

Denmark and Norway played

a
Danish and
settlements.

much
of the

greater part in the general affairs of Europe than

Sweden

Denmark was an immediate neighbour Empire, and from both Denmark and Norway
did.

men went
more

out to conquer and settle in various parts

of Britain, Ireland and Gaul, besides colonizing the


distant

and uninhabited lands

of

Iceland and
Pressure of

Greenland.

Meanwhile, the Swedes pressed eastward


Baltic.

Swedes to

on the Finnish and Slavonic people beyond the


In
this last

^^^ East.

way they had a


;

great effect on the history

of the Eastern Empire

but in Western history Sweden


a

counts for very

little till

much

later time.

During the period which has been dealt with


this chapter, taking in the sixth, seventh,

in Summary.

and eighth

centuries,

we

thus see,

first

of

all

the reunion of the


Justinian

greater part of the

Eoman Empire under

then the lopping


provinces

away of the Eastern and African

by

the conquests of the Saracens

then the

K 2


132

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.


gradual separation of
"

CHAP,
r

all Italy

except the south, ending

in the re-establishment of a separate

Western Empire

under Charles the Great.


tian powers, the Eastern

We

thus get two great Chris-

and Western Empires, balanced

by two great Mahometan powers, the Eastern and Western Caliphates. All the older Teutonic kingdoms
have either vanished or have grown into something
wholly
different.

The Vandal kingdom

of Africa

and

the East-Gothic

kingdom have wholly vanished.

The
in the
still

West-Gothic kingdom, cut short by Franks on one


side

and Saracens on the other, survives only

form of the small Christian principahties which


held their ground in Northern Spain.

The Frankish

kingdom, by swallowing up the Gothic and Burgundian dominions in Gaul, the hidependent nations of

Germany, the Lombard kingdom, and the more part


of the possessions of the Empire in Italy, has
into a new Western Empire.
still

grown The two Empires, both

politically

Eoman,

are fast becoming, one Ger-

man and
tance.

the other Greek.

Meanwhile, nations beyond


into impor-

the bounds of the

Empire are growing

The

process has

begun by which the many

small Teutonic settlements in Britain grew in the end


into the one

kingdom of England.
to

The

three Scan-

dinavian nations,

Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians or

Northmen, now begin


a
religious

grow
if

into importance.
Syria,

In

point

of view,

Egypt, Africa,
Christen-

and the more part of Spain were

lost to

dom, the loss was in some degree


in Britain, of the Old-Saxons in

made up by

the

conversion to Christianity of the Angles and Saxons

Germany, and of the


the beginning of the

other

German

tribes

which

at

sixth century

had

still

been heathen.

At no time

in

smoiARY.
the world's history did the

133
chap.
""-

map undergo greater cliaiiges.


transition

This period
older
state

is

the time of real

from the

-^

of things
to the

represented

by the undivided
in

Roman Empire
Europe
states.
is

newer

state of things

which

made up of a great number The modern kingdoms outside

of independent

the Empire, in

Britain

and Scandinavia, were already forming.


to form.

The

great continental nations of Western Europe had as

yet hardly begun

They were

to

grow out

of the break-up of the CaroUngian Empire, the

Eoman

Empire of the Franks.^


'

While

was revising

this chapter,

became acquainted with

C.

J.

Jirecek's Gesc/dchte

chapter of which is ments of the Slaves in the Eastern peninsida. He makes it probable that they were there earlier than is generally thought. They seem, exactly like the Teutons, to have first entered the Empire as captives and colonists, a process which may have begun as early as the second
centuries. He shows also that the march of Theodoric had the effect of laying a large region open to their settleBut he leaves my general propositions untouched. It is ments. not till the sixth century that those Slavonic movements began which

der BuLgai^en (Prag, 1876), the third devoted to an examination of the early settle-

and third

into Italy

are of real importance to historical geography.

134

CHAPTEE

VI.

THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.

1.

The Division of

the

Frankish Empii^e.

CHAP.
VI.

The great dominion of the Franks, the German kingdom which had so strangely grown into a new Western

Dissolution of the

Eoman
process

Empire, did not


it it

last

long.
fell

In the course of
to pieces.

Frankish dominion.

the ninth century

altogether
fell

But the

by which
it

to pieces
its

must be carefully
that

The

chief

traced, because

was out of

dismemberment

states of

modern Europe
spring out of it.

the chief states of Western Europe arose.

Speaking

roughly, the Carolingiau Empire took in Germany, so


far as

Germany had
it

yet spread to the East,

all

Gaul,

a great part of Italy, and a small part of Spain.


National

Of
of a

these,

was only

Italy,

and sometimes Aquitaine,


to the character

kingdoms
not j-et formed.

which showed any approach


separate or
central

national kingdom.

Northern Gaul
;

and

Extent

ot

the

Germany were still alike Francia Eomance speech prevailed in one, and
in

and, though
the Teutonic

Francia,

speech

the

other,

no national

distinction

was

drawn between them during the time of Charles the


Great.

Among

the proposed divisions of his Empire,

none proposed
Se])arate being of

to separate Neustria

and Austria, the

Western and the Eastern Francia.

But

Italy did

form

Italy and Aquitaip.e.

a separate kingdom under the superiority of the

Em-

peror

and so

for a while there

was an under-kingdom


DIVISIONS

UNDER LEWIS THE

PIOUS.

135
chap.
-

of Aquitaine, answering roughly to Gaul south of the


Loire.

This

is

the land of the Provencal tongue, the


it

r-

tongue of Oc, a tongue which,

must be remembered,

reached to the Ebro.

It

is

in the various divisions,


Division

contemplated and actual, among the sons of Lewis the


Pious, the successor of Charles the Great, that

we

see

Lewis the
First

the

first

approaches to a national division between GerGaul, and the


first

glimpses

many and
The

glimmerings of a

state

of

Modem

answering in any way to France in the modern sense.


earhest
is

among

those endless divisions that

we
Division of
SI 7

need mention

the division of 817,

by which two new

subordinate kingdoms were founded within the


pire.

Em-

Lewis and

his

immediate colleague Lothar kept

in their

own hands

Francia,

German and

Gaulish, and

the

more part of Burgundy.

South-western Gaul,

Aquitaine in the wide sense, with some small parts of

Septimania and Burgundy, formed the portion of one

under-king
the

South-eastern
it,

Germany,

Bavaria

and

march-lands beyond
Italy
still

formed the portion of


third.

another.

remained the portion of a


in

Here we have nothing

the

least
is

answering

to

modern France.
Germany,
its

The tendency

rather to

leave

the immediate Prankish kingdom, both in Gaul and


as

an undivided whole, and to

part

off
union
of

dependent lands, German, Gaulish, and

Italian,

But, in a

much

later division,

Lewis granted Neustria


the

and Aqui
firsrstep to

to his son

Charles,

and

in

next year,

on

the

death of Pippin of Aquitaine, he added his kingdom


to

of /Vance.

that of Charles.

state

was thus formed which

answers roughly to the later kingdom of France, as


it

stood before the long series of French encroach-

character u-estem

ments on the German and Burgundian lands.

The
it

kingdom thus formed had no

definite

name, and

136

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


answered to no national
.

^
VI.
^

CHAP,

division.

It

was indeed mainly


"^
, .

"

kingdom of the Eomance


It

speech,

but

it

did not

answer to any one of the great divisions of that


speech.

was a kingdom formed by


there

accident, because
his

Lewis wished to increase the portion of


son.
Still

youngest

can

be no doubt that

we have
stages

here the
thousfh
Division of
43.

first
it

beginning of the kingdom of France,


not
till

was
of

after

several

other

that the
final

kinwlom thus formed took


Verdun went a

that name.

The

division

step further in the

direction of the
session of a

modern map.
still

It left Charles in pos-

kingdom which
It

more nearly answered


its

to France, as

France stood before


also

Burgundian and
a

German
its

annexations.

founded

kingdom
before

which roughly answered

to the later

Germany

great extension to the East at the expense of the

Slavonic nations.

And,

as the

Western kingdom was


to the

formed by the addition of Aquitaine

Western
Lewis of

Francia, so the Eastern kingdom was formed by the


addition of the Eastern Francia to Bavaria.

Bavaria became king of a kingdom which

we

are
it

tempted to

call the

kingdom of Germany.
Germany, except

Still

would
all,

as yet

be premature to speak of France

at

or even to speak of

in the geo-

King-doms

graphical sense.

em

and'

klugdoms of thc

The two kingdoms are severally the Eastem and of the Western Franks.
statcs the policy of the ninth

We8tevn
Franks.

But bctwceu thcsc two


century instinctively

put

barrier.

The Emperor

Lothar, besides Italy, kept a long narrow strip of territory

between the

dominions of his Eastern and


After him, Italy remained to his

Western brothers.

son the Emperor Lewis, while the border lands of Ger-

many and Gaul

passed to the younger Lothar.

This


DIVISION OF VEEDUN.
land, having thus

'

137
chap.
~~
'

been the dominion of two Lothars,

took the name of Lotharingia^ Lothringen, or Lorraine^


a

name

Avhich part of

it

has kept to this day.

This land,
to

J'^^J^^
f^^^^_

sometimes attached

to the Eastern

kingdom, sometimes

the Western, sometimes divided between the two, some- LoSe.

times separated from both, always kept

its

character of
lyl^^^^^
J^nejf""^

The kingdom to the west of it, in like manner took the name of Karolingia^ which, according
a border-land.
to the

same analogy, should be Charlaine.

It is

only

""""^'"

by

a caprice of language that the

name

of Lotharingia

has survived, while that of Karolingia has died out.

Meanwhile, in South-eastern Gaul,


'

'

between the

Bursuudy,
or the
Jij|JJ^jjj

Ehone and the Alps, another kingdom arose, namely Under Charles the Third, the kingdom of Burgundy. commonly knowm as the Fat, all the Frankish dominions, except Burgundy, were again united for a moment.

^^^^^^ *^^
p^r^*^^^ 884.

On

his deposition they split

asunder again.

We

now have

four distinct kingdoms, those of the Eastern

Division on
his deposition.

and Western Franks, the forerunners of Germany and


France, the kingdom of Italy, and Burgundy, sometimes

887.

forming one kingdom and sometimes two.

Lotharingia

remained a border-land between the Eastern and Western kingdoms, attached sometimes to one, sometimes to
another.

Out of these elements arose the great kingnations of Western Europe.

doms and

hardly be better

The four can described than they are by the Old:

English Chronicler
to the East of

'

Arnulf then dwelled in the land

Ehine

and Eudolf took

to the

middle

kingdom
and

and Oda

to the

West

deal

and Berengar

Guy

to the

Lombards' land, and

to the lands

on
all

that side of the mountain.'

But the geography of

the four king-doms which


at

now

arose must be describad

somewhat greater

length.

138
CHAP,
VI.
'

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES,


It

must be borne

in

mind

that all these divisions

-"

of the great Frankish dominion were, in theory, like

the ancient divisions of the Empire, a

mere parcelling
and their
in formal

out of a
No
formal

common
The
had no

possession

among

several royal coltitles, '

leaorues.

titles or

&

Kino;s C^

had no

special i

tii"Frankdon!s!^

^^oiT^i^ions

special

names recognized

use.

Every king who ruled over any part of the


Franks, just as

ancient Francia was a King of the

much

as

all

among

the

many

rulers of the

Eoman
and

Empire
equally
their

in the days of Diocletian

and Constantine were

Eoman

Augusti or CEesars,

As

the kings

kingdoms had no formal

titles specially set

apart

for them, the writers of the time


Various

had

to describe

them

as they might.^
,

The Eastern part of

the Frankish domihis successors.

names

of

the Eastern

nious,
ig t-hus

tlic lot

Kingdom
or Ger-

of Lcwis the

German and

many.

called the Eastern


Its

Kingdom^ the Teutonic King-

King of the East-Franks., sometimes simply the King of the Eastern men., sometimes
dom.
king
is

the

the

King of Germany. This last name, convenient in use,


as a formal
title,

was inaccurate
in Gaul.^

for the in

Regnum

Teuto-

nicum lay geographically partly

Germany, partly

To

the

men

of the Western

kingdom the
often found in
it

Eastern king sometimes appeared as the King beyond the


Rhine.
.

The

title

of King of

Germany

is

the ninth century as a description, but


'

was not a

The

best account of

the

various names

Frankish kings and their people are described Deutsche Verfassungsgeschidite, v, 121 et seqq,
2
'

by which the Eastis given by Waitz,


:

So Wippo (2) describes the gathering of the

Cis et circa

Rhenum

castra locabant.

men of the kingdom Qui dum Galliam a Ger-

manis

dividat,

ex parte Germanice Siixones

cum

sibi

adjacentibus

Sclavis, Franci orientales, Norici,

Alamanni, convenere.

De

Gallia

vero Franci qui super


itnati sunt.'

Rhenum
of

habitant, Ribuarii, Liutharingi, coad-

The two sets


'

Franks are again distinguished from the

Latin or French Franci.'

THE EASTERN KINGDOM.


formal
title.

139
chap.
"
>

The Eastern
calls

kino;, like

other kino's, for the


till

most part simply

himself Rex,

the time

came

-'

when

his

rank as King of Germany or of the East-

Franks became simply a step towards the higher title of

Emperor
pire ^

of the Romans.

But

it

must be remembered,

that the special connexion

between the
.

Roman Emat

and the German kingdom did not bemn


division

once
first

Connexion between the Eastern

Kingdom
and the
Empire.
imperial coronation
of Amuif. 896.

on the

of

887.

Arnulf indeed, the

German King

after the division,


;

made
it

his

way

to

Eome
.

and was crowned Emperor


tion of the Eastern

and

marks the

posi-

kingdom

as the chief

among

the

kingdoms of the Franks, that the West-Frankish King

Odo
The

did

coronation,
rule

homage to Arnulf when he was


that

before his lord's Imperial Homage


still

of

simple

German
.

kinoj.

Amnif.
888.

whoever was chosen King


and
to the

of

GerFinal union ofGerniauy


^vith the

many had
kingdom of
^
_

a right, without further


Italy

election,
,

to the

Roman

Empire,

began

Empire

only with the coronation of Otto the Great.


that time, the

... German king simply one


is it
is

Up
^_

to under
^^'^^

otta

the Great.

of the kings

of the Franks, though


highest place

plain that he held the

among them.

This Eastern or

German kingdom,
Germany

as

it

came out
Extent of

of the division of 887, had, from north to south, nearly

the same extent as the

of later times.
Its

It man king-

stretched from the Alps to the Eider.

southern

boundaries were somewhat fluctuating.


Aquileia are sometimes counted as a

Verona and

German march,

and the boundary between Germany and Burgundy,


crossing the

the

modern Switzerland, often changed. To North-east the kingdom hardly stretched beyond

the Elbe, except in the small Saxon land between the

Elbe and the Eider.

The

great

extension of

the

140
CHAP.

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPE.^N STATES.

^
The

-^

'

German power over


the

the Slavonic lands

beyond the

Elbe had hardly yet begun.

To
;

the South-east lay the Eastern

two border-lands or marks


later

Mark^
of

aiTd Ca^rin-

which grew into the

duchy of
But

Oesterreich or the

marks.

modem
kingdom

Austria^ and to the south


or
Carinthia.

of

it

the

mark

The great

Kamtken

the main

part of the

consisted of the great

duchies of Saxony,

Eastern Francia, Alemanma, and Bavaria.

Of

these

the two names of Saxony and Bavaria must be carefully


Saxony.

marked
tliosc

as

having

widely

different

meanings

from

wliicli

they bear on the

modern map.
never acthe south
centre

Ancient Saxoiiy

lies,

speaking roughly, between the


it

Eider, the Elbe, and the Ehine, though


tually touches

the last-named river.

To

of Saxony
Easterner
Francia.

lies

the Eastern Francia, the

and

kernel of the

German kingdom.
Francia
lie

The Main and the


its

Ncckar
the

botli join the

Ehine within

borders.

To
Italy,
is

south
last,
it

of

Alemamiia and Bavaria.


town.

This
Aiemannia and Bavaria,

must be remembered, borders on


its

witli

Botzcu for

frontier

Alemannia

the land in which both the Ehine

and the Danube


both sides of
the Eastian
to

take

their

source

it

stretches

on

the Bodensee or

Lake of Constanz, with


no
distinction,

Alps as

its

southern boundary.
is

For several ages


national or

come, there
vincial,

even pro-

between the lands north and south of the

Bodensee.

Lothar-

Thcsc lauds make up the undoubted Eastern or

"^'^'

German
For the

territory.

To

the west of this

lies

the border
its

land of Lotharingia, which has a history of


first

own.

century after the division of 887, the pos-

session of Lotharingia fluctuated several times

between

LOTHARDsGL^.
tlie

141
After
.

Eastern

and the Western kino-Jom. "in the

the
.

chap.
VI.
987

change of dynasty

Western kingdom, Lotharingia


in
alle-

became
being,

definitely
it

and undoubtedly German

giance, though

always kept up sometliing of a distinct

and

its

language was partly German and partly

Eomauce.

Lotharingia took in the two duchies of the


the Mosel.

Ripuarian Lotharingia and Lotharingia on

The former

contains a large part of the

modern Belgium

and the neighbouring lands on the Ehine, including


the royal city of Aachen.

Lothaiingia on the Mosel

answers roughly to the later duchy of that name,

though

its

extent to the East

is

considerably larger.

The

part of the Frankish dominions to which the The


dom.

west-

ern King-

Frankish name has stuck most lastingly has been the

Western kingdom or Karolingia, which gradually got


the special

name

of France.

This came about through

the

events of the

ninth
as
it

and tenth

centuries.

The
887,
its extent,

Western kingdom,
Bald and as
it

was formed under Charles the


after the division of

remained

nominally took in a great part of modern France,

namely

all

west of the Ehone and Saone.

It

took in

nothing to the east of those rivers, and Lotharingia, as

we have down as

seen,

was a border land which


of

at last settled

part

the Eastern kingdom.

Thus the
very

extent of the old Karolingia to the east was

much

smaller than the extent of

modern France. But,


in

on the other hand, the Western kingdom took


lands at three points which are not part of

modern

France.

These are the march or county of Flanders

in the north, the greater part of

which forms part of


part of Spain

the

modern kingdom

of Belgium
is

the Spanish March., or


;

county of Barcelona., which

now

and

142
CHAP,
VI.
.

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN

STiVTES.

the
. -

Norman

Islands which are

now

held by the sove-

reign of England.

And

it is

hardly needfid to say that,

even within these boundaries, the whole land was not in


the hands of the

King of the West-Franks.


vassal

He had only
the

a supremacy, which was apt to become nearly nominal,


The great

over

the

princes

who

held

great

divisions

of the kingdom.

South of the Loire the

chief of these vassal states

were the duchy of Aquitaine,

a name which now means the land between the Loire and the Garonne the duchy of Gascony between the

Garonne and the Pyrenees


the east of
lona.
it

the

county of Toulouse to

the
still

marches of Septimania and Barceunder a very

North of the Loire were Britanny, where native


princes

Celtic

reigned

doubtful

supremacy

on

the part of the Frankish kings

march of Flanders in the north and the duchy of Burgundy^ the duchy which had Dijon for its capital,
and which must be carefully distinguished from other
duchies
The Duchy greatest

the

and kingdoms of
of
all,

the

same name.

And,
that
is

there was the

duchy of France,
and
in

Western or
Latina.
called

Latin

France^ Francia

Occidentalis
its

or

Its capital

was

Paris,

princes were

Duces Francorum, a
is

title

which the word


its

Francus

just

beginning to change from


to
its

older

meaning of

Frank

later

meaning of French.
fiefs,

From
Normandy
Fiance."^" 912

this great

duchy of France several great

as

Aiyou and Champagne, were gradually cut off, and the part of Fraucc between the Seine and the Epte was
granted to the Scandinavian chief Eolf, which, under

him and his Normandy.


France and

successors,
Its

grew

into the great

duchy of
settle-

capital

was Eouen, and


the
effect of
sea.

this

ment of the Normans had


its

cutting off

capital Paris

from the

"

THE WESTERN KINGDOM.


The modern French kingdom
being
crraduallv

143

came

into

chap.
^-

during

the

century

after

the

deposition

of

Charles the Fat.

During

this

time the crown of the


fro

Western kingdom passed


between the

to

and

more than once


at Paris

Dukes of the French

and the

Fiuctua-

princes of the house of Charles the Great,

whose only

tweL

the

immediate dominion was the

city

and

district of

Laon

the French

near the Lotharins-ian border. ^


years,
^
'

Thus, for a hundred


.

and the
Karlings at Laon. 888-987.

the royal city

of the Western
,

kingdom was

sometimes Laon and sometimes Paris, and the King


of the West-Franks was sometimes the same person
as the
union of

Duke

of the French and sometimes not.

But

Duchywith
Frtnkilh
^'^'

after the

election of

Hugh

Capet, the

kingdom and

the duchy were never again separated.

The Kings
the

gs"?

of

Karolingia

or

the Western

kingdom, and

Dukes of the Western Francia, were now the same


persons. ^
cia. '

as

FranJcen

properly

Western or Latin Fran- New ^^ nieanfrom the German Francia or isofthe distinguished o word
France then

the

meant only the King's immediate

France.

Though Normandy, Aquitaine, and the Duchy of Burgundy, all owed homage to the French
dominions.
king, no one

would have spoken of them


But,
as

as parts

of France.

the

French

kings,

step

by

step, got possession of the

dominions of their vassals

and other neighbours, the name of France gradually A dvance


spread,
till
it

took

in,

as

it

now

does,

by

far

the

of the

greater part of Gaul.

On

the other hand, Flanders,


islands,

French '" '

Barcelona, and

the

Norman
have

though once
fallen

under the homage of the French kings, have


altogether

away,

and

therefore

never
the

been
of the

reckoned as parts of France.

Thus

name
as
it

France supplanted

the

name

of Karolingia

name

of the Western kingdom.

And,

as

so hap-

144
CHAP,
VI.

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


pened that the Western kings kept on the
title

of
the

Rex Francorum
Title of ijei*

after

it

had been dropped

in

Eastern kingdom, that

title

gradually came to mean,

not King of the Franks^ but King of the French^ King

Origin of
nation.

new Eomance-speaking nation which grew up under them. Thus it was that the modern kingdom and uatiou of France arose through the crown of the Western kingdom passing to the Dukes of the Western
of the

Paris the

Fvancia.
it

Paris

is

not only the capital of the kingdom


the

France?

is

tlic t

kcmel rouud which

kingdom and nation

grew.

The Middle Kingdom


or Bur-

Of
,

all
.

geographical names, that which has changed


greatest
.

its

meaning the

number
.

ot times to

r>

is

the

name
its

gundyVarious
of the

of

Burguudy
^

It is

specially needful
this stage,

explain

name different

meanings at
.

when

there are always


i

Burgundy.

two, and sometimes more, distinct states bearing the

Burgundian name.
The French

Of the older Burgundian kingbest

dom, the north-western part, forming the land

kuowu

as tlic DucJiy of Burgundtj, was, in the divi-

sions of the ninth century, a fief of Karolingia or the

Western kingdom.
Dijon for
its

This

is

the

Burgundy which has

capital,

and which was held by more than


This Burgundy, which,

one dynasty of dukes as vassals of the Western kings,


first at

Laon and then

at Paris.

as the

name of France came

to bear its

modern sense, may

be distinguished as the French Dicchy, must be carefully


distinguished from the
The King-

Royal Burgundy, the Middle


This
is

Kingdom

of our

own

chronicler.

a state which

Burgundy
or Aries.

arosc out of the divisions of the ninth century,

and

which, sometimes as a single kingdom, sometimes as


two, took in
all

the rest of the old Burgundian kingthe French duchy.

dom which

did not form part of

THE KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY.


It

145
chap.
^

may

be roughly defined as the land between the


its

Ehone and Saone and the Alps, though

somewhat

r^

fluctuating boundaries sometimes stretched west of the

Ehone, and its eastern frontier towards Germany changed

more than once.


Provence, with

It

thus took in the original

province in Gaul, which


its

Eoman may be now spoken of as


foremost

great

cities,

among them

Arelate or Aries, which was the capital of the kingdom,

and from which the land was sometimes called the King-

dom

of Aries,

It also

took in Lyons, the primatial city

citiesofthe

of Gaul, Geneva, Besan9on, and other important

Eoman
a

diau'king-

towns.
greater

In short,

from

its

position,

it

contained

number

of the former seats of

Eoman power
itself.

than any of the

new kingdoms

except Italy

When

Biu-gundy formed two kingdoms, the Northern

or Irans-jiirane

Burgundy took

in,

speaking roughly,

the lands north of Lyons, and

Cis-jurane

Burgundy
are

cis-jurane.

those between Lyons and the sea.

These

last

now

wholly French.
in

The ancient Transjurane Burgundy is modern geography divided between France and

Switzerland.

The

history
n

of this Burgundian
^

m
It

one respect irom that

or

any other

kingdom 1^1

differs Burgundy
opparated the

or tJie states from

which arose out of the break-up of the Frankish Empire,


parted off wholly from the Carolingian dominion
It

Frankish kingdoms.

before the division of 887.

formed no part of the


It

reunited Empire of Charles the Fat.

may

therefore

be looked on as having parted


immediately Frankish
rule,

off altogether
it

from the

though

often appears as

more or
Francia.

less

dependent on the kings of the Eastern


short.

But its time of separate being was


its

After

union of
the
IvlTl"'-

about a century and a half from

foundation, the dom

wi'th

Germany.

Burgundian kin^rdom was

united under

the

same

146
CHAP,
-^

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.

'^

kings as
-

Germany, and

its

later history

consists

of

t'o'l'^^of

Sosfivan-'
France!"

way in which the greater part of the old Middle Kingdom has been swallowed up bit by bit by the modern kingdom of France. The only part which now forms the western is that wlilcli ^^^s cscapcd
the

cantons of Switzerland.
Partiy

In truth the Swiss Confedeas having, in

ratiou

may be looked on
middle
state.

some

slight

by Switzer-

dcgrcc, inherited the position of the

Burgundian king-

dom

as a

Otherwise, while the Eastern

and Western kingdoms of the Franks have grown into

two of the greatest powers and nations


wiped

in

modern
very
for

Europe, the Burgundian kingdom has been altogether


out.

Not only

its
it.

independence, but

its

name, has passed from


a long time past been

The name Burgundy has

commonly used

to express the

French duchy only.

The KingItaly.

Italy, uulikc

Burgundy, formed part of the reunited


;

dominion of Charles the Fat

but

it

altogether passed
It

away from Frankish


must be remembered

rule at the division of 887.


that,

though Lombardy was conit

quered by Charles the Great, yet


in tlie Frankish dominions, but

was not merged


as a separate

was held

kingdom by
Caroiin-

the

King of the Franks and Lombards.


ruled by

Till

the rcuuion under Charles the Fat, Italy, as a


_.

pan Kings
of Italy.

separate

kmgdom, was

iiiikmgs

of the Carolin-

r-i

gian house, some of wliom were crowned at

Eome

as

Emperors.
Italian

After the final division,

it

had separate

kings of

its

own, being not uncommonly disputed bekmgs.

tween two
Extentof
kingdom,

rival

taiucd Imperial rank.

bome or these kmgs even obThe Italian kingdom, it must


for

be remembered,
Italian peninsula.

was
Its

from taking

in the

whole

southern boundary was

much

'

THE KINGDOM OF ITALY.


the same as the old boundaries of Latium and Picenum,

147
chap.
VI.
~

reaching somewhat further to the south on the Hadriatic


coast.

To

the south were the separate principahties of


still

separate
ties of

Benevento and Salerno^ and the lands Avhich


to the Eastern

clave

Benevento

Emperors. '

thus took The kiuffdom


_

in and

Sa-

lerno.

Lombardy, Liguria, Friuli


in Trent

in the "wddest sense, taking


latter lands are

and

Istria,

though these

some-

times counted as a
islands
still

German march, while

the Venetian

kept up their connexion with the Eastern

Empire.

It

took in also Tuscany,

Romagna

or the
itself.

former Exarchate of Eaveuna, Spoleto, and Borne

The King-

dom

of

The

Italian

kingdom thus represented the old Lombard


,
. ,

itaiyrepresents the

kingdom, together with the provinces which were


formally transferred from the Eastern to the Western

Lombard

Empire by the
^
_

election of Charles the Great.


*'
_

But
_

!it
its

may be looked on
Lombard kingdom.
passed
to

as essentially a continuation of the Milan

capital.

The rank
the old

of capital of the Italian

kingdom, as distinguished from the

Eoman Empire,
capital of

away from

Lombard

Pavia

the ecclesiastical metropolis of Milan, and Milan


Italy.

became the crowning-place of the Kings of


For nearly eighty years
the

after the division of 887, Abeyance


oftlieEra-

Eoman Empire
fallen

of the

West may be looked on

as

piic.

having

into a kind of abeyance.

One German
;

and

several Italian kings

were crowned Emperors

but they never obtained any general acknowledgement

throughout the West.

There could not be said to be


definite geographical

any Western Empire with


daries.

bounEestoration of the

change

in

this

respect took place in the


''

second half of the tenth century under the


_

king Otto the Great.


king, Berengar

While he was
Italy

still
liis

King of

became

German only German man, as Odo

Westem
Empire by
otto
052.

X 2

148
CHAP.
VI.
9C2, 96S.

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


of Paris had become the

man

of Arnulf.

Afterwards

Otto himself obtained the Itahan kingdom, and was

crowned Emperor

at

established that the


at

Eome. The rule was now fully German king who was crowned

Aachen had a right to be crowned King of Italy at Milan and Emperor at Eome. A geographical Western
Empire was thus again founded,
kingdoms of Germany and
The three
Imperial

consisting of the

two

Italy, to

which Burgundy was

afterwards added.

These three kingdoms

now formed

kingdoms.

the Empire, which thus consisted of the whole dominions

of Charles the Great


frontier

allowing

for a different eastern

except the part which formed the Western


This union of

kingdom, Karolingia^ afterwards France.


three of the four kingdoms gave a
gonistic character to the fourth
rate.

more

distinct

and anta-

which remained sepagreat

Karolingia looked like a part of the

Frankish dominion lopped off from the main body.

On
Eelatious

the

other hand,

now

that the

German

kings, the

Kings of the East-Franks, were also Kings of Italy and

between the

Empire and France.

Burgundy and Emperors of the Eomans, they gradually dropped


style

their

Frankish

style.

But,
still

as

that
as

was kept by the Western


of their

kings,

and

more

the

name

duchy of France gradually spread

over so large a part of Gaul, the kingdom of France

had

a superficial look of representing the old Frankish

kingdom.
distinctly

The newly-constituted Empire had thus a rival power on its western side. And we
our story will consist of
the Imperial frontier

shall find that a great part of

the

way

in which,

on

this

side,

went back, and the French

frontier advanced.

On

the

other side, the Eastern frontier

of the Empire was


at the

capable of any amount of advance


Slavonic neighbours.

cost of

its

THE EASTEEN

EJilPIEE.

149
CHAP.

2.

The Eastern Empire.

v_IJi_^

The
,
.

and

of the various changes of the seventh xheEastem Empire. o eighth centuries, the rise or the baracens, the
effect
,

settlement of the Slaves, the transfer of the Western

Empire
effect

to the

Franks, seem really to have had the

of strengthening the Eastern Empire which they


It

so terribly cut short.

began for the

first

time to

put on something of a national character.

As

the

it

takes a

Greek

Western Empire was


Eastern Empire was
religious distinction

fast
fast

becoming German, so the

character.

becoming Greek.

And

Rivalry of

was soon added


_

to the distinction aud western or Greek

of languaaie. As the schism between the Churches ^ came on, the Greek- speaking lands attached themselves
to the Eastern,
Christianity.
its

and Latin
Cliurehes.

and not and

to

the

Western, form

of
all

The Eastern Empire, keeping


titles

on

Eoman

traditions,

had thus

become

nearly identical with what

may be

called the artificial

Greek

nation.

It continues the w^ork of hellenization

which was begun by the old Greek colonies and which

went on under the Macedonian


gives

kings.

No power
through the

Fiuctuatious in the

more w^ork

for

the

geographer;

Y^f"*^^.

alternate periods of decay

and revival which make up

nearly the whole of Byzantine history, provinces were

always being

lost

and always being won back again.

And

it

supplies also a geographical study of another

new divisions into which the Empire was now mapped out, divisions which, for the most part,
kind, in the

have very
times.

little

reference to the divisions of earlier

The Themes or provinces of


lege of being elaborately described

the Eastern Empire,

TherAe/c
scribed

as they stood in the tenth century,

...by

have had the


.

privi-

by

Constantine Por-

an imperial geo-


150
CHAP,
\
I.

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


graplier in the person of Constantine Porphyrogennetos.^

He

speaks of the division as comparatively recent, and

li'!;u^o^^'

^^ some themes as having been formed ahnost in his

own

time.

The themes wonld

certainly

seem

to

have

been mapped out after the Empire had been cut short
both to the north and to the
ture of the
Asiatic
Tlieniesi.

east.

The nomenclatitles

new

divisions

is

singular and diversified.

Some

ancient national

names are kept, while the Thus


in Asia

of others seem fantastic enough.

Paphla-

gonia and Kappadokia remain names of themes with

some approach

to their ancient boundaries


is

but the

Armenian theme
earlier uses of the
it.

thrust far to the west of

any of the

name, so that the Halys flows through


still

Between

it

and the

independent Armenia lay the


seat of

theme of

Clialdia^ Avith Trapezous, the future


its

Emperors, for

capital.

Along the Saracen

frontier lie
surit

the themes of Koloneia^ Mesopotamia


vival indeed of the

a shadowy

Mesopotamia of Trajan, of which


Sebasteia,

was not even a part


and
Seleiikeia, called

Lykandos, Kappadokia,
city of

from the Isaurian or Kihkian


coast the city

that name.

Along the south


in

of Kibyra
its

has

given

mockery, says Constantine

name
to

to the

theme of the Kibyrraiotians, which reaches as

far as Miletos.

The

isle

of

Samos

gives

its

name

a theme reaching from Miletos to Adramyttion, while


the theme of the
islands,
Aiolis.

^gwa7i
on
to

Sea, besides

most of the
bordered by

stretches

the mainland of the ancient

The

rest of the

Propontis

is

themes bearing the strange names of Opsihion and


Optimaton, names of Latin origin, in the former of
^

See special treatise on the


edition.

Themes
which

in the third
follows,
'

volume of the

Bonn

The

Treatise

de Administrando

Imperio,'

is also full

of geographical matter.

THE

THEJ^IES.

151
chap.

which the word obsequium is to be traced. To the east of them the no less strangely named Thema
Boukellarion takes in the Euxine Herakleia.

-^

Inland

and away from the

frontier are the

themes Thrakesion
is

and Anatolikon, while another Asiatic theme

formed

by the

island of Cyprus.
The EnroThemes,

The nomenclature of the European themes is more intelligible. Most of them bear ancient names, and
the districts which bear the lands which bore

them are
old. loss

at least survivals of

them of

After a good deal

of shifting, owing to
districts,

tlie

and recovery of so many


Thrace had

the Empfre under Constantine Porphyrogen-

netos

numbered twelve European themes.

shrunk up into the land just round Constantinople and


Hadrianople, the latter
Bulgarian.
leaving
the

now

a frontier city against the


to the east,

Macedonia had been pushed

more

strictly
still

Macedonian

coast-districts

which the Empire

kept to form the

themes of

Strymon and Thessalonike.

Going

fiu'ther south, the


use
of the

name

of Hellas has revived, and that with a singular

accuracy of application,

Hellas

is

now

the eastern side

HeUas.

of continental Greece, taking in the land of Achilleus.

The abiding name of Achaia has vanished for a while, and the peninsula which had been won back from the
Slave again bears
its

name

of Peloponnesos.
list

But Lakechief cities

daimonia now appears on the


instead of Sparta.

of

its

This and other instances in which

one Greek name has been supplanted by another are


witnesses of the Slavonic occupation of Hellas and
its

recovery by a Greek-speaking power.


coast the realm of Odysseus

Off the west

seems to revive in the


in also the

theme of Kephallenia., which takes


isle

mythic

of Alkinoos.

Such parts of Epefros and Western

152
CHAP.
VI.

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


Greece as clave to the Empire form the
Nikopolis.

theme of

To

the north, on the Hadriatic shore, was

Ihe Hadriaiic lauds.

the theme of Dyrrhachion^ and

beyond

that again, the

Dahnatian and Venetian


Possessions of the Empire in
Italv.

cities still

counted as outlying

portions of the Empu'e,


Italy forms the

Beyond

the Hadriatic, southern

theme of Lomhardy, interrupted by the


and Amalfi
Sicily

principality of Salerno^ while Naples, Gaeta,

were outlying posts


still
Cherson.

like

Venice and Eagusa.


;

was
lost

reckoned as a theme

but

it

was now wholly

to the Saracen,

And

far

away

in the Tauric peninsula,

the last of the Hellenic commonwealths, the furthest


outpost of Hellenic civilization, had sunk in the ninth

century into the Byzantine theme of Cherson.


Seeming
Asiatic character of the Empire.

The

first
is

impression conveyed by this geographical


that the Eastern

description

Empire had now become


It
is
is

a power rather Asiatic than European.

only in
Else-

Asia that any soHd mass of territory


Nature of its European possessions.

kept.

where there are only

islands

and

fringes of coast.

But

they were almost continuous fringes of coast, fringes

which contained some of the greatest


Maritime supremacy
of the

cities

of Christen-

dom, and which gave


supremacy by
Byzantine
sea.
it

their

masters an undisputed

If the Mediterranean

was not a
of

Empire.

lake,

was

only the

presence

the

Saracen, the occasional

visits

of the Northman, which

hindered

it

from being
if

so.

Then

again, the
is

whole

his-

tory of the Empire,

a history of losses,

also a history

of recoveries, and before long the

Eoman arms

again

became

terrible

by

land.

The

picture of Constantine

Porphyrogennetos shows us the Empire at a moment

when
Loss and recovery of
Crete.

neither process

was actually going on

but the
of loss

times before and after his reign were times,

first

and then of recovery.

Early in the ninth century Crete

823-960.

was suddenly seized

by Saracen adventurers from

'

POSITION OF THE EASTERN EMPIEE.


Spain
;

15B and slow

about the same time began the

lono;

Saracen conquest of Sicily.

But, almost at the

moment
in

"^

-
VI.

chap.

when

Sicily

was

lost,

the Imperial province in Italy

\^^lif
*-'"*^'^-

was largely increased, and the Imperial influence


Dalmatia was largely restored.
Peloponnesos was

About

the

same time
In the
;

ft-dv^Dai-'^

won back from

the Slaves.

Seee.'^"^

latter half of the tenth

century Crete was


Syria, with the

won back
famous

so

were Kilikia and part of

cities

of
Recovery
ofprovinces "i the East. 964-976.

Tarsos, Edessa, and Antioch on the Oroutes.

Presently

kincrdom Basil the Second overthrew the Bidqarian in ^ ^

Europe and the Armenian kingdom


at the foot

in Asia

the lands
Conquest of
Bulgaria. 98i-iui8.

of Caucasus admitted the Imperial sunre^ ^

macy, and the Byzantine rule was carried round the


greater part of the Euxine. ^
. .

Cherson indeed was

lost

Loss of Cherson.
^^8"

the old
Piussiau.

Megarian

city passed

into the hands of the

At

the other end of the Empire, the recoif th(;

very of Sicily was actually begun, and,

Saracen
in tlie
The Eastern Empire
""^'^J'

was not driven


interest

out, his

power was weakened


of invaders.

of the next set

Early in the

eleventh

again the ^ dominion which head of a was undoubtedly the great,


,

century the Eastern


,

Eome was

Basil the
S''<^^<^ii'i-

est
it

among

Christian powers, a dominion gi'cater than


at

had been

any time since the Saracenic and

Sla-

vonic iiu'oads began.


3.

Origin of

the

Spanish Kingdoms.

The

historical

geography of two of the three great


is

Southern peninsulas

thus bound up with

tliat

of the

Empires of which they were severally the centres.

The

case

is

quite different with the third great penin-

Position of
^'^'"'

sula, that of Spain.

There the

Eoman

dominion, even

the province which had been recovered, by Justinian,

had

quite passed away,

and

it

was only a small part of

154

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUEOPEAN STATES.


the land which was ever reincorporated, even in the

'

CHAP,

most shadowy way, with either Empire.

Spain was

The Saracen conquest,

now conqucred by
^
*'

the Saracens, as

it

had before been


it

conquered bv the Eomans,

witli this difference, that


1
1

710-713.

had been among the longest and hardest of the Eoman


conquests, while no part of the Saracen dominion

-r

was

won

in a shorter time.
it

But,

if

the

Eoman
The
;

conquest was

slow,

was

in the

end complete.

swifter Saracen
left

conquest was never quite complete

it

a remnant

by which the land was


was, as could hardly
as that Avhich

in the

end

to

be

won

back.

But the part of the land which withstood the Saracen


fail

to be the case, the

same part

held out for the longest time against

the
Asturia
732,

Eoman,
had

The mountainous regions of the North


Cantahria
2in(l

wcrc ucvcr wholly conquered.


wliich

Asturia

united with Cantabria,


751-

iicvcr fully submitted

to the Goths,

now

became

the

seat

of

resistance

under princes who

claimed to represent the Gothic kings, and part of

whose dominions bore the name of

GotJiia.

Twenty

years after the conquest, Asturia was again a Christian


principality,
Kingdomof
hv'vci.

which was presently united with Canta-

Tliis
fiefs

grcw

iuto

the

kingdom
its

of Leon.

The
last

great
County
(.f

of this kino;dom on
,.

eastern and western

borders, the counties of Gallicia


.

and

Castik,904.

Kingdom,

Originally a

kne

or castles against the

to baracen enemy
of

Castile

the

both
Kingdom of crrew
Navarre,
905.

showed from an early time strong tendencies


Meanwhile the kingdom

to separation.

Navarre

UD to the cast, stretching, o it must be rem emi a bered, on both sides of the Pyrenees, though by
far the
side.

larger

portion

of

it

lay

on

their

southern
of

To

the east of Navarre the small

counties

Countj' of

Aragonc.
760-

were the besjinning of the Araaon and Riparanensia ^ ? kingdom of Aragon. To the east again of this was
'
.

'

THE SPANISH KINGDOaiS.


the land which, after the final expulsion of the Sara-

155

cens from Gaul, became part of the Carolingian Empire

...
shiftiu^s
.

chap.
"-

VI.

by
^

the

name

of the Spanish March.


-^
.

The
to

of The
ish

SpanMarch.

territory, the unions

and separations of these various


belong
the
special
in the eleventh century

^^s.

kingdoms and

principalities,

history of Spain.

But early

the whole north-western part of


siderable fringe of territory

Spain,

and a con-

in the north-east,

had
had
,

been formed into Christian

states,

Amon^j
*-'

these

Beginnings
of Castile

been

laid the foundations of

two kino;doms, those of


to play a great part in

a^^
Aragon.

Castile

and Aragon, which were

the affairs of Europe.


It will

be at once seen that those among the Spanish


in

powers w^hich w^ere destined to play the greatest part

later history were not among the first to take the form At this stage even Castile has of separate kingdoms.
.
.

siow growth of
tiie

hardlv taken the form of a distmct


^

only beginning

Portugal has not


.

Arao"on is even begun. Of


state.

greater

kingdoms.

these three, Castile was fated to play the


w^as

same part

that
.

History of
Castile

and

played by Wessex in England and by France in

Aragon.

Gaul, to become the leading power of the peninsula.

Aragon, when her growth had brought her to the


Mediterranean, was to
fill

for a long

time a greater

place in general European

politics

than any other Spanish


to

power.

The union of

Castile

and Aragon was

form
terror
Portugal.

that great Spanish

monarchy which became the

of Europe.

Meanw^hile Portugal, lying on the Ocean,


all to

had

first

of

extend her borders at the cost of the


to

common enemy, and afterwards


Castile

become
in

a beginner

of European enterprise in distant lands, a path in which

and other powers did but follow


advance of

her

steps.

Meanwhile

the

the

Christians

was

Break-up of

156

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


helped by the division of the Saracenic power.
'

^^

CHAP,

The

Cahphates of the East and of the


"^

West

fell

to pieces,

the Spanish Caliphate.

exactlv as the Christian Empires did.


\

The undivided
.

Mahometan dominion
power
in the

in Spain

was

at the height ot its

tenth

century.

Yet even then, amid

many
1028.

fluctuations,

the Christian frontier

was on the
in

whole advancing in the north-west.


Christian

In the north-east
But,
early

progress

was slower.

the

eleventh century, the Caliphate of Cordova broke in


pieces,

and out of

its

fragments arose a crowd of small


at

Mahometan kingdoms

Cordova,

Seville,

Lisbon,
It

Zaragoza, Toledo, Valencia, and

elsewhere.

was

now

only by renewed invasions from Africa that the


in Spain

Mahometan power
Christian states are

was kept up.

But, as the

now

fully formed,

such mention of

these African dynasties as concerns

geography

will

come more

Slavonic

fittingly at a later stage.

4.

Origin of the Slavo?iic States.

We
who,

left

the borders of both the Eastern and the


race,

and Turanian invasions.

Western Empire beset by neighbours of Slavonic


in the case of the

Eastern Empire, were largely

mingled with other neighbours of Turanian race.


these
last,
;

Of

A.vare,

Patzinaks,
left

Khazars, have passed

away
case

they have

no trace on the modern map of

Europe.
Bulgarians.

With two of the Turanian settlements the


different.

is

the foundation of

The settlement of the Bulgarians, a kingdom of Slavonized Turanians


has

south of the Danube,

been already mentioned.


in

They
age
.

still

keep their place and nation, though

bond-

Another Turanian settlement


has been
history.

to the north of the

Bulgarians
Settlement

of

yet

greater

importance in
of the

Europeau

In

the

last

years

ninth

'

TURANIAN SETTLEMENTS.
century
the Finuish

157
chap.

Magyars

or

Hungarians^ the
as a

Turks of the Byzantine writers, began to count

power

in

Europe.

From

their

seats

between the

arsor^'^^'

mouths of the Dnieper and the Danube, they pressed eastward into the lands which had been Dacia and
Pannonia.

JJ^mf g'gs.

The Bulgarian power was thus confined


in the western part of

to
Great

the lands south of the Danube, and Great Moravia^ a

name which then took


Hungary,
fell

modern

wholly under Magyar dominion.


is

This settlement
itself.

one which stands altogether by

only Turanian

The Magyars and the Ottoman Turks are the settlers in Europe who have grown into ^
.

Peculiar character of

on European ground permanent Turaman powers ^ ^


. .

The
.

theMaj^yar
settlement.

have Bulsrarians 'C^


adopted.

been

lost in the

mass of

their Slavonic

neighbours and subjects, whose language

they have

Magyars and Ottomans


soil.

still

remain speaking
it is

a Turanian tongue on Aryan

But of these

only the Magyars that have grown into a really Euro-

pean
in

state.

After appearing as
Italy,

momentary ravagers
settled The k ingdom of
iiunj^ary.

Germany,

and even Gaul, the Magyars

down into a Christian kingdom, which, among many


fluctuations

of supremacy

and dependence, has


to this day.

reEffect of its

mained a
anity of

distinct

kingdom

The

Christi-

Hungary however came from

the Western
this fact

connexion

Church and not from the Eastern.


But

And

has

had a good deal of bearing upon the history of those


regions.
for this almost incidental

connexion with

the Old
people,

Eome, Hungary, though

settled

by a Turanian
its

would most naturally have taken


the Slavonic states

place

among
of the

which fringed the dominion


has turned out, difference of

New Rome.

As

it

religion has stepped in to heighten difference of blood,

and

Hungary has formed

kingdom

quite

apart.

158
CHAP.
VI.

BEGINNING OF THE MODEEN EUROPEAN STATES.


closely connected in
garia,
its

history with Servia

and Bul-

but running a course which has been in

many

things unlike theirs.


The Magyars separate the

The geographical
were
Southern Slaves.
rectly.

results of the

Magyar settlement

Northern and Southern Slaves.

to place a barrier

between the Northern and the


it

This

did both directly and indi-

The Patzinaks pressed into what had been the former Magyar territory they appear in the pages of
;

the Imperial geographer as a nation with

whom

the

Empire always strove


The Rus
sians.

to maintain peace, as they

formed
This
ninth

a barrier against both Hungarians and Russians.


last

name begins

to

be of importance

in

the

century.
race, they

part of the Eastern branch of the Slavonic


off

were cut

from the other members of that

branch south of the Danube by these new Turanian


settlements.

The Magyars again parted


from
still

the

Souththe

eastern

Slaves

the

North-western,

while

Eussians were
Effects of the geographical position of the Slaves.

neighbours of the North-western


position of these three divi-

Slaves.

The geographical
history.

sions of the Slavonic race has

had an important
Soutli- eastern

effect

on European

The

Slaves in
lands,

History of the Southeastern


Slaves.

Servia, Croatia, Dalmatia,

and the neighbouring

formed a debateable ground between the two Empires,


the

Magyar kingdom, and

the Venetian republic, as

soon as Venice grew into a distinct and conquering


state.

These lands have, down to our

own

time,

played an important, but commonly a secondary, part


in history.

And

in later times their history has chietly

consisted in successive changes of masters.

The

states

which they formed


The Northwestern
Slaves.

will

have to be spoken of in con-

nexion with the greater and more lasting powers to

which they have commonly been adjuncts. The Northwestern Slaves appear for the most part in different

'

THE SLAVONIC STATES.


degrees of vassalage or incorporation witli the Western

.159
chap.
"-

Empire.
there

But,

besides

several

considerable

duchies,

>

grew up among them the kingdoms of Bohemia


latter

Bohemia,

and Poland^ of which the

estabhshed

its

complete

independence of the Empire, and became for a while


one of the chief powers of Europe.
Eussia meanwhile,
Russia,

forming a third division, appears, in the ninth and


tenth centuries,
first

as a formidable

enemy, then

as a

spiritual conquest, of the

Empire and Church of Conthen


already assumed
in
at

stantinople.

Eussia had
it

the

character which

has again put on

later

times,

that of the one great


in

European power
in faith.

once Slavonic
is

race

and Eastern

Eussia

now
a

fully

established as an
its

European power.

The

variations of
distinct

territorial

extent

must be traced

in

chapter.

5.

Northern Europe.

of the Scandinavian na^ i'/i p ^ their settlements tune chiefly arises irom tions at this

The European importance

,..

various parts of Europe, and specially


Ireland.

...

The Scandinavian
settie-

m
-

ments.

Britain and

The

three great Scandinavian

kingdoms were

already formed.
the east
;

Sweden was doing

its

work towards
as North-

the Norwegians, specially

known

men, colonized the extreme north of Britain, the Scandinavian earldoms


of

Caithness and Sutherland, tothe north

gether
Britain,

with the

islands to

and west

of

Orkney, Shetland, Faroe, the so-called He-

brides,

and Man.

They

also

colonized the eastern


as Ostmen.

coast of Ireland,

where they were known

And

it

was from Norway

also that the settlers

came by

which the coast of France

in the strictest sense, the

French duchy, was cut off from the dominion of Paris

160

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


to
for

-r^
Engiaud
nirk.^"

CHAP,

form the Duchy of Normandy.


the

But the chief

field

'

energy of Denmark

properly so called lay

within the limits of that part of Britain which

we may
period
that the

now

begin to call England.

It

was during

this

that the united

EngHsh kingdom grew up,

many

English settlements in Britain coalesced into one

English nation.

And

this

work was

in a singular

way
in-

promoted by the very cause, namely, the Danish


vasions,

which seemed best suited

to hinder

it.

Up
as
it

to this time the great island


called,
little

had been

in truth,

was often and but

another world, influencing but

little,

influenced by, any of the lands

Formation
of the

wliicli
'Yho,

of either of the continental Empires. formcd part ^


. .

Kingdom
England.

of

history of these times, a history Enixlish O


./ -^
^

which

is

specially

connected with geography, consists of two

great facts.

The

first is

the union of all the English states

in Britain into

one English kingdom under the Westis

Saxon
WestSaxon supremacy under
Ec_sbe[ht.

kings.

The other

the establishment of a vague

supremacy on the part of those kings over the whole


island.

The dominion established by Ecgberht was in It consisted simply of Eni^iand. ^0 seusc a kingdom o l j o
\^
2i

supremacy on the part of the West-Saxon king


all

over

the princes of Britain, Teutonic and Celtic,

save only the Picts, Scots, and Welsh of Strathclyde or

Cumberland.

The smaller kingdoms

of Kent, Sussex,

and Essex formed appanages for West-Saxon wthelings


;

but the superiority over East-Anglia,

Mercia,

Northumberland, and the Welsh princes was purely

The Danish
789.
'

The change of this power into an united English kingdom holding a supremacy over the whole island was largely helped by the Danish incursions
external.

and

settlements.

These incursions began in the


;

last

years of the eighth century

they became more fre-

'

WEST-SAXON supre:\l\cy.
quent and more dangerous in the middle of the ninth
;

161
chap.
VI.
-^

and

in the latter part of that

century they grew from


This was the
first

mere incursions
^thelred and
Saxon king

into actual settlements.

result of the great


his

struggle in the days of the

more famous brother Alfred.

By
Division

Alfred's treaty with the Danish Guthrum, the Westkeijt his

own West-Saxon
rest of Mercia,

kincfdom and

all ^Eitred and


878.

the other lands south of the Thames, together with

western Mercia.

The

with East-Anglia

and Deira or southern Xorthumberland, passed under

im from the Tees

Danish

rule.

Bernicia, or northern Northumberland ^ T~\ ^ ni to the Forth, still kept its Anglian princes,

Btmicia
nut Danisii.

seemingly under Danish supremacy.

Over the lands


In Scotthe
I

which thus became Danish the West- Saxon king kept


a mere nominal and precarious supremacy.
land

and

Strathclyde

princes

was not

,.,-,,. cnsturbed but m


;

the

succession

of

Celtic

scandinavian settle-

part at least oi mentsin


a large
land.

Strathclyde, in the

more modern Cumberlard,

Scandinavian population, though probably Norwegian


rather than Danish, must have settled.

By

these changes the

power of the West-Saxon

increase of
diate king-

king as an over-lord was greatly cut short, while his

dom

of

immediate kingdom was enlarged.

The
its

dynastj^

which

Wessex.

had come so near


seemed
to

to the

supremacy of the whole island


uj)

be again shut

in

own kingdom and


it.

the lands immediately bordering on

But, by over-

throwing the other Enoflish kino-doms, the Danes had


^

prepared the ^

way
"^

for the second


^

West-Saxon advance
kiiif?
'-'

Second WestS"x*^n a^vance. 910-9^4.

iu

the tenth century.

The West-Saxon
further

was now

the only English king, and he

became the

English and Christian champion against intruders


largely remained heathen.

who
half

The work

of the

first

of the tenth century was to enlarge the

Kingdom

of

162

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.

Wessex

into the

Kingdom

of England.

Eadward

the

Elder, King, not merely of the West-Saxons but of the

English, extended his immediate frontier, the frontier


of the one English kingdom, to the

Humber.

Wales,

Northumberland, English and Danish, and now, for the


first

time, Scotland

and

Stratliclyde, all

acknowledged

the English supremacy.


926.

Under ^thelstan Northumtime incorporated with the

berland was for the

first

kingdom, and
it
(.'umber-

after

several revolts

and reconquests,

finally

became an

integral part of England, form-

ing sometimes one, sometimes two, English earldoms.

land granted as
a fief to

Meanwhile Cumberland was subdued by Eadmund, and was given


as

Scotland. 946.

a
it it

fief to

the Kings of Scots,


to

who
sons.

commonly granted
Lothian
frrantfd to

as

an appanage

their

Meanwhile, partly,

would seem, by conquest, partly

Scotland.

by

cession, the Scottish kings

became possessed of the

northern part of Northumberland, under the


the earldom of Lothian.

name

of

Thus, in the second half of

the tenth century, a single

kingdom of England had


principalities, as well

been formed, of which the Welsh


as Scotland, Stratliclyde,
The Eng
iish
1

and Lothian, were

vassal states.
it

Thus the English kingdom was formed, and with


the English Empire.

Eni-

ire.

For the English kings in the

tenth and eleventh centuries, acknowledging no superiority


in

the

Csesar either of East or

West and

holding witliin their


Useof
titles.
il:e

own

island a position analogous to

that of the
to

Emperors on the mainland, did not scruple


title,

Imperial

assume the Liiperial

and

to

speak of them-

Emperors of the other world of Britain. The kingdom and Empire thus formed were transferred
selves as
Xortliern

Empire
Cnut.

of

by the wars of Swegen and Cnut from a West-Saxon to a Danish king. Under Cnut England was for a

lOlG-103%

moment

the chief seat, and Winchester the Imperial

THE EMPIRE OF CNUT.


city, of a

263
ftiirly

Northern Empire which might


of the Old and

claim
-^

chap.
r-^

a place alongside

the

New Eome.

England, Denmark, Norway, had a single king, whose

supremacy extended further over the


over Sweden and a large

rest of Britain,

part of the Baltic coast.


his death.
;

That Empire spHt in pieces on

The ScandiEngland
itself

navian kingdoms were again separated

was divided
united,
then,
last
first

for a

moment.

The kingdom, again


to the

reth.. xorq^est.

passed back to the West-Saxon house, and

by a second conquest,
1

revolution a division of
of.

11the kingdom

Norman. After

this

1066-70.

was never
finish- En-iand
""ifed by William.

more heard
for ever one.

William the Conqueror put the


.
.

ing stroke to the

work of Ecgberht, and made England And, by uniting England under the same
into the
affairs,

ruler as

Normandy, and by thus leading her


position such as she

general current of continental

he gave her an

European

had never held under

her native kings.

By

the end of the eleventh century then the chief Summary.

nations of

Europe had been formed.

The Western
a definite
xi,,.

Empire,
shape.

after

many

sliiftings,

had taken

The Imperial dignity and the two royal crowns of Italy and Burgundy were now attached to the

vvest-

and^thi''''

German kingdom.
keeping
its

The Empire,
titles

in

short,

though

Kingdons.

Eoman

and

associations,

and with
practithis

them
cally

its

influence over the minds of men,

had

become a German power.


lost their

Its history

from

time mainly consists in the steps by which the

German

Emperors of Eome

hold on their Italian and

Burgundian kingdoms, and of the steps by which the

German dominion was extended over the Slaves to the East. To the West the Western Kingdom has altogether
TC

France

164
CHAP,
VI.

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN STATES.


detached
itself

from the Empire

the

union of

its

crown with the Duchy of France has created the


French kingdom and nation, with
its

centre at Paris,

and with a supremacy,

as yet Httle

more than nominal,

over a large part of Gaul.


The EasternEmpire.
i
.

As
i i

the Western Empire

has bccomc German, the Eastern Empire has become

Greek
The

m the early years oi the eleventh century


i i i

it

agam

forms a powerful and compact


sia-

state, ruling

from Naples
it,

to Autioch.

Of the states to the north of


the
their

Bulgaria
;

states.

has

been reincorporated with

Empire
definite

Servia,

Hungary, Eussia, have taken

position

among

the Christian powers of Europe.

So have Poland

and Bohemia on the borders of the Western Empire.


Prussia, Lithuania,
Spain.

and the Finnish lands

to the

imme-

diate north

of them remain heathen.

In Spain, the

Christians have
Castile

won back

a large part of the peninsida.


;

and Navarre are already kingdoms

Aragon,
In

though not yet a kingdom, has begun her


The Scankinsdom.--.

history.

Nortlicm Europc, the three Scandinavian nations are


clearly distinguished
isle

and firmly

established.

Within the

of Britain the

kingdoms of England and Scotland

England

liavc

bceu formcd, and the union of England and Nor-

mandy,

mandy under a single prince has opened the way to altogether new relations between the continent and the
great island.

In short, the only European powers which

play a part in strictly medieeval history which are not


yet formed are Portugal and the Sicilian kingdoms.

From

this point then,

when most
being,

of the

European

powers have come

into

and when the two

Eoman Empires
to

are fast

becoming a German and a


it

Greek power alongside of other powers,

will

be well
far

change the form of our present inquiry.


treated the historical geography of

Thus

we have

Europe

as a

'

SUMMARY.
whole, gathering round two centres at the Old and the

165

New Eome.
separately,

It will

henceforth be more convenient

chap.

to take the history of the gi'eat divisions of

Europe

and

to trace

out in distinct chapters the

changes which the boundaries of each

have gone

through from the eleventh century to our

own

time.

But before we enter on these several national


it

divisions,
Ecclesiastical geo-

will

be well to take a view of the

ecclesiastical

di visions of

Western Christendom, which are of great


in the

g^aphy.

importance and which are constantly referred to


times with which

we

are

now

concerned.

166

CHAPTER

VII.

THE ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


CHAP.
VII.

The
by

ecclesiastical

geography of Western Europe was

this

time formed.

The

great ecclesiastical divisions


out,

Character
of ecclebiastical

were now almost everywhere mapped


hence they are more permanent than the
sions.

and from

geography.

political divi-

Permanence of
the ecclesiastical divisions.

The

ecclesiastical

geography in truth constantly

preserves an earlier political geography.


siastical divisions

The

eccle-

represent older civil divisions.

They

were always mapped out according

to the political divisions of the time

when they were


revolutions.

established,

and they often remained unaltered while

the political divisions went through

many

Thus
Illustrations from

in

France the dioceses represented the jurisdic-

tions

of the

Eomaii

cities

in

England they repre-

England
and France.

sented the ancient English kingdoms and principalities.

In both cases they outlived by

many

ages the

political divisions

which they represented.

While the

political

map was altered over and over again, the ecclesiastical map remained down to quite modern
hardly any change beyond the
occasio-

times, with

nal division of a large diocese or the occasional

union

of two smaller dioceses. of the ecclesiastical

Thus the greater permanence


often

map

makes

it

useful as

standard for reference in describing political changes.


Lyons and Kheims,

To

take

an instance, the city of Lyons has been at

different times

under Burgundian and under Frankish

PERMANENCE OF ECCLESIASTICAL
kings
;

DIVISIONS.
city
all

167
chap,

it

has been a free city of

tlie

Empire and a
But,

of the

modern kingdom
all

of France.

among

-'

these changes, the Archbishop of

Lyons has always

remained Primate of

the Gauls, \Yhile the Arch-

bishop of Eheims has held a wholly different position


alongside of

him

as first prelate

and

first

peer of the

modern kingdom of France.


political capital of the

Paris

meanwhile, the
till,

modern kingdom, remained

the seventeenth century the seat of a simple bishoprick.

In

this

way

the ecclesiastical division will be found

almost everywhere to keep up the remembrance of an


earlier political state of things.

As
these

the

Empire became
Patriarchates, Prolinces, D.oceses.

Christian, '
as

it

out was mapped ^^

into Patriarchates as well

into Prefectures.

Under

were the metro-

politan

and episcopal

districts,

which in after-times

borrowed, though in a reverse order of dignity, the


civil titles

of provinces and dioceses.


-'
./

As the Church
^

conquests carried her spiritual X ^


the Empire,

beyond the bounds of


were of course

Divisions within and without the Empire.

new

ecclesiastical districts

formed in the newly converted countries.


every kingdom had at least one

As

a rule,
;

archbishopric

the

smaller principalities, provinces, or other divisions be-

came the

dioceses of bishops.

But the

different social

conditions of southern and northern Europe caused a

marked
a city

difference in the ecclesiastical arrangements of

the two regions.


;

In the South the bishop was bishop of


tribe or a district.

in the

North he was bishop of a


city

Within the Empire each


Italy

had

its

bishop.

Thus

in

and Southern Gaul, where the


were

cities

were

tliickest

on the ground, the bishops were most numerous and


their dioceses

smallest.

In Northern Gaul the

cities
Bishops of
cities

while outside the are fewer and the dioceses larger, ^


,

and

Empire, the dioceses which represented a tribe or prin-

of tribes.

168
CHAP.
VII.

ECCLESL^STICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


cipality

were larger again. from the

Also again, within the

Empire the bishop,


his title

as bishop of a city, always took


;

city

outside the Empire, especially

in

the British islands both Celtic and Teutonic,

the

bishop of a tribe or principality bore a tribal or


torial title.

terri-

^ 1.
The
Patriarchates

The Great Patriarchates.

The

highest ecclesiastical divisions, the Patriarchates,


to the Prefectures,

suggested

though they did not exactly answer

by the

Pre-

fectures.

were clearly suggested by them.


boundaries of the Patriarchates

And whenever
departed

the

from the

boundaries of the Prefectures, they came nearer to the


great divisions of race and language.
it is

For our purpose,

enough

to take the Patriarchates, as they

grew

up,

after the establishment of Christianity, in the course of

the fourth and

fifth

centmies.

The

four older ones

were seated

at the

Old and the

New

Rome., and at the

two great Eastern

cities

of Antioch and Alexandria.

Out

of the patriarchate of Antioch the small patriarchate of

Jerusalem was afterwards taken. This


of sentimental geography
;

last

seems a piece

the

other divisions

were

eminently practical.
Rome.

Whether we look on the


Old

original

jurisdiction of the Bishop of the

Rome

as taking in

the whole prefecture of Italy or only the diocese of


Extended beyond the
Empire.

Italy,

it is

certain that

it

was gradually extended over


That
it

the two prefectures of Italy and Gaul.


in the Latin part of the

is, it

took

Empire, and

spread thence

over the Teutonic converts in the West, as well as

over Hungary and the Western Slaves.


Constantinople.

The

Patri-

archate of Constantinople or

New Eome

took in the
in

Prefecture
Prefecture

of Illyricum,

and three dioceses

the

of the East, those of Thrace, Asia,

and

'

THE PATPJAECHATES.
Pontus.

169
answers to the
chap.
'

This

territory

pretty well

extent of the Greek language and influence.


Illyrian dioceses, possibly

The two
aris-

'-

through some confusion

ing out of the two meanings of the

word
;

Illyricum,
but,

were claimed by the Popes of Old Piome

when

the Empires and Churches parted asunder, Macedonia

and Greece were not


division.

likely to cleave to the

Western
its relation

In course of time the Byzantine patriarchate

became nearly coextensive with the Byzantine Empire, em Empire and it became the centre of conversion to the Slaves Slaves.
of the East, just as the patriarchate of Old

Pome was

to
Antioch.

the Teutons of the West.


before
its

The

patriarchate of Antioch^

dismemberment

in favour of the tioy patriJerusalem.

archate of Jerusalem, took in the whole diocese of the


East, and the churches

beyond the

limits of the

Empire
Aiexandriji.

in

that

direction.

The

patriarchate of Alexandria

answered to the diocese of Egypt, with the churches

beyond the Empire on that


church, which has kept
its

side, speciall}' the

Abyssinian

nationality to our

own

time.

That these Eastern patriarchates have been for ages


disputed by claimants belonging to different sects of
Christianity
history, but
is

a fact which concerns both theology and

does not concern geography.

the see w^as in Orthodox or heretical


in national

that

is

Whether commonly

hands, the

see

and

its

diocese, the geogra-

phical extent on the map, remained the same.

These then are the

five ereat patriarchates


.

which

Latemomipatriarchates.
^'^'^

formed the most ancient geographical divisions of the


Chm'ch.
In later
times

...

the

been more loosely applied.

name patriarchate has As the Roman bishop

grew

into something
title

more than the Patriarch of the

West, the

of Patriarch was given to several metro-

pohtans, sometimes, as far as one can see, without any

170
CHAP.
VJI.
Lisbon, Venice, Aquileia.

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


particular reason.

The

title

has been borne by the

Bishops

of Lisbon and

Venice^

and

specially
last

by the
see.

Metropolitans of Aquileia.
title

These

assumed the

during a time of separation from the


this
five

Eoman

But nominal patriarchates of


fully

kind must be caregreat

distinguished

from the

churches to

which the name was anciently attached.


the
Patriarchate of

In the East

Moscow.
1587.

name was never extended beyond its four original holders, till a new patriarchate of Moscow arose in Eussia, to mark the greatest spiritual conquest of the Orthodox Church. Of the four original Eastern patriarchates
it is

only that of Constantinople which plays

much
three

part in later history.


fell

The

seats

of the other

into the

hands of the Saracens in the very

beginning of their conquests.


^ 2.
Great

The Ecclesiastical Divisions of

Italy.
lie

In no part of Christendom do the bishoprics


of

so

numbers

the Italian bishoprics.

thick

upon the ground

as in Italy,

and especially
fact
it

in the

southern part.

But from that very

follows that

the ecclesiastical divisions of Italy are of less historical

importance than those of most other Western countries.


Small size of the provinces.

In southern Italy above

all,

the

bishoprics

were so

numerous, and the dioceses therefore so small, that the


archiepiscopal provinces were hardly so large as the

episcopal dioceses in
in
Effect of the com

more northern

lands.

So

it

is

the islands

Sicily

contained four provinces and

Sardinia three.
liistory
,

The
.

peculiar cliaracteristics of Italian


ecclesiastical

monw'eaiths on the posi-

also

hindered

geoa;raphy "^

from

tionofthe
I)relates.

being of the same importance as elsewhere.

Where

every city became an independent commonwealth, the


Bishop, and even the Metropolitan, sank to a lower

rank than they held in the lands where each prelate

was

a great feudal lord.

ITALY.
It follows

171
chap.
VII.
Relation to
tife

then

tliat

there are only a few of the arch-

bishoprics and bishoprics of Italy

which

at all stand

out in general history.


also

The growth

of the

Eoman

see

Kom

more
it

distinctly

overshadowed the

Italian bishops

than

did those of other lands.


historical

The

bishoprics

which

Rivals of

have most

importance are those which at one

time or another stood out in rivalry or opposition to

Eome. Such was


took
in

the great see of Milan,

whose province
;

Milan.

crowd of Lombard bishoprics

such was the


juiisAquiieia.

patriarchal see of Aquileia,


diction took in
at the other.

whose metropolitan

Como

at

one end and the Istrian Pola

The patriarchs of Aquileia, standing as they did on the march of the Italian, Teutonic, and
Slavonic lands, grew, unlike most of the Italian prelates,
into

powerful temporal princes.

Ravenna was

tlie

Ravenna.

head of a smaller province than either Milan or Aquileia;


but Ravenna too stands out as one of the churches

which kept up
Eavenna,

for a while

an independent position

in

the face of the growing


in short,
;

power of Eome.
lost

Milan and
of their
first

never

the

memory
its

Imperial days
theological

and Aquileia took advantage, and secondly of

of a

difference,

temporal

position as the great border see.

In the rest of Italy the case


herself

is

different.

Eome

Thei mme(liate

was the immediate head of a large province


Within
this the suhurbi-

Roman
I'rovinc

stretching from sea to sea.

carian sees, those close around Eome, stood in a special

and closer relation


famous
cities

to the patriarchal see itself.

The
Metropoii^
centrd''

of Genoa, Bologna, Pisa, Florence, and

Sienna, were also metropontan sees, though their ecclesiastical

dignity

is

quite overshadowed

by
,

their civic

^''

greatness.

Lucca has been added


.

to the
.

same
-^

list

in
Pisa and Genoa.

modern

times.

The provinces of Pisa and Genoa

are


172
CHAP,
^-

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


nota'ble
'

as

having been extended into the island of


its

VII.

r-^

Corsica after

recovery from the Saracens.


is,

The

his-

tory and extent of the Itahan dioceses


The
southern
province,

with these few

exceptions, a matter ahiiost wholly of local ecclesiastical

coiicem.

Ill

the south and

Sicily the endless archicities,

o-

-i

episcopal sees preserve the


as

names of some famous

Capua on the site of Casilinum Tarentam, Bari, and others. But some even of the me-

Capua

the

later

tropohtaii churches are fixed in places of quite secon-

dary importance, and the simple bishoprics are endless.


3.

The Ecclesiastical Divisions of Gaul and

Germany.

By

taking a single view of the ecclesiastical arrangethis side

ments of the whole of the Western Empire on


of the Alps and the Pyrenees,

some

instructive lessons
at tlie

may be

learned.

Such a way of looking

map
if

will bring out

more
of

strongly the differences between

bishoprics of earlier and later foundation.


Gaulish and
(jlennan
dioceses.

And,
t-i

we

take the

name
i

taking in the

it German lands
/-n

Gaul

in the old geographical sense,

west or the Klime which

formed part of the older Empire, we shall find that several ecclesiastical provinces may be called either
Gaulish or German.

With

the boundaries of the French

kingdom we have no concern, except so far as the boundary between the Eastern and Western kingdoms
of the Franks did to some extent follow ecclesiastical
lines.

Modern annexations
flrst

of course have

had no

regard to them.
Province of South Gaul.

Ou

crossiug the Alps from Italy,

we

find the

g(3g|ggjastical

phseuomena of Italy

continu(^.d in the lands

nearest to

it.

ing to the

The two provinces of Tarantaise (answercivil division of A Ipes Pennince) and Enibrun

'

GAUL.
(Alpes Maritimce) which take in the mountain region

173
chap.

between Italy and Gaul, are of small


thick on the ground.

size,

though of

course in the actual mountain lands the bishoprics are


less

The Tarantasian province con-

Tarantaise.

tained only three suffragan sees, Sitten, Aosta, and St.

John of Maarienne, three bishoprics which now belong to three distinct political powers. But in the southern
part of the province of

Embrun, which reaches

to the Embrua.

sea, the bishops' sees are thick

on the ground, just as


in the small provinces

they are in Italy.

So they are

of Aix [Narhonensis Secunda) and Aries.


as

But, as soon aix

and

we

get out of Provence into the parts of Gaul which


less

were

thoroughly Romanized, and where


less

cities,

and
the

consequently bishoprics, lay

close

together,

phasnomena of the

ecclesiastical

map

begin to change.

The Proven9al provinces of Aix and Aries are bounded to the north and west by those of Vienne (which with
Aries

vienne.

answers

nearly

to

the civil
to

Viennensis)

and
Narbonne.

Narhonne (answering nearly


suffragan sees are

Narhonensis Secunda).
size,

These provinces are of much greater

and the
lies
Aucb.

much

further apart.

To

the west

Auch, answering to the oldest Aquitaine or Novempopulana^ and to the north of these,
in the
still

remainder of
greater
size,

Gaul, the original provinces are of


^lost of
divisions.

them answer very nearly


Aquitania Prima

to the older civil

the province of

Bourges.
Luon'<., "J

Bourses,
i-yuns,
'"""'".

Aquiiania Secunda that of Bourdeaux.

Luqdunenms

Prima. Secunda.,
Rouen., Tours.,

Tertia,
Sensi.

and Quarta. answer to

a<i

Sens.

and

Of

these Lyons, as having

been the temporal


of all the Gauls.

capital, became the seat of the

Primate

very nearly to

The province of Rouen too answers the duchy of which that metropolis
;

became the

capital

its

Archbishop

still

bears the

title

of Primate of

Normandy.

174
CHAP.
VII.

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


These are the oldest
ecclesiastical arrano-ements

closely following the civil divisions of the Empire.

These
;

divisions lived through

the Teutonic conquests

and,
city

though here and there a see was translated from one


to another, they
Foimdation
of the provinces of

were

not seriously interfered with

till

the

fourteenth century. Pope


.

John the Twenty-second


.

raised

the scc of Toulouss iw


that of

tlic

proviiice of

Toulouse Aiby,
'^^.^1

Narbonne and

Alhy

in the province of

Bourges to metropoli-

tan rank, thus forming

two new provinces.

He

also

founded new bishoprics in several towns in these two

new
Avisnon,
1475.

provinces and in that of Narbonne.

In the next
,

ceutuiy Sixtus the Fourth


-^
.

made

the church of Avignon ^


,

metropolitan.
district

These changes help to give


Italy

this

whole

more of the character of


it.

and Provence

than originally belonged to

Lastly, in the seven-

teenth century the province of Sens was also divided,


Paris, 1622.

and thc church of Paris became metropolitan.


of these changes
divisions

Some

show how

closely
civil

the ecclesiastical

followed the oldest

divisions,

and how

slowly they were affected


sions.

by changes
first
;

in the civil divi-

When
less

Gaul was

mapped

out, Tolosa

was

of less account than

Narbo

the Parisii and their city

were of
Senones.

account than the great

nation

of the

Tolosa became the royal city of the Goth


till

but

it

did not rise to the highest ecclesiastical rank

ages after the Gothic


after

kingdom had passed away.

Paris,

having been several times a momentary seat of

dominion, became the birthplace of the modern French

kingdom.
for

But

it

had been the continuous


hundred years before
it

seat of kings

more than

six

became the

seat of an archbishop.

As we draw

nearer to

German ground,

the ecclc-

'

GERMANY.
siastical

175
chap.
VII.
'

boundaries are found to have been somewhat


affected

more strongly
Sequanorum

by

pohtical

changes.
to

The

ecclesiastical province of
;

Besanqon answers

Maxima

Besan^on.

but

it

is

not quite of the same extent

the boundary of the

German and Burgundian kingdoms

passed through the


is

Eoman

province

its

eastern part

therefore found in a

German

diocese.

The province
Rheims.

of

Rheims answers
:

nearly, but not quite, to Belgica Se-

cunda

for the ecclesiastical province

took in some

terri-

tory to the east of the Scheld. Here again the boimdary

of the Eastern and Western kingdoms passed through the


province.

The metropolitan

city lay within the region


it

which became the kingdom of France, and


the ecclesiastical head of the kingdom.
its

became

Yet one of
city of tlie
Trier, 783.

suffragan sees, that of Carnbray,

was a

The province of Trier took in no part of the Western kingdom but, besides the old province of Belgica Prima, it stretched away over the German
Empire.
;

lands even beyond the Rhine.


ish bishoprick of

When
its

the old GaulKsin, 78o.

Colonia Agrippina became metrothe Great,

politan under
in nearly all

Charles

province

took

the old Gaulish province of


it

Germania
sees,

Secunda

but

too

came

to stretch

beyond the Ehine

and beyond the Weser.


Trier and Kijln,
frontier land.
torical

These two metropolitan

were old Gaulish bishopricks of the

The

see of

Mainz

has no certain hisIt

Maiuz,747.

being before Boniface

in the eighth century.

too was founded on


soil
;

what was geographically Gaulish


its

but the greater part of

vast extent

was

strictly

German.

Three only of

its

suffragans.

Worms, Speyer,

and Argentoratum or Strassbwy, were even geographically Gaulish.

No
the

provhice has had more fluctuating


elevation of

boundaries

Kuln

to

metropohtan

176
CHAP.
VII.

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ^YESTERN EUROPE.


rank cut
to
it

short to the west, wliile

it

grew

indefinitely

the north, south, and east, as

its

boundaries were

enlarged by conversion and conquest.

was cut short in the fourteenth century

To the east it when the king-

dom
Prag, 1344.

of

Bohemia and
Bamberg,

its

dependencies were formed into

the ecclesiastical province of Prag.


rick of

The famous bishopwas

Bamberg,
1007.

locally in the province of Mainz,

from the beginning immediately dependent on the see


of

Eome.
These three great archbishopricks of the frontier

The

three

ecclesiasti-

cal Electors

and Archchancellors.

land, all of wliose sees

were on the Gauhsh

side of the

Ehine, remained distinguished by their temporal rank

during the whole


the

life

of the

German kingdom.
;

All

German

prelates

became princes

but only these

three were Electors.

The

prelates of these tliree

were the

Arch-chancellors of the three Imperial kingdoms, Mainz


of

Germany, Koln of

Italy, Trier of Gaul.

But, as

tlie

Frankish or

German kingdom spread

to the north-east,

new
Salzburg
798.

ecclesiastical provinces

were formed.

The bishop-

rick of Salzburg became metropolitan under Charles the

Great, with a province stretching

towards his conquests from the


Bremen or Hamburg,

away to the East Avars. The bishoprick


was

oi Bremen., another foundation of Charles the Great,

transferred under his son to Hamburg., as a metropolitan


see

which was designed

to

be a missionary centre for

the

Scandinavian nations.

After

some
as

fluctuations,

the see was finally settled at


1223.

Bremen,

the metroin

polis

of a province, which had now become

no way

Scandinavian, but partly Old-Saxon, partly Wendish.


Lastly, Otto the Gi'eat founded the
Magdeburg, 9G8.

metropolitan see

of

Magdeburg on the Slavonic march.


of vast extent as

Thus

the

German kingdom formed


all

six ecclesiastical provinces,

compared with those of Southern

LATEK CHANGES.
Europe, and with
apart.
theii'

177
sees

suffragan
is

few and

far

^^^^^
'

The

difference
earlier

here

clearly

marked besees of later

tween the

sees

which arose from the very


cities,

beginning^ in the

Eomau

and the

foundation which were gradually founded as

new

lands

were brought under the dominion of the Empire and


the Church.
Still

the old tradition went on so far that


city,

each Bishop had his see in a

and took

his

name

from that

city.

Though

the

large extent, yet none of the


in strictness territorial.

German dioceses were of German bishoprics were


ec-

In no part of Christendom have the ecclesiastical Modem


'-

clesiastical

divisions

been more completely upset in modern times i 1


'

divisions of

Gemiany
and France

than they have been in Germany.

In France the

number
siastical

of dioceses

was greatly lessened by the ConBuonaparte


;

cordat under the

first

but the main eccle-

landmarks were to a great extent respected.


is left.

In Germany, on the other hand, no trace of them

The country has been mapped out afresh to boundaries of patched-up modern kingdoms.
and Trier are no longer metropohtan
sees,

suit the

Mainz

while the

modern map shows such

novelties as an Archbishop of

Munchen and an Archbishop

of Freiburg.
.

Long

before,
changes of
Philip the Second in the Net h 21-I'ln^s.

under Philip ^ the Second of Spain, those parts of the


detached German king^dom which had become practically ^ ^ under the Dukes of Burgundy underwent a complete Camhray and divisions. change in their ecclesiastical
'
_ _ _ _

Cambray,
Mechlin, utrecht.

Mechlin

in the province of

Eheims, and Utrecht

in the

province of Koln, became metropohtan sees.


political

Modern

changes have made these three

cities

members

of three distinct pohtical powers.

178
CHAP.
VII.

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.

4.
Peculiarities of

The Ecclesiastical Divisions of Spain.


peninsula

The
Italy,

ecclesiastical history of the Spanish

Spanish ecclesiastical

presents phasnomena of a different kind from those of

geography.

Gaul,

or

Germany.

In

Italy

and Gaul the

ecclesiastical divisions
earliest

go on uninterruptedly from the

days of Christianity.

Western Germany must


In eastern
in

count for these purposes as part of Gaul.

Germany
Old divisions lost,

the

ecclesiastical

divisions

were formed

later times, as Christianity

was spread over the country.


But the

In Spain the country must have been mapped out for


purposes at least as early as Gaul.

and mapped ecclesiastical


out afresh after the recovery from
the Saracens.

Mahometan conquest of the greater part of the country,


followed by the Christian reconquest, caused the old ecclesiastical lines to

be wiped out, and new divisions had to

be traced out afresh as the land was gradually


Ecclesiastical divisions under

won back.
divisions

The

ecclesiastical divisions of Spain in the time of the


civil

Gothic kingdom simply reproduce the

the WestGoths.

of the period, as those civil divisions are only a slight


modification of the

Eoman

provinces.

Lusitania and

Bceticd survived, with a slight change of frontier, both


as civil

and

as ecclesiastical divisions.

Tarraconensis

wasfor both purposes divided into three, Tarraconensis^


Carthagenensis, and Gallcecia.

As

the land was

won

back, and as
the

new

ecclesiastical provinces

were formed,

number was found their way


Tarragona, Zaragoza, Valencia.

greatly increased,
to

and some of them

new

sites.

Thus the Tarraconensian

province was again divided into three, those of Tarragona, Zaragoza, and Valencia, answering nearly to the

kingdom of Aragon.
politan
Toledo.

New

Carthage

lost

its

metroof

rank in favour

of the great metropolis

Toledo, which numbered Cordova and Valladolid among


its

suffragans.

Leaving out some anomalous

districts,

SPAIN.
the rest of the peninsula formed the provinces of
St.
"

179
chap.

James of

Comjyostella, Burgos^ Seville,

Granada, with

'~"
^^'

Braga, Evo?'a, and the patriarchal see of Lisbon, the


last
it

teiiaf Bur'^'

three answering to the

kingdom of Portugal.

And
in

and
Braga,
Lisbon.

must be remembered that the Pyrenees did not form


ecclesiastical,

an eternal boundary in
civil

any more than

geography.

As

the

kingdom of Navarre stretched


the

on both

sides of the
;

mountains, so did the diocese of


it

Pampelima
01

and to the west of

Bayonne

IT stretched

GauHsh diocese
n

on what

is

now

fepanish ground, and Bay-

Dioceses ..f Pampelun.-i

All these are survivals of a time when, to use the phrase


of a later day, there were no Pyrenees, or
the same rulers,
first

when

at least

Gothic and then Saracen, reigned

on both sides of them.


5.

The Ecclesiastical Divisions of


historical

the British Islands.

The
points

phsenomena of the

British islands

have

The

British

islands.
111

common with more

than one of the continental

countries.

In a very rough and general view of things,

Britain has

some analogies with Spain.

It is

not alto-

gether without reason that in some legendary stories the

names of Saxons and Saracens get confounded.


cases a land

In both

which had been Christian was overrun by


;

conquerors of another creed

in

both a Christian people


;

held their ground in a part of the country


the whole land v/as

and

in

both

won back
no reason

to Christianity,
in

though

by

different

and even opposite processes


is

the two
Celtic episcopate.

cases.

But there

to believe that the Celtic The

churches in Britain and Ireland had anything like the

same complete

ecclesiastical organization as the

Spanish

churches under the Goths.

The

Celtic episcopate
its

was

of an irregular and anomalous kind, and, in


intelligible

most

shape,

it

was, as was
N
'2

natural

under the

ISO

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


circumstances of the country, not a city episcopate,
liardly a territorial episcopate, but

one

strictly tribal.

This

is

nearly the only fact in the history of the early

Celtic

churches which
It

is

of any importance for our


to say

purpose.

might be too much

that traces

of this peculiarity were handed on from the Celtic to

the English Church.


betw^een

The

little

likeness that there

is

them
city

is

rather due to

the

fact

that

in

Northern Europe generally, whetlier Celtic or Teutonic,


a
strictly

episcopate like that of Italy and Gaul


in the nature

was something which


not be.

of things could

In truth the antiquities of the Celtic churches


fairly

may
their

be

left to

be matter of local or of special


Their
effect

eccle;

siastical inquiry.
effect

on history
is
still

is

slight

on

historical

geography

sligiiter.

For

our purpose the ecclesiastical geography of Britain

may

be looked on as beginning
tine.

witli the mission of

Augus-

The English Church was formed, and


and
Irish
its

the Welsh,

Scottish,

Churches were reconstructed, partly


its

under
s,ii"mes of (irei;(jry the
(ircat.

authority, altogether after

model.

In the

original

scheme of Gregory the Great, Britain was clearly


be divided into two
ecclesiastical provinces

meant

to

..

i--i

iw(. equal
ni'itaiu."

ucarly equal in extent.

The

Celtic churches

were

to be

brought under the same


heathen English.
lot

ecclesiastical

obedience as the

As Wales was

to

form part of the


This scheme was

of the southern metropolitan, so Scotland was to


lot of the northern.

form part of the


never

fully carried out.

Wales was indeed brought


;

into full submission to Canterbury


Relation of
the Scottish

but Scotland was

ncvcr brouglit into the same

full
i

submission to York.
i

Bishops to York.

The

allesiance o

pi or the

;:!Cottish

sees to their JNorthum.

tvt

brian metropolis was at

all

times very precarious, and

chap.
"
'

'

ENGLAND.
it

181
off altogether.

was

in the

end formally thrown

Of

this

came the
of
the

singular disproportion in the territorial

extent

two English

ecclesiastical

provinces,

n-afseesof

Canterbury, since the English Church was thoroughly


organized, has had a

and

York!^"^

number

of suffragans which

would

be unusual anywhere on the continent, while York has


always had comparatively few, and for a considerable
time had practically one only.

The
siastical

systematic

mapping out of

Britain for eccle- Foundaexisting QIOCGSGS

purposes, as designed

never fully carried out.


dioceses
existing

by Gregory, was therefore The actual provinces and


as the various English

were gradually formed, kingdoms embraced

Christianity.

each kingdom or independent principality


cese.

As a rule, became a dio-

And, except in the case of a few

sees fixed in cities xonitonai

which kept on something of old


bishops were

Eoman

memories, the

more commonly
their flock, than

called from the ])eople

who formed
some
the

from the

cities wliicli in

cases contained their chairs.


bishop-settle,

For

in

many
it,

ciises

as

our

forefathers

called

wns

not placed in a city at


sohtary spot.
It

all,

but in some rural or even


the time of the

was not

till

Norman
towns

Conquest that a movement began for systematically


placing
the
ecclesiastical

sees

in

the

chief

from that time the


territorial.

civic title

altogether displaces the

As Kent was
was fixed
It

the

first

part of Teutonic Britain to

accept Christianity, the metropolitan see of the south


at Canterbury, the capital of that
in a city

kingdom.

Canter-

was thus fixed

which has
which has

at

no time held
After
Rochester.

that temporal preeminence

in different ages

belonged to York, Winchester, and London.

Canterbury the

earliest

formed sees were Rochester for

182

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


tlie

West-Kentish kingdom, and London

for the East-

Saxons.
Ijondon.

The conversion

of the West- Saxons led to the


first at

foundation of the great diocese whose see was


Dorchester
or Winchester.

Dorchester on the

Thames and then


off.

at Winchester,

and

from which the sees of Sherhorne, Wells, and Ramsbury

Sherborne, \VeUs, IJamsbury.

were gradually parted


diocese with
settled
its

The East- Angles formed a


;

Elmham.

see at

Elmham

the Middle-Angles

down,

after

some

shiftings, into the vast diocese

stretching from the


I

Thames

to the

Ilumber, whose

see,

)orchester or Lincoln.

first at

Dorchester,

was afterwards translated

to Lincoln.

The West-Mercian lands formed the


Worcester,
lereford, Lichfield.
1

dioceses of the

Ilwiccas at Worcester, of the Magesastas at Hereford,

and the great diocese of


to the Eibble.
tribal
first

Lichfield, stretching

northward
see kept
its

Tlie South-Saxons,

whose

name down to

the

Norman

Conquest, had their see

at Selsey,

and then

at Chichester.

Devonshire and

Cornwall, after forming two dioceses, were, just before


the
Exeter.

Norman

Conquest, united under the single see of


too brought about the

Exeter.

The Conquest
submission

more
Sai7it

complete
The Welsh
Sees.

of the

four

Welsh

sees,

Damd's, Llandaff, Bangor, and Saint Asaph.


times just before

To

the

and

just after the Conquest belong

the union of Sherborne and


Salisbury, 1078.

Eamsbury

to

form the

diocese of Salisbury,

and the dismemberment of the


epi-

huge diocese of Lincoln by the foundation of an


Ely, 1109.

scopal see at Ely.

Thus the province of Canterbury


was gradually organized
in the

with

its

suffragan sees
it

form which
to that of

kept from the reign of Henry the First


the Eighth.

Henry

Meanwhile
York.

in the northern province things never

reached the same regular organization.

York,

after

some changes, took the


Lindisfarn

position of a metropolitan see,


'Ai

with one suffragan,

first

Lindisfarn and afterwards at

'

SCOTLAND AND IRELAND.

183
the Scottish
'

Durham, and another


'

at

Carlisle.

As
first

dioceses broke off from York, they

acknowledged
St.

YII.
^

chap.

or Durliam'

a kind of precedence in the Bishop of but


it

Andrews

Carlisle,

was not

till

a far later time that Scotland w^as

Saint

Andrews.

divided into two regular ecclesiastical provinces with


their sees at St. Andreics
iiXi(\.

1^71.

Glasgow.
^

Several of the
titles

?J^!*?'"'-

1492.

Scottish
their sees

dioceses always kept their territorial

were mostly fixed

in small places

and of the

chief seats of Scottish royalty, Dunfermline and Stirhng

never attained episcopal rank at


attained
it

all,

and Edinburgh only

Edinburgh.

in quite

modern

times.

The

endless and fluc-

tuating bishoprics of Ireland were in the twelfth century

gathered into the four provinces of Armagh, Dublin,


.

Cashel,

and Tuam, answering

to the temporal divisions


It is to

The four Irish provinces.

of Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connaught.

be noticed

that, in

marked

contradiction to continental

practice, the chief see in all the three British

kingdoms
first

has been placed in a city which has never held the

temporal rank.

Canterbury,

St.

Andrews, Armagh,

were never the temporal heads of England, Scotland,

and Ireland.
pohtan
sees,

York, Dublin, Glasgow, though metro-

were of secondary rank, and London and

Winchester were ordinary bishoprics.


6.

Tlie Ecclesiastical Divisions

of Northern

and

Eastern Europe.
In the other parts of Europe which formed part '
Ecciesiastical division

communion of the Latin Church, the ecclesiastical divisions mark the steps by which Christianity was spread either by conversion or conquest. They
of the

intheconverted
I'lnd"*-

continued the process of which the ecclesiastical organization of Eastern

Germany was

the beginning.

As

a rule, they strictly follow the political divisions of the

184

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.


age in

CPIAP.
VII.
The Scandi
iiavinn
l)rovinces.

As the Church in the Scandinavian kingdoms became more settled, its bishoprics parted off from their allegiance to Hamburg
wliicli

they were founded.

or Bremen, and each of the three

kingdoms formed

an

ecclesiastical

province,
earlier

whose boundaries exactly

answered to the
I>und, 1151.

boundaries of the kingdoms.

Denmark had
the Danish

its

metropohtan see iitLnnd,m that part of

kingdom which geographically forms part


is

of the greater Scandinavian peninsula, and which

now

Swedish

territory.

Its

boundary

to the south

was the

Eider, the old frontier of

The

suffragan sees of this province,

Denmark and the Empire. among which the


is

specially royal bishopric of Roeskild

the most famous,

naturally

lie

thicker on the ground than they do in

the wilder regions of the two more northern kingdoms.

But the Baltic conquests of Denmark


of the
isle

also placed part

of Eiigen in the

province of

Lund and

the

diocese of

Eoeskild, and also gave the Danish

metropolitan a far more distant suffragan in the Bishop


of Revel on the Finnish gulf.
L'psala.

The metropolitan
to the east of the

see of

Sweden was placed


carried

at

Upsala, and the province was

by Swedish conquest

Gulf of
in the

Bothnia, where the single bishopric of

Abo took

whole of the Swedish

territory

in

that region.

In

the like sort, the Norwegian province of Nidaros or


Tronfibjom.

TrondJijem stretched tar over the Ocean to the distant


colonies and dependencies of
land,

Norway in

Iceland, Green-

and Man.
of Poland and
tlie

Poland, &c.

The conversion

conquest of

Prussia and Livonia brought otlier lands within the pale


of the Latin Church and her ecclesiastical organization.

The
(iiiezua.

original

kingdom of Poland formed the province of

Gnezna, a province whose boundaries were for som-e

SCANDINAVIA AND POLAND.


centuries very fluctuating, according as Poland or the

185
chap.
'
"

Empire was stronger


Baltic.

in the

Slavonic lands

on the
caused

>

Each change
fall

of temporal dominion

the ecclesiastical frontiers of


to

Gnezna and Magdebirrg


Silesian

advance or

back.
its

The

bishopric of

Breslau always kept

old relation to the Polish meit

tropohs, except so far as

was held

to be placed

under

the immediate superiority of

Eome.

The later union of


added a
Lithua-

Lithuania to the Polish kingdom

nian and a Samogitian bishopric to the original Polish


province.

The

earlier Polish conquests

from Eussia

K'k=i-

formed a new province, the Latin province of Leopol


or Lemberg, a province whose southern boundaries ad-

i-eopi-i

vanced and

fell

back along with the boundary of the


it

kingdom

of which

formed a

part.

The conquests

of

the Teutonic knisjhts in Prussia and Livonia formed the


ecclesiastical province of

Riga, which was divided into


in
its

two parts by the province of Gnezna


extent.

greater

It will

be seen that some of the

ecclesiastical divi-

sions last

mentioned belong

to a later stage of

European

history than the point Avhich

we have
tlie

reached in our
to continue

general narrative.

But

it

seemed better

the survey over the whole of

Latin Church in

Europe, as the later foundations are a mere carrying


out of the same process which began in the earlier.

The
are

ecclesiastical divisions represent the political divisions

of the

time,

whether
or

those

political

divisions

Eoman
once

provinces

independent Teutonic or Slaecclesiastical divisions,

vonic kingdoms.
fixed,

But the

when

were

more

lasting

tlian

the temporal

divisions,

and many disputes have

arisen out of pohtical

186
CHAP,
^

ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE.

changes which transferred one part of a province or


^

diocese from one pohtical allegiance to another.

Since

the splitting-up of the Western Church, the old ecclesiastical

organization has altogether vanished from

some

countries,

and has been greatly modified in


of
all.

others, in

Germany most
It

seems hardly needful for the understanding of


to carry

European history

our ecclesiastical survey be-

yond the

limits

of the Latin Church,

One

of the

Polish pro\inces, that of Leopol, has carried us to the

borderland of the Eastern and Western Churches, and,


if

we

pass

southwards into the Magyar and South-

Slavonic lands,
Hungary.
strigonium.
Koiocza.

we

find ourselves

still

more

distinctly

Qu au

ccclcsiastical

march.

The Kingdom of Hungary

formcd two Latiu provinces, those of Strigonium or


Gran, and of Kolocza
;

the latter has a very fluctuating

boundary
Daimatia.

to

the south.
all

The Dalmatian

coast,

the

borderland of

powers and of

all religions,

formed

thrcc Latiu proviuccs,


ninsula,

Jadera or Zara^ on her pechiefly


his

was the head of a small province Another metropolitan had

made

up of

islands.

throne in

the very mausoleum of Diocletian, and the province of


Spaiato.

Spalato stretched some

have so often changed masters.


Kagusa.

way inland over the lands which To the south, the see
its

of Ragusa, the furthest outpost of Latin Christendom


]:)roperly so called,

had, besides

own

coasts

and
our

islands,

an indefinite frontier inland.


extent
to

This marks the

furthest

which
It is

it

is

ueedfid to trace

ecclesiastical

map.

the furthest point at which

Latin Christianity can be said to be in any sense at home.

The
but

ecclesiastical

organization of the
furtlier to the south

crusading and

Venetian conquests
little

and

east

have

bearing on historical geography.

But, within

'

SUMMARY.
the bounds of Latin

187
ecclesiastical
"

Christendom, the

chap.

divisions both of the provinces

and dioceses within the


call the

older

Empire and what we may


it,

missionary

provinces beyond

are of the highest importance, and

they should always be kept in mind alongside of the


pohtical geography.

188

CHAPTEE

VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


CHAP.
VIII.

The

division of

887 parted

off

from the general mass

of the Frankish dominions a distinct


(lorn of

Kingdom of
its

the

the

East-Fvanks. the acknowledged head of the Frankish

East-

Franks or of Gerwnmj.

kingdoms, which, as being distinguished from


1

fellows

as the

Regnuin

-nt

m Teutonicum.^ may
'

be best spoken of as a
lasting acquisition of

Kingdom of Germany.
Merging of tlie King>iom in the

But the

the Italian and Imperial crowns

by the German

kings,

and

thclr later acquisition of the

kingdom
of the

of Burgundy,

sfradually tended to

obscure the notion of a distinct

Empire.

German kingdom.
merged
a part.

The

idea

Kingdom was
it

in the idea of the

Empire of which
fell off

formed

Later events too tended in the same direction.

The Empe- Tlic Italian


Italy and IJiirgundy,

kingdom gradually
its

allegiance to *
^}jg

nominal

kino; o the

but keep

dermany.

sreater part of the Burgundian king-dom. O 1

while, though the powers of the

do
of

from any practical So did

Emperor. 1
as

Mean-

Emperors

German
was

kings were constantly lessening,

their authority

never wholly thrown off

till

the present century.

The
and
In
at
it

Emperors

in

short lost their


their

kingdoms of

Italy

Burgundy, and kept

kingdom

Germany.

the fifteenth century the coronation of the

Emperor

Eome had become


no

a mere ceremony, carrying with

real authority in Italy.

In the sixteenth century


Tlie

the ceremony itself went out of use.

Burgundian

THE THREE KINGDOMS.


coronation at Aries became irregular at a very early
time,

189

and

it is

last

heard of in the fourteenth century.


at Frankfurt,
Aries, i365
1792.

But the election of the German kings


their coronation, in earlier times at
at Frankfurt,

Aachen, afterwards
the last years of the

went on regularly

till

eighteenth century.
of Italy and

So, while the national assembhes


said to have

Burgundy can hardly be


all,
1

been
Endurance
of the GerDiet,

regularly held at

while they went altogether out of

use at an early tune, the national assembly ot Germany, man


in

-1

/-(

one shape or another, never ceased as long as there

w^as

any one

calling himself

The tendency
in

in all three

Emperor or German King. kingdoms was to split up


and commonwealths.
But
one

into separate principalities

Germany

the

principalities

and commonwealths

always kept up some show of connexion with


another,

some show of

allegiance

to their

Imperial Companalto- many,

head.
gether.

In Italy and Biu-gundy they parted off

Some became
dependencies

absolutely independent

were
their

Burglmdj^

incorporated with
distant

other
;

kingdoms or became

some were even held by the

Emperors themselves

in

some other

character,

and not

by

virtue either of their

Empire or of
1

their local kingTheEmpire


identitied

ship.
,

Thus, as the Empire became more and more


.

nearly coextensive with the


distinction

n T-(jrerman iungdom,
1

the

with

Germany.

between the two was gradually forgotten.


parts of the other

The smaU

kingdoms which kept any

trace of their Imperial allegiance


as parts of

came

to

be looked on

Germany.

In short, the Western Empire


;

became a German kingdom

or rather

it

became a

TheEmpire
Confederation.

German Confederation with a


which
still

royal head, a confederation


titles

kept up the forms and

of the Empire.
1530.

As no German king received an Imperial coronation


after Charles

the Fifth,

it

might in

strictness

be said

190
CHAP,
VIII
1556

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


that the

Empire came

to

an end at his abdication.

And

in truth

from that date the Empire practically beBut, as the Imperial

came a purely German power.


forms and
titles
still

went on, the Western Empire


as

must be looked on

surviving, in the

form of a
to
its

German kingdom
fall.

or confederation,

down

final

The Ger-

man KingdomrepreEmpire.

The Kinffdom
*p

of

Germany then may be looked on


.

as representing the
-^^q jgf^ Qf i\^q
it

Western Empire,

as being

what

^estcm Empire
away.

after the other parts of


itself

had

fallen

But the German kingdom

underwent, though in a smaller degree, the same fate


Separation of parts of the King-

as the otlicr

two Imperial kino-doms.

and
fell

all

Burgundy, with some very


the

...
Still

While

all

Italy
.

trifling

exceptions,

away from
lost to the

Empire, the mass of Germany


large
less

remained

Imperial.

parts

of

Germany

were

Empire no

than Italy and Bur-

gundy,

considerable territory on the western and

south-western frontier of

Part
states

of this
;

territory

Germany gradually fell away. has grown into independent

part has been incorporated with the French

kingdom.

The Swiss Confederation has grown up on

lands partly German, partly Burgundian, partly Italian,

but of which the oldest and greatest part belonged to


the

German kingdom.

The
^

Confederation

of

the

United Provinces, represented by the modern kingdom


of the Netherlands, lay wholly

within the old

kingdom

so did

by

far the greater part

German of the modern


the

kingdom of Belgium.
Modern
Austria.
*

In our

own day

same
of

ten-

dency has been shewn in south-eastern as well as


soutli-westcm

Germany

several

members

the

Unless we except the small part of Flanders held by the Con-

federation.

'

THE KINGDOM AND THE EMPIRE.


ancient

191
chap.

kingdom have

fallen

away

to

form part of the

Austro-Hunganan monarchy.

But on the northern

and north-eastern frontier the tendency to extension,


with some fluctuations, has gone on from the beginning
of the
Extension
to the north-east.

kingdom

to

our own day.


-,

This tendency to lose


T

territory to the west

and south, and

to

gam

territory to

the east and north, had the effect of gradually cutting


off the
,
.

Western Empire,
-,

as represented
,
1

by the Ger1
.

Geographical contrast of the earlier and later i:mpire.

man kingdom, trom any


.

close geographical connexion

With the earlier Empire


torical

of which

it

was the

his-

continuation.
its

The Holy Eoman Empire,


contained but
little

at

the time of

final fall,

territory
It

which had formed part of the Empire of Trajan.

contained nothing which had formed part of the Empire


of Justinian, save

some small scraps of

territory in the

north-eastern corner of the old Italian kingdom. o

1.

The Kingdom of Germany.


change
in

In tracing out, for our present purpose, the geographical revolutions of

Germany,

look at them, as far as


aspect.

may be, mainly in

...
it

will

be enough to

graphyand
noinenclafu^ of oer-

their

European ^

many.

various

Owing to the gradual way in which the members of the Empire grew into practical

sovereignty
palities

owing

to the constant division of princi-

among many members of the same family no country has undergone so many internal geographical changes as Germany has. In few countries also has the nomenclature shifted in a more singular way. To take two obvious examples, the modern kingdom of Saxony has nothing but its name in common with the
Saxony which was brought under the Frankish dominion by Charles the Great.
of Bavaria

Ancient

saxollya^

The modern kingdom

has a considerable territory in

common

192

THE IMPEEIAL laNGDOMS.


with the ancient Bav^aria
at
;

but

it

has gained so

much
two

one end and

lost so

much

at the other that the

cannot be said to be in any practical sense the same


Uses of the

name
Austria.

country.

The name of Austria has


and

shifted

from the

eastern part of the old Frmicia to the


against the Magyar,
it

German mark
The

has lately wandered altofrontier.

gether beyond
Burgundy,

the

modern German

name
state

of

Burgundy

has borne endless meanings, both


it.

within the Empire and beyond


of

Lastly, the ruling

modern Germany, a
to

state

stretching across

the whole land from east


Prussia.

west,

strangely bears
extinct Prussian

the
race.

name

of

the conquered

and

Many

of these changes affect the history of Eu;

rope as well as the history of Germany


of the endless changes

but

many

among

the smaller

members

of the

Empire are

matters of purely local interest,


historical

which belong to the


only,

geography of Germany
in the historical geo-

and which claim no place


I shall

graphy of Europe.
present section,
the

endeavour therefore in the

first to

trace c^arefully the shiftings of

German

frontier

as regards

other powers,

and

then to bring out such, and such only, of the internal

changes as have a bearing on the general history of


Europe.

Extent of the Kingdom,

The cxtcut of
after

tlic

Gemiau kingdom
has
well to go over

as

it

stood

the division
It will

of 887

been roughly traced


its

already.

now be

frontiers

somewhat more minutely,


final separation
Boundaries under the Ottos, 9361002.

as they stood at the time of

between the Empire and the Westfinal

Frankish kingdom, the time of


^

union between the

mi This marks the Empire and the East-Frankish kmcrdom. ^ The frontier towards the great age of the Saxon Ottos.
^
^
-i

BOUNDARIES OF THE GERMAN KINGDOM.


Western kingdom was
it
is

193

now

fairly

ascertained,

and
It
all

was subject
in

to

dispute only at a few points.


insist

.
fowTais'tiie

chap.

hardly needful to

again on the fact that


of

Lotharingia,
all

the sense

those days, taking in

l^^^^j.
'"^''"^

the southern Netherlands except the French fief

of Flanders,
line that the

was now Imperial.

It

is

along this
EncroachFrance"

German border
back.

has in later times most


of
;

largely fallen

The advance

France
but
it

has
has,

touched Burgundy more than Germany


first

swallowed up, and afterwards partly restored,


of the

a considerable part

German kingdom.

The
TUeNether-

Netherlands had been practically so cut off from Ger-

many

before the annexations of France in that quarter

began, that they will be better spoken of in another


section.

The other

points

at

which the

frontier

has fluctuated on a great scale have been the border


land
of Lorraine

as

distinguished from the c

Lower
his-

r Lorraine

Lotharingia which
tory

has

more

to

do with

the

=''1F'1^^^-

of

the Netherlands

and
,

the Swabian

land of
Fiuctuationsof Bar.

Elsass.

--,,,,, borderlaud, fluctuated


,

The Duchy

of Bar,

the borderland of the


once.
it

more than
In

After

its
1473.

union with the Duchy of Lorraine,


fortunes of that state.

followed the

the next century

came

The Three
15.52?^"''^'

the annexation of the

three Lotharingian bishoprics

of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, which gave France three

outlying
of

possessions within the geographical borders

the

Lotharingian duchy.
result

In the next century.

Loss of

as the

of the Thirty Years'

War, France ob-

eisLs!^"

tained

these conquests,
frontier

by the Peace of Westfalia the formal cession of and also the great advance of her
by the dismemberment of
Elsass.

The

cession

now made

did not take in the whole of Elsass, but only

the possessions and rights of the

House of Austria

in

194

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


that country.
-

CHAP,

This cession

still

left

both Strassburg

. and various smaller towns and


but
it

districts to the

Empire

naturally opened the

way

to

further French

advances in a land where the frontier was so complicated and where


Gradual anEkass, 1679-1789.
Seizure of
1G81.
"'

difficulties

were

so easily raised as to

trcaty-rights.

A
all

scrics of annexations, rJimz(??is as

they

were
^

called, gradually all Elsass to France. united nearly J O J


^

btvassbuvg^ as

the world knows, was seized

by Lewis

the Fourteenth in time of peace.


tlic

During the wars with

Seizure of Lorraine, 1678-1697.


Its final
1766.'
'

sauic priucc, the


^

duchy of Lorraine was seized and


it

restored.

In the next century


to

was separated from

the

Empire

become the

life-possession of the
it

Pohsh
added

'

king Stanislaus, and on his death

was

finally

to France just before a far greater series of


Loss of the
the Rhine,

French

annexations began.

The wars of the French Revolution,


Empire
all

Confirmed by the Peace of Luneville, tore away from

1801

Germany and
of the Ehine.
the

the

that lay on the left

bank
the
last

In other words, the Western Francia,


lords of Paris,

duchy of the

advanced

itself to

utmost limits of the Gaul of

Caesar.

This was the

annexation of France at the expense of the old

German

kingdom.
Dissolution of the

It

was indeed the main cause of the formal

dissolutiou of the
later.

kingdom which happened a few years


''

Kinadom
and Empire, 1806.

The

uttcr transformation of Germany wlthiu aud

without wliich
later stage.

uow

followcd must be spoken of at a

Frontier of

Tlic frontier of
Still

Germany and Burgundy, while they


kingdoms, fluctuated a good

and'sm^" ''
Union of

remained

distinct

deal, especially in the lands

which now form Switzerbe of any practical

land.

But

this frontier ceased to

whjfthe^
1033."^^'

importance when the Burgundian kingdom was united


with the Empire.
sisting

The

later history of

Burgundy, con-

of the gradual incorporation by France of the

'

BOUNDARIES TOWARDS FRANCE AND ITALY.


greater part of the kinardom, and the growth of the

1U5
f'HAP.
"-

remnant

into

the western cantons of the Swiss Con-

<.f

federation, will be told elsewhere.

Towards
^

Italy again the frontier


. .

was sometimes
.

Frontier

Germany
and
itaiy.

doubtful.

Chiavenna, tor instance, sometimes appears

in the tenth

and eleventh centuries

as

German

so

do

the greater districts of Trent, Aquileia, Istria, and even

Verona.
in the

All these formed a marchland, part of which TheMarch^


'

land.

end became
,.

definitely attached to

part to Italy.

But here again,

as
1

Germany and long as the German


T

and Itahan crowns were united, and

as long as their
in either king-

union of the Crow nH,


96i-i5;io.

common
dom, the
So in

king kept any real authority


frontier

was of no great

practical importance,

oei-i-ioo.

later times,

both before and after the dissolution


the question has practically

of the

German Kingdom,

been a question between Italy and the


rather than between Italy and

House of Austria
such.

Germany as

These

changes also wiU better come in another section.

The

case

is

quite

different

with regard to the

Eastemand
frontiers,

eastern and

northern frontiers, on which the really

greatest changes took place,

and where Germany,

as
Advance
Empire.

Germany, made
the

its

greatest advances.

Along

this line

Eoman Empire and the German Kingdom meant the same thing. On this side the frontier had to be marked,
so far as
it

could be marked, against nations whicli


to

had had nothing


then for
fell

do with the elder Empire.

Here

many

ages the

Eoman Terminus advanced and


of the

back

according to the accidents of a long warfare.


frontier

The whole
series of

kingdom towards
whose
rulers

its

northern and eastern neighbours was defended by a

marks or border

territories

were

clothed with special powers for the defence and exten2

196
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL laNGDOMS.


sion of the frontier.^

They had

to guard

the reahii

against the

Dane

in the north,

and against the Slave

during the whole remaining length of the eastern frontier,

except where, in the

last

years of the ninth century,

the
Huntrarian
frontier.

Magyar
Croatia,

thrust himself in

between the northern and

southern Slaves.

Here the

frontier, as against

and
Mark
of Austria.

was defended by the marks of

Hungary Krain or

Carniola, Kdimthen or Carinthia, and the Eastern or

Austrian mark to the north of them.


Little

This frontier

has changed

least of all.

It

may, without any great


now.

change on
this-

breach of accuracy, be said to have remained the

frontier.

same from the days of the Saxon Emperors

till

The part where


the south

it

was

at all fluctuating

was along the

Austrian mark, i-ather than along the two marks to


Occasional

of

it.

The Emperors claimed, and someHunga-

homage of Hungary to
the

times enforced, a feudal superiority over the


rian kings.

Em-

jierors.

But this kind of precarious submission does

not affect geography.


separate

Hungary always remained a


it

kingdom

the Imperial supremacy was some-

thing purely external, and

was always thrown

off

on the
Frontier

first

opportunity.

towards

Denmark.

The Danish
Mark, 9341027,

The same may be said of Denmark. For a short time a German mark was formed north of the Eider. But, when the Danish kingdom had grown into the
Northern Empire of Cnut, the German frontier
here
also,
fell

back

Boundary
of the Eider,

and the Eider remained the boundary of the


its

Empire
;

till

fall.

As with Hungary,

so with

Denof

1027-1806.
Occasional

mark more than one Danish king became


Csesar
;

the

man

homage

of

the Danish Kings.

but here again the precarious acknowledgement

of Imperial supremacy had no effect on geography.


It
1

Slavonic
frontier.

is

in

tlie

intermediate

lands,

along the

vast

On

the marks, see Waitz,

Deutsche

Verfassungsgeschichten,

vii.

62, et seq.


EASTERN AND NOHTHERN FRONTIERS.
frontier

197
chap.
.

where the Empire marched on the northern


.

VIII.

Slavonic lands, that the real historical geography of

Germany

lies for

some

ages.

ever nuctuatmg.
the Slaves held
to the west.

At the time
all east

Here the boundary was T nn


Fluctuation
*^'*

of the division oi 887,

r*

hr

territoiv.

of the Elbe and a good deal

Extent of

How
is

far

they had during the Wandering

of the Nations stepped into the place of earlier Teutonic inhabitants


field of inquiry.

a question which belongs to another

We

must here

start

from the geo-

graphical fact that, at the time

when

the

modern

states

of Europe began to form themselves, the Slaves were


actually in possession of the great North-Eastern region

of modern

Germany. Their special mention


;

will

come in
modern

their special place

we must here mark

that

Germany has

largely formed itself

by the gradual con-

quest and colonization of lands which at the end of the


ninth century were Slavonic.

spread

itself far to

the North-East, and

The German kingdom German settlefar be-

ments and German influences spread themselves

yond the formal bounds of the German kingdom. Three


special instruments
this end.

worked together

in bringing about

The Saxon Dukes came

first.

In after times
the famous

came the great league of German

cities,

Hansa which, like some


cial,

other bodies originally

commer-

became

apolitical power,

and which spread German

influences over the whole of the shores of the Baltic.

Along with them, from the thirteenth century onwards,

worked the great military order of the Teutonic


Out of
the
their conquests

knights.

came

the

first

begiunings of the

Prussian state, and the extension of

German rule and German speech over much which in modern geoIn a history of the Gernation
all

graphy has become Eussian.

man

tliese

causes would have to be dealt

198
CHAP.

THE IMPERIAL

KIXGDO:\IS.

vm.

with together as joint instruments towards the same


end.

In a purely geographical view the case

is

different.

Some
actual

of these influences concern the formation of the

German kingdom
to

others have geographically

more

do with the group of powers more to the northSlavonic states of Poland and Eussia, and their

east, the

Lithuanian and Finnish neighbours.


fall

The

orrowth and

of the military orders will therefore most natu-

rally

come

in another section.

We

have here to trace

out those changes only which helped to give the Ger-

man kingdom
Beginning
Slave,

tlie definite

geographical extent which


its final fall.

it

held for some centuries before

at the north, in the lands

where German,

and Dane came into


the Elbe, the

close contact, in

Saxony

beyond
The Saxon Mark.

modern

Holstein, the Slaves held

the western coast, and the narrow


off the

Saxon mark fenced


of the house
in the

German

laud.

The Saxon dukes

of theBillungs, 9G01106.

Mark

of Billung formed a

German mark, which took


But

lands reaching from the Elbe to the strait which divides


the
isle

of Eiigen from the mainland.


It

this posses-

Its fliictua
ticill.i.

sion

was altogether precarious.

again became a Sla-

vonic
it

kingdom

then

it

was a possession of Denmark

cannot be looked on as definitely becoming part

of the

German
the

i-ealm

till

the thirteenth century.


till

The
later

chief state in
Slavonic
princes coutiniie in

these lands which has lasted

times
in its

is

duchy of Mecklenburg, the


divisions, are the only

rulers of which,

two modern

modern

princes

Mecklenburg.

who

directly represent an

old Slavonic royal house.


for a vast extension of

Meanwhile a way was o])ened

German
Foundation
of Llibecli,
IMO-llfi!^.

influence through

the whole North,

by the

growth of the
second time
it

city of Lubeck.

Twice founded, the

by Henry the Lion Duke of Saxony,

gradually became the leading

member

of the great


ADVANCE AGAINST THE SLAVES.
merchant Leas^ue.

'

199

To

the south of these lands

those Slavonic lands which have

grown

into

come the mo-

chap.
^

dern kingdom of Saxony and the central parts of the

Towns.

modern kingdom of
marchlands, a

Prussia.

These were

specially
March-

name which some of them have kept down to our own day. The mark of Brandenburg in its various divisions, the mark of Lausitz or Liisatia, where a Slavonic remnant still lingers, and the mark of Meissen, long preserved the memory of the times when these lands, which afterwards came to play so
great a part in the internal history of
still

Brandenburg.
Lausitz.

Meissen.

Germauy, were

outlying and precarious possessions of the

German

realm.

To
history

the south-east lay the

Bohemian lands, whose has been somewhat different. The duchy, after'

wards king;dom, o^ Bohemia,hecime, early in the tenth ^


. .

Bohemia a
lief,

928.

century, a fief of the

ever afterwards,

German kingdom. From that time save during one moment of passing
it

Becomes a
""''

ilgf.
loos.

Polish annexation,
bers, ruled, as

remained one of

its

principal

mem-

long as the Empire lasted, by princes

holding electoral rank.


itself

The boundaries
all.

of the

kingdom

have hardly varied at

The dependent marchMoravia.


ioi9.

land of Moravia to the east, the remnant of the great

Moravian kingdom whose history

will

come more

fit-

tingly in another chapter, fluctuated for a long while

between Hungarian, Polish, and Bohemian supremacy.


But from the early part of the eleventh century
remained under Bohemian
Imperial superiority.
rule,
it

and therefore under

To

the east of this nearer zone Moredisvonic

of Slavonic dependencies, lay an,other range of Slavonic


states,

some of which were gradually incorporated

with the
distinct

German kingdom, while others remained down to modern times. Pomerania on the

Pomerania.

200
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


Baltic coast
its
is

name which has


and
its

often changed both


political

geographical extent
eastern part of

allegiance.

The

the

land

now

so

called lay

open, as will be hereafter seen, to the occupation of


the Pole, and
its

western part to that of the Dane.


it

But

in

the

end

took

its

place

on the map

in

the form of two duchies, ruled, like Mecklenburg,


Native
jirinees

by

native princes under Imperial supremacy.

South of

Pomerania, the German march bordered on the growPolish


frontier.

ing

power of Poland, and between Poland and HunCroatia


or
Chrobatia.
to

gary lay the northern

The

German supremacy seems sometimes


extended as
land, even
(

have been

far as the

Wartha, and, in the Chrobatian

beyond the Vistula.


;

But

this

occupation was

K;casional

quite

momentary

Poland grew up,

like

Hungary,

as

homage of
the Polish
Jiinffs.

a kingdom, some of whose dukes and kings admitted


the Imperial supremacy, but which gradually

became
Silesia,

Silesia

wholly independent.
after

The border province of

Polish, 999,

some

fluctuations

between Bohemia and Poland,

became
tury.

definitely Polish at the

end of the tenth ceninto several princi-

Afterwards

it

was divided

palities,
Bohemian,
1289-1^27.

whose dukes passed under Bohemian vassalage,

and so became members of the Empire.

Thus

in the

course of some ages, a boundary was drawn between

Germany and Poland which


times.

lasted dow^n

to

modern

Extension
of the l^mlire to the
;it

The
the
a

rcsiilt
_

of

tliis

survcv
*'

is

to

show how

irreat,
_

and

thc sauic time

how

gradual, was the exten.sion of

German power
in

eastward.

A Eoman

Empire with

long Baltic coast was something that had never been


earlier days.
tlie

dreamed of

If the extension of the

German name was but

recovery of

long

lost

'

COLONIZATION OF THE SLAVONIAN LANDS.


Teutonic lands, the extension to them of
rial

201

name which had become identified with Germany was at least wholly new. In all the lands ,. now annexed, save in a tew exceptional districts, German annexation meant German colonization, and
,
. .

...
,

tlie

Irape-

VIII.
vonic lands

chap.

Germanized.

the assimilation of the

surviving

inhabitants to the
Colonists

speech and

manners of Germany.

were

brought, specially from the Frisian lands, by wdiose

means the Low-Dutch tongue was spread along the


Avhole southern coast of the Baltic.

German

cities

were

founded.
states.

The marchlands grew

into powerful

German

At last one of tliese marchlands, united with German conquest still further cut off from the heart of the old German realm, has grown into a state whicli in our own days has become the Imperial power of
a

Germany.

The

internal

geography of the German kingdom

is

interaai

the greatest difficulty of such a


trace the boundaries of the

work as the present. To kingdom as against other


;

oiGermany.

kingdoms

is

comparatively easy

but to trace out the


divisions, of the

endless shiftings, the unions


countless small principalities

and the

and commonwealths which


liopeless attempt.
of the principanties.

arose within the kingdom,


Still

would be a
_

the growth of the dukes, counts, and other princes Growth


_
_

of

Germany into independent feature of German history, as


the special feature of

sovereigns

is

the great

the consequent wiping

out of old divisions, and shifting to and fro of old names,


is

German
old

historical

geography.
historical changes
^^i^e-

The dying out of the


interest,

names has a

in

nomencla-

and the growth of the new powers whicii


historical

have supplanted them has both an


political interest.
It is

and a

specially important to

mark

202

THE IMPEIilAL KINGDOMS.

how

the two powers which have stood at the head of


iu

Germany

modern times

in

no way represent any of

the old divisions of the

German name.

They have
against the

grown out of the outlying mark& planted


Slave and the Magyar.

The mark of Brandenburg, the

mark

against the Slave, has

grown
of

into the

kingdom of

Germany in its latest form. The Eastern mark, the mark against the Magyar, has grown into the archduchy which gave Germany so
Prussia, the Imperial state

many
Analogies between
I'randenliurg

kings, into the so-called Austrian

'

empire,' into

and

monarchy of our own day. The growth of Brandenburg or Prussia again affords an
the Austro-Hungarian
instructive

other

marchla luls.

comparison with the growth of Wessex in

England, of France in Gaul, and of Castile in Spain.


In
all

these cases

alike,

it

has

been a marchland

which has come

to the front

and has become the head

of the united nation.


I'he

great

Starting from
several

the division of 887,

we

shall find

Duchies under the


Srixon and
i''raukish

important landmarks in the

history

of

the

Kings, 9191125.

German kingdom which may


difficult

help us in this

most

part of our

work.

Under the Saxon and


still

Prankish kings
the

we

see the great duchies

forming

main

divisions, while the

kingdom

is

enlarged by
definite ad-

Slavonic conquests to the east and


Decline of tlie Duchies
iiuder the

hesion of Lotharingia to the west.


kings

by the Under

the Swabian

we

see the break-up of the great duchies.


tlie

In

Swahian
Kings,
11.S7-1254.

the partition of Saxony

process which was everyat

where
iMid of
aiing.

silently

and gradually
the greatest

work was formally


all

carried out
tiie

in

case of

by Imperial
the imfinally

and national authority.


changes into a system of
only by the

The Gauverfassung,
territorial principalities,

(iiiuverj'as-

memorial system of Teutonic communities, now

(iniwtli of
territorial

broken

Principalities.

many

free cities

and the few

free districts

THE DUCHIES AND THE CIKCLES.


which owned no lord but the
too
Kinor.

203

During o

this period
,
.

we

see the beoinnings '^ ^ of


^

powers which some of the ^


of the eastern powers '
_

^-

VIII.

chap.

became chief

at a later day, the

Growth of the march


powers.

marchland, Brandenburg, Austria, Saxony in the later


sense.

1254-1512.

The time from

the so-called Interregnum to the


is

legislation

under Maximilian

marked by

the further
Growth
of

growth of these powers.


of the Imperial crown

It is

further marked by the

beginning of that connexion of the Austrian duchy, and


itself,

of Austria.

with lands beyond the


in

bounds of the Kingdom and the Empire which led

the end to the special and anomalous position of the

House of Austria
land

as an

European power. ^
'-

During the

.of

Separation bwitzer-

same period comes the


im(\.

practical separation of Switzer-

i^'jj^d,

1495-

t\iQ
it

Netherlands iYom. the


this

In short
1

was dm'ing
1

age that

German Germany

wtheXekingdom. O
therlandf!.

in

its

later

ii^o-ieiy.

aspect was formed.

The
T

the attempts then


/.

made

legislation of Maximihan's reign, Lepsiatiou under Max1 1 1 1 to brino; the kmwlom to a oreater imiiian,
.

1495-1512.

degree of unity, have


in the division of
.

left

their

mark on geography
This division,
it
Division
"'**' circles,
^

though

it

ii'TT aid not was not perfectly complete, though


n
1

Germany

into circles.

1500-1512.

extend to every corner of the kingdom, was


administrative division of the

strictly

an

kingdom

itself as

such

but the mapping out of the


in point of size
is

circles, the difference

of which

remarkable, was

itself affected

by the

geographi(;al extent of the dominions of the princes

who
is

Thirty
i6i8-i648.'

held lands within them.

The seventeenth century

marked by the
other changes.

results of the Tliirty Years'


Its

War and

of

most important geographical

result
powers
iands"within

was

to carry

on the process which had begun with the


Thus, beside

Austrian House, the formation of powers holding lands

both within and without the Empire.


the union of
tiie

Germany.
Sweden,

Hungarian kingdom with the Austrian

archduchy, the King of Sweden

now held

lands as a

204
CHAP,

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

'

prince of the Empire, and the same result was brought

'

urandenliurg and
I'lussia.

way by the union of the Electorate of Branclcnburg with the Duchy of Prussia. This, and other accessions of territory, now made Brandenburg as distinctly the first power of nortliern Germany as
about
in

another

Austria was of southern Germany, and in the eighteenth


Rivairj-of
Austria.

ccntury the rivalry of these two powers becomes the


chicf ccutrc, uot ouly of
Tlic uuiou of
,

Hannover and Great


Britain, 1715.

tlic
,

German but of European politics. Elcctoratc of Haunovcr under the


,
.
. ,

with the kingdom of Great Britam samc sovereigu ^ ^


.

further increased the

number

of princes ruling both


it.

within

Germany and without

Lastly, the wars of

the latter years of the eighteenth and the beginning of


Dissolution of the Kingdom, 1806.

the nineteenth century led to the dissolution alike of


-^
_

the

German kingdom and

of

the

Koman

Empire.

Then, after a time of confusion and foreign occupation,


TheGerman couics tlic
Confederation,

fomiatiou of a Confederation with boundaries

1816-

nearly the same as the later boundaries of the kincjdom.

But the Confederation now appears


subordinate to
such,
Austria and Prussia
greater than the confedera-

as something quite

its

tw^o leading

members.

Germany,

as

no longer counts

as

a great European power,


the

but Prussia and


oiice of

Austria,

two chief holders

at

Gemiaii and of non-German lands, stand forth


chicf bcarcrs of

amoug thc

European rank.

Lastly, the

changes of our
The new
Confederation and

own day have

given us an Imperial

Germany with geographical boundaries altogether new. a Germany from which the south-eastern German lands
are cut
off,

Empire,
1866-1870.

while the Polish and other non-German

possessions of Prussia to the north-east have

become
to the

an integral part of the new Empire.


geographer
last
is

The

task of the

thereby greatly simplified.

Down

changes, one of his greatest

difficulties is to

make

his

map show

with any clearness wliat was the extent

THE DUCHIES.
of the

205

German Kingdom

or Confederation, and at the

same time what was the extent of the dominions of those princes who held lands both in Germany and out
of
is
it.

By

the last arrangements this difficulty at least

altogether taken away.

map of Germany under the Saxon and Frankish Kmgs, we see that the old names, marking ^ ^ the great divisions of the German people, still keep
If

we

look at the
1
, , ,

1111

Germany
under the Saxon and Frankish Empire,

their predominance.

The kingdom

is still

made up
the

of

the four great duchies, the Eastern Francia, Saxony, The great

Alemannia, and Bavaria, together with


border-land of Lotharingia.
duchies, to w^hich
all

great

These are

still

the gTeat

smaller divisions are subordinate.


'

Amonff ~

the kernel of the kino-dora, the Eastern these, ' o


'

Francia,

is

the only one whose boundaries had


'

little

Eastern Francia cut off from extension.

or no chance of being extended or lessened at the cost of foreign powers.


It

had the smallest possible


the other hand,
./

frontier
Frontier
j)Osition oi

towards the Slave.

On

an Saxony ^ has

the Slave and the ever fluctuatino; O boundary asrainst O Dane Bavana marches upon the Slave, the Magyar,
;

|axony,
Bavaria,
l^^^linilf

and the Kingdom of


shifting frontier

Italy, while

Alemannia has a
Italy.
position of

towards

both Burgundy and


^

lands which
'

Lotharinffia,

and Burgundy & J


_

are the Exposed after its annexation, '


aofo-ression
C30

lie

exposed to ^
this

from the West.

It

is

perhaps for

very reason that, of the four

Lotharmgia and Burgudy-

duchies which preserve the names of the four great


divisions of the

German

nation, the Eastern Francia

is

vanishing
of Francia.

the one which has most utterly vanished

from the

modern map and from modern memory.


cause

Another

may have

strengthened

its

tendency to vanish.

The pohcy

of the kings forbade that the Frankish

duchy

should become the abiding heritage of any princely

206
CHAP.
VIII.
Its eccle-

THE mPERlAL KINGDOMS.


family.

The ducal
its

title

of the Eastern Francia was at

two periods of
siastical

history borne

by ecclesiastical princes
;

in the persons of the

Bishops of Wiirzburg

but

it

never

Dukes.

gave
Analogy
with Wesscx.

its

name,

like

Saxony and Bavaria,


the ancient

to

any ruling

house.

The

English student will notice the analogy


all

by which, among

English kingdoms,
is

Wessex, the cradle of the English monarchy,

the one

whose name has most

utterly vanished

from modern

memory.

The only way to grasp the endless shiftings and divisions of the German principalities, so as to give
anything like a clear general view, will be to take the
great duchies, and to point out in a general
steps

way

the

by which they

split

asunder, and the chief states

of any historical importance which rose out of their


(irowth of

divisions.

new powers
in the

Most of these new powers begin


in

to

be of
is

twelfth century.

importance
specially

the twelfth century, a time which


as the asra

marked

when

those two states

which have had most to do with the making or unBrandenburg and


Austria.

making of modern Germany begin to find their place in history. It is then that the two great marchlands
of Brandenburg and Austria begin to take their place

among
The
Circles.

the leading powers of the

German kingdom.
be well to bear
in

And,

in

making

this survey,

it

will

mind the much


an attempt to

later division into circles.

The

circles,

create administrative divisions of the

kingdom

as such, were, in a faint

way, a return to the

ancient duchies, the names of which

were to some
circles,

extent retained.

Thus we have the two Saxon


tliree

Upper and Lowei\ and the


and Bavaria.

of Franconia, Swahia,

All of these

keep up the names of

ancient duchies, and most of

them keep up a stronger


with the ancient

or fainter

geographical connexion

THE DUCHY OF SAXONY.


lands whose names they bore.

207
circles, the

The other

chap
VIII.

two Rhenish

circles,

Upper and Lower^ and those of

West/alia, Austria,

and Burgundy

used in a sense altogether

new

the arose out


have to

last

name being
of changes
fifteenth

which took place between the twelfth and


centuries,

some of which we

shall

notice.

First then, the great

duchy of Saxony consisted of


Angria,

saxony;its
sions,west-

three

main
'

divisions.

West/alia, Efiger?i or

and East/alia.
. .

Thuringia to the south-east, and the

Frisian lands to
in

1111 the north-west, may be looked

AngVia,
Eastfalia.

on as

some

sort

appendages to the Saxon duchy.

The

duchy was
towards the
the

also capable of
east,

any amount of extension


orowtiiof
thTexJei'se
slaves.

and the lands gradually won from

Wends on this side were all looked on as additions made to the Saxon territory. But the great Saxon
duchy was broken up
at the flill of Henry the Lion. The archiepiscopal Electors of Kbln received the title of Dukes of West/alia and Engern. But in the greater part

Break-up

of

the Duchy, 1182-1191.

ouchy

of

of those districts the grant remained merely nominal,

though the ducal

title,

with a small actual Westfalian


till

duchy, remained to the electorate


these lands

the end.

From
as
use of

the

Saxon name may be looked on

having altogether passed away.


as

The name

of Saxony, New

a geographical

expression, clave to the Eastfahan slxo^^


to Thuringia

remnant of the old duchy, and


Slavonic conquests to the east.
of

and the

In the later division


circles of

Germany these lands formed the two and Lower Saxony and it was within
;

Upper

their limits that xheSaxou

the various states arose

which have kept on the Saxon

name

to our

own

time.

From

the descendants of
allodial lauds

Henry

the Lion himself,

and from the

which they kept, the Saxon

20S

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


name passed away, except
of the Lower-Saxon circle.
princes of the
so far as they

CHAP.
vrn.

became part

They held their place as Empire, no longer as Dukes of Saxony,

Duchy

of

but as Dukes of Brunswick, a house which gave

Eome
After

Brunswick.

one Emperor and England a dynasty of kings.


Its division, 1203.

some of the usual


ties finally

divisions,

two Brunswick

principali-

took their place on the map, those of Liine-

Liineburg

hurg and Wolfenbilttel, the latter having the town of

andWolfenbUttel.

Brunswick

for

its

capital.

The LUneburg duchy grew.


it

I^uiicburc;

Late in the seventeenth century


electoral rank,
finally enlarged

was raised

to the
it

acquires tlie bishoprics of Bremen


!TI1(|

and early

in the

next century

was

by the

acquisition of the bishoprics

Verden, 1715-1719.
l"]lectorate

of

of Hannover or Brunswick Liineburg, 1692.

rate,

Bremen and Verden. Thus was formed the Electoand afterwards Kingdom, of Hannover, while the
tiile

simple ducal
of the other

remained with the Brunswick princes

line.
itself

The new
Saxony.

The Saxon name


the old

withdrew

in the

end from

Saxony
fall

to the lands

conquered from the Slave.

On
Bernhard duke of Saxony,
1180-121.

the

of

Henry

the Lion, the

duchy of Saxony,
was

cut short

by the grant

to the archbishops of Koln,

granted to Bernhard of Ballensted, the founder of the

Ascanian House,

Of the older Saxon land


district

his

house

kept only for a while the small


SachsenLauenburg.

north of the

Elbe which kept the name of Sachsen-Lauenhurg, and

which
torate.

in the

end became part of the Hannover


it

elec-

But

was

in

Thuringia and the conquered

Slavonic lands to the east of Thuringia that a

new

Saxony
This

arose,

which kept on somewhat of the European

position of the Saxon

name down

to

modern
for
its

times.
capital,

new Saxony, with Wittenberg

grew, through the addition of Thuri7igia and Meissen,


into the

Saxon Electorate which played so great a


last

part during the three

centuries of the existence

THE NEW SAXONY.


of the

209

German kingdom.

But

in

Saxony too the


off
;

chap.
YIII.
1423.

usual divisions took place.

Lauenburg parted
still

so
Divisions

did the smaller duchies which

keep the Saxon name.

The ducal and


Saxon

electoral

dignities

were divided,

till

^547

the two, united under the famous Maurice, formed the


electorate as
It
it

stood at the dissolution of the

kingdom.

was

in short a

new

state,

one which had

succeeded to the name, but which could in no other

way be thought to represent, the Saxony whose conquest cost so many campaigns to Charles the Great.
Another power which arose
in the

marchland of
in the later

The Mark
imrg.

Saxon and
sense,

Slave, to the north of

Saxony

was the land known

specially as the

Mark, the

groundwork of the power which has


risen to the

head of Germany.

own day The North Mark of


in our
Ueien of
i^ear,

Saxony became the Mark of Brandenburg. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, under Albert the Bear
and
his house, the

Mark
it

greatly extended itself at the

1134-

expense of the Slaves.

United for a time with the


passed into the house of the
!!

union with
i373-'i4T.3.

kingdom
,
.

of Bohemia,
'

Burgraves of N'drnberg, that House of HohenzoUern


whicli has
perial
T

House of
Hi^henzoiI'^rn, 1416.

grown

step

by

step

till

it

has reached Im-

rank in our

own

day.

The power thus formed

presently acquired a special character by the acquisition of

what may be called a German land out of Germany, a land which gave them in the end a
title,

higher

and which by

its

geographical position led


of territory.

irresistibly to a further increase

Early in

the seventeenth century the Electors of

Brandenburg
is

acquired by inheritance the

Duchy of

Prussia, that

Union of

merely Eastern Prussia, a


the crown of Poland,

Brandeiinot of the Empire but of hm-^nmi and which lay geographically fe'iT-itiLs

fief,

210
CHAP.
VIII.
1056.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


apart from their strictly

Germac dominions.

The com-

Prussia in-

mon sovereign the man of two

of Brandenburo; and Prussia was thus


lords
;

but the Great Elector Frederick


in his

dependent
16.') 6

of Poland, be;

WiUiam became
title

a wholly independent sovereign

comes
kiufidom,
1701.

duchy, and his son Frederick took on himself the kingly


for the land

which was thus freed from

all

homage.

Both before and

after the

union with Prussia, theElectors

of Brandenburg continued largely to increase their Ger1523-1623.

man

dominions.

temporary possession of the princiitself,

pality of /a^^r/zc^^Jr/" in Silesia, unimportant in


Westfalian
possessions of Branden-

led

to great events in later times.

The

acquisition, at various

Imrs, 16141606.

times in the seventeenth century, of Cleve and other


outlying Westfalian lands, which were further increased
in the next century, led in the

1702-1744.

same way

to the

modern
that of

dominion of Prussia
Acquisitions in

in

western Germany. But the most


in this age

solid acquisition of

Brandenburg

was

Pomerania, 1638-1648.

Eastern Poinerania, to which the town of


a further increase of territory,

Stettin,

with

was added

after the

wars

171.3-1719.

of Charles the Twelfth of Sweden.

The

events of the

Thirty Years'

War also increased


at the

the dominions both of

Brandenburg and Saxony


Later acquisitions of

expense of the neighlater acquisitions of

bouring ecclesiastical princes.


the

The
title

House

of Hohenzollern, after the Electors of Bran-

Prussia.

denburg had taken the kingly

from

their Prussian
least as

duchy, concern Prussia as an European power at

much
German
character of tlie Prussian

as they concern

Brandenburg

as a

German power.
Germany.

Yet their proper place comes in the history of


Unlike the other princes

who

held lands within and

Mon-

without the German kingdom, the Kings of Prussia

archy.

and Electors of Brandenburg have remained

essentially

German princes. Their acquisitions of territory out of Germany have all been in fact enlargements, if not of the soil of Germany, at least of the sphere of German

BRAXDEXBURG AND PRUSSIA.


inrtuence.

211
^'^rff-

And,

at last, in

marked

contrast to the fate

of the rival

House of Austria, the whole Prussian do-

"^^'

minions have been incorporated with the new

German
its

Empire, and form the immediate dominion of


perial

Imspread of
^'^^

head.

The outward
.
-,

sign of
.

this
f>

change, the
T

outward sign of the special position of Brandenburg,

T-i

^
as

name

of

Prussia.

compared with Holstein or Austria,


spread of the

is

the

strange do-

name

of Prussia over the

German

minions of the King of Prussia.


taken place with the

No

such spread has


or of Hungary.

name

of

Denmark

Within Germany the greatest enlargement of the


dominion of Prussia
instead of

as

we may now begin

to call

it

Brandenburg
,

was

the acquisition of

by

far
Conquest of
Silesia,

the greater part of Schlesien or Silesia, hitherto part of ^ ^


tlie

Bohemian

lands,
it

and then held by the House of

i^^i-

Austria.

This,

should be noted, was an acquisition


foil

which could hardly

to lead to further acquisitions.

The
,
,

geoQ-raphical

characteristic
. .

of
''

the Prussian
.

do-

<;<'oicniiihi-

cal cliarac-

minions was the


pieces,

way ^

in

which they lay


/

in

detached

terofthe
Prussian
^'^'"'"'ons-

and the enormous extent of

frontier as

com-

pared with the area of the country.


itself

The kingdom

lay detached,

hemmed
The

in

and intersected by the

territory of Poland.

electorate, with the

Pome-

ranian

territory,

formed a somewhat more compact


this

mass

but even
its

had a very large frontier com-

pared with
district of

area.

The Westfolian

possessions, the

Cottbus,

and other outlying dominions, lay


this charac-

quite apart.
teristic

The addition of Silesia increased

yet further.

The newly won duchy, barely


Position of

joining the electorate, ran out as a kind of peninsula

between Saxony, Bohemia, and Poland.


a Polish and then as a

Silesia, first as

Bohemian

fief,

had formed
;

part of a fairly compact geographical mass


p 2

as part of

212
CHAP.
VIII.

THE BIPEEIAL KINGDOMS.


the

same dominion
all

witli Prussia

and Brandenburg,

it

was an
Acquisi-

but isolated land with an enormous frontier.

The

details of the

PoHsh

acquisitions of Prussia will be

from Poland, 1 772-1790.


tions

best given in our survey of Poland.

But

it

should be

Their geographical
character.

noted that each of the portions of territory which were added to Prussia by the several partitions has a geographical character of
its

own.

The

addition of West-

1772.

Prussia

that

is

the geographical union of the

kingdom
or later.

and the electorate


fail
179S

was

something which could not

in the nature of things to

come sooner

The second
peninsular.

addition of South-Prussia might seem geo-

graphically needed in order to leave Silesia no longer

The

last,

and most short-lived addition of


necessity

179.5.

New- East-Prussia had no such geographical


as the other two.
Still it

helped to give greater comits

pactness to the kingdom, and to lessen

frontier in

comparison with

its

area.

Another acquisition of the House of Hohenzollern


during the eighteenth century, though temporary, deserves a passing notice.
East-Friesland, 1744.

Among

its

Westfahan annexa-

tions

was East- Fries land.

The King of Prussia thus


eighteenth century,

became, during the

last half of the

an oceanic potentate, a character which he presently


lost,

and which, save

for a

moment

in the days of con-

fusion,

he obtained again only in our

own

day.

Parts of

large part of Saxony, both in the older and in the

Saxony held by foreign later sense,


kings.

thus

came

to form part of a

dominion con-

taining both

which the
dominant.

German and non-German lands, but in German character was in every way preOther parts of Saxony in the same ex-

tended sense also came to form part of the dominions


of princes

who

ruled both in and out of Germany, but

SAXON POSSESSIONS OF DENMARK AND SWEDEN,


in

213
chap.
^-

whom

the

non-German character was yet more

predominant.

The old Saxony beyond


shifting

the

Elbe, the

-^

modern
Kings.

Holstein, passed into the hands of the Danisli


Its

Houtein:
its

relations

towards Denmark and

relation

Germany and towards the neighbouring land of Sleswick, as having become matter of international dispute between Denmark and Germany, will be best spoken The events of w^hen w^e come to deal with Denmark. of the Thirty Years' War also made the Swedisli
kings for a while considerable potentates in northern

Germany.

The Peace of Westfalia confirmed


tlie

to

them
tlie

(jermanter-

Western Ponierania and


Baltic,

town of Wismar on

Sweden,
1048-1815.

and the bishoprics of Bremen and Verden which

gave them an oceanic coast.


as

But these

last lands

were,
i"'-^"-

we have
by

seen afterwards, ceded to Hannover, and


also

tlie

Pomeranian possessions of Sweden w^ere


cession to Brandenburg.

cut

short

But the possession


still

of

Wismar and

a part of Pomerania

gave

tlie

Swedish kings a position as German princes down to


the dissolution of the Empire.

These are the chief powers which rose to


sense of that word.

historical

importance within the bounds of Saxony, in the widest

To

trace every division

and union

which created or extinguished any of the smaller principalities,


^
.

or even to

mark every minute change


-^

of

Free

cities

frontier

among

ofSaxony.

the greater powers,

would be

impossible.

But

it

must be further remembered that the Saxon

circles
cities

were the

seats of

some of the greatest of the


1
r>

free
The Hanse Towns.

seatic

of T

Germany, the leading members of the HanIn the growth of


T*^
1

League.

German commerce the


earliest

/-N

Ehenish lands took the lead, and, in the


of the Hansa, Kobi held the
first

days

place

among
to

its cities.

The pre-eminence afterwards passed

havens nearer

214
CHAP.
VIII.
Liibeck,

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


to the

Ocean and the

Baltic,

where,

among

crowd

of

others, the Imperial cities of Liibeck


Bremen,
Haniburjr.

and Breme7i stand


rival

out foremost, and with them

Hamburg, a

which

has in later times outstripped them.


it

And

at this point

may be

illustrate

episcopal
The
cities

Bremen specially a law which extended to many other of the The Bishop became a cities of Germany.
noticed that Liibeck and
territory

prince,
in

and held a greater or smaller extent of But the


city
in

and the
bishoprics.

temporal sovereignty.

which contained
temporal things,

his see

remained independent of him

and knew him only

as its spiritual shepherd.

Such were

the archbishopric of

Bremen and

the bishopiic of Lii-

beck, principalities which, after the change of religion,

passed into secular hands.


bishopric of

Thus we have seen the archSweden, and then


to

Bremen

pass, first to
cities

Hannover.

But the two

always remained inde-

pendent commonwealths, owning no superior but the

Emperor.

The next among

the great duchies, that of Eastern


is

Francia, Franken, or Franconia,

of

much

less

imIt

portance in European history than that of Saxony.


IJishops
Dulvcs.
I

gave the ducal


it

title

to the Bishops of to
Its

Wiirzburg

but
in

Wiirzbui

cannot be

said

be

in

any sense continued


retreated,
in

any modern
Extent of
the Circle.

state.

name gradually

and

the circle of

Franken or Franconia took

only the

most eastern part of the ancient duchy.

The western

and northern part of the duchy, together with a good


deal of territory which was strictly Lotharingian, beThe
lihfiish
Circles.

came part of the two Ehenish


greatest of

circles.

Thus Fulda, the

German
grew up

abbeys, passed

away from

the

Frankish name.
principalities

In north-eastern Francia, the Hessian


to

the north-west.

Within the

FRANCONIA AND BAVARIA.


Franconiau
circle lay Wiirzburg^ the see of the bishops
title,

215
chap.
-

who

bore the ducal

the other great

bishopric ^

of Bamberg, together with the free city of

Numberg,
Eeciesiasti-

and various smaller


lands,

principalities.

In the Ehenish

both within and without the old Francia, one


is

chief characteristic
tical principalities,

the predominance of the ecclesias.

Mainz, Kbln, JVonns, Speyer, and

on the Khine.

Strassburg.
this

Tlie chief temporal

power which arose

in

region was the Palatinate of the Rhine, a power

which, like others, went through


sions,

many

unions and divi-

and spread into four


Westfalia,

circles,

those of

Upper and

Lower Ehine,

and Bavaria. This

last district,

though united with the Palatine Electorate, was, from


the early part of the fourteenth century, distinguished

from the Palatinate of the Rhine as the Oberpfalz or

Bavaria.

Upper

Palatinate.

To

the south of

it laj^

the Bavarian

priucipahties.

These, united into a single duchy, formed

the power which grew into the


neither this

modern kingdom.

But

duchy nor the whole Bavarian

circle at all

reached to the extent of the ancient Bavaria which bordered on


Years'
Italy.

The

early stages of the Thirty


its

shiftings

War

o;ave

the Rhenish Palatinate, with


;

dec-

Bavariaand
nate, \tm. P21cctorate

toral rights, to Bavaria

the Peace of Westfalia restored

the Palatinate, leavinof Bavaria as a


"^

new

electorate,
to passed i

of Bavaria,

century, Bavaria Late in the eisfhteenth the Elector Palatine, thus forming what
'

itself

Unionofthe
two, 1777.

may

be called
This

modern Bavaria with


acquisition

its

outlying Rhenish lands.

was

at the

same time partly balanced by the

cession to Austria of the lands east of the Inn,


.

known
the

as the Innviertel.

The other

chief state

within

cession to Austria, 1778.

Bavarian circle was the great ecclesiastical principahty


of the archbishops of Salzburg in the extreme south-east,

Archbishopric of

saizbur-

The old Lotharingian

divisions, as

we

see

them

in

216
CHAP.
VIII.
Lotharingia.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


the time of the great duchies, utterly died out.
states

The

which arose in the Lower Lotharingia are among


fell off

those which silently

from the German Kingdom

Lowpr Lotharingia.

to take a special position

under the name of the Nether-

Duchy of I^othringen or Lorraine.


Elsas.s.

lands.

The special duchy oi Lothringen or Lorraine was


Elsass also
circle,

held to belong to the circle of Upper Ehine.

formed part of the same


Circle of iSwabia.

the circle which was

specially cut short by the encroachments of France. The Swahian circle answered more nearly than most of the new divisions to the old Swabian duchy, as that duchy stood without counting the marchland of Elsass. No part of Germany was more cut up into small states

than the old land of the Hohenstaufen.


principalities, secular

crowd of

and

ecclesiastical,

among them

the lesser
of free

principalities

of the Hohenzollern House,

cities, Tind

of outlying possessions of the houses


the

of Austria
Ecclesiastical towns of

made up

main part of the


St.

circle.

Stixissburg,
rich, are
siastical

Augsburg, Constanz,

Gallen, Chur, Zu-

Swabia.
Part of

among

the great bishoprics and other eccle-

foundations of the old Swabia.


fully in

Swabia comes
land.

But, as I shall
districts in the

Ije-

show more

Switzer-

another section, large

south-east, those

which formed the Old League of High Germany, had practically fallen away from the kingdom

before the
Baden.

new

division

was made, and were therefore


circle.

never reckoned in any


lities,

Two
to

Swabian principafirst

Wiirttemberg.

the

mark

of Baden, and Wilrtteniherg,

county

and then duchy, came gradually


this region.

the

first

place in

As such they

still

remain, preserving in

some

sort a divided representation of the old Swabia.

Two
the

important parts of the old kingdom, two circles


still

of the division of Maximilian,

remain.
of

Tliese are

lands which form the

circles

Burgundy and

'

LOTHARINGIA, SWABIA, AND AUSTRIA.


Austria.

217
or
-

These are lands

wliicli

have,

in earher

later times,

wholly

fallen off
circle

from the German Kinoin

VIII.
,

chap.

doin.

The Austrian

was formed of the lands


in

Circle of

Austria.

southern

Germany which gradually gathered


Startina;

the

hands of the second Austrian


of Habsburg.

dynasty, the House


orio-inal
first

from the
-f-^

mark on the
into a great Growth
-,

Hungarian
/^

frontier, those lands


,
,
.

grew,

of

German, and then


politically

into a great European, power,

and

the House of Austria.

the latest changes have

made even their German lands non-German. The growth of the Austrian
be properly dealt with
in a sepaof

House

will therefore
It is

rate section.

enough

to say here that the Austrian Extent


in,

dominion

in

Germany gradually took

besides the

lands.

original duchy, the south-eastern duchies of Steiermavk

or Styria, Karnthen or Carinthia, and

Krain or Carniola,

with the Italian borderlands of Gortz, Aquileia, and part


of Istria.

Joined to these by a kind of geographical

isthmus, like that which joins Silesia and Brandenburg,

lay the western possessions of the house, the Bavarian

county of Tyrol and various outlying


of lands in Sicabia and Elsass.

strips

and points
the

Tyrol,

The growth of
its

Loss of
lands.

Confederates cut short the Swabian possessions of Austria, as

the later cession to France cut short


Still

Alsatian

possessions.

a Swabian remnant remained

down
Bohemia
pendencies.

to the dissolution of the

Kingdom.

The kingdom of

Bohemia, with the dependent lands of Moravia and Silesia,

though held by the Archdukes of Austria and

giving

them

electoral rank,

was not included

in

any

German circle. The Austrian circle moreover was not wholly made up of the dominions of the Austrian house
;

besides

some

smaller territories

it

also

took in the
Trent and Brixen.

bishoprics of Trent
tier of Italy

and Brixen on the debateable fron-

and old Bavaria.

218

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


The Burgundian
circle

was the

last

and the strangest

use of the Burgundian name.


parts of the dominions of the

It

consisted of those

Dukes of Burgundy

of

tlie

House of Valois which remained


of the

to their descendants

House of Austria
These did not
the

at the time of the division into


all lie strictly

circles.

within the boun-

daries of
The Imperial

German kingdom.

Within that king-

dom

indeed lay the Northern Netherlands, the Frisian

Nether-

lands.

lands of Holland, Zealand, and West-Friesland, as also

Brabajit and other Lotharingian lands


County of Burgundy.

But the

circle

also

took in

the

County of Burgundy or

Franche

Comte, part of the old kingdom of Burgundy, and lastly


Flanders and Artois
released

Flanders and Artois, lands beyond the bounds of the


Empire.

from

These were

fiefs

of France which were released

homage
France, 1526.

to

from their homage to that crown by the treaty between


Charles the Fifth and Francis the First of France.

The
fiefs

Burgundian
French

circle thus

took in

all

the Imperial

of

the Valois dukes, together with a small part of their

As all, or nearly all, of these lands altogether fell away from the German kingdom, and as those parts of them which now form the two kingdoms
fiefs.

of the
their

Low

Countries have a certain historical being of


it

own,

will

be well

to

keep

their

more

detailed

mention also for a special


^ 2.
Germany
changed from a

section.

The Confederation and Empire of Germany.


in the last section

Our survey
to

has carried us

down
the
a

to the beginning of the


u})

changes which led to the break-

kingdom
ration.

a confede-

of the old

German Kingdom.
history

Germany
tie

is

only
Sketch of
the process, 1806-1815.

land

in

which

has

changed from

kingdom
was
at

to a confederation. to the king


off

The

which bound
so

the vassal princes


last

became

lax that
this

it

thrown

altogether.

In

process


CONFEDERATION AND EMPIRE.
helped. foreign i c O invasion laro-ely
./

219
chap.
VIII.
^-

Between the two pro^


^

cesses of

foreign

war and domestic


states
all

disintegration, a

chaotic time followed, in


shifting

which boundaries were ever


rising

and new

were ever

and

falling.
The German Bund,
isio.

In the end, nearly


old

the lands which


again, with

had formed the

kingdom came together

boundaries, as

members

latest events of all

IP i-ri'l have driven the former chiet ot the


,.

of a lax

new names and The Confederation.

The new
Confederation

and

Confederation beyond
other

its

boundaries they have joined its


;

igg-i87i.

members together by a much

closer tie

they have

raised the second

member

of the former Confederation

to the post of perpetual chief of the

new

Confederation,

and they have further clothed


rial title.

But

it

him with the Impemust be remembered that the modern


is
still
;

The new Empive


tede-

Empire of Germany
bears the
title

a Federal state.
still

Its chief stm


is

of

Emperor

the relation

federal

and not

feudal.

The

lesser

members

of the

Empire
him and
That

are not vassals of the Emperor, as they were in the days

of the old kingdom.


to

They
tie

are states
is

bound

to

one another by a

which

purely federal.

the state whose prince holds Imperial rank far surpasses


is

any of

its

other

members
;

in
it

extent and power

an important

political fact

but

does not touch the

federal position of all the

states
is

of the Empire, great


;

and
is

small.

Eeuss-Schleiz

not a vassal of Prussia

it

member

of a league in which the voice of Prussia

naturally goes for

more than

the voice of Eeuss-Schleiz.


it

The
pire,

dissolution of the

German kingdom, and with

the wiping out of the last tradition of the

Eoman Emand which


'^'^

cannot be separated from the history of wars of the


it,

French Eevolution which went before


indeed led to
it.

For our purely geographical purpose,

J^'g^'^^'"

we must

distinguish the changes which directly affected

ngyll'siT'


220
CHAP,
VIII.
'

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

tlie

German kinojdom from


.

those which affected the

Austrian

states,

the Netherlands, and Switzerland, lands


historic being

which have now a separate


War
be-

from Germany.

The

List

War which
.

the

Empire

as such wao;ed with

France and tlie Empire,


17113-1^01

Fraiicc

was the eight years' war which was ended by the

Peace of Luneville.
left

By that peace,
at

all

Germany on
in

the

The left bank nf the


Kiiineceded by the

bank on the Ehine was ceded


was we
ill

to France.

What

sacritlce this
tliat it

once

see,

when we bear

mind

Peace of
lAinevilIe,

took

the three metropolitan cities of Koln, '

1801.

Mainz, and Trier, the royal city of Aachen, and the

famous bishoprics of
of princes thus lost
it

Worms and
that

Speyer.

number

all

or part of their dominions, and

was presently agreed

-,

they should compensate

The

litichs-

themselves within the


>

lands

which remained
cities

to the
ec-

deputations-

hauptschhiss,

kingdom

at the

expense or the free

and the

i03. hnd of the Ecciesiastical pnnci-

clesiastical princes. a

The o m^eat German hierarchy j

of

princcly bishops and abbots l j l

now came

to

an end, with
?

As the ancient metropolis of TheSnce- ^ soHtapy cxccptiou. "^ Mainz had passed to France, the see of its archbishop iie""ns"'t'

was removed

to Regensbarg,

where, under the

title

of Prince-Primate^ he remained an Elector and Arch-

SaV^
TheFree

"^

Chancellor of the Empire.


lar electorate.

Salzburg became a secuecclesiastical states

The other
were
left.

were an-

ucxcd by the neighbouring princes, and of the free


cities

six only

These were the Hanscatic

towns of Llibeck, Bremen, and Hamburg, and the inland

towns of Frankfurt,
NewEiec-

N'lirnberg,

and Augsburg.

Besides

Salzburg, three

new

Electorates arose,

Wilrttemberg,

Baden, and IIessen-Casset.


Peace of
i!so5.

None
in

of these

new

Electors
led

cvcr chosc any King or Emperor.


*"

The next war


allies

to the

Peace of Pressburg,

which the Electors of


of

Wiifttem-"
Bavaria.

Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden appear as

Francc, aud by which those of Bavaria and Wurttemberg

DISSOLUTION OF THE EMPIRE.


are acknowledged as Kings.
cut off from south-western

221

Austria was

now wholly
"

chap.
'

Germany. Wiirttemberg and


while Tyrol, possessions, ^

Thev divide

Baden divided her Swabian


the lot of Bavaria.

tiie

Trent, Brixen, together with the free city of Augsburg,


fell to

western lands of Austria.

Austria received Salzburg


his

its

prince
burof, ^'

removed himself and


'^
-^

electorate to Wlirz

and a Grand Diichi of Wurzhurq was formed


its

to Grand Duchy

of

compensate

Elector.
last

warzburg.

These were the

changes which took place while


lasted.

any shadow of the old Kingdom and Empire

The reigning King of Germany and Emperor-elect, Francis King of Hungary and Bohemia and Archduke of Austria, had already begun to call himself Heredi'

xitie of

tary

Emperor
'

oj

Austria,

in the treaty or rressburg


title,

Austria.'

he

is

described by the strange

unheard of before
Austria,'

or after, of
the Empire
ration.'

Emperor

of

Germany and
'

and

itself is

spoken of as a

Germanic Confede-

These formulae were prophetic.

The next year


The confederation of ^^e Khme,

a crowd of princes renounced their allegiance, and formed themselves into the Confederation of the Rhine under ^
''
_

the protectorate of France.

The formal
The
;

dissolution of

the Empire followed at once.

succession which

p,^sokition

had gone on from Augustus ended


the Great was undone.

the

work

of Charles

plre'^Arat
'''

Instead of the Frank ruling

^^^^'

over Gaul, the Frenchman ruled over Germany.

A time
falling,

Repeated
chanjies,

of confusion followed, in which boundaries were constantly shifting, states

isou-isii.

were constantly

rising

and

and new portions of German ground were being constantly

added

to France.

At
The

the time of the greatest Gprmany

in

extent of French dominion, the political state of Ger-

many was on
had released
the

this wise.
all its

dissolution of the

Empire
and
o/nenmaHc
'"^

members from

their allegiance,

German

possessions of the Kings of

Denmark and

den.'


222

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


Sweden had been incorporated with
doms.
their several king-

Hannover was wholly lost

to

its

island sovereign

seized and lost again

more than once by Prussia and by


lost,

France,

it

passed at last wholly into the hands of the


Prussia had

foreign power.

not only its momentary

possession of Hannover, but also everything west of the

Elbe.

Austria had yielded Salzburg to Bavaria, and

part of her

own

south-western territory in Krain and

Kiirnthen had passed to France under the


Annexations to

name

of the
lands

lllyrian Provinces.

France

too, beside all the

France.

west of the Rhine, had incorporated East Friesland,


Oldenburg^ part of Hannover^ and the three Hanseatic
cities.

The remaining

states of

Confederation of the

Confederation of the Rhine.

Germany formed the The chief among these


a

Rhine.

were the four Kingdoms of Bavaria., WUrttemberg,


Saxony^ and Westfalia.

Kingdoms of Saxony
and Westfalia.

Saxony had become

kingdom

under

its

own
:

Elector presently after the dissolution of

the Empire

the

a French king in
burg.,

new-made kingdom of Westfalia had Jerome Buonaparte. Besides Mecklena

Baden

now

Grand Duchy

Berg.,

Nassau,

Hessen, and other smaller states, there were


its

now among

Grand

members the Grand Duchy of Wurzburg, and also a Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, the possession of the Prince
of

Duchy

Frankfurt.

Primate, once

of Mainz,

afterwards

of Eegensburg.

Germany
wiped
out.

We may
from the

say with truth that during this time


to
exist
;

Germany
vani;shed

had ceased

its

very

name had

map

of Europe.

Prussia was a power so thoroughly


the
fate

German

that

even

of

its

non-German

possessions cannot

well be separated from

German geography.
the

The same
in

blow which cut short the old electorate of BrandenThe Kinc-

burg no

less

cut

short

kingdom of Prussia

SUBJECTION AND LIBERATION OF GERMANY.


its

223
left,

Polish acquisitions.

West- Prussia only was


off to

and even here Danzig was cut


republic.

form a separate

chap.
VIII.
.

The other Polish territories of Prussia formed the Duchy of Warsaw^ which was held by the new King of Saxony. Silesia thus fell back again on its half-isolated position, all the more so as it lay between the German and the Polish possessions of the

Prussia cut

CommonDanziJ,^"

wlTrsaw,

Po-sition of

Saxon king.

The

territory left to Prussia

was now
;

Siiesia.

wholly continuous, without any outlying possessions


but the length of
larity of its
its

frontier

and the strange irregustriking

shape on the

map were now more

than ever.

The

liberation of
it

Germany and

the

fall

of Buona-

parte brought with

a complete reconstruction of the

German

territory.

Germany

again arose, no longer as


xheCerfedeiation, 1815.

an Empire or Kingdom, but as a lax Confederation.


Austria, the duchy whose princes had been
'

so often

chosen

\ Emperors, became
of
the

\
its

_.
presiding
state.
diffei'cd
;

The
but
inPrinces
lioldinji;
i-'f'i'^ ij'*'

boundaries
slightly

new

Confederation

from those of the old Kingdom

but the

ternal

divisions
'

had greatly changed.

Once more a
'

number of princes held lands both in Germany and out The so-called 'Emperor' of Austria, the Kino-s of it. ~ of Prussia, Denmark, and the Netherlands, became mem*
'

within the
Conttederation and out "^**-

bers of the

Confederation

for

those

parts of their
states

dominions which had formed}^ been

of

the

Empire.

In the like

sort, the

King of Great Britain


of

and Ireland, having recovered

his continental dominions,


title

entered the Confederation by the


nover.

King of HanKingdom of
isi.i-isgg".

This new kingdom was made up of the former

electorate with

some

additions,

including East-Fries-

land.

In other parts the Prussian territories were largely

224
increased.

THE IMPERIAL KIXGDOMS.


Magdeburg and Halberstadt were recovered.
rest of the ancient

Swedish Pomerania was added to the

duchy
the

and, more important than

this,

a large part of

kingdom of Saxony^ including the greater part of


This change, which

Lausitz and the formerly outlying-land of Cottbus^ was

incorporated with Prussia.


the Saxon

made

kingdom

far smaller than the old electorate,

altogether put an
Silesia,

end to the peninsular position of


strictly

even as regarded the

German possessions
same time rendered
its

of Prussia.

The kingdom was

at the

more compact by the recovery of part of


possessions under the
Posen.

Polish

Posen.
great

name In western Germany


Its

of the

Grand Duchy of

again Prussia

now made
and
toler-

K hellish
and Wesffaliau territory.

acquisitions.

old

outlying Ehenish

Westfalian possessions grew into a large

and

ably compact territory,


the
great

though lying isolated from

body of the monarchy.

The

greater part

of the territory west of the Ehine which had been

ceded to France
cities
ster,

now became

Prussian, including the

of Kbln^ no longer a metropolitan see. Trier, Miln-

and Paderborn.
unequal

The main
of

part of the Prussian

possessions thus

consisted
size,

two

detached masses,

of very

but

which

seemed

to

crave
of

for a closer geographical


Neufchatel.

union.

The

Principality

Neufchatel, which

made

the Prussian king a

member

of the Swiss Confederation, will be mentioned else-

where.

Of the other powers which entered the Confederation

for the also

German

parts

of their dominions, but

which
Territory recovered by Austria.

had

territories

beyond the Confederation,

Austria recovered Salzburg, Tyrol, Trent, and Brixen,


together with the south-eastern lands which had passed
to France.

Thus the

territory of the Confederation,

THE GEEMAN CONFEDERATION.


like

225
to the

that of the old

Kingdom, again reached

Hadriatic.
stein,

Denmark entered the Confederation for Eoland for a new possession, that of Lauenburg, the
in a

ofDenmark.
an.i

duchy which
for the

manner represented ancient Saxony,

Lauen-

The King of the Netherlands entered the Confederation

Grand Duchy of Luxemburg^ part of which however was cut off to be added to the Ehenish
possessions of Prussia.
last

Luxem-

Sweden, by the cession of


to

its

Sweden
Pomerania.

remnant of Pomerania, ceased altogether


There were thus

be a

German power.
five

powers whose dominions lay


it.

partly within the Confederation, partly out of

In
Prussia the

the case of one of these, that of Prussia, the division of

German and non-German


the
greatest

territory

was purely formal.

German

Prussia was practically a purely

of

German power, and purely German powers. Her rival


Austria.

Austria stood higher in formal rank in the Confederation,

and ruled over a much greater continuous


;

terri-

tory

but here the

distinction

between German and

non- German lands was really practical, as later events

have shown.

It

has been found possible to shut out companion

Austria from Germany.

have been to abolish

To shut out Prussia would Germany altogether. Hannover,


sovereign with Great Britain,

uonof^"'''
Prussia.'

though under a

common

was
so

so completely cut off from Great Britain,

and had
practi- Hannover.

little

influence on British politics, that

it

was

cally as

much

a purely

German
it

state before its separa-

tion

from Great Britain as

was afterwards.

In the
Hoistein

cases of

Denmark and

the

Netherlands, princes the

greater part of whose territories lay out of

Germany
and

Luxem^^^'

held adjoining territories in Germany.


materials for political questions

Here then were


difficulties
;

and

226
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


in the case of

Denmark, these questions and

difficulties

became of the highest importance.


Kingdom
Bavaria.
of

Among those members


territory lay

of the Confederation, whose

wholly within Germany, the Kingdom


first.

of Bavaria stood

Its

newly acquired lauds to


;

the south were given back to Austria


large
acquisitions
to
tlie

north-east.

made Modern Babut


it

varia consists of a large mass of territory, Bavarian,

Swabian, and Franldsh, counting within


the

its

boundaries

famous
great

cities

of Augsburg
of

and

Nurnherg and
Wurzburg.

the
Her Ehen
ish territory.

bishoprics

Bamberg and

Besides

this,

Bavaria recovered a considerable part

of the ancient Palatinate west of the Eliine,

which

adds Speyer to the


Wiirttemberg.

list

of Bavarian
title,

cities

The other

states

which bore the kingly

Wiirttemberg and

Sasony.

the remnant of Saxony, were of

Saxony however kept


of
all

a position in

much smaller extent. many ways out


its

proportion to the narrowed extent of

geo-

graphical limits.
additions fi^om the

Wiirttemberg, increased by various

Swabian lands of Austria and from


for itself a
its

other smaller principalities, had, though the smallest


of kingdoms,

won

much

higher position

than had been held by

former Counts and Dukes.

Along with them might be ranked the Grand Duchy


Baden.

of Baden, with

its

strange irregular frontier, taking in

Heidelberg and Constanz.


states
Hesseu.

Among

a crowd of smaller
principalities,

stand out the

two Hessian

the

Grand Duchy of Hessen- Darmstadt, and Hessen- Cassel,


whose prince
still

kept the

title

of Elector, and the

Oldenburg.

Grand Duchy of Nassau. The Grand Duchy of Oldenburg nearly divided the Kingdom of Hannover into two
parts.

Anhalt.

The

principalities o{

Anhalt stretched into the

Prussian territory between Halberstadt and the newly-

STATES OF THE CONFEDERATION.

227
to

won Saxon

lands.

The Duchy of Brunswick helped


territory.

chap.

divide the two great masses of Prussian

In

the north Mecklenburg remained, as before, unequally

^lecklen-'"

divided between the


Strelitz.

Grand Dukes of Schwerin and Germany was thus thoroughly mapped out
;

Some of the old names had vanished some The greater states, with had got new meanings.
afresh.

the exception of Saxony, became greater. of insignificant


principalities

crowd
Saxon

passed away.

Another

crowd of them remained,


But,

especially the smaller

duchies in the land which had once been Thurinoian.


if

we look
the

to

two of the most

characteristic

features of

old Empire,

we

shall find

that one

has passed

away

for ever, while the

other was sadly


n
ecciesiastical prin-

weakened.

No
f

ecclesiastical principality revived in the no


^

new

state

ot

thmgs.

rrn

ihe

territory

oi

one of the

/>

cipaiity.

old bishoprics, that of Liittich, formerly absorbed

by

Luttich

France,

now

passed wholly away from Germany, and

Belgium.

became part of the new kingdom of Belgium.


free cities four did revive, but four only,

Of the
four

Tlie three The

Hanse Towns, no longer included


the

in

French departcommonwealths.

ments, and Frankfurt, no longer a Grand Duchy, entered

Confederation

as

independent

Germany,
life

for a while utterly cruslied,


;

had come

to KovivMiof
naiVoi.Ti

again

she had again reached a certain measure


fail

of national unity, which could hardly


closer.^

to

become
hardly

The Confederation thus formed


'

lasted, with

No

influence

was more poweiful for

this

end than the Zollvercin

or customs union, which gradually united most of the


states for certain purposes.

German

Rut

as

it

did not affect the boundaries

or the governments of sovereign states,

it hardly concerns geography. Neither do the strivings after more perfect union in 1848 and the

following years.

ft2

228
CHAP,
^-

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


any change that concerns geography,
1866.
till

the

war

of

-^-'

The Grand Duchy

of Luxemburg, which had,


the

Luxem-
"'^'
'

by thc arrangements of 1815, been held by


of the Netherlands as a
federation, was,

King

member

of the

German Con-

on the separation of Belgium and the


Part was added to

Netherlands, cut into two parts.

Belgium

another part, though quite detached from the

kingdom of the Netherlands, was held by its king as a member of the Confederation. In 1839 he also entered
it

for the

Duchy

of Limburg.

The

internal
in

movements
to

War

in

wlilch

began in 1848, and the war


in the

Sleswick and

and Hoi1848-1851.

Holstein which began

same time, led

no lasting

geographical changes.
lities

In 1849 the Swabian principa-

of Hohenzollern were joined to the Prussian crown.

Cession of
to Austria

The

last Danisli

war ended by the

cession of Sleswick

and
,

Holstein,toget]ier with Laiienburg, to Prussia and Austria


jointly,

and Prussia,

1864.

an arrangement

m
.

its

own

nature provisional.
to Prussia in the

Austria ceded her

i-ight in

Lauenburg

next year, and in the next year again came the Seven

Weeks' War, and the great geographical changes which


Abolition
of the

followed

it.

The German Confederation was abolished;


all

Con-

fefieration.

Austria was shut out from


r^^i^ gj^g

share

German

/^

rr

affairs.

Exclusion
of Austria,

ccdcd her ioint


''

ritrht in

North-Ger-

Sleswick and Holstein to

manConfederation.

Pj-yssia.

The Northcm

states of

Germany became a
''

sieTwiek^
st'etn^o^'

distinct Confederation

under the presidency of Prussia,

\mT^^'
nexat\ons.'

whose immediate dominion was increased by the annexation of the kingdom oi Hannover, the duchy of Nassau,
the electorate of Hessen, and the city of Frankfurt.

The

States south of the Main, Bavaria, Wiirttemberg, Baden,

All the

and the southern part of Hessen-Darmstadt, remained for The non-Gen nan a while outside of the new League.
domiuions of Prussia, Prussia
Polisli

lamiraT
theConfederation.

strictly so called

with the

duchy of Poseu and the newly acquired land of

TliE

NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION.

229
chap.
VIII.

Sleswick,
tion
;

were now incorporated with the Confedera.

on the other hand,

all

that Austria

had held within


it.

the Confederation was


also

now

shut out of

Luxemburg
after

ofLuxem-

was not included


it

in the

new League, and,

some

disputes,

was

in the next year recognized as a neutral


its

territory

under

own duke the King of the Netherlands.


of Liechtenstein
but,

The

little

principality

was perhaps
in

Liechten-

forgotten

altogether;

as not being included

the Confederation, nor yet incoq)orated with anything


else, it

must be looked on as becoming an absolutely


state.

independent
as they
lution.

Thus the geographical O r fe


at

frontiers of oreatgeo
graphical
^'i^'nges

Germany underwent,

a single blow, changes as great

had undergone

in the

wars of the French Eevo-

The geography
less

of the presiding

power of the

new League was no

changed.

That extraordinary extent of frontier which had


hitherto been characteristic of Prussia

was not wholly


it

taken away by the


lessened.

new

annexations, but
as a

was greatly
is

The kingdom,

kingdom,

made

far

more compact, and the two great detached masses in which it formerly lay are now joined together. Moreover, the geographical character of Prussia

becomes of

much
of the

less pohtical

importance,

now

that her frontier

marches to so great an extent on the smaller members

League of which she

is

herself President.

Next

war

with

came the war with France, the first effect of which was the incorporation of the southern states of Ger-

1870-18-1.

The German
incorporation of the

many with the new League, which presently took the name of an Empire, with the Prussian King O as heredi^
'
.
. .

S(n.thern
states.

tary Emperor.

Then by the peace with France, nearly

Kecovery of
Lothringen,

the whole of Elsass and part of Lotharingia^ including

the

cities

of Strasshurg and Aletz, were restored to

Germany.

They have, under

the

name

of Ekass-

230
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL
Lothringen,
part

KES^GDOMS.
territory,

become

an

Imperial

forming

The Imperial title.

Empire and owning the sovereignty of the Emperor, bnt not becoming part of tlie kingdom of
of the

Prussia or of any otlier


tion of the Imperial
title

German

state.

The assump-

could hardly be avoided in a

confederation whose constitution was monarchic, and

which numbered kings among

its

members.

No

title

but Emperor could have been found to express the


relation

between the presiding chief and the

lesser

The new Empire a


revival of
tlie

Still it

must be borne
in

in

mind

that the

new German

Empire
the

is

Gt-rman

no sense a continuation or restoration of


fell

Kingdom,
but not of
the

Holy Eoman Empire which


its

sixty-four years

Roman

Empire.

before

creation.

But

Comparison
of the old

a restoration of the old

may be fairly looked on as German Kingdom, the Km^it

Kingdom
and the

dom
is

of the East-Franks.

Still,

as

tVir

as

geography

new Empi re.

concerned,

no change can

be stranger than the

change in the boundaries of Germany between the ninth


century and the nineteenth.

The new Empire,


it

cut short

to the north-west, south-west,

and south-east, has grown


has

somewhat
Name
of I'rvssia

to tlie north,

and

grown prodigiously
a
state

to

the

north-east.

Its

ruling state,
cities

which

contains

such illustrious
is

as
itself

Koln,
after

Trier,

and

Frankfurt,

content to call

an

extinct

heathen people whose name had most likely never


Position of
Berlin.

reached the ears of Charles the Great. The capital of the

new Empire, placed far away from any of the antient seats of German kingship, stands in what in his day, and
long
after,

was a Slavonic land.

Germany, with

its

chief state bearing the

name

of Prussia^ with the place

of
Formation
of the

its

national assemblies transferred from Frankfurt to

Berlin, presents
torical

one of the strangest changes that


us.

his-

new

Empire.

geography can show

But, strange as

is

the


THE NEW EMPIRE.
geographical cliange,
it

231
chap.
"

has come about gradually, by

the natural working of historical causes.

The Slavonic

and Prussian lands have been Germanized, while the


western parts of the old kingdom which have fallen away

have mostly

lost their

German

character.

Those Ger-

man

lands which have formed the kernel of the Swiss

Confederation have risen to a higher pohtical state than


that of

any kingdom or Empire.


still

But the German


to

lands which
lands of the

remain so strangely united

the

Magyar and the southern Slave


and

await, at

however
union.

distant a time, their natural

inevitable re-

So does a Danish population in the extreme


less

north await, with


ration from the
nic,
it is

hope,

its

no

less
still

natural sepa-

German body. Posen,

mainly Slavo-

lemains unnaturally united to a Teutonic body, but


not likely to gain by a transfer to any other ruler.
in
its

The reconstruction of the German realm


shape, a
so

present

shape so novel to the eye, but preserving


of ancient
life

much

and ancient

history, has

been

the greatest historical and geographical change of our


times,
llie

3.

Kingdom of Italy.

We

parted from the Italian kingdom at the

moment
^

Smaii geofjrapliical

from the Eastern and Western kingdoms of its separation ^ ^


of the Franks.
little

import mce of tlu' king-

Its history, as
its

a kingdom,

consists in dom

more than

reunion with the East-Frankish


in

crown, and in the way


dually died out within

which the royal power graThere


is

its limits.

but

little

to

say as to any changes of frontier of the kingdom as


such.

As long

as

Germany,
any

Italy,

and Burgundy

ac-

knowledged a

single king,

shiftings of the frontiers

of his three kingdoms were of secondary importance.

232
CHAP.
VIII.

THE DIPERIAL KINGDOMS.

When

the

power of the Emperors

in Italy

had died

out, the land

became a system of independent common-

wealths and principalities, which had hardly that degree


of unity which could enable us to say that a certain
territory

was added

to Italy or taken

from

it.

Even

if

a certain territory passed from an Italian to a

German

or Burgundian lord, the change was rather a change in


the frontier of this or that Italian state than in the fronChanges on
the Alpine
frontier.

tier

of Italy

itself.

The
that

shiftings of frontier along the


;

wliole Alpine border have been considerable

but

it is

only in our

own day
in

we can

say that Italy as such


or lessening her

has become
Case of Verona.

capable

of extending

borders.

When,

1866, Venice and Verona were


distinct

added
in

to the Italian

kingdom, that was a

change

the frontier of Italy.


to endless earlier

We

can hardly give that

name
Case of
Trieste,

changes on the same marchland.

In the fourteenth century, for instance, the town of


Trieste,

disputed between the patriarchs of Aquileia

1380.

and the commonwealth of Venice, was acknowledged


as

an independent

state,

and

it

presently gave

up

its

independence by commendation to the Duke of Austria.


It is

not likely that the question entered into any man's

mind whether the frontiers of tlie German and Italian kingdoms were affected by such a change. Whether as a
free city or as

an Austrian lordship, Trieste remained

under the superiority, formally undoubted but practically

Germany and Italy, Whether the nominal the Eoman Emperor or King. allegiance of the city was due to him in his German
nominal, of the
of

common sovereign

or in his Italian character most likely no one stopped


No
eastern or western
frontiers.

to think.
frontiers
;

East and west, the Italian kingdom had no


the only question which could arise was as

to the relation of the islands of Corsica

and

{Sardinia to


THE KINGDOM OF ITALY.
the

233

kingdom ^
it.

itself

or to any of the states which arose


"^
,

within

To

the south lay the independent

Lombard

VIII.

chap.

duchies, and the possessions

which

still

remained to the

in time into the ^^^ ^?^' These changed man kmgNorman duchy of Apulia and kingdom of Sicily but ^"cu/not

Eastern Empire.
i-

that kingdom, held as

it

was

as a fief of the see of

.I'"p^"^^

Kome, was never incorporated with the

Italian

king-

dom
the

of the Emperors, nor did

its

kings ever become

men

of the Emperor.

Particular

Emperors

in

the thirteenth century, in the sixteenth, and in the


eighteenth, were also kings of one or both the Sicilian

kingdoms
Sicily

but at no time before our


Italy

own day were


that
it

and southern
of Italy.

ever incorporated with a

Kingdom
Italy

When we remember
we

was

to

the southern part of the peninsula that the

name

of

was

first

given,

see here a curiosity of no-

menclature as remarkable as the shiftings of meanino;


in the

names of Saxony and Burgundy.

Naples and Sicily then, the


political

Two
'

Sicilies

of later

nomenclature, he outside our present subject.


far as
y^^iice no part ol ^^^^y-

So does the commonwealth of Venice, except ^ so


Venice afterwards
Itahan mainland.

won

a large subject territory on the


states

Both these

have

to

do with
the
is

Her

Italian

dominiuus.

Italy as a geographical

expression, but neither

Venetian commonwealth nor the Sicifian kingdom


Italian within the

meaning of the present


_

section.

They
Venice and
the Sicilies part of the
''

They formed no part of the Carolingian dominion. ^ were parts of the Eastern Empire, not of the Western,

They remained attached They gradually


rated with
fell

to the

New Eome
their

after

an

Eastern Empire.

Imperial throne had again been set up in the Old.

away from
of the

allegiance

to

the Eastern Empire, but

they were never incorpo-

the Empire

West.

shall

deal

234
CHAP,
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

with them here only in their relations to the Imperial


^.
'

Kingdom
elsewhere

of Italy, and treat of their special history

among

the states which arose out of the

break-up of the Eastern Empire.

Again, on the nort.h-

western march of Italy a power gradually arose, partly


Italian,

but for a long time mainly Burgundian, which


fate,

has in the end, by a strange


The House
'^'^^^-

grown

into a

Italian

Kingdom.

This

is

the

House of Savoy.

new The

growth of the dominions of that house, the process

by which
gained
Its special historv.

it

gradually lost territory in Burgundy and

it

in Italy.,

form another
its

distinct subject.

It

will

bc dealt with here only in


01 Italy.
p T1

relations to the king-

dom

-,

The Kingcontinues the Lorn"

The
whicli

Kingdom of the Karliiigs, the kingdom was reunited to Germany under Otto the Great,
Italian
. ,
.

bard

Icing-

dom.

was, as has bccu alrcadv said, a continuation of the old "

Lombard

kino-dom.

It

consisted of

that

kin2;dom,

enlarged by the Italian lands which

fell off
;

from the
is

Eastern Empire in the eighth century

that

by the

Exarchate and the adjoining Pentapolis, and the immediate territory of

Rome
we

itself.

The Lombard kingdom,


two provinces north of

in the strictest sense, took in the

the Po, in which


^jj^tria

again find, as in other lands, an


It

Austria to the east and a Neustria to the west.


^^^|^ -^

and Neus-

Emilia
as

south of the

Po

the

district of Pia-

TuTcam-.

ccuza, Pamia, Eeggio, and

Modena
modern

also Tuscany^ a to

name, which,
answers pretty

it

no longer reaches
use.

the Tiber,

iif^arly to its
;

Tlie

Tuscan
as

name

has lived on

the Exarchate

and Pentapolis,

having been the chief seat of the later Imperial power


in Italy, got
Romagna.

name of Romania., Romandiola, or Romagna. This name also lives on but the Lombard
the
;

Neustria and Austria soon vanish from the map.

Their

'

CAROLINGIAN ITALY.
disappearance was peiiia])s lucky, as one knows not

235
chap.
^-

what arguments might otherwise have been

built

on

the presence of an Austria south of the Alps.

The
^^"^"'g;'""'^^'

Lombard Neustria together with Emilia got the special name of Lombardy^ while the Lombard Austria, after
various shiftings of

names taken
within
it,

fi'om the principalities


in the

which rose and


to
its

fell

came back

end
Venetia.

oldest

name, that of Venetia.

In the north-west
;

corner Iporedia or Ivrea appears as a distinct march

^^^^

of

but the Venetian march at the other corner,


this stage as the
It takes in the

known

at
"^
J;?j^^J|y

duchy of

Friuli,

is

of

more importance.
the corner

county of Trent^ the special march of


Idtria.

Friidi,
in

and the march of

This

is

ff

boundary

which the German and

Italian frontier has so often


that, after the

nortlf-west
^'"'''^'

fluctuated.
Italian

We

have seen

union of the
itself

and German crowns, even Verona

was

sometimes counted as German ground.

Under the German kings


same
influences as the other
Principalities

Italy

came under the


but, while

^^nt.^fv'^nd
'^^'"'"^"y-

two Imperial kingdoms,

grew up

free cities

grew up

in

Germany

the prmcipalities were the rule


it

and the

cities

the exception, in Italy

was the other way.


Growth of a practically J
L

erradually The land o became a system of J J

system

ot

independent commonwealths.
astical or temporal, flourished

Feudal princes,

ecclesi-

^^""{"^rin
'*^^^"'

only in the north-western


But,
if

and north-eastern corners of the kingdom.


range of the German
cities

the

was

less

wide, and their

career less brilliant, tlian those of Italy, their freedom

was more
under
'

lasting.

The

ffrew into and the tyrants gradually D acknowledged princes. The Bishops of Eome too, by
tyrants, '
./

JO

Italian

cities

gradually

fell
Tyrants

grow

into ^^

}Vj^^^

d series of

claims dexterously pressed at various times,

contrived to form the greatest of ecclesiastical princi-

JJffoQ ^f *^ ^p^^"

236
palities,

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


one which stretched across
tlie

peninsula ii^om

sea to sea.

The geographical
In the
first

history of Italy consists


fell

of four
into

stashes.

the kini>;doni

asunder

principalities.

In the second the principalities


cities.

vanished before the growth of the free

In the

third the cities were again massed into principalities,


till

in the fourth the principalities

were

at last

merged

in a

kingdom

of united Italy.

Under

the

Saxon and Frankish Emperors the old


of Neustria and J^milia pass away.

Lombard names
as

Several small marches he along the Burgundian frontier,

Savona on the

coast,

Iirrea

among

the mountains

to the north-west,

between them Montferrat, Vasto, and


of Marquess

Susa, whose

princes, as special guardians of the passage


title

between the two kingdoms, bore the


in Italy.
It

was

in this region that the feudal princes

were

strongest,

and that the system of

free cities

had

the smallest developement.


The Marqiiesses of

The Savoyard power was


in the

already beginning to

grow up

extreme north-west

Montferrat, 938-1 5b3.

comcr
for

Italian o;reater part strictly but at this time a o J r history is played by the Marquesses of Montferrat, who
: '

....

many

centuries kept their position as important


cities.

feudal princes quite apart from the lords of the

In the north-east corner of the kingdom the place of the


old Austria
is

taken by the border principalities where


all

the Italian, the German, and the Slave


contact,

come

in

and which fluctuated more than once between

the Italian and the

German crowns.
it

We have

here the

great march of Verona, beyond

that of Friuli, Trent,

the marchland of the marchland, between Verona and


Bavaria, and the
Istrian

peninsula

on the Slavonic
districts

side of the Hadriatic.

Between the border

on

237
chap.
VIII.
--

NORTHERN ITALY.
either side lay the central land,

Lombardy,
. .

in

the nar-

rower sense, the chosen home of the free


,,
,

cities.

Here,

<-'

by the middle of the twelfth century, every


1
1

city

had

the Lom-

bard

cities.

practically

become a separate commonwealth, owning


superiority in the Emperor.

only the most nominal

Guelfic cities withstood the

Emperor

Ghibelin

cities

welcomed him
the Swabian

but both were practically independent


war^of tiie
Emperors.

commonwealths. Hence came those long wars between

Emperors and the

Italian cities w^hich

form

the chief feature of Itahan history in the second half of the twelfth century and the
first

half of the thirteenth.


Milan and

Eound

the younger and the elder capital, round Guelfic

Milan and Ghibelin Pavia, gathered a crowd of famous


names, Como^ Bergamo^ and Brescia^ Lodi,

Crema,

The

other

and Cremona^ Tortona^ Piacenza, and Parma, and


Alessandria, the trophy of republican and papal victory

citre's.*"^

dria,

iiea

over Imperial power.


in cities of the

The Veronese march was less


historical
-^

rich

same

importance

but both
veronaand
Padua.
'

Verona

itself

seats first

(:freat part, as the a ^ and Padua played ^ ^ of commonwealths, then of tyrants. Further

north and east, the civic element was weaker again.


Tre7it

gradually parted off from Italy to become


principality

an

Trent.

ecclesiastical

of

the

German kingdom
powerful
Aquiieia.

and the

Patriarchs of Aquileia gi'ew into

princes at the north-eastern corner of the Hadriatic.

Within the Veronese or Trevisan march


lords of

itself,

the The

lords of

of Este
san

Romano and the more important marquesses also demand notice. Eomano gave the Treviits

Kfimano andEste.

march

famous tyrant Eccelino

in the days of

Frederick the Second,

and the Marquesses of Este,


'

kinsmen of the great Saxon dukes, came


rank among the chief Italian princes.
north-eastern

in

time to

eastern
off from'

The extreme
from Italy

march

so completely

fell off

238
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


that
it

will

be better treated

in tracino; the 2rrowth of

the powers of Venice and Austria.


Tuscany,

In the more central lands of the kino;dom, in the


old exarchate,

Romagna,
and the

March

now known

as

Romagna,

in the

march

of

Ancona.

variously called

Ancona, and above


southern
sea, the

by the names of Camerino, Fermo, or all in the march of Tuscany on the


same developement of
later.

city life also

took place, but somewhat


nines,

North of the Apenarose a cro^^'d of

along

the

Hadriatic

coast,

small

commonwealths which
Tuscany,
a few

gradually passed into

The Tuscan small tyrannies. commonwealths. parted off into

on the other hand, was


illustrious

commonwealths of

name.

For a while one of these ran a course which


apart from the

stood rather
Pisa

common run

of Italian

history.

Pisa, then one of the great maritime and com-

mercial states of Europe, became, early in the eleventh


her wars with the

century, a

power which

forestalled the crusades

and

Saracens 1005-1115.

won back
this

lands from the Saracen.

Though she was


kingdom, Pisa
at

in every sense a city of the Italian

time held a position not imlike that which was

afterwards held by Venice.

Like her, she was a power


seas,

which colonized and conquered beyond the

but

which came only gradually


main course of
Ligurian gulf.
Italian affairs.

to

take a share in the

Beyond the borders of


the Saracen

Tuscany, the same


Genoa.

position

was held by Genoa on the


;

Pisa

won Sardinia from

Occupation
of the island of Sardinia by Pisa, and of Corsica by

Genoa,

after long disputes

with Pisa, obtained a more

lasting possession of Corsica.

Eeturning to Tuscany,

Genoa.
Lucca,
Siena, Florence.

three great commonwealths here grew up, which graThese were dually divided the land between them.

Lucca and Siena, and Florence, the last of Italian cities to rise to greatness, but the one which became
in

many ways

the greatest

among her

fellows.

In the

'

ROMAGNA AND TUSCANY.


centre of Italy, within the bounds of old Etruria but
.

239
chap.
VIII.

not within those of

modern Tuscany, Perugia, both


as tyranny, held a high place

as

commonwealth and
Italian cities.

among
Rome,
little

Of Rome

herself

it is

almost impossible

to

speak.

She has much history, but she has

geography.

Emperors were crowned there


;

Popes

sometimes Hved there

sometimes

Rome

appears once

more

as a single Latin city,

waging war against Tusfellows.

culum or some other of her earhest

The
ciaim? of
the Popes.

claims of her Bishops to independent temporal power,

founded on a succession of real or pretended Imperial

and royal grants, lay

still

in the

background

but they

were ready

to

grow

into reality as occasion served.

The next
all

stage of Italian political geography

may
may

second
i25o-'i53o.

be dated from the death of Frederick the Second, when


practical

power of an Imperial kingdom

in Italy

be said to have passed away.

Presently begins the


Growth
.

gradual change ^ of the commonwealths into tyrannies, grouping together of many of them into larger and the
states.

of tyrannies.

We

also see the beginning of

more

definite

claims of temporal dominion on behalf of the Popes.

In the course of the three hundred years between


Frederick the Second and
processes

Charles

the

Fifth,

these Dominion
of Spain,

gradually changed the face of the Italian


It

1555-1701.

kingdom.
palities,

became

in the

end a collection of

princi-

broken only by the survival of a few oligarchic

commonwealths and by the anomalous dominion of


Venice

on the mainland.

Between Frederick the

Second and Charles the

Fifth,

we may

look on the

Empire

as practically in

abeyance in

Italy.

The comstir for

ing of an
time, but

Emperor it was only

always caused a great


for the time.

the

After the grant

240
of Eudolf of

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


Habsburg
to the Popes, a distinction

was

drawn between Imperial and papal territory While certain princes and commonwealths
Imperial and papal
fiefs.

in Italy.
still

ac-

knowledged

at least

the

nominal superiority of the


to stand in the

Emperor, others were now held


relation of vassalage to the Pope.

same

We
states

must now trace out the growth of the chief

which were formed by these several processes. Beginning again in the north, it must be remembered
that
all

this

while the power of Savoy was advancing

in those north-western lands in

which the influences


old

which mainly ruled


elsewhere.

this

period had less force than


its

Montferrat too kept

character of

a feudal principality, a state


rious

whose

rulers

had

in va-

ways a singular connexion with the East. As Marquesses of Montferrat had claimed the crown of
Jerusalem and had worn the crown of Thessalonica,
as
Palaiologioi at Montferrat, ISOf*

so,

if

to

keep even the balance between East and West,

in

return a branch of the Imperial house of Palaiologos

came

to reicjn at Montferrat.

To

the east of these

more
These

ancient principalities, two great powers of quite different

kinds grew up in the old Neustria and Austria.


Duchy
Milan. Venice.
of

were the Duchy of Milan and the land power of Venice. Milan, like most other Italian cities, came under the influence of party leaders,

who grew

first

into tyrants

and

then into acknowledged sovereigns.


after the sliorter
The
Vis-

These

at Milan,

domination of the Delia Torre, were the


of the Visconti.

more abiding house


after

Their dominion,

conti at

Milan, 1310-1447.

various fluctuations and revolutions, was finally


tlie

estabhshed when
Grant of the Ducliy by Kins" WenceslauB, lo9f).

coming of the Emperor Henry the

Seventh generally strengthened the rule of the Lords


of the cities throughout Italy.

At

the end of the four-

teenth century their informal lordship passed

by

a royal

"'

DUCHY OF MILAN.
grant into an acknowledged duchy of the Empire.

241

The
"

chap

dominion which they had gradually gained, and which

of

was thus
cities

in a

manner

legalized, took in all the great

of

Lombardy, those

especially

which had formed

the

Lombard League

against the Swabian Emperors.


County

Pa via indeed, the ancient rival of ]\Iilan, kept a kind of separate being, and was formed into a distinct county.
But the duchy granted by Wenceslaus
leazzo stretched far
to

Gian-Ga-

on both sides of the lake of Garda.


Extent of
the duchy.

Belluno at one end and Vercelli at the other formed


part of
it.

It

took

m
.

the

mountain lands which

afterwards passed to the two Alpine Confederations


it

took in

Farma, Fiacenza, and Beggio south


Veroiia and

of

the Po, and

Vicenza in the old Austrian


all this,

or Venetian land.

Besides

Fadua^ Bologna^
this great

even Genoa and Fisa^ passed at various times under


the lordship of the Visconti.

But

power
of the
it

was not
lords,

lasting.

The Duchy
but,

of Milan, under various


till

native and foreign, lasted


;

the wars

French Eevolution

long

before that

time,

had been cut short on every


first

side.

The death of

the
Decrease on

Duke
-.

w^as followed

by a separation of the duchy


.
.

of Milan and the county of Pavia between his sons,


-,

and the restored duchy never rose again


power.

Ill

Giln Galeazzo, 1402.

to

its

former
xheeasteiu

The

eastern

parts,

Padua, Verona, Brescia,

Bergamo, were gradually added to the dominion of


Venice.

w'venke,

By
In

the middle of the fifteenth century, that

republic had become the greatest


Italy.

power

in

northern
House of
um-ibzr^.
the Kings

the

duchy of Milan the house of Sforza


;

succeeded that of Visconti

but the opposing claims

of the Kings of France were one chief cause of the

long wars which laid Italy waste in the latter years


of the fifteenth

1499-1525.

century and the early years

of the

242
CHAP,
sixteenth.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


The duchy was
tossed to and fro between
its

-.-^^

the Emperor, the French King, and

own
It

dukes.

Meanwhile the dominion which was thus struggled


for
Cessionto

was cut short

at

the

two ends.

was

dis-

membcrcd

to the north in favour of the

two Alpine
detail.

Leagu^.
1512-1513.

Leagues, as will be hereafter shown more in

South of the
The Popes

Po, the Popes

obtained

Parma and
fiefs

Piaceuza, which were afterwards granted as papal


to

Pamfa and
]5i5.
'

form a ducliy

for the

house of Farnese.
in the

Thus the
Spanish

Duchy

of Milan which
Fifth,

became

end a possession
his

Parma and
Piacenza,
i^'i^-

of Charlcs the

and afterwards of

and Austrian successors, was but a remnant of the great


dominion of the
first

Duke.

The duchy underwent


to deal in her

still

further dismemberments in later times.

With Venice we have here


Land power uiiuatural positiou as
oniy.

somewhat
This posi;

an Italian land power.

tion she took

on herself
it

in the fifteenth century

in

the sixteenth
War
of the

led to the

momentary overthrow and

woudcrful rccovcry of her dominion in the war of the


of Cambray. Lea<^ue
quite
distinct

ca'mbrav, 1608-1517.

This land power of Venice stands


.

from the Venetian possessions

east of

the Hadriatic.
igtria.

With

this

last

her possession of the

coast of

tlic

IstHan peninsula must be reckoned, rather

than with her Itahan dominions.

Between these lay

Aquileia, Trieste, and the other lands in this quarter


Extent
of

dominion.

whlch gradually came under the power of Austria. Thc coutinuous Italian dominion of Venice took in
Udine at one end and Bergamo
at the other, besides

Ravenna,
1441-1530.

Crema, and
rpu^g
^]^g

for a while

Ravenna, as outlying possessions.


ojS"

Byzautinc city which lay anchored

the

shore of the Western

Empire could
its

for a season call

the ancient seat of the Exarchate


TwopavtBof

own.

But even two por-

the continuous land territory of Venice lay in

'

VENETIAN DOMINIONS IN ITALY.


tions.

243

Brescia and Bera;amo were almost cut off from


.

Verona and the other possessions


.

to the east

by the

Lake of Gar da, the bishopric of Trent


and the principahty of Mantua

to the north,

the Venetian teni-

VIII.

chap.

to the south.

The mention of
the
tyrannies,

this last state ieads us

back again
first

to

commonwealths which, like Milan, changed,


and then into acknowledged
mention
all

into

principalities.

It is impossible to

of them, and

some of

those which played for a while the most brilliant part in


Italian history

had no

lasting effect

on Italian geography.
Kuie of
VeVona,
l-.>(;0-1387;
tiif

The

rule of the house of Scala at Verona, the rule of the


left

house of Carrara at Padua,


.

no

lasting ^ trace
states

on the

map.

It

was otherwise with the two

which bor-

"ftheCarr.ira at
i'-^'^'"''''

dered on the Venetian possessions to the south. ^


captains, then

The

1318-1-405

house of Gonzaga held sovereign power at Ilantua,


first

^J^^^^?""'
??;28ii7b8.
JJ-^y,^!^^''^^^'

as

as marquesses, then as dukes,


years.
in

for nearly four

hundred

Of greater fame was


Their position

the

power that grew up

the house of E&te, the HoS'of"'

Italian
is

branch of the house of Welf.

one specially instructive, as

illustrating the various

tenures by which dominion was held.

The marquesses

of Este, feudal lords of that small principality, be-

came, after some of the usual fluctuations, permanent


lords of the cities of Ferrara

and Modena.

About

Theiords of
Modena.*"*^
of'

the same time they lost their original holding of Este,

which passed
'

to Padua,

and with Padua

to Venice. Duchy

Thus the nominal marquess of Este and real lord of h errara was not uncommonly spoken of as Marquess of
Ferrara.

1453'''
DltellV of

Fenara,

In the fifteenth century these princes rose to


;

ducal rank

but by that time

tlie

new

doctrine of the

temporal
advances.

dominion of the Popes had

made

great

Modena, no man doubted, was a city of the Empire; but Ferrara was now held to be under the
K 2

244
CHAP,
"-

THE IMrERIAL KINGDOMS.


supremacy of the Pope.
'

of

The Marquess Borso had thus


rank from two separate
of

to seek his elevation to ducal


lords.

Duchy
145;!.

iHMiara,

Modena and Eeggio bv the Emperor, and afterwards Duke of Ferrara by the Popc. Th'is difference of holding, as we shall presently

Hc was

created

Duke

see, led

to the destruction of the

power of the house


are

of Este.

In the times in which

we
;

their dominions lay in

two masses.

now concerned, To the west lay

the duchy of
Loss of

east lay the

Modena and Eeggio apart from it to the duchy of Ferrara. Not long after its creaduchy was cut short by the surrender of

i48ir

'

tion, this last

the border-district of Rovigo to Venice.


Cities of

Between the two great duchies of the house of Este


lay Bolof/na, gradually changed from

Romania

in

one

sense into
cities,

Romagna in

another.

Like most other Italian

the

commonwealths of the Exarchate and the Pen-

tapolis

changed into tyrannies, and their petty princes

were one by one overthrown by the advancing power of


the Popes,
r,o!(nn,
liiniiVii'.'

Every

city

had

its

dynasty

but

it

was only

a few, like the houses of Bentevoglio at Bologna^ of Baglioni


Sit

Penigia, and Malatesta at Rimini^ that rose to

any

historical

importance

One only combined

historical

importance with
The Duciiy
i478-i'("j*i.

acknowledged princely rank.

The

liousc of Moiitefeltro, lords of Urbino,

became acknowthe duchy


flourished

ledged dukes by papal grants.


passed to the house of

From them
it

La Eovere, and

under five princes of the two dynasties.

Gradually,

by

successive annexations, the papal dominions, before the


Exiian.sion

middle of the sixteenth century, stretched from the Po


to Taxracina. Ferrara
states,
tlie

(loininiour

and Urbino

still

remained

distinct
fiefs

but

states

which were confessedly held as

of

Holy

See.

Creatinii of

To

the wcst, iu Tuscauy, the phcenomena are some-

CITIES OF
wliat different.

CENTRAL ITALY.
"
.
.

245

The

characteristic of this part of Italy


cities

was the grouping together of the smaller


the power of the larger.
in the

under

^^

VIII.

chap.

Nearly
;

all

the land

came

cities.

end under princely rule

but both acknowit

ledged princely rule and the tyrannies out of which

sprang came into importance

in

Tuscany
.

later

than
Castruccio castracani, 1320-1338.

anywhere
.

else.

Lucca had

in the fourteenth century Lucca under


,
.

a short time of greatness under her illustrious tyrant Castruccio but, before and after his day, she plays,
-^
_

as a
Still

commonwealth, only a secondary part


changes

in

Italy.

she remained a commonwealth, though latterly


all

an oligarchic one, through

down

to the
pisa.

general crash of the French Eevolution.

Pisa kept for

a while her maritime greatness, and her rivalry with


the Ligurian

commonwealth of Genoa.
proved a
far

Genoa,

less Genoa.

famous
power.

in the earliest times,

more

lasting

She established her dominion over the coast


sides of her,

on both

and kept her island of Corsica


Physical causes caused the
Pisa
;

Her mie

in

down
to

to

modern

times.

fall
Sardinia
Araj;(,u,

of the maritime

power of

Sardinia passed from her

become a kin^jdom of the House of Aragon, and she


under the dominion of Florence.
This
the greatest of Tuscan and even of
befjins to

i42>r

herself passed

last illustrious city,

Pisa subI'lorenco,

Italian

commonwealths,

stand forth as the

MIO

foremost of republican states about the time

when her
She

(jreatnessof

forerunner Milan came under the rule of tyrants.

extended her dominion over Volterra^Arezzo^rni^nvdwy


smaller places,
till

she became mistress of

all

northern
sieua.

Tuscany.
also

To

the south the

commonwealth of Siena
In Florence the rule of
;

formed a large dominion.

Rule of the
1434-1491.

the Medici

grew

step

by

step into a hereditary tyranny

but

it

was an intermittent tyranny, one which was supwliicli

ported only by foreign force, and

was overturned

246
CHAP,
viii.

THE IMPEEIAL KINGDOMS.

'

<'f

whenever Florence had strength


-

to act for herself.

It

'

was only after her last overthrow by the combined powers


of PoiDC and Co3sar that she became, under Alexander,
,

Alexander,

Duke
in;io.

i-'iorence,

tlic first

Cosmo
Siena, 1557.

principality.

the housc of Medici, an acknowledged * ...dulvc of the second duke, anCosmo the
.

First,

ucxcd Sicua, aud

all

the territory of that commonwealth,


as Stati degli Presidi,

except the lands


Elba, &c.

known

that

is

the

isle

of Elba

and some points on the


;

coast.

These became parts of the kingdom of Naples


at that time, parts of the

that

is,

dominion of Spain.

The

state

thus formed
in Italy,

by Cosmo was one of the most considerable


the whole of Tuscany except the

taking in

territory of
Its ruler
(^osmo

Lucca and the lands which became Spanish.


of Florence for

presently exchanged

title
^j,

of

Duke

by papal authority the that of Grand Duke of

(irandDuke ofTuscanv,
1567.

iUSCauy.

4.
Abeyance of
(lorn

The Later

Geocp\ij)hi/ of Italy.
it

Uudcr Charlcs thc


both the

of"

Eoman Empire and

Italy, 15.30180.5.

come
was
of the

to life again.

...
Fifth

might have seemed that

the

kingdom

of Italy

had

prince

who wore both crowns


But though the power

practically master of Italy.

Emperor was
In truth

restored, the powder of the


all

Empire

was

not.

we may look on

notion of a king-

dom

of Italy in the elder sense as having passed

away
at

with the coronation of Charles himself.

The thing
pageant

had passed away long before


ccuturies and a half.
;

after the

Bologna the name was not heard


Italy a geegra])liical

for

more than two


'

Italy

became

truly a

geograof

expression,

phical exprcssioii
principalities

'

the land consisted of a


all

number

and a few commonwealths,

nominally

independent, some more or less more part of which were under

practically so, but the

foreign influence, and

"

'

DOmNION OF SPAIN AND AUSTRIA.


i^rinces. The some of them were actually ruled by foreioin ^
^
.
. .
~

247
chap.
VIII.

states of Italy

were united, divided, handed over from


to the will of

the

one ruler to another, according to the fluctuations of war

among
states.

and diplomacy, without any regard either

the inhabitants or to the authority of any central power.

practically

dominant power there was during the


;

greater part of this period

but

it

was not the power

of even a nominal

King of

Italy.

For a long time that


in

dominant power was held by the House of Austria


its

two branches.

The supremacy

of Charles in Italy

passed, not to his Imperial brother, but to his Spanish


son.

Then followed the long dominion of the Spanish


;

Dominion

branch of the Austrian house

then

came the
This

less u,d-i7()\;

thorough dominion of the German branch.

last
of Austri.i,

was a dominion

strictly of the

House of Austria

as such,

not of the Empire or of either of the Imperial kingdoms.

And now that


as they

the

surface on. the

name of Italy means merely a certain map, we must take some notice, so far
kingdoms
at the other.

regard Italian history, at once of Savoy at one


Sicilian

end and of the


this

From

time both of them have a more direct bearing on

Italian history.

By
his

the time of the coronation of Charles the Fifth,

jhussingof

or at least within the oreneration which could


coronation,

remember

lar-e/"
state.''.

the greater
states,

part of Italy had been

massed into a few

which, as compared with the


size.

earlier state of things,

were of considerable
still

few

smaller principalities and lordships

kept their place,

of which one of the smallest, that of

Monaco

in the Monaco

extreme soutli-west, has Hved on


the small
first

to

our

own time. So has


San Marino

commonwealth of San Marino^ surrounded,

by the dominions of the Popes and now by the modern kingdom. But such states as these were mere

'

248

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


survivals.

^^

CHAR

In the north-east, Venice kept her power

on the mainland untouched, from the recovery of her


dominious after the league of Cambray down to her
final fall.

Venice on
land, 1406-

By
too

the treaty of Bologna she lost


the

Ravenna

Sheiosesher
itaiLn^'
possessio
.,

shc

lost

towus of BHudisi

aud Monopoli
JSTaples
;

which she had gained during the wars of

but

^^^ continuous dominion, both properly Venetian and


Duchy
Milan
]

of

Lombard, remained.
(,

The duchy of Milan


succession
.

to the west

Spanish,

of her
tlic

was held

by the two branches of


"^

540-1700;

Austrian, 1706-1796.

Housc

of Austria,

first

the Spanish and then the ^


as

Advance

of

Grermau.
^^^^

But the duchy,

an Austrian possession,

MiiS

being constantly cut short towards the west by

the growing power of Savoy.

For a while the Mila-

nese

and

Savoyard

states

were conterminous only

during a small part of their frontier.


Montferrat.

The marquisate

of Montfevrat, as long as
cipality, lay
states.

it

remained a separate prin-

between the southern parts of the two


the failure of the old line of marquesses,

On

Montferrat was disputed between the Dukes of Savoy


United to
1.536,

^iitl

Mantua.

Adjudged

to

Mantua, and raised into


it

but
^

duchy by Imperial authority,

was

still

claimed,

Savoy,

and partly conquered by. Savoy.


^^^^

At
to

last,

by one of

Mantuaforthe Empire,
ferratjoined

^^^^

cxerciscs of Imperial authority in Italy, the


itself

duchy of Mautua

was held
aii

be forfeited to the

Empire

that

is, it

became

Austrian possession.

At

1708-1 71 3.

the same time the Imperial authority confirmed Montferrat to Savoy.

extended

to

The Austrian dominions in Italy were thus the south-east by the accession of the
;

Mantuan
First dis-

territory

but the whole western frontier of

the Milaucsc

now

lay open to Savoyard advance.


to

The

ment

of
in

samc

trcatics

which confirmed Montferrat

Savoy and

Milan

favour of
Savoy,!?!.".

Milan to Austria also dismembered Milan in favour of


Savoy.

corner of the

duchy

to the

south-west,

CHANGE AFTER CHARLES THE


Alessandria and the neighbouring
given to Savoy
;

FIFTH.

249

districts,

were now
off

tlie

Peace of Vienna further cut

^^

r
VIII

chap.

Novara

to the north

and Tortona

to the soutli.
all

The
west

Furtherces''"^'

next peace, that of Aix-la-Chapelle, gave up


of the Ticiiio, which river

became a permanent

frontier.

Among

the other states, the

duchy of Parma and


1 1

Parma and
siven to the Spanish Bourbons,
17.31-1749.

Piacenza was, on the extinction of the house of Farnese, ,,, /'in 'IT ot the Spanish branch of theBourhanded over to princes ^
.

bons.

Modena and Ferrara remamed united,


as

till

Ferrara

Ferrara
confiscated
^^'^ ^ Popes, \:jW.
,

was annexed
its

an escheated

fief to

the dominions of
still

spiritual overlord.

But the house of Este

reigned
its
i7i8.

over

Modena with Beggio and Mirandola^ while


were
of

dominions
tion

extended to the sea by the addi-

Massa and other small possessions between Lucca and Genoa. The duchy in the end passed by female succession to the House of Austria. Genoa and
Lucca remained
aristocratic

i77i-i80;3.

commonwealths but Genoa


;

lost its island possession

of Corsica, which passed to

Corsica
France,"

France.
the

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany remained in house of Medici, till it was assigned to Duke
it

1768
ExtinctioTi

Francis of Lorraine, afterwards the


the First, and after that

Emperor Francis remained in the House of

Medid,
Francis of

Habsburg-Lorraine.
.

The

States of the Church, after (land'onke

the annexation ot Jberrara, were


further enlarged

m
. .

ofTiiscanv.

the next century

Urbinoannexed bv
the Popes,

by

the annexation of the duchy of

Urbino.

Thus,

except

on die

frontier

of Piedmont

and

1530-1797.

Milan, the whole time from Charles the Fifth to the compara-

French Eevolution was, within the old kingdom of


Italy,

iToVraph?-^
*^^

much

less

remarkable for changes in the geo-

'^"^'''"

graphical frontiers of the several states than for the


in

way

which they are passed


is

to

and

fro

from one master to


if

another. This

yet

more remarkable,

we

look to the

250
CHAP,
''

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


southern part of the peninsula, and to the two great
"

islands

which

in

modem

geography we have learned


'

The Nor-

man
dom

kingof

The Norman kingdom which, by steps which will be told elsewhere, grew up to the south of the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, has hardly ever changed its boundaries, except by the various
to look

ou as attached to

Italy.

separations and unions of the insular and the conti-

nental kingdom.
Benevento.

Even
But the

the outlying papal possession

^f Beneveuto after each


astical master.

war went back


shiftings,

to

its ecclesi-

divisions,

and

re-

unions of the

Two

Sicilies

and of the island of Sardinia


Sicilian

have been endless.

The

kingdom of the

Norman and Swabian


Charles of

kings, containing both the island

and the provinces on the mainland, passed unchanged


to Charlcs of Anjou.

The

revolt of the island split the

Kevoit of
the island of
Sicily, 1282.

kingdom "

The two
kingdoms,

into two, one insular, one continental, each of n- n t ^ ^ which Called itself the kinqdom of bialy, though the '
/^

continental realm

was more commonly known

as the

Kingdom of Naples.
in
Union of Aragon,
Sardinia,

The wars of

the fourteenth and

fifteenth centuries caused endless

changes of dynasty
frontier.

the continental kingdom, but no changes of


in
. .

Under the famous Alfonso Arasou,. Sardinia, and the


'-'

the fifteenth century, i re m continental Sicily were

and continentai Sicily

under

while the insular uudcr one sovereign, thrcc kiuo'doms ^ "^


Sicily

U42'**''

was ruled by

anotlier branch of the

same house.

kin^<lof the

Then
Sicily

continental Sicily passed to an illegitimate branch

1296-1442.

of the

wSUgin-

House of Aragon, while Sardinia and insular were held by the legitimate branch. The French
the
conquests,

SiL'fte invasion under Charles the Eighth and the long wars
H94-1528.

that

followed,

the

restorations,

the

schemes of
Kingdom
sidiieT'
of

division, all

ended

in the

union of both the

Sicilian

kingdoms, now known

as the

Kingdom of

the

Ttvo Sicilies, along with Sardinia, as part of the great

'

SICILY
Spanisli

AND SAVOY.

251

monarchy.

insular

kingdom,

in

momentary separation of the order to give the husband of Mary


is

-^

chap.

of England royal rank while his father yet reigned,

i.jo6-i70i.

important only as the

first

formal use of the

title

of

King of Naples.
trian

In the division of the Spanish monfell

archy, Sardinia and JSTaples

to the lot of the to the

Aus-

Sardinia

House, while

Sicily
I

given was ^

JJuke oi
Pre-

Austrian.

Duke

of

Savoy,

who
;

thus gained substantial kingly rank.

Savov king
i^i^-

sently the kings of the

two island kingdoms made an

exchange

Sardinia passed to Savoy, and the

Emperor

Exchange
and Sardinia, 1718.

Charles the Sixth ruled, like Frederick the Second and

Charles the Fifth, over both Sicihes.

Lastly, the kingThe Spanish


Bourbons,
i7;5.^)-i8ot;.

dom was handed


Bourbons.

over from
c
first
c

master, the Spanish ^

of the

an Austrian to. a new T fTVT T


^

line

oi iSeapohtan *

1817-18GU.

Thus, at the end of the

last century, the

Two

Sicilies

formed a

distinct

and united kingdom,

while Sardinia formed the outlying reahn of the


of Savoy and Prince of Piedmont.

Duke

His kingdom was

of far less value than his principality or his duchy.

But,

as Sardinia
title,

*-

wave their

common

sovereign
_

his Use

of the
.Sar-

name
dima.

highest

the Sardinian

name often came in common

speech to be extended to the continental dominions of


its

king.

This period, a period of change, but of comparatively


^

Time
ti^*!,

of the

lif'volu-

shght geographical change, was followed by a time

1^07-

when,

in Italy as in

Germany, boundaries were changed,

new names were invented or forgotten names revived, when old land-marks were rooted up, and thrones were
set

up and

cast

down, with a speed which


first

baffles the

chronicler.

The

strictly

geographical

change

wdiich

was wrought

in Italy

by the revolutionary wars

was a

characteristic one.

Cispadane

Repfublic, the cispadane

252
CHAP.
VIII.
Republic,
1796.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


number of momentary commonwealths bearing names dug up from the recesses of bygone times, took in the duchy of Modena and the Papal Legations
first

of a

of

Eomagna.
it

Without exactly following the same


answered roughly to the old Exarchate.
caused the

boundaries,
Transpadane l!epublic,1797.

Then

the French victories over Austria

Austrian duchies of Milan and Mantua to become a

Transpadane Republic.
Treaty of
Canipi)

Then Venice was wiped out

at

Campo Formio, and her Lombard possessions were joined


together with the two newly

Formio,
1797. Cisalpine Kepublic.

made commonwealths,

to

form a Cisalpine Republic. But the same treaty wrought


another change which was more distinctly geographical.

Venice surrendered to
Austria.

Venice and the eastern part of her possessions on the


mainland, the old Venetia, the

now handed
latter

over to the

Lombard Austria, was modern state which bore the


as distinctly

name. This change

may be looked on

cutting short the boundaries of Italy.

The duchy

of

Milan in Austrian hands had been an outlying part


of the Austrian

dominions

but Venetia marclies on


house, and was

the older territory of the Austrian thus

more completely severed from


sense.

Italy.

The whole

north of the Hadriatic coast thus became Austrian in the

modern

One

Italian

commonwealth

had long counted

as Italian

was thus wiped

for Venice
out,

and
at

handed over

to a foreign king.

But elsewhere,

this stage of revolutionary progress, the fashion

ran in

favour of the creation of local commonwealths.


Ligurian
Republic,
1

The
;

dominions

of Genoa became

a Ligurian Republic
;

797.

Naples became a Parthenopman Republic


self

Eome

her-

Parthenopiean Republic.

exchanged

for a

moment

the memories of kings,

consuls, emperors,
Tiberinc Republic, 1798-1801.

and

pontiffs to

become the head


;

of a

Tiberine Republic.

Piedmont was overwhelmed

the

greater

part

was incorporated with France.

Some


CHA^'GES IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WARS.
small parts were added to the neighbouring republics,

253
chai>.

and the king of Sardinia withdrew


dom. Amid
this

to his island kingstates

-^^
joined to

crowd of new-fangled
still

and new-

fangled names, ancient San Marino

lived on.

1798-1800.

Thus

far revolutionary Italy followed the

example of were
all at

revolutionary France, and the


least

new

states

nominal commonwealths.

In the

next stage,

when France came under above all when that single


perial
title,

the rule of a single man,


ruler took

on him the ImIn

the tide turned in favour of monarchy.

Eome and Naples it had already turned so in another way. By help of the Czar and the Sultan, the new republics vanished,

Hestonitiou

and the old

rulers,

Pope and King.

andThf*^^"

came back again. And now France herself began to Parma create kingdoms instead of commonwealths.
was annexed
in Tuscany
'I

TwifsJ?*'
'^'""

to France,
title
''

and

its

Duke was
o/" JS'^rwn'a.
c/

sent to rule

by the

of /iTmgr 1/
to a

Presently J

,,.

Kingdoni
f^^oi-isos

or

Italy herself gave her

name

kingdom.

The

Cisal-

pine republic, further enlarged


territory
also

by Venice and

the other

ceded to Austria at
Valtellina

Campo Formio,

enlarged Kingdom
of ihUV

of

by the

and the former bishopric

Trent at one end and by the march of Ancona at the


other,
since

became the Kingdom of Italy. Its King, the first Charles the Fifth who had worn the Italian crown,
self-

j^onapaite
uah-."^

was no other than the new ruler of France, the


styled 'Emperor.'
tions of Italian territory,

But, in Buonaparte's later distribuit

was not
'

his Italian kingAnnexa-

dom, but
tended.

his

French

'

empire whose frontiers were ex;

The Ligurian Republic was annexed so before ^m\t\m; new kingdom of Etruria Lucca mean- 18O8. while was made into a grand duchy for the conqueror's Grand sister. Lastly, Pome itself, with what was left of the Lucci papal dominions, was also incorporated with the French tion^of^Kome
long was the
;


254
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPEIilAL KINGDOMS.


dominion.

The work

alike of Csesar
City.

and of

Ciiarles

was wiped out from the Eternal


and France,
1809.

the Gauls, which Civilis

The Empire of had dreamed of more than


last.

seventeen centuries before, had come at

The

fate of the

remainder of the

]:)eninsula

had been

already sealed before

Eome became

French.

The kinghis.

dom
Kingdoms
of Naples

of the

Two

Sicilies fell

asunder.

The Bourbon
a

king kept his island, as the Savoyard king kept

The

continental
first

kingdom

passed,

as

Kingdom of

and
]

Sicil}',

Naples^

to

Joseph Buonaparte, and then to Joa-

806. 1809. Stati degli Presidi.

chim Murat.
the Sicilian

But the outlying Tuscan possessions of

crown had already passed

to France,

and

Benevento.

Benevento^ the outlying papal possession in the heart


of the kingdom,

became a separate

principality.

Italy under

Thus

all

Italy

French
dominion.

unless we count the


in

island

kingdoms

of Sardinia and Sicily as parts of

Italy was brought


But

under French dominion

one form or another.

of that dominion there were three varieties.

The whole

western part of the land, from Aosta to Tarracina


Part incorporated

unless

it

with
France.

duchy

new Lucchese was formally incorporated with France. The


is

worth while

to except the

north-eastern
Extent of
the king-

side,

from Bozen

to Ascoli,

formed a

Kingdom
the

of Italy, distinct from France, but held

by

dom

of

same sovereign.

And this Kingdom

of Italy was
Italian

Italy.

further increased to the north

by part of those

lands which had become Swiss and German.


Kingdom
Naples.
of

Southern

Italy, the

Kingdom
;

of Naples, remained in form an inde-

pendent kingdom

but

it

was held by princes who could

not be looked on as anything but the humble vassals


of their mighty kinsman.

Never had

Italy been brought


Still,

more completely under

foreign dominion.

in a

part at least of the land, the


Kevival of

name

of Italy, and the

shadow of a Kingdom of

Ital}',

had been revived.

FRENCH KINGDOM OF ITALY.


And,
in
as

ZOO

names and shadows are not without influence


the mere existence of an Itahan by the Italian name, did something. The of a sham Italy w^as no unimportant step
affairs,

human

state, called

creation

towards the creation of a real one.

The settlement
w^as far

of Italy after the

fall

of Buonaparte

settiemeut
1815.

more

strictly a

return to the old state of things


Italy

than the contemporary settlement of Germany,

remained a geographical expression.


of one another. before, independent ^
.

Its states

were, as
Xo
.

They were practi:

cally

dependent on a foreign power

but they were in


tie.

tie bet^^een the Italian

no way bound together, even by the laxest federal

The main

principle of settlement
lost

was that the princes

Tiie princes

who had
that the

their

dominions should be restored, but


whicli

but not the

commou-

commonwealths
to
live on.

had been overthrown

Aveaiths.

should not be restored.

Only harmless San Marino


Venice, Lucca, and

was allowed

Genoa
of

remained possessions of princes.

The sovereign
himself
'

Hungary and
ror
'

Austria,

now

calling

Empe-

of his archduchy, carved out for himself an Italian


Kingdom
of

kingdom which bore the name of the Kingdom of Lombardy and Venice. On the strength of this, the
Austrian, like his French predecessor, took upon

andVeuiJe.

him

to

wear the

Italian crown.

The new kingdom


by

consisted

of the former Italian possessions of Austria, the duchies

of Milan and Mantua, enlarged


of Venice,
formio.
Italy

the former possessions


at

its extent.

which had become Austrian


old

Campowere

The

boundary between Germany and


Trent,
Aquileia,
Trieste,

was

restored.

again severed from Italy.


of the same

They remained

possessions

prince as Milan and Venice, but


his

they

formed no part of

Lombardo- Venetian kingdom.

256
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

On
to

another frontier, where restoration would have had

be made to a commonwealth, the arrangements


less

were

conservative,

and the

Valtellina

remained
as

part of the
before, the

new kingdom.
came again
into

The Ticino formed,


possession

boundary towards Piedmont.

The King
of
tliis

of Sardinia
Genoa annexed to Piedmont.
Monaco.
Tuscany, Parma, Modena,
Lucca.

last

country, enlarged

by the former dominions of Genoa. This gave him the whole Ligurian seaboard, except where the little principality of Monaco still went on.
Parma., Modena, and Tuscany again became separate
duchies.

Lucca remained a duchy alongside of them.

The family arrangements by which these states were handed about to this and that widow do not concern
geography
Lucca annexed to Tuscanv.
;

all

that need be

marked

is

that,

by vktue of

one of these compacts, Lucca was in the end added to


Tuscany.

That grand-duchy was further increased by

the addition of the former outlying possessions of the


Sicilian
The Papal
states.

crown, including Elba, the island which for a

moment was an Empire.


The Kingdom
the
of the

The Pope came back


Sicilies

to all

his old Italian possessions, outlying


The Two
Sicilies.

Benevento included.

Two
the

was formed again by


of

restoration

of

Kingdom

Naples to the
Italy of 1815,
its

Bourbon

king.

Thus was formed the


in the

an Italy which, save

sweeping away of

com-

monwealths, and the consequent extension of Sardinian

and Austrian

territory, differed geographically but little

from the Italy of 1748.

But

in

1815 there were hopes


Italy

which had had no being


on the map
;

in 1748.

was divided
to

but she had made up her mind


of Italy

be one.
of

The union
ctmes^Lui

^hc uuion
on

was

at last to

come from one

those comcrs which in earlier history


as being hardly Italian at
all.

we have looked

It

was not Milan or

THE REUNION OF ITALY.


Florence or
Italy.

257
into the

Eome which was

to

grow

new

chap.

That function was reserved

for a princely

house

<^

whose beginnings had been Burgundian rather than


Italian,

whose chief

territories

had long

lain

on the Bur-

gundian side of the Alps, but which had gradually put

on an

Italian character,

and which had now become the

one national Italian dynasty.

The

Italian possessions of

the Savoyard house, Piedmont, Genoa, and the island of


Sardinia,

now formed one

of the chief Italian states, and


despotic, Avas not foreign.

the only one whose rule,

if still

Savoy, by ceasing to be Savoy, was to become Italy.

The movements of 1848


affect
if

in Italy,

hke those
:

in

Germany,

Movements

led to no lasting changes on the

map but

they do so far

geography that new

states

were actually founded,


ac- Momentary
wraitiiT.

only for a moment.

Eome, Venice, Milan, were


and the

tually for a while republics,


for a while separated.
as before.

Two

Sicilies

were

In the next year


lasting

all

came back
of Italy.
campnisn

The next

change on the map was

that

which
joint

at last restored

a real

Kingdom

The

campaign of France and Sardinia won Lorn-

^arc/y for the Sardinian kingdom.

defined as that part

which lay west of

Lombardy was now of the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom the Mincio, except tliat Mantua
was
left

was

left

out.

She

to Austria.

French

scheme

for

an Italian confederation came to nothing.


union of
stateTisGo.

Tuscany, Modena, Parma, and Piomagna voted their

own annexation to Piedmont. The Two Sicilies were won by Garibaldi, and the kingly title of Sardinia was merged in that of the restored Kingdom of Italy. This new Italian kingdom was, by the addition of the
Sicilies,

extended over lands which had never been

part of the elder Italian kingdom.


6till

But Venetia was


side of

AtWition of

cut off

the

Pope kept the lands on each

25

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

CHAP. Eome, the so-called Patrimony and the Campagna. r-^-^ But France annexed the lands, strictly Burginidian
SiivoTand
France.

ratlicr

than Italian, of Savoy and Nizza.


called into being
Italy
;

The
but

Italian
it

kingdom was thus again

had
be

not yet come to perfection.


a geographical expression
;

had ceased

to

but the Italian frontier

still

presented some geographical anomalies.


Recovery of
1866
of
' ;

Tlic
to Italy

war bctwccn Prussia and Austria gave Venetia


;

tlie

war between Germany and France allowed

Rome,

Italy to recover

frontier were thus


Part of the

Eome. The two great gaps in her made good but, to say nothing of the
;

anncxatious
.

made by
.

France, a large Italian-speaking


.
'

domno'tyet
recovered.

poindatiou, lying wlthiu thc bouuds of the old Italian


.

kingdom,

still

remains outside
are

its

modern revival. Trent,


parts, not of an Italian

Aquileia, Trieste, Istria,

still

kingdom, not of aGerman kingdom, confederation, or empire,

but of an Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

Otherwise
its

the Italian
place

kingdom has formed

itself,

and

it

has taken

among the

great powers of Europe.

Yet the whole

peninsula does not form part of the Italian kingdom.

Surrounded on every
San Marino
remduis

side

by

tliat

kingdom, the com-

niouwealth of Sa7i Mavino^ like Ehodes or Byzantium


uncler the early Cassars,
still

keeps

its

ancient freedom.

5,
Union of
wit'h

The Kingdom of Burgundy.

G-

The Burgundian Kingdom, which was united with those of Germany and Italy after the death of its last
Separate king Eudolf the Third, has had a fate
that of

Italy, 1032.

unhke
as a

Dyinffoiit of the king-

any other part of Europe.


,

Its

memory,
lie

_.

_.

dom.

separate state, has gradually died out.


of
its

greater part

territory has been

swallowed up

bit

by

bit

by

a neighbouring power, and the small part which has

escaped that fate has long

lost all trace

of

its

original


KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY.
259
c-

name

or

its
.

orioinal political relations.


.

By a lonji; series
./

chap.
Vlll.
^-

of annexations, spreadin"; over


years, the greater part of the

more than

five

hundred

'^

Chieflv

kingdom has gradually


Of what remains, a
Italy,

annexed by

been incorporated with France.


small corner forms part of the

modern kingdom of

partitaiian;

while the rest

still

keeps

its

independence in the form

of the commonwealths

wiiich

make up

cantons of Switzerland,
truest

These cantons, in

modern

representatives of the Burofundian kino-- Burtamdy


'-

dom.

And

it

is

on

tlie

Confederation of which they


f^^^^'"'^**'"'

CO
fact,

the western
are
tlie
p^rt Swiss.

represented

form a part, in_terposed as


the

it

is

between France,

Italy,

new German Empire, and


some

the

modern Austrian moBurgundy,


it

narchy, as a central state Avith a guaranteed neutrality,


that

trace of the old function of


is

as the

middle kincrdom, ^

thrown.

This function

shares

Ne'itraiity
ot

Switzer-

with the Lotharino-ian lands at the other end of the C^

1;>"''.'ti

Belgium.

Empire, wdiich

now form

part of the equally neutrid

kingdom of Belgium, lands which, oddly enough, themselves

became Burgundian

in

another sense.
lying between the Alps,

The Burgundian Kingdom,


the

Saone and the

Ilhone, and the Mediterranean,


Boundaries
'"'"

mio'ht be thought to have a fair natural boundary.

And, while

it

kept any shadow of separate being,

its

boundaries did not greatly change.

They were howii'ictuation


frontier.

ever somewhat fluctuating on the side of the Western

kingdom,

beinof

sometimes bounded by the Ehone and


hills to

sometimes reaching to the line of


it.

the west of
fluc-

They were

also, as

we have

seen,

somewhat

tuating on the side of

Germany.
,

At
,

this

end the king;

dom

took in some German-speaking districts

otherwise
,

ChieHy
Iioniance
speakin.tc.

the laniuao:e was Eomance, includin^T several dialects


of the tongue of Oc.

The northern

part of the kingdom, answering to the


8


260
CTiAP.
VIII.
^
'

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

County
Paiatiue.

former Transiiirane kingdom tlie Reqnum Juren^e ^ ^ formed two cliief states, the Countu Biir^ Palatine of ^
-^
_ ^

gunclij

Lesser Bvir-

tlie

modern Franche Comte

and

the Lesser

gundy.

Burgundy, roughly taking


northern Savoy.

in western Switzerland

and

On

the Mediterranean lay the great

rrovence.

coimty of Provence,
lying between
it

Avith a

number

of smaller counties

and the two northern prmcipalities.


land w^as that, next
consi-

But the great


The Free
Cities.

charactei'istic of the

to Italy,

uo part of Europe contained so many


cities

derable

lying near together.


strove

Many

of these at

different times

more or

less successfully after a


it

republican independence, and a few have kept

to our

own
Little real unity in the

day.
'

kingdom,

But, thouo'li tlic Bur^undian kino-dom mii^ht be & & O & thought to havc, on three sides at least, a good natural
frontier,
it

had but

little
its

real unit3^

The northern

part naturally clave to


pii'e

connexion with the Emsouthern.

much

longer than the

The County

The Burijundian
i'aiatinate.

Palatine of
to auothcr,

Burgundy
' . .

often passed from one dynasty

and
it

it

is

remarkable for the number of


as a separate state
It

times that
Held by the
Kniperor
Frederick,
*"

was held
t

by several

of the gi'cat priuccs of Europe.


^

was held by the


i
t^

Euipcror Frederick Barbarossa in rioht of his wife marriage of one of his female descendants carried
Philip

ft the
;

Philip of France, 1315-1330.


i.y

it

to

the Fifth

of France.

Then

it

became united

United with

witli tlic Frciich ducliy of

Burgundy under the dukes


Saving a momentary French
the Bold,
it

Duchy.
1477.

of the

House of
after

Valois.

occupation
.

the

death of Charles
tlieir
1

Held by the House of Austria, Charles the Fifth Count


of Bur-

remained with them and


representatives. ^

Austrian and Spanish


1

Amoii"; ' these it had a second imiieCharles the Fifth. But, of xml Count in the person ^
throu2;:h all these

IT

gundy.

changes of dvnasty,
of the Empire,

it

remained an
annexation to

Annexed

to

acknowlcdgcd

ficf

till its

THE PALATINATE AND THE LESSER BURGUNDY.


France under Lewis the Fourteenth.
this county,
ecclesiastical
it

261
chap.
"-

The capital of must be remembered, was Dide. The


of
Besan(-o?2,

viu. ^^

metropolis

tliough
city

sur-

1674.
capital of
Bt-san^'oi/a

rounded by the county, remained a free

of the

Empire from
_ _

tlie

days of Frederick Barbarossa to those


"
_ _

Free Impe-

of Ferdinand the Tliird.

It

was then mers^ed O


it

in the

"aidty.
1189-ltiol.

county, and along with the county

passed to France.

Unite.i

t..

And

it

should be noticed that a small Burg-undian land

in this quarter, the county of Montbeilliard or

Mlim-

M.mtbdi-

pelgard^
the

lirst

as a separate state, then in


its

union with

duchy of Wurttemberg, kept


till

allegiance to the

Empire

the wars of the French Eevolution.


to

when

it

was annexed
an unit

France and was never restored.


its

While the Burgundian Palatinate thus kept


as
in

history The

Les^^er

European geography, the Lesser Burgumbj


it

"'^^""' ''

to the

south-west of

had a

ditlerent history.

The
fact

geography here gets somewhat confused through the


that this Lesser

Burgundy, which

in tlie twelfth

century

passed imder the })ovver of the Dukes of Zdhringen in

Swabia

as Rectors^ took in

some
was

districts

which were

not parts of the Burgundian kingdom.


part of
tlie

The eastern
speech. The
eastern
^'^

kingdom

itself

of

German
of

and
Ilia

its

frontier towards the

German duchy
fluctuating.

Aleman-

inan.

or Swabia was

somewhat

The Aar
cities of the

may

be taken as the boundary of the kingdom, while


as an administrative division,
to the East.

the Lesser Burgundy, stretched

j/umiy.

somewhat further

Thus

Basel, as
at

well the foundations of the

House of Zahringen

Bern

and Freiburg, stood on

strictly

Burgundian ground,

while the city of Luzern and the land of Unterwalden

come under

the head of the Lesser Burgundy, without

forming part of the Burgundian kingdom.

These lands

long kept up their connexion with the Empire, though

262
CHAP,
'

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

of

the Lesser
"

unit.

Dukes

Zahringen.

Burgundy did not long remain as a separate the House of Zahringen came to an end, ,,..,.. the couutry began to spht up into small pnncipalities

When
*

End of their
house, 1218.

and
,

tree

-^
i

cities

which gradually
,

in
i

grew
i

into

iiide-

lireak-up of the duchy.

peudciit coininonwealths.

The counts

of Savoy,

of

Savoyard
tcri'ltorv.

wlioni iiiorc presently, acquired a large territory on

both sides of the Lake of Geneva.


iv.shops.

Other considerable

princes were the bishops of Basel, Lausanne. Geneva,


aiid Sitteu,

Counts, .and Free Cities,

the couuts of GeneiM, Kyburg, Gruyeres,


Basel, Solothurn, and Beivi were Im-

and NeufchctteL
The Free
Lauds.

The complicated relations between the Bishops and the city of Geneva hindered that city from
pcrial citics.

having a

strict right to that title.

In Unterwalden and

in Wallis, notwithstanding the possessions

and claims of

various spiritual and temporal lords, the most


feature

marked

was the retention of the old rural independence.


cities

Of
The Old
Leafiue of

tlie

in this region, Luzern, Bern, Freiburg,


all

Solothurn, and Basel,


'
,

gradually became
"^

members of

the Old League of Hiqit


"^

Germany, the ground-work of


_

HishGerman}'.

thc

uiodem Swiss Confederation. The Savoyard lands


''

Conquests
of

uortli

Bern and

Freiburg trom Savoy,


i.5ac.

-,.,. buFg
ui
. _

of thc lakc were conquered


./

by Bern and
-i

Frei-

the sixtecnth centurv, a conquest wliich also All these lands,


allies

secured the independence of Geneva.


after

going through the intermediate stage of

or

The Burgundian
cantons of
Switzerland.

subjccts of souic or Other of the confederate cantons,

have lu

modem

times

become iudeiDendent cantons ^

themselves.
will

This process of annexation and liberation

be traced more fully when

we come

to the history

of the Swiss Confederation.

To

the south of this group of states, and partly

intermingled with them, lay another group, lying partly


within the Cisjurane and partly within
tlie

Trausjurane

kingdom, which gradually grew

into a great

power.

THE SOUTHERN BURGUNDIAN LANDS.


These were the
states

263

which were united step by step


^^

under the Counts of Mauriemie, afterwards Counts of


Savoy.

chap.

-^

When

their

dominions were at their greatest

Savoy.

extent, they held south of the

Lake of Geneva,

besides Burgun-

Maurienne and Savoy


cigny, together with

strictly so called, the districts simrofTtr^"

of Aosta, Tarantaise, the Genevois', Chablais, and Fau-

Vaud and Gex

north of the lake.

Thus grew up the power of Savoy, which has already


been noticed
in its purely Italian aspect,
fuller

but which

must receive
of
its

separate

treatment in a section

own.
the Bursundian "^

The remainder of
sisted of a

Kingdom
_

con-

states be-

tween the

number of small

states stretchins; ^

from the

southern boundary of the Burgimdian county to the

Palatinate and the Mediterranean.

Mediterranean.
of

North of the Ehone lay the

districts
Bresseand
become
Savoyard.
Blimey,

Br esse and Buyey, which

passed at various times to

the House of Savoy.

Southwards on the Ehone lay a


^
.

I'll number of small states, among which the most important


.

1137-1344;
^[^f^^^-

in history are the archbishopric, the free city of Lyons, the

county, and the

county or Dauphiny of Vienne

Lyons,
Orange', &c.

and the

city of

Vienne, the county or principality of

Orange, the city of Avignon, the county of Venaissin,


the free city oi Aries, the capital of the kingdom, the free
cit}^

of Massalia or Marseilles, the county of Nizza or


provence.

Nice, and the great county or marquisate of Provence,

In

this last

power lay the

first

element of danger, especities.


of

cially to the republican

independence of the free


its

After being held by separate princes of


as
1

own,

as well changes

by the Aragonese kings,

it

passed by marriage into


'

11

dvnasty.

the hands of a French prince, Charles of Anjou, the TheAn-

conqueror of

Sicily,

and

also the destroyer of the

second

i24ti.

freedom of Massalia.

The

possession of the greatest Growing


ruler,

member

of the

kingdom by a French

though

it

connexion.

264
CHAP.
Vlll.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

made no immediate change

in the formal state of things,

gave fresh strength to every tendency which tended to

withdraw the Burgnndian lands from


to the

their allegiance

Empire and

to bring

them,

first

into connexion

with France, and then into actual incorporation with


the French kingdom.
Process of annexation.
Freiieli

Step by step, though by a process which was spread

over

many

centiuies, all the principalities

and common-

wealths of the Bnrgundian kingdom, save the lands

which have been Swiss and the


is

single valley

which

now

Italian,

have come into the hands of France.


itself early.

Avignon
first seized,

The tendency shows


for a

Avignon was seized


;

1226.

moment during

the Albigensian wars

but the

permanent process of French annexation began when


Annexation
of Lyons,
1310.

Philip the Fair took advantage of the disputes between

the archbishops and the citizens of Lyons, to join that

Imperial city to his dominions.

The head
all

of

all

the

Gauls, the seat of the Primate of

the Gauls, thus

passed into the hands of the

new monarchy

of Paris,

the first-fruits of French nggrandizement at the cost of

the Middle Kingdom,


Purchase of
the Dauphiny of Vienne, 134a.

Later in the same century, the


its

Dauphiny of Vienne was acquired by a bargain with


last

independent prince.

This land also passed, through


fief

the intermediate stage of an Imperial

held by the

heir-apparent of the French crown, into a mere province


of France.
Tlie city of
\ ienne annexed,

But the acquisition of the Dauphiny did not


it

carry with
for

that of the city of Vienne,

which escaped
acquisition
city,
tlie

more than

a century.

Between the

1448.

of the Dauphiny and the acquisition of the


Valence,
144(5.

county of Valence was annexed to the Dauphiny. Later


in the

same century followed the great annexation of


itself.

Provence, 1481.

Provence

Tlie rule of

French princes

in that

county for two centuries

had doubtless paved the way


FRENCH ANNEXATIONS.
for this annexation.

265

And

the acquisition of Provence

carried with
Marseilles,

it

the acquisition of the cities of Aries and

...

^-^

chap.
"^'iiJ-

-'

which the counts of Provence had deprived

of

their

freedom.

By

this

time the whole of


the sea

tlie

land between the

Ehone and
state

had been swal-

lowed up, save one


which- were

at the

extreme south-east

corner of the kingdom, and a group of small states

now

quite

hemmed
^

in

by French

territory.
xizza
passes to

The

first

was the county of Nizza or Nice, which had


to

passed

away from Provence


Italian

Savoy before the French


this

savoy,i388.

annexation of Provence.

But by

time Savoy had

become an
forth

power, and Nizza was from henceItalian

looked on as

rather than Burgundian.


city of

Between Provence and the Dauphiny lay the


of OraiK/e.
^

Avicfuon, the county of Venaissin, and the principality

Avignon and Venaissin became papal pos;

Avignon
n.nssin

sessions by purchase from the sovereic^n of Provence and, ^ ^


^

become
Papal, isjh.

they were at last quite surrounded thoujzh *^


"^
-^

by French
*'

Annexed
f-y{^*^'^'

to

territory, they

remained papal possessions

till

they were

annexed

in the course of the great Eevolution.

These

outlying possessions of the Popes perhaps did

somewhat
This was
Orange.

towards preserving the independence of a more interesting fragment

of the ancient kingdom.

the Principality of Oramje^ which the neighbourhood


of the

Pope hindered from being altogether surrounded


territory.

by French
become
so

This

little state,

whose name has


itself,

much more famous than


and by France
in the

passed
it

tlirough several dynasties,

for a long time

was

regularly seized

course of every war.

But

it

was

as

reo-ularly restored to ^
_

independence at
.

itsaniiexaiion to
y'|'"ce2^

every peace, and

its final

annexation did not happen

till

the eighteenth century.

The

acquisition of

Orange,
of

Avignon, and Venaissin, completed

the

process

266
CHAP.
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL ONGDOMS.


French
a2;2;randizement
in

the

lands

between the

Ehone and
as

the Var.
to the

The

stages of the
will

same process

apphed

Savoyard lands

be best told in

another section.

Modern
states which

Wc

liavc thus traccd the


_

of history geographical ^ o o
It

have

.-piit

oit trom the three kiug-

kingdoms themselves. the three Imperial ^


*-"

now

fol-

]^^yg ^^ tracc in the like sort the orig;in

and f^rowth of

certain of

tlie

modern powers of Europe which have


Certain
Italian,

grown out of one or more of those kingdoms.


parts of the

German,

and Burgundian kingFive

doms have

split off

from these kingdoms, so as to form from any of them.


in later

new

political units, distinct

states of

no small importance

European history

have thus been formed.


Their charnt't(ir

Most of them partake more

or Icss of the character of middle states, interposed

as

middle
states.

between France and one or more of the Imperial


.

Switzer-

kingdoms.
land,
cities

First, there is the

Confederation of Switzer-

which arose by
forming so close

German districts and an union among themselves that


certain

their
out.

common

allegiance to the

Empire gradually died

the

The Confederation grew into its present form by addition to these German districts of certain Italian
districts.

and Burgundian
Savoy.

Secondly,

there

are,

or

rather were, the dominions of the

Dukes of Savoy,

formed by the union of various Italian and Burgundian


districts.

This however, as a middle power, has


;

ceased to exist

nearly

all

its

Burgundian possessions
its

have been joined to France, while

Italian possessions

have grown into a new


The Dukes
<>t'

Italy.

Thirdly, there were the

forming a middomiuious of the Dukes of Burtjundy, ^


die

iiiir-\

guudy.

power between France and Germany, and made up


fiefs.

r^

by the union of French and Imperial

These are

MIDDLE STATES.
represented on the

267
tlie

modern maps by
tlie

kingdoms of

chap.

the Netherlands and Belgium,

greater part of both

of which belonged to the Burginidian dukes.

Of

these by'thT"*^
of

kingdoms much the greater part had spht


old

off

from the

the'LoV

kingdom of Germany.
fiefs,

Certain parts were once


so.

French

but had ceased to be

The

position of

Recosmized
neutrality of Bei-i'm, Switzer'^nd, an.i once of i)art
<jf

.-,-,,

three out of these four states as middle powers, and their

miportance in that character, has been acknowledg-ed ~


*

even by modern diplomacy in the neutrality which


still

is

^a^^'oy-

guaranteed

to

Belgium and Switzerland, and wh'ch


to certain districts of

was formerly extended

Savoy

Of these four

states,

Switzerland, Savoy, and the

duchy of Burgundy

as represented

by the two king-

doms
in

some have been merged other powers, and those which still remain count
of the
Countries,

Low

only
fifth
still

among
ranks

the secondary states of Europe.


also

But a

power has

broken

off

from Germany wliich


The Au=trian do1

among the greatest in Europe. This is the 1*1 /-^ f 11 power which, starting ironi a small German mark on

minions.

the Danube, has,

by the gradual union of various

lands,

German and non-German, grown into something distinct from Germany, first under the name oHhe Austrian ^Empire' and

more

latterly

under

that of the Austro-IIunga-

rian Monarchy. This power differs from the other states


of which

we have been

just speaking, not only in


ifis

its is
Position of
triln do-

vastly greater extent,

but also in

position.
in

It

a marchland, a

middle kingdom, but

a different

sense from Burgundy, Switzerland, Savoy, or Belgium,

marchiand.

All these were marchlands between Christian states,

Comparisoa
western''

between

states all of

which had formed. part of the


All
Italian
lie

Carolingian Empire.
of the

on the

western
Austria,

side

German and
as

kingdoms.
implies,

on
the

the other hand,

its

name

arose on

268

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

German kingdom, as a mark against Turanian and heathen invaders. The first mission of Austria was to guard Germany against the Magyar. Wlien the Magyar was admitted into the fellowship of
eastern side of the

Europe and Christendom


was united under a

when,
in

after a while, his

realm

sinoie

sovereim with Austria


another form.

the

same duty was continued


Austria and

The power

fomied by the union of Hungary and Austria was one of

thrmarkof the chlef


domairainst
+1

amoug

those which had to guard Christendom


Its history therefore

affiiinst

the Turk.

forms one of

1-

the connecting links between Eastern and Western Europe.

In

this

chapter

it

will

be dealt with chiefly on


its

its

Western

side,

with I'egard to

relations towards Ger-

many and

Italy.

The Eastern aspect of


to

the Austrostates

Hungarian power has more


These

do with the

which

arose out of the break up of the Eastern Empire.


states then, Switzerland, Savoy, the

Duchy

of Burgundy, the Netherlands, and Austria, form a

proper addition to the sections given to the three


Lnnerial kinsjfdoms.
I will

now

szo

on to deal with

them

in order.

6.

The Swiss Confederation.

Theorfciiiai
ti'.'mpial^i-

havc just spokcu of the Swiss Confederation as


its

being in

origin purely

German.

This statement

is

Gtrmau,

practically correct, as all the original cantons

were Ger-

man in

speech and feeling, and the formal style of their


the

Old League of High Germany. W\i in strict geographical accuracy there was, as we have seen in the
last section,

union was

a small Burguntlian element in the Confede-

ration, if not

from the beginning,


in the thirteenth

at least

from

its

ag-

grandizement

and fourteenth

centiuies.

That

is

to say, part of the territory of the states

which

'

ORIGIN OF THE SWISS CONFEDERATION.

269
chap.

formed
the

tlie

old Confederation lay geographically within


a further part lay within

kingdom of Burgundy, and

the Lesser
the the

Burgundy of the Dukes of Ziihringen. But, by Su fe.r'"* when time the history of the Confederation begins, Bifr;!;un- ^ kingdom of Burgundy was pretty well forgotten,
territory

and the small German-speaking


in at
its

which

it

took

extreme north-east corner

may be
more

looked on

as practically

German ground.

practical diviis
;

sion than the old boundaries of the

kingdoms

the

aii the

om
in

boundary of the Teutonic and Romance speech


cept part of Freiburg, are German.
tons are those which
tlie allied

in German

this sense all the cantons of the old Confederation, ex- The

L.t.r

I!(iiii;mce

were formed
states.
till

in

The Romance canmodern times out of


tliir-

Cantons.

and subject
first,

It is specially needful to

bear in mind,

that,

the last years of the

.Ai.niy

teenth century, not even the

germ

ot

modern
;

fcwitzer-

errors.

land had appeared on the

map

of Europe

secondly,

that the Confederation did

not formally become an


;

independent power
that,

till

the seventeenth century


in

lastly,

though the Swiss name had been


it

common

use

for ages,

did not
till

become the formal

style of the

Confederation

the nineteenth century.


is

Nothing

in

the whole study of historical geography

more

neces-

sary than to root out the notion that there has always

been a country of Switzerland, as there has always been


a country of Germany, Gaul, or Italy.
less

And

it

is

no
The Swiss
present the
Helvetii.

needful to root out the notion that the Swiss of

the orio;mal cantons


.

any way represent the Jdelvetu


.

of Caesar.

The

points to be borne in
is sira[)ly

mmd
.

are that

the Swiss Confederation

one of many German

Leagues, which was more lasting and became more Summary


closely

united than other


split off

gradually

German Leagues that it from the German Kingdom that

history.'

Leajju'e''^"

270

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


in the course of
tliis

process,

tlie

League and

its

mem-

bers obtained a large body of Italian and Burgundian


allies

and subjects
in

lastly, that these allies

and subjects

have

modern times been joined


original

into

one Federal

body with the

German

Confederates.

The three Swabian lands which formed the kernel


of the Old League lay at the point of union of the
three Imperial kingdoms, parts of
all

of which were to
in its later form.

become members of the Confederation

The

first

known document

of confederation between the

three lands dates from the last years of the thirteenth


century.

But that document

is

likely to

have been

rather the confirmation than the actual beginninfj of


their union.
ecclesiastical

They had

for

their
lords,

neighbours

several

and temporal

some other Imperial


all,

lands and towns, and far greater than


of the
lately
Giowth of
the Leasrue.

the Counts

house

of
into

Kyhurg and Ilabsbimj, who had


the

grown

more dangerous character of


for a while

Dukes of

Austria.

The Confederation grew

by the admission of neighbouring lands and cities as members of a free German Confederation, owning
no superior but the Emperor.
Luzern,
];5o2.

First

of

all,

the city

of LiLzern joined the League.


rial city

Then came the Impe-

Zurich, 1351.

of Zurich^ which had already begun to foYm

a
Glarus and
Zii-, 1.852. Bern, 1353.

little

dominion in the adjoining lands.

Then came
witli its small

the land of Glarus and the town of


territory.

Zug

And

lastly

came

the

great city of Bern.,

which had already won a dominion over a consider-

body of detached and outlying allies and subjects. These confederate lands and towns formed the Eight
able
The Eight
Ancient
Cantons.

Ancient Cantons.

Their close alliance with each other

helped the growth of each canton separately, as well as


that of the Lea^aie as a whole.

Those cantons whose

TPE OLD LEAGUE OF HIGH GERMANY.


geographical position

271

allowed them to

do

so,

were

chap.

thus able to extend their power, in the form of various

shades of dominion

and

alliance,

over the smaller

yrowtb.

lands and towns in their neighbourhood.

These

lesser
;

changes and annexations cannot

all

be recorded here

but
cess

it

must be carefully borne


on.

in

mind

that the pro-

was constantly going

Zurich, and yet

Bern, each formed,

after the

manner of an

.of ancient

more

Dominion
Ziirich

and Bern.

Greek

city,

what

in ancient

Greece would have passed

for an empire.

In the fifteenth century, large conat

quests were
-

made

the expense of the


'-

House of

Conquests from Aiis^^"a^"^^'^" 1460.

Austria,

'

of

which the

earlier

ones were

made by
*'

The Confederation, or some or other of its members, had now extended its terriThe tory to the Ehine and the Lake of Constanz. lands thus won, Aargau^ Thurgau, and some other
direct Imperial sanction.
districts,

Aarpan.
Tlnirgaii,

&c.

were held

as subject territories in the

hands

of some or other of the Confederate states.


It is a fact to

be specially noticed

in the history of Xonew canton formed

the Confederation, that, for nearly a


years,

hundred and

thirty
^

for

along

time.

though the territory and the power of the Con-

federation were constantly increasing, no

new states were


Before

admitted to the rank of confederate cantons.

the next group of cantons was admitted, the general


state of the Confederation

and

its

European
to be a

position

changed. had greatly t) J C

It

had ceased

purely J t

Beginning
ofltiihan dominions.

German power. The first extension beyond the original German lands and those Burgundian lands which were practically German began in the direction of Italy. Uri
had, by the annexation of Urseren, become the neigh-

bour of the Duchy of Milan, and


fifteenth century,
this

in the

middle of the
in
uri obtains
vantina,

canton acquired some rights

the Val Levantina on the Italian side of the Alps. This

272 was
tlie

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


beginning of the extension of
far
tlie

Confederation
this

on Italian ground. But

more important than

was

the advance of the Confederates over the Burgundian


hinds to the
Avest.

The war with Charles of Burgundy-

enabled Bern to win several detached possessions in the


1475.

Savoyard lands north and east of the lake, and even on


the lower course of the Ehone.

And, while Bern adof the Confede-

vanced, some points in the same direction were gained

by her
Savoyard
conquests of I'reiljiirg

allies

who
city

are not yet

members

ration,

by

tlie

oiFreibarg and the League of Wallis.

This

last

confederation had

grown up on the upper


Soon
after this

aad

VVallLs.

(irOMtll of

course of the Ehone, where the small free lauds had

Wallis.

gradually displaced the territorial lords.

came the next admission of new


FiC'ibur;;

cantons, those of the

cities

of Freiburg and Solothurn, each of


it its

them bringing

and

Siilo-

tiiiirn

with

small following of allied and subject territory.


later,

liecoine

Cantons,
1481.

Twenty years

Basel and Schafhausen, the

latter

Basel and
Schaffliausen,
liJOl.

being the only canton north of the Ehiue, were admitted


with their following of the like kind. Twelve years
Appenzell, a
little

later,

Appenzell,
1513.

land which had set

itself free

from

the rule of the abbots of Saint Gallen, after having

long been in alliance with the Confederates, was admitted to the rank of a canton.
The Thirteen (Iantons, 1513-

Thus was made up

the full

number of Thirteen Cantons, which remained unchanged down to the wars of the French Eevolution.
linally

1798.

But the time when the Confederation was settled as regards the number of cantons was
of the Confederation and of several of

also a

time of great extension of territory on the part both


its

members.

At
of

the south-east corner of the Confederate territory,

on the borders of the duchy of Milan and the county


Granblinden.

Tyrol,

the League of

Graiibunden

or the
of

Grey

Leagues had gradually

arisen.

number

commu-


CONQUEST OF THE EOMANCE LANDS.
nities, as in

'

273
chap.
^<

Wallis,

had got

rid of the neicrhboiiring;

lords,

and had formed themselves mto three leagues,


which three were again
tie.

the Grei/ League proper, the Gotteshausbu?id, and the

League of

Teji Jurisdictions^

Their aiiiciiic6 with

united by a further federal


fifteenth

At the end of the

theConftderates.

century, the Leagues so formed entered into

an alliance with the Confederates.


accession of territory towards
tlie

Then began

a great

149.3-1567.

south on the part

both of the Confederates and of their

new

aUies.
''

TJie

Confederates received a considerable territory within


the duchy of Milan, including Bellinzona, Locarno^ and

i^^w^n dominion of theconfefieration,

^^^-^

Lugano^

as the

reward of services done to the House


of the
i^i-*-

The next year their new alHes of the Grey Leagues also won some Italian territory, the Valtellina and the districts of Chiavenna and Bormio. Next came
of Sforza.

Grey

the conquest of a large part of the Savoyard lands, of


all

^.a";'.^'

north of the Lake and a j^ood deal to the south, by J


<~>

'n<iuest.sof Bern, frei'^yjj^j'j^?"'^

the arms of Bern, Freiburg, and Walhs.

Bern and

Freiburg divided Vaud in very unequal proportions, y^^^ Bern and Wallis divided Chahlais on the south side of
the lake, and Bern annexed the bishopric of

Lausanne
was now

Lausanne.
r.eneva in
alliance

on the north.
with her
little

Geneva, the ally of Bern and Freiburg,


territory of detached scraps,

with
^^^f^-

ikm

and Frei-

surrounded by the dominion of her most powerful


allies at

Bern.

But by a
*'

later treaty ''

Bern and Wallis

Territory
rc-tored to

gave back to Savoy

all

that they

had won south of the


it.

s^voy.isc?.

Lake, with the territory of Gex to the west of

Geneva thus again had Savoy


bour
at

for a neighbour, a neigh-

whose expense she even made some conquests Gex among them conquests which the French ally

of the free city

would not allow her

to keep.

Later

changes gave her a neighbour yet more dangerous


than Savoy in the shape of France
T
itself.

Before these

274

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


changes, Bern and Freiburg divided the county ofGruyeres

between them, the

kist

important instance of that

kind of process.

The Confederation was thus


Thirteen Cantons and their allied
Saint,

fully formed,
states.

with

its

Of

these the

Gallm.
Bieune.

Abbot of Saint Gallen, the town of Saint Galleji, and the town of Biel or Bienne, were so closely allied with
the Confederates as to have a place
in

their Diets.

Besides relations of less close alliance

which the Con-

federates had with various Alsatian cities, several other


states

had a connexion so

close
its

and

lasting with the


as to

Confederation or with some of


part of
the

members,

form

same

political

system.

Such were the


and

I^eagues of Wallis and


Bischof/xixel.

Graublinden, the Bishop of


in Elsass,

Basely the outlying

town of MUhlhaiisen
Bern
too,

Miihl-

for a while that of Rottweil.

and sometimes

hausen and
Eottweil.

other cantons, had relations both with the town and

Neufchatel
passes to Pru'sia, 1/07.

with the princes of Neufchatel, which, after passing

through several dynasties, was at

last inherited

by the

Constanz.

Kings of Prussia.

Constajiz, at the other

end of the

Confederate land, was refused admission as a canton, but


for a while
Passes to
Austria, 1648.

it

was

in

alhance with some of the cantons.

But

this

connexion was severed when Constanz, instead

of a free Imperial city, became a possession of Austria.

The power thus formed, a power

in

which a

body of German Confederates was surrounded by a body of allies and subjects, German, Italian, and BurThe Confederation
released from the allegiance to the P'nipire, ler.S.

gundian,

all

of

them

originally

members of
its chief.

the Empire,

was by
all

the Peace of Westfalia formally released from

allegiance to the

Empire and
dated

Their

]^rac-

Date of the practical separation, 1495.

tical

separation

may be

much

earlier,

from the
the

time

when the Confederates

refused to

accept

legislation of Maximilian.

THE COMPLETE CONFEDERATION.


The OTOwth
phical position,

275

of the League into an independent


.

power was doubtless greatly promoted by

T.1-.

as

occupying the natural citadel of


in

i-iip
it

its

geogra-

'

chap.
YIII.
'

Geographicaiiwsition

Europe.

But the piecemeal way

which
its

grew up
on

League.

was marked by the anomalous nature of


..everal points.

frontier

On

the north the Ehine

would seem beyond

itsanoma"^"^

to be a

natural boundary, but SchalThausen

tier.

the Ehine formed part

of

the

Confederation, while
it

Constanz and other points within

did not.

To

the

south the possession of territory on the Italian side


of the Alps seems an anomaly, an anomaly wdiich
is

brought out more strongly by a singularly irregular

and arbitrary
,

frontier.

But looking on the Confedera

The Confcderatifin as
.a

tion as

in the middle

state, arising

.,

,1 at the
it

point ot junction

middle

of the three Imperial kingdoms,


fitting that it

was

in a

manner

should spread

itself into all three.

The form which

the Confederation thus took in the Waisofthe


French Retill

sixteenth century remained untouched

the wars of

volution.

the French Eevolution.

when
public.

the Italian
[
-,

The beginning of change w^as districts subject to the Grey Leagues


1

were transierred to the

IP newly formed
1

oismemberinentot'the <;re; rev


^c.igues,

Cimipine Re-

/^'

'

In the next year the whole existing system


;

i'^-

was destroyed.

The Federal system was abolished instead of the Old Leao-ue of Hio;h Germany, there ^ arose, after the new fashion of nomenclature, a Helvetic
'

Abolition of ^'"^ Federal


.s-^stem,

]798.

The ueive^'"^

Iiepuohc,

r>

wduch the w^ord canton meant no more

Kepult-

^c.

than department.
this

Yet even by such a revolution

as
of

some good was done.


.

The

subject districts were Freedom


districts.

the .subject

freed from the yoke of their masters, whether those

masters were the whole Confederation or one or more


of
its

several cantons.

Thus, above

all,

the

land of

Vaad was

freed from subjection to


T 2

its

Eomance German

Freedom

of

276

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


masters at Bern.

Some of the

allied districts, as the

bishopric of Basel and


to

^he city of Geneva,

were annexed

But the Leagues of WaUis and Graubilnden were incorporated with the Helvetic Eepubhc. In 1803 the Federal system was restored by BuonaFrance.

Act of Mediation, which formed a Federal reThese were the original public of nineteen cantons.
parte's
TLeninetons.*'''""

thirteen,
St.

with the addition of Aanjau, Graubtinden,

Gallen, Ticino,

Thurgau, and Vaiid, which Avere


allied

formed out of the formerly


^\'^\^\<. in-

and subject lands.

Wallis

was separated from the Confederation, and


first

with

'

became,

a nominally distinct re])ublic, and after-

Neufchatei

wards a French department.

Neufchdiel was, in the


Prussia,

course of Buonaparte's w^ars with


1806,

detached
hisi

from that power, to form a principality under


General Berthier.

The Swiss
ti(jn

At

last, in

1815, the present Swiss

of

Confederation was established, consistmg ot twenty-two


cautous, the
'
_

cantons. 1815.

^ ^ of Neufchdtel, Wallis, and Geneva.


, .

uumbcr

he\n<i

made up by The
,

the addition
.

bishopric of

Bischof*^

Basel w^as also again detached from France, and added


to tlic cautou of BcHi, a cautou differing in language;

to Bern.'

and

religion,

and cut

off

by a mountain range.

great constitutional changes which have been


Neufchatti

sincc that time


couttt

have not affected

The made geography, unless we

fnmiVrus-

thc divisiou of thc city and district of Basel,

Baselstadt and Baselland, into distinct half-cantons, and


the surrender
of
all

rights over Neufchatel


this last

by the
a geo-

King of

Prussia.
;

But
it

was not

strictly

graphical change

was rather a change from a quasi

monarchic

to a purely republican

government

in that

particular canton.

'

BEGIXNIxXGS OF SAVOY.

277
CHAP.

7.

Tlie State

of Savoy.
"^

,-^
'.

<?rowtli of the iDower Tlie ^ of Savoy, the border state ^

Position

and

t;iowtli

of Biirgimcly and Italy,

lias

necessarily been spoken of


;

o^ ^-^^'^y-

more than once

in earlier sections

but

it

seems needful

to give a short connected account of its progress,

and

to

mark the way

in

which a power originally Burgundian

gradually lost on the side of


the side of Italy,
into
till
it

Burgundy and grew on


itself

has in the end

grown
Geographical position

new

Italy.

ent times passed under the rule of the


lie

The lands which have at differHouse of Savoy

of the

Savoyard

continuously, though with an irregular frontier, and

i^nds.

though divided by the great barrier of the Alps. They


fall

however
at

into three

main

geoiiraphical divisions,
political

which
being

one time became also

.....

Their thne
divisions.

divisions,

held

by

different

branches of the

Savoyard
House,
Italian,

House.

There are the

Italian possessions of that

which have grown into the modern Italian kingdom.


There are the more
strictly

Savoyard lands south of the

Burr^unof the lake.

Lake of Geneva, and the other lands south of the

Ehone

after

it

issues

from that lake,

all

of which have

passed awa}- imder the power of France.


are the lands north of the

And

there

Bursunof tiieiake.

Lake and of the Ehone, part


Both these
\

of which have also become French, while others have

become part of the Swiss Confederation.


last lay

within the kingdom of Burgundy, and stretche


its

into both

divisions,

Transjurane and Cisjurane,


is

In

no part of our story


language which
times.

it

more necessary

to avoid

forestalls the

arrangements of later
is
is

A wholly false
as

impression

given by the use


used.

Popular
contusions

of language such

commonly

We
by

often

hear of the princes of Savoy holding lands 'in France

and

'

in Switzerland.'

They held lands

whijch

virtue

278

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


of later chano-es "
. '

'

viii.

CHAP,

have severally become French and


.

Swiss

but those lands became French and Swiss only


to

by ceasing
Italy

be Savoyard.

On

the other hand, to

speak of them from the beginning as holding lands in


is

perfectly accurate.

The Savoyard

states

were

a hirge and fluctuating assemblage of lands on both


sides

of the Alps, lying partly within the Italian and

partly

within

the Burgundian

kingdom.

These

last

have shared the


The Savoyoriginniiy
tiiau'^

fate of the other fiefs of that

crown.

Thc

cradlc of the Savoyard

power

lay in the Bur-

guudiau lauds immediately bordering upon Italy and


stretching on both sides of the Alps.
It

was

to their

geographical position, as holdnig several great mountain


passes, that the

Savoyard princes owed their

first

im-

portance, succeeding therein in

some measure

to the

Burgundian kings themselves.^

The

early stages
;

of
its

the growth of the house are very obscure

and

power does not seem


the union of
plain that, at the
Possessions of the Counts of

to

have formed
the Em])ire.

itself till

after

Burgundy with

But

it

seems

end of the eleventh century, the


earliest title,
dis-

Couuts of 31aurienne, which was their


held
tricts
riiihts "^

of
^

sovereimty

in
.

the

Burgundian

Maurienne.

of Maurienne^ Savoy strictly so called, Taran-

Aosta;its
position.

taise^

aud Aosta.

This

last

valley

and

city,

though

on the Italian

side of

the Alps,
Italian.^

had
Its

hitherto been
allegiance

rather Burgundian than


'

had

Compare the mention

of Rndolf in the letter of Cnut, on his

Roman
'

Pilgrimage, in Florence of Worcester, 1031.

He

is

there

Eodnlphus rex, qui maxime ipsarnm claiisurarum dominatur.' 2 That Aosta was strictly Burgundian appears from the Divisic Imperii, 806' (Pertz, Leges, i. 141), -where Italy is granted
'

Avhole to Pippin,
l)ut
it is
'

Burgundy

is

divided between Charles and Lewis

provided that both Charles and Lewis shall liave success to


pertinet.'

Italy,

Karolus per vallem Augustanam qufe ad regnum ejus


is still

The

Divisio Imperii of 839

plainer (Pertz, Leges,

i.

373, Scrip-


FIRST BURGUNDIAN POSSESSIONS.
fluctuated several times between the two kincrdoms
;

279
but,

chap.
"<

from the time that Savoy held lands

m both, the question


And,
it

-^

became

of

no practical importance.

Avithout

entering into minute questions of tenure,


said that the early

may be

Savoyard possessions reached to the


sides of the inland

Lake of Geneva, and spread on both

mouth of the Ehone. The power of the Savoyard princes in this region was largely due to their ecclesiastical position as advocates of the

abbey of Saint Maurice.

Thus

ceographiter

their possessions

had a most

irregular outline, nearly sur-

onuT'

rounding the lands of Genevois and Faucigny.

state

dian^'tem-

of this shape, like Prussia in a later age and on a greater


scale, was,

as

it

were, predestined to

make

further
Their eariy
Italian possessions.

advances.

But

for

some centuries those advances were

made much more largely in Burgundy than in Italy, The original Italian possessions of the House bordered
on
their

Burgundian counties of Maurienne and Aosta,

taking in Susa and Turin.


its

princes the sounding

The

endless shiftings of territory in


at

.....
title

This small raarchland gave


of Marquesses in Italy.
tliis
Marqv.esses
in Italy.

quarter could
Fluctuations of
tiominion.

be dealt with only

extreme length, and they are


In truth, they are
strict sense

matters of purely local concern.

not always fluctuations of territory in any


at
all,

but rather fluctuations of rights between the


cities,

feudal princes, the


111
still

and

their bishops.

In the
Their posi*^" '" twelfth
^^^^

twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the princes of Savoy

were
tores,].

1--1hemmed in their
in
est,

own
'

corner

PTll oi Italy by
districts.

and

434). There the one share takes in


valleni

Regnum

Italic

partemque

Burgundiae, id

Augustanam,' and certain other

So Einhard (Vita Karoli, 15) excludes Aosta from Italy. 'Italia tota, qus ab Augusta Prastoria usque in Calabriam inferiorem, in qua Grajcorura et Beneventanorum constat esse confinia, porrigitur.' As Calabria was not part of Italy in this sense, so neither was
Aosta.

280

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


princes of equal or greater power, at Montferrat^ at

Saluzzo, at Icerea, and at Biaiidrate.

And

it

must be
at

remembered
other
once italinn

that their
Italian

position

as

princes

once

Burgundian and

was not peculiar

to them.

The

Dauphlus of thc Viennois and the Counts of Provence


both held at different times territories on the Italian
side of the Alps.

and

r.urgundian.

The

Italian

dominions of the family


its

remained for a long while quite secondary to


gundian possessions, and the
traced out
Advance
of

Bur-

latter

may

therefore be

first.

The main object of Savoyard policy


aud thc

in this region

Burgundy,

was ueccssarily tlic acquisition of the lands of Faucigny


(jrenevois.

and the
Genevois.

But the nnal mcorporation


till

or those

lands did not take place


pletely

they were

still

more com-

hemmed

in

by the Savoyard dominions through

the extension of the Savoyard


First ad-

power

to the north of the

Lake.

vance north
of the hike,

This beffan early in o


./

tlie

thirteenth century j

by
./

(rant oi Moudun.
J

o^rant of a royal ^ C3

Moudon
'

to

Count Thomas

of Savoy. ^

20/.

Romont was next won, and became


^|_^g

the centre of the


after,

nor"h"rn'^^
capital.

Savoyard power north of the Lake. Soon


conquests of Peter of Savoy,

through
as the

who was known

Peter,

Little

Charlemagne and who plays a part


^^^

in English as

1203-1268

^^^^ ^^

Burgundian

history, these possessions

grew
as

into a large dominion, stretching along a great part of

the shores of the


1239-1268.

Lake of Neufchatel and reaching


But
it

far north as

Murien or Morat.

was a

straggling,

and

in

some

parts fragmentary, dominion, the continuity

of which was broken by the scattered possessions of the

Bishops of Lausanne and other ecclesiastical and temporal lords.

This extension of dominion brought Peter

into close connexion with the lands

and

cities

which

were afterwards
His
reia-

to

form

tlie

Old

Lea<ji:ue

of Hi<]?h Gerhis con-

many.

Bern

especially,

the

power

to

which

LANDS NORTH OF THE LAKE.


quests

281
chap.
Yin.
tlie
' <

were afterwards
.

to

be transferred, looked on him


.
.

as a protector.

This

new dominion

north of

Lake

was, after Peter's reign, held for a short time by a


separate branch of the Savoyard princes as

Bern.

Barons of

Barons of
Unioiiof Valid with
the eider branch. i^^9-

Vmid; but
their
"^

in the

middle of the fourteenth century,


,

barony came into the direct possession of the elder ^

branch of the house.

The lands

of Faucigny and the

Genevois were thus altogether surrounded by the Savoy-

Faucigny had passed to the Dauphins of XTp o the Vienuois, Avho were the constant rivals or the fcavoyard territory.
1

-1

Faucii^ny

by the Dauphins oftheVien


^"^"''^^

ard counts,
their

down

to the time of the practical transfer of

nois.

dauphiny

to France.
'

Soon
_

after that annexation,


Savoyacquires Fau'^j-ny

Savoy obtained Fauciqny^ with Gex and some other


'

districts

beyond the Ehone,

in exchan";e for

some small

^nd

Savoyard possessions within the Dauphiny.

The long
was

i^^^-

struggle for the Genevois, the county of Geneva,

ended by
century. "

its

purchase in the beginning of the fifteenth


left

This

the city of Geneva altoj^ether sur- The


Genevois.
_

rounded by Savoyard

territory, a position

... which
_

before

'^^^^

long altoE^ether changed the relations between the

Savoyard counts and the


struggles *"
. .

city.

Hitherto, in the endless


ciian-ed
relations to

between the Genevese counts, bishops, and


_

citizens, the

Savoyard counts, the enemies of the imciti-

<'tyof Geneva.

mediate enemy, had often been looked on by the


zens as friends and protectors.

Now

that they

had

become immediate neighbours of the


before long to be
its

city,

they began

most dangerous enemies.

...
the famous

acquisition or the Genevois took inace in the reign ot Count

/i/~)

11

The

Amadens

n the Eighth,

Amadeus

the Eighth, the *-

first

Duke
. .

of

E>ukei4i7;
Antipof>e

Savoy,

who

received that rank

bv grant of King

SiegFelix.

1^40

mund, and who was afterwards the Antipope

In his reign the dominions of Savoy, as a power ruling

Greatest
the douA-

on both sides of the Alps, reached their greatest ex-

282
tent.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


But the Savoyard power was
still

pre-eminently

Burgundian, and Cliambery was

its capital.

The con-

tinuous Burgundian dominion of the house

now reached
lake of

from the Alps

to the Saone, surrounding the lake of sides of the

Geneva and spreading on both


Neufchatel.
Annexation
i)t

Besides this continuous BurG:undian domi-

iiiou,

the

Housc of Savoy had already become possessed


by which
their

Nizza.

i;j88.

o{ Nizza^

dominions reached to the

sea.

Savoy
intothe
neiichbour-

This

last territory

had however, though technically Bur-

gundian, geographically more to do with the Itahan


possessions of the house.
'
^

hoodof
France.

But
its

territory

brought Savoy on

...

this great extension of

western side into closer

connexion with the most dangerous of neighbours.

Her frontier for a certain distance joined the actual kingdom of France. The rest joined the Dauphiny, which was now practically French, and the county of Provence, which was rided by French princes and which before the end of the century became an actual French possession. To the North again the change
in the relations

between the House of Savoy and the

New

reia-

city of

Gcucva
i

Icd lu coursc of time to equally

changed

wards Bern and the


Confederates.

rclatious towards
i
r

Bern and her Confederates.


i

Through
House
ter-

tlic

workiug of thesc two

causes,

all

that the

Loss of the

of Savoy
ritory
is

now keeps

of this

great Burgundian

dia[fdomi-

the single city and valley of Aosta.

After

Savoy.

the fifteenth century, the Burgundian history of that

house
tliree
lost.

consists of

the steps

spread over more than


this great

hundred years by which

dominion was

Growth
'

of

The
of
its

real

importance of the house of Savoy in Italy


the same time as the great extension

itaii^

dates from

much
in

power

Burgundy.

During the eleventh and

FIRST ITALIAN POSSESSIONS.


twelfth centuries, partly through the growth of the
cities,

283
chap. Yin.
"^^^ largest

partly

through the enmity of

the SLxth, the

,,-,.. dommions
beyond
their

the
n

Emperor Henry

-I

of Susa had been cut short, so as liardly marquesses


to reach

...
oi
first

the Savoyard prmces as

dominions
cut short in the twelfth century.

immediate Alpine

valleys.

In

the beginning of the thirteenth century,

when Count
Grants to

Thomas obtained
lake,

his

royal grant nortli of the

he

also obtained

grants

of Chieri and

other

Thomas.

places in the neighbourhood of Turin.

These grants
less

were merely nominal


the beginnincr of the

but they were none the


Italian

advance

of the house.

In the same reign Saluzzo for the


precarious

first

time

i)aid

First
saiu'zzo.

homage
Sicily, J^

to Savoy.

Later in the thirteenth

century, Charles

of Anjou,

now Count
way
-^

of Provence
^

Italian do-

minion of

and Kino; ^ of
also,

made

his

into

Northern Italy J
into

fharies of Anjou.
i-^^-

and thus brought the house of Savoy


on

a
its

dangerous neighbourhood with French princes on


Italian as well as
its

Burgundian

side.

Through
Italian pos-

the thirteenth

and fourteenth centuries the Savoyard


itself.

border went on exteridiiig


sessions of the house, like
lake,

But the

its

possessions north of the

were separated from


to

tlie

main body of Savoyard


one
of

territory

form a

fief

for

the

younger

branches.
title

This branch bore by marriage the empty

Morea memories of while, as Frank dominion within the Eastern Empire ^


of Counts of Achaia and

Counts of
Ailiaia in i''c<imont.

'

1301-1418.

if to

keep matters

straight, a

branch of the house of

Palaiologos reigned at Montferrat.

During the fourin


.

teenth century,

among many

struggles with the mar- Advance


the fourteenth century.

of Montferrat and Saluzzo, the Angevin counts quesses ^ of Provence, and the lords of Milan, the Savoyard

power

in Italy generally increased.

Under Amadeus

the Eighth, the lands held

by

the princes of Achaia

284
CHAP,
"-

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.


were united
to the possessions of the
reiejn "^

Reunion of Piedmont,
1418.

head of the house.

Before the end of the


'

of

Amadeus, the dominions


.

of Savov stretched as far as the Sesia, takinp; in Biella,

t->

? i

-^^cqmsuion

SaiitUa aud VercellL


Itahan, wliicli they

Counting Nizza and Aosta as


practically were, the Italian

^35

now

dominions of the
Relations
witli

House reached from the Alps of


^

Mont-

ferrat.

WalHs to the sea. But they were nearly cut in two by f -Mr c the dommious oi the Marquesses or Montferrat., irom whom however the Dukes of Savoy now claimed

,..
'-'

fi/'

Claims on
Saliizzo;
its

hoinaQ;e.

Saluzzo.
'

doubtful

Qf

gQgrj^

r^j^^j

^\^Q

o between the old inheritance yg^y posscssiou of Nlzza, also passed


lyino;
../

under Savoyard supremacy.

But

it

lay open to a very

dangerous French claim on the ground of a former

homage done
first
Establishnient ot Savoy as a

to the

Viennese Dauphins.
title

Amadeus, the

Duke

of Savoy, took the

of Count of Piedmont,

and afterwards that of Prince.


^

His possessions were ^


state,
'

middle
state.

j^Q^y

fairly established as a
-^

middle

Italian

and

Burgundian, in nearly equal proportions.


In the course of the next century and a half the

Effects of
'

wars.'

Savoyard

state

altogether

changed

its

character in

many

ways.

The changes which

affected all Europe,

especially the great Italian wars, could not fail greatly


to affect the border state of Italy
is

and Gaul.

And

there

no part of our story which gives us more instructive

lessons with regard to the proper limits of our subject.


French
in-

Duriug

this

time the Savoyard power


influences, all

was brought

oce upat'ion.

uudcr a number of

of which deeply
all

affected its history, but

which did not

alike affect

its

geography.

We

have a period of Erench influence, a

period of French occupation, and more than one actual


freeh settlement of the fi'ontier.

Mere

influence does not

concern us at
it

all.

Occupation concerns us only Avhen

takes the form of permanent conquest.

An

occupa-

'

ADVA"S^CE IN ITALY.
tion of nearly forty years

285
to

comes very near


it

permanent
to

conquest

still

when, as

in this case,

comes

an end
it

chap.
r

without having effected any formal annexation,

is

hardly to be looked on as actually working a change

on the map.

France occupied Piedmont for nearly

occnpatioa

as long a time as
lake.

Bern occupied the lands south of the


as simply

Yet we look on the one occupation

part of the military history, while in the other

we

see

a real, though only temporary, geographical change.

But the
actual

result alike of influence, of occupation,


all

and of

incroaspd

change of boundaries,
all

tended

tlie

same way.

character

They
the

tended to strengthen the Italian character of


to

House of Savoy,
if

cut

short

its

Burgundian
its

possessions, and,

not greatly to increase


to
])ut
it

Italian

possessions, at least

in

the

way

of greatly

increasing them.

During the second half of the

fifteenth century, the

power of the House of Savoy greatly

declined, partly

Decline of

through the growing influence of France, partly through


the division, in the form of appanages, of the lands

which had been so


compact
^

lately

formed together into a


the Italian wars, in

state.

Then came

which

The

Italian

wars.

the Savoyard dominions became the highway for the

kings of France
territorial

in their invasions

of Italy.

The
side

strictly

changes of

this

period chiefly concern the


Italian
side.

marquisate of Saluzzo on the

and the

northern frontier on the Burgundian


these two points of controversy
settlement.
r irontier,

In the end
in a single
First loss of lands north of the lake.

were merged
^

The
n

first loss

of territory on the northern


^

the

nrst sign

that the

r,

Savoyard power

in

Burgundy was gradually


Charles of

to fall back,

was the

loss of

part of the lands north of the lake in the

war between
Granson

Burgundy and the Confederates.


286
CHAP,
VIII.

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

"-

'

on the lake of Neufchatel, Marten or


'

Mo rat

on

its

own
all

lake, Aiijle

at the south-east

end of the great lake,

Echallens lying detached in the heart of Vaud,


passed

away from Savoy and became

for

ever Con-

federate ground.

Sixty years later, the affairs of

Geneva

led to the great intervention of Bern, Freiburg and


Loss of the

Wallis,

by which Savoy was


iiortli

for ever

shorn of her

both sides
of the lake. 1686.

posscssious ^

of the lake.

For a while indeed


;

she was cut off from the lake altogether

Chablais

passed

away

as well as

Vaud.

Geneva, with her de-

tached scraps of territory, was


Reunion of
south of the
if'tj'-

now wholly surrounded

by
all

licr

own

allies.

Thirty years later, Bern restored

her conquests south of the lake, together with

Gex

to the w^est, leaving

Geneva again surrounded by the

dominions of Savoy.

Walhs
loss

too gave
strip

up part of her
left

share, keeping only the

narrow

on the

bank

of the Ehone.
Charles the
1504^15.53

The

and the recovery mark the

difference

between the reigns of Duke Charles the

Third, called the Good, and

Duke Emmanuel
to France.

Filibert

Emanuel
Filibert.

with the Iron Head.


is

The

difference of the

1553-1580.

two reigns &'


Almost
n

equally

marked with regard


.

at

Beginning
of French

the samc moiiient as the conquests


that occupatioii,

made by Bern, began


r-

oeeupatiou
Its end. 1574.

wholc or

partial, ot

Savoyard territory
to

by the French arms which did not come wholly


end
as a
for thirty-eight years.

an

Savoy then appeared again


lay in Italy,

power whose main strength

whose
Italian
tlie

capital, instead of Burgundian

Chambery, was

Turin.

And

all

later

changes of frontier and

changes of frontier in her more southern dominions


also

tended the same way to increase the Italian chaits

racter of the Savoyard power, and to lessen


in the lands

extent

which we may
them.

distinguish as Transalpine,

for the

Burgundian name has now altogether passed

away from

"

LOSSES IN BURGUXDY.

287
chap.
VIII.
'

The

first

formal exclianfre of Buro-untlian for Italian


.^.

ground happened under Emmanuel

Filibert, shortly after

the emancipation of his dominions.

The small county


Acquisition
of Tenda.

of Tenda was acquired in exchange for the marquisate of Villars in Bresse.

This extended the Italian frontier,

without formally narrowing the Burgundian frontier


still it

was a

step in the direction of


first

more important by the endthe


Disputes

changes.

The

of these was caused

less disputes

which arose out of the disputed homaixe

homage
Saluzzo.

of

of Saluzzo.

The Marquesses of Saluzzo preferred

French claimant of their

homage
first

to the Savoyard, a

preference which led in the end to definite annexation

by France.
soil

This was the

acquisition of Italian Annexa-

by France

as such, as distinguished

from the claims


France

Saiuzzoby
France.
io48.

of French princes over Milan, Naples, and Asti.

thus threw a continuous piece of French territory into

the heart of

tlie

states of Savoy.
still

When

the French
conquest of

occupation ceased, Saluzzo


Presently
nuel.
it

remained to France,

was conquered by Duke Charles Emmareign of this prince marks the final change

im
Reign of

The

in the destiny of the

house of Savoy.

He
to

himself had
side of the

Emanuei.
108O-1680.

dreamed of wider conquests on the Gaulish


Alps than had ever presented himself
his house.

any prince of

He was

to

be Count of Provence, King

of Burgundy, perhaps
results of his reign told

King
in

of France.

The

real

exactly the opposite way.


his

By

the

treaty

which ended

war with France,


Bre?s.e,

Saluzzo was ceded to Savoy in exchange for Bresse^

&c.

Bugey, Valromey, and

Geo;.

powerful neighbour

foi-^sailfzzo.

was thus shut out from a possession which cut the


Savoyard
states in

twain

but the price at which this


final

advantage was gained amounted to a


of the old position of the Savoyard

surrender

Lossofposithe" Alps'"

House beyond the


Saone became the

Alps.

The Ehone and not

the

288
CHAP,
VIII.
^

THE IMPERIAL KINGDOMS.

bouiidary, while the surrender of


"^
'

Gex brought France


.

to the sliores of the Lake.

Geneva,

lier city

and her

on Geneva.
1G02-160!).

Scattered scraps

of territory, had now, besides Bern,


in

two other neighbours


tempts of Charles
fruitless.

France and Savoy.

The two

at-

Emmanuel to seize upon the city were Savoy now became distinctly an Italian power,

keeping indeed the lands between the Alps and the Lake, the proper Duchy of Savoy, but having her main
possessions

and

lier

main

interests in Italy.

We may

here therefore hnish the history of the Transalpine posLater


Savoy".

scssioiis of tlic

remained
nental

The Duchy of Savoy own Dukes till their contidominion was swept away in the storm of the
Savoyard House.
hands of
its

in the

Annexed

to

Frcuch Ecvolution.

It

was restored

after the first fall


fi'ontier,

179-2-179G. Restored.

of Buonaparte, but with a narrowed


left
its

which
set

1814-1815.

capital

Cliamhery to France.
next year.

This was

right

by the

treaties of the

Lastly, as all

the world knows. Savoy


Savoy and

itself,

including the guaranteerl

iieutral lauds

on the Lake, passed, along with Nizza, to


itself
its

nexedto
France.
I860.

Fraucc.

Savoy

was so

far favoured

as to

be

allowed to keep

ancient name, and to form the de-

partments of High and

Low

Savoy, instead of being