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CANCER MODE OF TRANSMISSION

Cancer can be transmitted by a number of routes; 1. Local Invasion to the surrounding tissue. 2. Lymphatic spread, sometime cancer cell will move from the site of origin by lymphatic circulation to a distant regional lymph nodes.

3. Hematological spread, some forms of cancers can be transmitted from the original site to a distal location by the way of venous circulation. 4. During surgery, sometime cancer cells will spread to a remote place during surgery, either by direct contact to the tumor, contaminated instruments and gloves, or to the site of incision. 5. Kissing mode, this mode of transmission found when you have a direct contact withe the cancer itself, for example cancer in the lower lip may spread to the upper limb, or cancer in the labia majora may spread to other vicinity around the vulva. 6. Transcolonic spread, the best example for this type of cancer is Krukenberg cancer, which is a secondary ovarian tumor, it's primary site is usually adeno carcinoma of the stomach.

Simple Precautions Prevent Cancer

Nearly half of all cancer deaths are preventable. That remarkable news comes with an equally stunning corollary -- the key to success doesn't rest with some undiscovered therapies or treatments. Much of cancer's toll can be reduced with simple precautions, such as lifestyle changes and routine screenings. But somehow that message isn't getting through to enough people. "We can't beg people to change their behavior, to make the lifestyle changes that we know will reduce cancer risk," said Carolyn "Bo" Aldige, president of the Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation, in Alexandria, Va. The biggest threat, of course, is smoking. "You'd have to live on another planet not to know smoking causes cancer," Aldige said. Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death in U.S. society. Tobacco causes nearly one in five deaths in the United States, killing about 438,000 Americans each year, according to the American Cancer Society. Yet, about 45 million adults still smoke -- about 23 percent of men and 19 percent of women.

Need more proof that much of cancer's misery is self-inflicted? Experts estimate that about one in three of the 564,830 deaths from all forms of cancer this year will be related to poor nutrition, inactivity, overweight and obesity. Research has shown that "excess calories cause the mutations that start genes going down the pathways that cause cells to divide out of control, and that's what cancer is," Aldige said. "If everybody today magically had the appropriate body mass index, we'd start seeing a lot less colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer," she said. But there's a highly effective second line of defense against each of these cancers and many others -- screenings. Doctors can test for these cancers, as well as testicular, cervical and other kinds of malignancies, and often catch them before they've gone too far. And taking the tests usually requires little time and causes only minimal discomfort. Eventually, there will even be screenings for lung cancer, probably in the form of "spiral CT" scanning, using special equipment to obtain multiple cross-sectional images of the organs and tissues of the chest, Aldige said. Then there's melanoma, the deadly skin cancer that's on the rise. An estimated 62,190 new cases of the disease will be diagnosed in the United States this year, and 7,910 people will die of it, according to the American Cancer Society. But melanoma is highly curable if it's caught in its early stages. The best way to do that: Check your own skin about once a month and become familiar with the pattern of moles, freckles, and other marks so you'll spot any changes. And a skin exam should be part of a routine cancer checkup by a doctor or qualified health professional. Many people know that too much sun causes skin cancer, and they use sun block to protect themselves. But not many know that you need some sun every day -- about 15 to 20 minutes' worth, especially younger people, for vitamin D. The trick is to go out before 10 a.m. and after 4 p.m. during warm weather months, Aldige said. Vitamins play an important role in cancer prevention as well, she said, and eating properly and taking recommended supplements can help. Yet, the overall problem isn't just one of people refusing to do what's good for them, said Dr. Ahmedin Jemal, program director of cancer occurrence at the American Cancer Society. "It is access to care," he said. "Recently, the federal government has made access to breast and cervical cancer screenings available to women. But a large percentage of the population is uninsured, and it is a question of access and care," he said. "We cannot completely prevent cancer," Jemal added, "but we can substantially improve by doing the right thing."