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THE EUROPEAN SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS Vol.

1: Fundamentals and maps

K. Scharmer and J. Greif

Les Presses de lcole des Mines Paris, 2000

cole des Mines de Paris, 2000 60, Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75272 Paris cedex 06 FRANCE e-mail : delamare@dg.ensmp.fr http://www.ensmp.fr/Presses ISBN : 2-911762-21-5 Dpt lgal : mars 2000 Achev dimprim en France en mars 2000 (Grou-Radenez, Paris) Tous droits de reproduction, de traduction, dadaptation et dexcution rsevs pour tous les pays

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS Contents

Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................................................................... V

ESRA IN A NUTSHELL .......................................................................................... 3


1 2 3 4 5 6 The ESRA-concept................................................................................................................................... 3 Data Base .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Solar Algorithms ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Use of the Tool Box to assess solar system performance ...................................................................... 6 The CD-ROM ........................................................................................................................................... 7 The Atlas Book ......................................................................................................................................... 7

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 9

2 THE CONCEPT OF THE EUROPEAN SOLAR RADIATION............................ 11


2.1 Geographical area.................................................................................................................................. 11 2.2 The content ............................................................................................................................................. 11 2.3 Users of ESRA ........................................................................................................................................ 14

3 BASICS OF SOLAR RADIATION ................................................................... 17


3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 17 3.2 The choice of fundamental observational data in relation to mapping possibilities ........................... 17 3.3 Time systems ............................................................................................................................................. 19 3.4 The Julian day and the hour angle......................................................................................................... 20 3.5 Extraterrestrial radiation from the sun................................................................................................. 21

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS Contents

3.6 Geometry of solar movements as seen from the earth.......................................................................... 23 3.6.1 The sun-earth geometry...................................................................................................................... 23 3.6.2 Declination angle ................................................................................................................................ 24 3.6.3 The solar altitude angle ....................................................................................................................... 25 3.6.4 Solar azimuth angle............................................................................................................................. 26 3.6.5 Sunset hour angle and daylength......................................................................................................... 27 3.6.6 Relative daily sunshine duration ......................................................................................................... 27 3.6.7 Angle of incidence .............................................................................................................................. 27 3.7 Choice of calculation times ..................................................................................................................... 28 3.8 The solar radiation at the surface of the earth....................................................................................... 28 3.9 User needs................................................................................................................................................. 30 3.10 Transmission of solar radiation through the cloudless atmosphere................................................... 31 3.10.1 Direct and diffuse irradiation ............................................................................................................ 31 3.10.2 Relative optical air mass.................................................................................................................... 31 3.10.3 The Linke turbidity factor ................................................................................................................. 32 3.10.4 Estimating the Rayleigh optical thickness........................................................................................ 33 3.10.5 Estimating clear sky diffuse irradiance ............................................................................................. 33 3.10.6 The clear sky global irradiation........................................................................................................ 34 3.11 Monthly mean daily global radiation and the monthly mean daily Clearness Index ....................... 34 3.12 Splitting the monthly mean daily global radiation into its beam and diffuse components .............. 35

4 FROM SOLAR MEASUREMENTS TO THE SOLAR DATA BASE .................. 37


4.1 Ground measuring techniques for solar radiation components ........................................................... 37 4.1.1 Sunshine duration................................................................................................................................ 37 4.1.2 Hemispherical solar radiation.............................................................................................................. 38 4.1.3 Terrestrial radiation ............................................................................................................................. 40 4.2 Solar radiation data from satellite images.............................................................................................. 40 4.3 Detection of errors within raw data ........................................................................................................ 40

5 THE ESRA DATABASE .................................................................................... 43


5.1 The reference period and the reference area ......................................................................................... 43 5.2 Ground measured and derived data ....................................................................................................... 43 5.3 Satellite derived data ................................................................................................................................ 44

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS Contents

5.4 Sources of data.......................................................................................................................................... 44 5.5 Data guarantee.......................................................................................................................................... 45 5.6 Maps of solar radiation components....................................................................................................... 46 5.7 Zones of similar irradiation climates ...................................................................................................... 47 5.8 Zones of similar biomass parameters........................................................................................................ 47 5.9 Test, Design and Biomass Reference Years............................................................................................ 48

6 THE ESRA SOFTWARE PACKAGE................................................................. 49


(The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2 : database, models and exploitation software) 6.1 Content of the CD-ROM .......................................................................................................................... 49 6.2 The map mode........................................................................................................................................... 50 6.3 Station mode.............................................................................................................................................. 54 6.4 Sub-menus and examples......................................................................................................................... 55 6.5 Further applications ................................................................................................................................. 62

7 MAPS................................................................................................................. 63
7.1 The geographical are of the Atlas ......................................................................................................... 63 7.2 Ground based measuring stations........................................................................................................... 63 7.3 Global solar irradiation (Ten year average)........................................................................................... 63 7.4 Diffuse solar irradiation (Ten year average) .......................................................................................... 63 7.5 Direct (beam) solar irradiation (Ten year average)............................................................................... 63 7.6 Clearness index (Ten year average) ........................................................................................................ 64 7.7 Zones of similar irradiation climates ...................................................................................................... 64 7.8 Zones of similar biomass productivity parameters................................................................................ 64

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS Contents

REFERENCES...................................................................................................... 65 MAPS.................................................................................................................... 67

ANNEX 1..................................................................SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS


A1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 93 A1.2 Basic concepts and General Rules ........................................................................................................ 93 A1.3 Definitions............................................................................................................................................... 95

REFERENCES.................................................................................................... 100

ANNEX 2...................................................................................LIST OF STATIONS

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS - Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

The material provided for this publication came from many sources. The contributions of all organisations and persons mentioned below were greatly appreciated by the authors and the editors. They are all gratefully acknowledged. Data on observed daily global and monthly sums of sunshine duration were put at disposal of the project from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC), St. Petersburg (Russia). Additional important and necessary data of daily sums of sunshine duration were supplied by National Weather Services and scientific institutes of the following countries. Some of these institutions delivered data on daily global solar radiation and/or diffuse solar radiation as well. This supporting data was greatly appreciated by the project participants and helped to bring the project into strong forces. National Weather Services and Institutes which supported the project are set down in alphabetic order. Austria Belgium Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy Jordan Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Russia Switzerland Sweden Turkey United Kingdom Zentralanstalt fr Meteorologie und Geodynamik, Vienna Insitut Royal Mtorologique de Belgique, Brussels Drzavni Hidrometeoroloski Zavod, Zagreb Meteorological Service, Nicosia Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Praha and Solar and Ozone Observatory, Hradec Kralove Technical University of Denmark Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht Zentrum fr Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart Hellenic National Meteorological Service, Athens Icelandic Meteorological Office, Reykjavik Meteorological Service, Dublin Servizio Meteorologico dellAeronautica Militare, Roma Meteorological Departement, Amman Civil Airport, Amman Meteorological Ofiice, Civil Aviation Departement, Luqa Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warszawa World Radiation Data Centre, St. Petersburg Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt, Zrich Sveriges Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Insititut, Norrkping Turkish State Meteorological Service, Ankara The Meteorological Office, Bracknell

Satellite images from METEOSAT were supplied to the project by GKSS Research Centre in Geesthacht, Germany, by Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany and by NASA Langley Research Centre, USA.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS - Acknowledgements

We also have to thank the Centre of Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Stuttgart, Germany and Alain de la Casinire, University Jacques Fourier, Grenoble, France for cooperation on spectral solar irradiation data. The origin of other meteorological parameters as daily maximum and minimum air temperatures and precipitation is a CD-ROM named Global Daily Summary published by the National Climate Data Centre, Asheville, N.C., USA. Long-term monthly means of air temperature, vapour pressure, precipitation and atmosphere pressure were contributed from Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany. The Test Reference Years (TRY) are kindly supplied by: Royal Meteorological Service, Uccle, Belgium Meteorological Service, Dublin, Ireland Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest, Hungary Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia National Observatory of Athens, Inst. of Meteorology and Physic of the Atmospheric Environment, Athens, Greece German Weather Service, Offenbach, Germany. For valuable help in establishing the Biomass Reference Years, we thank P. Vossen, J.R.C. Institute for Remote Sensing Applications, Agriculture Information Systems, Ispra, Italy Ghislain Gosse, INRA Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Thiveral, France Digital information on elevation, water covered areas, coastlines and political borderlines are taken from topographical maps published by the National Centre of Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Co., USA.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS - ESRA in a nutshell

The European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA) in a nutshell

The ESRA-concept

ESRA is a logical continuation of the European Solar Radiation Atlas of 1984. It covers a wider geographical area and is backed with a data base that is considerably extended both in space and in time detail. It takes full advantage of recent advances in information technology to present PC based maps and to provide an associated user friendly software package to enable users to develop their own specific data systematically from the data base (see The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2 : database and exploitation software which consists of a CD-ROM with its guidebook. It is a working tool for engineers and architects, meteorologists and climatologists, agronomers and biologists, settlement-planners landscape designers teachers and students, journalists and politicians.

The main features of ESRA can be summarised as follows: The geographical coverage ranges from 30 W to 70 E 29 N to 75 N. Solar radiation measurements and meteorological values which have served to build-up the radiation maps and the station time series range from 1981 1990. ESRA is structured in the following way:

Data Base

Retrieval Software and SolarAlgorithms

Editor

The data base contains all solar radiation information for the whole area and additional meteorological information. The data exist at two main levels, monthly mean daily level, and daily time series for selected stations. There is also a limited amount of observed data at the hourly time scale.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS - ESRA in a nutshell

A set of algorithms which enable the user to compute starting from the values in the data base derived information to match user defined needs. A software package which allows the systematic inspection of maps, easy retrieval of numeric data, processing of data under user specification, the editing and saving of results.

Data Base (see The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2: database and exploitation software)

The data base hosts the following information: A. Digital maps with pixel size of 5 x 5 (or approximately 10 km x 10 km at 50 N and 40 E) showing:

geomorphology and country borders, daily solar irradiation on horizontal planes (monthly and yearly means from the period 1981 1990) global irradiation, diffuse irradiation, direct irradiation, monthly mean clearness index KT, solar climate regions, biomass climate regions. The maps for global irradiation have been constructed from 10 year averages of observed global irradiation from ground based sites in combination with satellite image data for a shorter period structured together using the co-kriging interpolation method. Diffuse irradiation maps were calculated from global irradiation maps using the clearness index information with an empirical polynomial regression formula, using regression coefficients adjusted to monthly mean daily global and diffuse radiation measurements in Europe. The direct irradiation is mapped as the difference between global and diffuse irradiation. Solar climate regions and biomass climate regions have been calculated by cluster analysis for similar clearness index respectively for similar biomass growth parameters (global irradiation, daily mean temperatures and daily temperature ranges and precipitation). B. Station data (time series from selected ground measuring stations)

Daily values out of 90 reference stations: 89 stations with global irradiation, 32 stations with sums of sunshine duration, 86 stations with mean, maximum (85) and minimum temperatures and precipitation,

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS - ESRA in a nutshell hourly values: 30 minutes-values:

monthly values (not all values are available for all stations): 695 stations with monthly means of sunshine duration, 586 stations with monthly means of daily sums from 10-year averages of global irradiation, sunshine duration (556 stations) and monthly means of minimum and maximum air temperatures (435 stations), precipitation (435 stations), air pressure (266 stations) and vapour pressure (274 stations), 595 stations with monthly means of the ngstrm coefficients a + b. C. Composed data sets:

six stations with sums of sunshine duration and global and diffuse irradiation on horizontal planes, one station with sums of sunshine duration and global and diffuse irradiation on horizontal planes,

six stations (St. Petersburg, Dublin , Brussels (UCCLE), Freiburg, Budapest and Athens) with Test Reference Years (TRY), one station (Kobenhaven) with Design Reference Year (DRY), two stations (Kobenhaven , Ispra) with long Biomass Reference Years (BRY), five stations (Kobenhaven, Ispra, Passau, Marignane, Brindisi) with short Biomass Reference Years (BRY).

Solar Algorithms (see The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2: database and exploitation software)

Mathematical models are used to derive input data for scientific and technological problems, like the irradiation on inclined planes, using the measured data compiled in the data base, which are restricted to horizontal surfaces. Most of these input data are monthly mean data or daily data. The derived data can be presented at the finer time scale of one hour using the concept of mean daily profiles of horizontal irradiation (There are only few observed hourly data in the data base). A widespread survey of literature was performed at the start of the project, and the selected algorithms were validated against European data. The complete documentation of this area is provided in the ESRA volume 2: database and exploitation software. The following algorithmic chains reside as computational facilities within the software package, and are automatically called, as appropriate, to generate the requested outputs. Chain 1 From Gd (i.e. daily averages of global irradiation) series to series of daily mean profiles of hourly direct, sky diffuse, ground reflected diffuse and global irradiation, and respective daily sums From Gd and Sd (i.e. daily sunshine hours) series to daily mean profiles of hourly average direct, sky diffuse, ground reflected diffuse and global illuminance From (Gd)m (i.e. monthly averages of daily means of global irradiation) values to monthly average daily mean profiles of hourly direct, sky diffuse, ground reflected diffuse and global irradiation, and respective daily sums From (Gd)m and Sm values to monthly average daily mean profiles of hourly average direct, sky diffuse, ground reflected diffuse and global illuminance

Chain 2 Chain 3 -

Chain 4 -

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS - ESRA in a nutshell From (Gd)m and (TL)m (monthly average Linke turbidity) values monthly average daily mean profiles of hourly direct, sky diffuse, ground reflected diffuse and global irradiation under cloudless skies, and respective daily sums From (Gd)m and Sm values to monthly average global spectral irradiance values From (Tmin)m and (Tmax)m values (i.e. monthly average minimum and maximum ambient temperatures) to daily mean profiles of hourly temperature and respective averages From Gd series to cumulative probability and utilizability functions of global and beam irradiance and respective available energy functions From Gd and Sd series to cumulative probability and utilizability functions of global and diffuse illuminance and available illuminance functions

Chain 5 -

Chain 6 Chain 7 Chain 8 Chain 9 -

Chain 10 - From (Tmin)m, (Tmax)m, Sm, and (pW)m (i.e. monthly average vapour pressure) values to monthly average downward sky hourly and daily long wave irradiation values. Chains nos. 1 to 5 and 8 to 10 include the cases of horizontal plane and of tracking or non-tracking inclined surfaces.

Use of the Tool Box to assess solar system performance (see The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2: database and exploitation software)

Simplified computer models for system performance assessment of four systems are integrated within the ESRA software package. Solar water heaters and active solar systems Photovoltaic systems Passive solar buildings Biomass production

Examples are provided using these models in conjunction with the solar radiation data base. The selection of these simplified models has been based on a detailed analysis of user data needs in the context of the different computer programmes currently used by professional groups like architects, engineers and agronomists. The principles of the use of data for simulation are also reviewed and reference is made to a wide range of simulation models in current use. The impact of the quality of the solar horizontal data inputs on the assessment of system performance using inclined collection systems has been analysed. Statistical data have also been prepared demonstrating the significance of inter annual variations in solar radiation availability in the assessment of long term performance.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS - ESRA in a nutshell

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The CD-ROM (see The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2: database and exploitation software)

As primary tool, the whole ESRA-system is presented on CD-ROM. Necessary hardware: PC-compatible (at least 486-DX2-66, preferred Pentium 120) SVGA display (at least 800 x 600, 256 colours, preferred 1024 x 768 and 64 k colours), CD-ROM drive (at least speed = x 4, preferably x 8) Necessary software: Windows 95 (not installable on Windows 3.1x, nor Windows NT) The CD-ROM contains the entire data base, the retrieval system to select data from the base or from external data input for further purposes, the 10 algorithmic chains, some simple models for dimensioning of practical solar energy appliances, solar architecture, biomass production, software to manage data flow and computation, visualisation and interactive structures, editing facilities (printing of tables, maps and graphs), export of data sets to other external or internal files of the user.

The Atlas Book (The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 1: fondamentals and maps)

The atlas book gives a general survey on solar energy, solar mapping, mapping of solar and biomass climate regions, the structure of the data base and its main applications. Solar radiation values from the data base are presented in annual and monthly multi-coloured digital maps.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 1 Introduction

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1 Introduction

This new European Solar Radiation Atlas ESRA has to be seen as a logical continuation of the support the European Commission has given to research and demonstration of solar energy through its Directorate General XII research programme. The previous atlas (Commission of the European Communities, 1984) has been out of print for some time, so an updated and improved edition was published in 1996 (Commission of the European Communities, 1996). These Atlases are based on solar data from the period of 1966 to 1975, and only the member states of the European Community (with some neighbouring countries) are included. ESRA was prepared within the framework of the JOULE II programme (1994) by an integrated group of scientists. Main contractor and project coordination: Project coordinator: Scientific coordination: GET Gesellschaft fr Entwicklungstechnologie mbH, Jlich/Germany K. Scharmer (GET mbH) J. Greif (European Commission, DG XII) J.K. Page (Em. Prof. University of Sheffield) R. Dogniaux (formerly IRM, Brussels)

Primary data and data base Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Hamburg/Germany G. Czeplak, U. Terzenbach, I. Bernhardt Ecole des Mines, Centre Energtique, Groupe L. Wald, S. Antoine, O. Bauer, Tldetection et Modlisation (ARMINES), L. Beaudoin, H.-G. Beyer, Sophia-Antipolis/France E. Franois, M. Lefevre, N. Poloubinski, Ch. Rigollier Technical University Denmark, Thermal Insulation H. Lund, J. Mller-Jensen Laboratory (TUD), Lyngby/Denmark Institut Royal Mtorologique de Belgique (IRM), A. Joukoff, J. Tempels Brussels/Belgium A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory MGO, E.P. Borisenko, A. Tsvetkov St. Petersburg/Russia Task coordinator: Solar Algorithms Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Instituto de Tecnologias Energticas Departamento de Energias Renovveis (INETI), Lisbon/Portugal R. Aguiar, M.J. Carvalho, M. Collares Pereira L. Wald (ARMINES)

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 1 Introduction Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Hamburg/Germany University of Sheffield, Sheffield/United Kingdom Building Research Establishment, Watford/ United Kingdom Task coordinator: G. Czeplak J.K. Page P. Littlefair J.K. Page

Software Infrastructure (The CD-ROM) Ecole des Mines, Centre Energtique, Groupe Tldetection et Modlisation (ARMINES), Sophia-Antipolis/France M. Albuisson

User Needs and Validation Ecole des Mines de Nantes (ARMINES), Nantes/France Task coordinator: B. Bourges. L. Kadi B. Bourges

Scientists from this task force have been engaged in similar work for many years, e.g. the European Solar Radiation Atlas (Commission of the European Communities, 1984), The Solar Microclimate Project (K. Scharmer et al., 1989), the Daylighting Atlas (D.N. Asimakopoulos et al.,1996), the Solar Radiation Atlas of Africa (E. Raschke, R. Stuhlmann, W. Palz and T.C. Steemers (Ed.) ,1991), the Climatic Data Handbook for Europe (B. Bourges (Ed.), 1992), the Atlas of Hydrometeorological Data (Army Publishing House, Moscow, 1991), the Bavarian Solar and Wind Atlas (Bayerisches Staatsministerium fr Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie (Pub.), 1995) and other solar projects. This experience has enabled the authors to use the most reliable and up to date know-how on data processing, solar algorithms and mapping techniques as far as the time framework and the financial limits of the project allowed. Following the recent rapid development of information technology, it was decided to present the main part of the Atlas information on CD-ROM (ESRA vol. 2), to be used with personal computers, so, that the Atlas integrates itself onto the tool-shelf of todays generation of scientists, architects and engineers. Nevertheless, some of the key information, including the most important maps, are published in this book. These give a preliminary information on the Atlas contents and allow for retrieval of information on strategic scale and should make the reader inquisitive to examine the content of the CD-ROM (ESRA vol. 2). The CD-ROM (ESRA vol. 2) is accompanied by a Users Guidebook (ESRA vol. 2) which gives full details on structure, content, nature and origin of data and the level of confidence as well providing the primary data base for the various derived data sets. Importantly it provides detailed instructions for the CD-ROM-user. Any reader, who looks for more basic information is referred to the numerous publications which have already originated from this project. There are more scientific publications to come, describing scientific advances achieved during the project including the Book of Algorithms (R. Aguiar and J. Page, to be published). This publication is the result of a thorough review of mathematical models actually used in solar radiation calculations. These have been subjected to a detailed validation and adaptation programme for the meteorological conditions prevailing in the various climatic regions of the area covered by the Atlas.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 2 The concept of ESRA

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2 The concept of the European Solar Radiation Atlas

2.1 Geographical area


Map 2.1 shows the geographic exterit of the area for which solar radiation parameters have been established. The mapped zone runs from 30 West to 70 East and from 25 North to 75 North, in other words from the Azores in the West to Tashkent in the East and from Oasis Kufra in the Sahara to Novaj Semlja in the Barents Sea. The printed maps in this Atlas are in Albers projection. The computer version gives the same information, but on the canonical Projection shown in Fig. 2.1.

Fig. 2.1: The area covered by ESRA in canonical x-y co-ordinates, x - longitude; y - latitude

2.2 The content


The Atlas is built from two major components: the data base, the software package (The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2).

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 2 The concept of ESRA

The data base was compiled from measurements of solar irradiation and of other meteorological and climatological parameters within the reference period 1st January 1981 to 31st December 1990. Images from satellites have been used in addition to ground based measurements to prepare clearness index maps from which the global, diffuse and direct beam irradiation maps were prepared. From the carefully screened and quality controlled primary data, the following information was integrated into the data base: Digital maps with a standard pixel size of 5 x 5 or approximately 10 x 10 km in the centre of the area covered by the atlas. The following information for each pixel is needed in order to build the map geographic position, altitude, global, diffuse and direct solar irradiation on horizontal surfaces, clearness index, biomass growth parameters and various types of auxiliary information such as borderlines, country names, map colours, water bodies, etc. The second data block consists of: Station data. These are time series of solar and meteorological data from 586 selected ground measuring stations compiled over various time intervals from 10 year monthly averages to daily, hourly and half-hourly values. The following physical quantities are available (but not for all stations): sunshine duration, global irradiation, ngstrm coefficients am & bm, dry bulb air temperatures, atmosphere pressure, vapour pressure, precipitation.

Additionally some composed data sets for individual locations, selected statistically on a month by month basis from different years observed data, are integrated: six Test Reference Years (TRY), one Design Reference Year (DRY), daily level seven Biomass Reference Years (BRY). Figure 2.2 shows the position of the ground measuring stations. It is evident from the inhomogeneous distribution, that the digital maps over large parts of the mapped area are strongly based on information from satellite images.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 2 The concept of ESRA

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Fig. 2.2: Positions of ground based measuring stations

The software package (ESRA vol. 2), together with the data base, allows the user to generate information for research on and application of solar energy.
- digital maps - station data

Data Base

Algorithms and simple application models

Editor

Maps Graphs Data listings Simple solar applications

Hardcopy

Input for further calculations

Fig. 2.3: Schematic of the ESRA database and software package

The main part of the software package consists of a selection of algorithms which translate observed data, e.g. global solar irradiation on horizontal plane, sun hours, air temperature, etc. into useful physical information for users of solar energy, e.g. short wave radiation on an oriented surface at a

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 2 The concept of ESRA

given hour of a specific day, from direct, diffuse and ground reflected radiation or monthly daily averages, or utilizability functions of global and/or beam irradiance etc.. These calculations in principle can be made for any geographical site inside of the area covered by the atlas then the calculation starts from the monthly average irradiation values of the solar maps, or with higher precision from the data base for those sites, where daily measured series are available. For fast survey calculations simple models are integrated for assessing the performance of solar water heaters, photovoltaic devices, passive solar buildings and biomass productivity.

2.3 Users of ESRA


The atlas is designed for professional use as well as for research and teaching. It also provides an overview for those seeking rapid information on the potential of solar energy in Europe. It is applicable to many professional groups. The first group are: engineers, architects. Their work is supported through the direct access to solar energy information at any specific site in Europe from the data base of ESRA. The software package permits this primary data to be transformed into technical/energetic information, which in turn can be transformed to provide input parameters for different types of more sophisticated computer programmes which are in use today for dimensioning of equipment, power generators, assesing solar gains for buildings, designing daylighting or similar problems. The second group of users are people whose work is connected with vegetation growth: agronomists and foresters, landscape designers, settlement planners. Special attention has been given to their needs. To assist these fields of work, additonal information to the solar impact data is supplied for a large number of ground measuring stations on those meteorological parameters which influence biomass production: air temperature, atmosphere pressure, humidity and precipitation. The maps with areas of similar biomass productivity conditions may help with large-scale biomass production analysis. The third group of users, more interested in fundamental problems are: solar energy research workers, climatologists, teachers and students. A chapter with some fundamental information on solar radiation measurements is included with a short description of the basic approach used in preparing the solar and meteorological information entered in the ESRA data base. The algorithms used are described, including the tests and validation methods which have been used to select the most appropriate computational chains for inclusion in the software package. The comparatively large number of measuring stations with long-term data provided at high resolution in time (daily and hourly values) will help in developing and testing of new mathematical models. The solar

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 2 The concept of ESRA

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maps which cover the whole area of the atlas, include areas where up to now only very little or no information at all on solar energy has been available. This data, together with the meteorological data sets, can be a valuable source of information for climatologists and for research programmes on global change of our climate in Europe, especially if read in conjunction with the earlier Atlases. Last not least, ESRA provides information to people who are concerned with long-term planning and political issues related to solar energy, biomass production and climatological impact as well as with public information: politicians and journalists. Here, the Atlas provides with its maps and surveys valuable information which is accessible without the need to be familiar with all details of data processing and algorithmic calculations.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

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Basics of solar radiation

3.1 Introduction
Any user of solar energy is interested in the quantity of radiation which can be received and transformed into useful energy at a given time or given time interval at a given geographical place or area. This is true independently of whether the useful output energy will be in the form of electricity, thermal energy or chemically bound energy, for instance in form of biomass. It follows that the solar irradiation must be predicted in its spectral form, defining its direction, its mix of diffuse and beam, its geographical distribution and its distribution with time. The solar radiation at the outer edge of the atmosphere can be predicted with high precision, as it depends essentially on astronomical geometric parameters. At the surface prediction is more difficult because of the interaction of the solar beam with the atmosphere containing aerosols, with varying cloud cover and with differing soil surfaces. Mean solar radiation is subject to a large number of influences with a broad statistical spectrum which cannot be predicted with mathematical precision. Thus these influences have to be determined with help of the analysis of historical measurements from which algorithms are derived which allow together with the known astronomical geometry - the prediction of the geographical distribution of solar irradiation and its distribution in time within the bandwidth of known statistical deviations. The three most important parameters solar geometry, time systems and interactions of solar energy with atmosphere and earths surface are discussed in this Chapter.

3.2 The choice of fundamental observational data in relation to mapping possibilities


Data on solar energy may be presented at any chosen level of time. The instantaneous flux of short wave radiant energy is called the irradiance. It is stated in this Atlas in W/m2.The irradiation is the integral of the irradiance over any convenient stated period of time. As compaction is essential for practicability, Meteorological Services present their observed irradiation data at two principle levels of integration time, hour by hour data and day by day data. It is usual for Meteorological Services to present observed hour to hour irradiation data in solar time, also called local apparent time (LAT). In this system of time, the movements of the sun are symmetrical about the North-South line. Month by month monthly means are derived from these primary data. All calculated irradiance and illuminance data in this Atlas are generated in LAT. The design of the Atlas required making choices of appropriate integration time intervals for the irradiation data to be used to construct the data base and so implicitly for consequent map construction. The actual data availability was one issue. Data base compactness was a second issue. The day was selected as the appropriate generally achievable integration period. When using the Atlas, data for time levels below the day are reached in most cases through calculation using the CD-ROM tool box

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

(ESRA vol. 2), though there are a few example years on the CD-ROM with hourly or half-hourly observed data. The daily global irradiation on horizontal surfaces, and their corresponding 10 year monthly mean daily values were selected as the primary observed data to be used in the construction of this Atlas after appropriate quality control. The irradiation units used are Wh/m2 per day. As the ground observational sites are very sparse in some parts of the geographic area covered, it was considered essential for the success of the project to make effective use of available satellite observations to improve spatial coverage. The final mapped 10-year monthly mean daily global irradiation values for horizontal surfaces presented had to be reached through a combination of ground based observations and satellite observations. These data were complemented by an extensive network of ground based stations providing year by year observations of monthly mean bright sunshine. These sunshine data enabled ground based estimates to be made of monthly mean daily global irradiation in any month in the 10 year data series (1981 - 1990), using the Angstrom formula with its two site specific month by month regression coefficients, am and bm. It was decided spatial irradiation mapping should only attempted at the monthly mean level and that the mapping should be confined to horizontal surface data. However, it was decided that the mapping process and the associated software should be designed so the inputs for slope calculations at the monthly mean level for any place could be extracted very simply from these maps. Considerations of practicability led to the decision that 10 yea day by day global irradiation time series data for only a 100 representative sites should be incorporated in the final CD-ROM data sets. Another policy decision concerned the generation of 10 year mean values of beam and diffuse daily irradiation on horizontal surfaces. The global irradiation on horizontal surfaces consists of tow parts, the direct beam irradiation and the diffuse irradiation from the sky. Diffuse irradiation observations were only available for a limited number of sites in the mapped area. Data were needed for all mapped pixels. It was essential to fill this important gap. This limited sit of diffuse irradiation observations from Europe was used to develop computational methods to estimate 10-year daily means of diffuse irradiance, pixel by pixel. These methods are discussed later. The direct beam was then found by difference. The development of these processes opened up the opportunity of providing mapped values of 10-year monthly mean beam and diffuse irradiation on horizontal surfaces. Such data were not available in previous versions of the European Solar Radiation Atlas. The final basic mapping concept used in the development of the Atlas was the decision to make systematic use of a key dimensionless ratio called the clearness index, or KT value, as the fundamental basis for mapping data coordination between ground data and satellite data. This ratio is defined as the daily global horizontal irradiation at the surface divided by the corresponding daily global irradiation on a horizontal surface outside the atmosphere. The use of the dimensionless ratio reduces the impacts of variation of latitude, so bringing out more clearly the effects of mean cloudiness. Clearness index values may be extracted at the daily level or the monthly mean level. It was decided to include the 10 year monthly mean maps of clearness index in the Atlas. These maps give the user a good idea of the relative cloudiness of any region. 10 year monthly mean values below 0.30 imply very cloudy climates, while 10 year monthly means above 0.60 imply very sunny climates. The were no systematic data sets of illuminance. It was decided to adopt the recommendations of the earlier CEC Daylighting project to enable users to generate illuminance data, presented in kilolux. In view of the demand for spectral data, it was decided a special study should be commissioned to develop a spectral irradiation model, and test it against the few European observed spectral data sets available. Finally it was recognised that interest often centred on inclined planes. A systematic algorithmic system for calculating slope irradiances and illuminance had to be created. Any slope models had to be checked against European slope irradiation observations at the hour by hour level.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

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3.3 Time systems


The movements of the sun as seen from the earth are obviously a function of time of day. Civil time is defined for convenience to cover wide geographical areas, for example the Central European Time (CET.) Zone. Sunrise and sunset times in Civil Time depend on both latitude, which determines the daylength and also on longitude. Longitude influences the precise times of sunrise and sunset in Civil Time. Longitude does not influence the daylength. Daylength is determined solely by the date in the year and the latitude. As one moves eastwards in a given time zone, the sun at any given latitude both rises earlier and also sets earlier. The shift is 4 minutes earlier per degree of longitude moved to the East. Civil time is often called Local Mean Time (LMT). An alternative time system widely used in solar energy studies is Solar Time often called Local Apparent Time (LAT). Noon in solar time is set as the instant when the sun crosses the North South meridian line. This is the moment when the sun has its greatest elevation. Sunrise and sunset are symmetrical about noon in solar time. The sunrise and sunset times in solar time are independent of longitude. Most Meteorological Services summarize solar irradiation observations on an hour by hour basis using Solar Time. The algorithms used in this Atlas have also been prepared in Solar Time, so it is important sometimes to be able to relate the two systems of time. The reference longitude for Universal Time (U.T.) is Greenwich, where the longitude is zero. Due to small motions of the earth about its North South polar axis, there are small differences between Civil Time and Solar Time at Greenwich. These differences are described by the Equation of Time. Figure 3.3.1 shows the values of the Equation of Time as a function of day number in minutes. If one stays in the time zone covered by Greenwich Mean Time, each degree of longitude to the west will represent a displacement of -1/15 hours (-4 minutes). Civil time is based on defined time zones. A reference longitude can be ascribed to any defined time displacement. Central European Time is one hour ahead of GMT.
20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Julian days

Fig. 3.3.1 The equation of time

minutes

26

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation The consequent relationship between Civil Time (L.M.T.) and Solar Time (L.A.T.) is given by: L.A.T. = L.M.T. + ET + ( - R)/15 - c (decimal hours) where ET R c is the Equation of Time in decimal hours. is the longitude in degrees (East positive) is the longitude of the time zone selected in degrees (East positive) is the correction for summer time set normally 1 hour in those countries where summer time is applied.

Each one hour advance on GMT represents a change of 15 degrees in the reference longitude. Each hour difference behind GMT represents a change of -15 degrees in reference longitude. The significance of longitude in determining the difference between L.A.T. and L.M.T. is best illustrated by an example drawn within a single time zone. Oviedo in Spain is at 43 21' N and 5 52' West, Berlin in Germany is 52 28' N and 13 18' E. Warsaw is at 52 16'N and 20 59' E. The Equation of Time on January 29th is -12.95 minutes (see Figure 3.3.1). If it is noon in clock time at Oviedo, the Solar Time will be 10:24. If it is noon in clock time at Berlin, Solar Time will be 11:40. If it is noon at Warsaw, Solar Time will be 12:11. If the site is close to the time reference meridian, the differences will be small. Where there are big longitudinal differences as in Oviedo, the differences are very significant. When summer time is in operation, there is an additional displacement of 1 hour, which may make the displacement between the two systems of time even larger. In interpreting all hourly graphs and tables from the Tool Box, users must take special care to remember the data are all presented to the user in Solar Time.

3.4 The Julian day and the hour angle


The time system used for computing the geometric position of the sun is based on the use of the Julian day, j, to describe the position of the day in the annual sequence of days and the use of the hour angle, , to describe the time of day as an angle measured from solar noon. The hour angle at solar noon is set as zero. The Earth rotates about its axis once in 24 hours, so the passage of one hour represents a 15 degree rotation. The hour angle is set as positive after solar noon and negative before solar noon. Thus 09:00 L.A.T. yields an hour angle of -45o, 15:00 L.A.T. an hour angle of +45o. Table 3.4.1 gives the Julian day number both for non-leap years and for leap years, month by month, as a function of day number in the month. The Julian day is converted into a Day angle, j', for some calculation purposes. This is done by multiplying j by 360o and dividing by the mean length of the year (365.25 days taking account of the leap year cycle).

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation


Table 3.4.1 The Julian day j corresponding to the i-th day of the month

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Month January February March April May June July August September October November December

J for ith day of month i 31 + i 59 + i 90 + i 120 +i 151 + i 181 + i 212 + i 243 + i 273 + i 304 + i 334 + i

leap year

(+1) (+1) (+1) (+1) (+1) (+1) (+1) (+1) (+1) (+1)

3.5 Extraterrestrial radiation from the sun


The mean irradiance normal to the solar beam outside the atmosphere of the Earth at mean solar distance is 1367 W/m2. This value is known as the Solar Constant Io. However the earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit. So the earth is slightly closer to the sun in the Northern Hemisphere winter and slightly further away during the Northern Hemisphere summer. The time of closest approach is known as the Perihelion and occurs around January 2nd. The point of greatest distance is known as the Aphelion (see Figure 3.5.1).

Fig. 3.5.1 Elliptical revolution of the earth around the sun

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

The distance between the earth and sun varies by + 1.7%. Following the inverse square law, the range of the irradiance is + 3.3%. In addition the value of Io varies within a period of 11.2 years by about 1 W/m2. This is caused by cyclical variations of solar activity. The irradiance falling on a horizontal plane outside the atmosphere, Go is given by: Go = 1367 sin s W/m2 where s is the correction to mean solar distance is the solar altitude in degrees. (3.5.1)

is calculated as = 1 + 0.0334 cos(j'-2.80o), where j' is the day angle (3.5.2)

The extraterrestrial irradiance falling on a horizontal surface may be integrated over the day to find the daily irradiation between sunrise and sunset falling on a horizontal surface, God. It is expressed here in Wh/m2. Figure 3.5.2 shows graphically the variation of God with Latitude and Julian day in the Northern Hemisphere. Such daily extraterrestrial data are used as denominators in the systematic analysis of daily irradiation reaching the surface to generate the Clearness Index, Gd/God, from the observed daily global irradiation, Gd.

Extraterrestrial irradiation, Wh/m^2 per day

14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 Julian day number Lat. 60 N Lat. 50 N Lat. 40 N Lat. 30 N Lat. 20 N Lat. 10 N Lat. 0 N

Fig. 3.5.2 The extraterrestrial irradiation at the top of the atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere as a function of day in the year and latitude

The average extraterrestrial irradiance onto the earths atmosphere can easily be estimated using simple geometric principles. The mean extraterrestrial flux per unit surface area is given by the product of the solar constant and the ratio of2 the area of the cross section R2 divided by the total area of the surface 4R2 , i.e. 1367/4 = 342 W/m . Refer Figure 3.5.3.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

29

Earth, radius R

R R
equator

Su

Mean solar irradionto earths atmosphere /4 = 342 W/m I

Solar constant = 1367 W/m

Fig 3.5.3 Available extraterrestrial mean solar irradiance per m2 striking the atmosphere

The considerable modifications introduced by the atmosphere now have to be considered. These modifications are strongly influenced by the solar geometry, which will be considered first.

3.6 Geometry of solar movements as seen from the earth

3.6.1 The sun-earth geometry The knowledge of the geometrical parameters describing the position of the sun as seen from the earth is essential when information on solar radiation for a specific location and time is required. Three fundamental parameters are needed to determine the position of the sun as seen from any point of the earth. the Latitude of the site of observation. the Julian day number. the time of day expressed as an hour angle from solar noon.

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

3.6.2 Declination angle The key calculation input for generating the solar geometry is the declination. The declination angle is the angle between the Equatorial Plane and the line joining the centre of the Earth's sphere to the centre of the Solar disk. The axis of rotation of the Earth about the poles is set at an angle to the socalled Plane of the Ecliptic. The angle of inclination is 23o 27'. The maximum declination angle of 23o 27' in the Northern Hemisphere occurs at the Summer Solstice, on June 21st. The minimum declination angle of -23o 27' in the Northern Hemisphere occurs at the Winter Solstice on December 22nd. The declination of the sun is a continuously varying function of time, but the rate of change within a specific day is small enough to allow the use of a constant value for any Julian day. One parameter, the Julian day number, enables the solar declination to be established for any point in time with acceptable practical accuracy. For very high accuracy the Year Number, the Longitude of the site and the precise time of day have to be introduced into the calculation, but this refinement is not usually necessary in most practical studies. Latitude enters in the subsequent geometric calculations. The following simplified declination formula has been successfully used for many years in the various CEC Solar Radiation Atlas Programmes. = sin -1{0.3978 sin(j'-80.2o+1.92(sin(j'-2.80o)))} degrees where j' is the Julian day number expressed as a day angle in degrees. (3.6.1)

The formula provides mean daily values averaged over the four year leap year time cycle. Figure 3.6.1 plots the declination calculated with this formula against the Julian Day number.
30.00 20.00 Declination degrees 10.00 0.00 1 -10.00 -20.00 -30.00 Julian day number
Fig. 3.6.1 Declination angle as a function of Julian Day number

51

101

151

201

251

301

351

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation 3.6.3 The solar altitude angle Figure 3.6.2 sets down the geometric definitions of the solar altitude and azimuth angles.

31

(s

Fig. 3.6.2 Solar azimuth s and solar altitude s seen from an observer at position P

The solar altitude angle (often referred to as solar elevation angle) is calculated as a function of time of day, expressed as an hour angle using the following formula: s = sin -1(sin sin + cos cos cos ) degrees where is the latitude, Northern Hemisphere positive, degrees, is the solar declination angle, degrees, is the solar hour angle, degrees. (3.6.1)

Time, t, in decimal hours on the 24 hour clock (using Local Apparent Time) is first converted to an hour angle using: = 15(t-12) degrees (3.6.2)

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

3.6.4 Solar azimuth angle The direction of the sun is given by its azimuth angle. The solar azimuth angle, s, is the angle between the vertical plane containing the direction of the sun, and the vertical plane running true North South. It is measured from due South in the Northern Hemisphere and from due North in the Southern Hemisphere. The azimuth angle has a positive value when the sun is to the West of the South-North meridian, i.e. during afternoon in solar time. These angles may be converted into bearings from true north, but it is important to adopt the correct definition of azimuth angle in using the algorithms that follow. Refer Figure 3.6.2. The azimuth angle may be calculated as: cos s = (sin sin s sin ) /cos cos s sin s = cos sin /cos s If sin s < 0 then s = cos-1(cos s ) If sin s > 0 then s = cos-1(cos s ) (3.6.3.a) (3.6.3.b) (3.6.3.c) (3.6.3.d)

(Both formulae are needed in order to attribute the azimuth angle automatically into the correct quadrant in computing programmes). Note in the Southern Hemisphere, cos s = - (sin sin s sin ) /cos cos s

plane of ecliptic, plane of Earths orbit around sun


solstice 21.June

declination solar hour angle

vernal equinox =0

solstice 22.December

Fig. 3.6.3 Geometry of the earth-sun system from the viewpoint of an observer at the position P on earths surface.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation 3.6.5 Sunset hour angle and daylength

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The sunset hour angle, ss, is the hour angle at sunset. It defines the length of the astronomical day. The sunset hour angle is easily calculated as cos-1(-tan tan ) degrees; the sunrise hour angle, sr, as -cos-1(-tan tan ) degrees. Sunrise occurs at a time of (12 - cos-1(-tan tan )/15) hours L.A.T., while sunset occurs at time (12 + cos-1(-tan tan )/15 hours L.A.T). The astronomical daylength, Sod, is given by cos-1(-tan tan )/7.5 hours. If (-tan tan )>1 then the sun never rises on that day If (-tan tan )<-1 then the sun never sets on that day (Polar winter). (Polar summer).

3.6.6 Relative daily sunshine duration It is often useful to express the daily observed sunshine in dimensionless terms. This is simply achieved by dividing the observed daily sunshine Sd by the astronomical day-length, Sod. Thus d = Sd/Sod. This ratio is called the daily relative sunshine duration, alternatively % possible sunshine. The monthly mean is (d)m. This dimensionless ratio is widely used in the calculation of mean daily global radiation from observed mean daily sunshine duration. See below.

3.6.7 Angle of incidence The beam irradiance on any surface of azimuth orientation and tilt is given by Bn cos (,) where (,) is the angle of incidence on the specific surface. Its calculation requires a specification of the orientation of the plane, , as a surface azimuth angle, measured from due South in the Northern Hemisphere and from due North in the Southern Hemisphere. The inclination angle of the surface, , is measured from the horizontal plane. In the calculation of cos (,), the wall solar azimuth angle is first determined. The wall solar azimuth angle is the angle between the vertical plane containing the normal to the surface and the vertical plane passing through the centre of the solar disc, i.e. it is the resolved angle on the horizontal plane between the direction of the sun and the normal to the surface. Its value must lie between -180o and +180o degrees. F = s degrees (3.6.4)

If F > 180 then F = F - 360o degrees. If F < 180 then F = F + 360o degrees. The sign convention normally used in the Northern Hemisphere is as follows, sun anti-clockwise from normal on plan, sign negative, sun clockwise from normal on plan, sign positive. In the Southern

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

Hemisphere the sun travels in an anti-clockwise direction and the sign convention is changed. In between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, the direction of movement of the sun resolved on plan varies with season. Greater care is then needed with sign conventions. Defining the surface inclination as , (vertical = 90o), the cosine of the angle of incidence is given by: cos (, ) = cos s sin cos F + sins cos (3.6.5) If cos (, ) is negative, the sun lies behind the surface. A simpler form may be used on vertical surfaces: cos (90, ) = cos s cos F

(3.6.6)

3.7 Choice of calculation times


The ESRA Atlas tool box calculations are normally based on the use of the mid hour times in L.A.T., i.e. 09:30, 10:30, except in the sunrise and sunset hours. In these hours, the hour angle used was set midway between the sunrise hour angle, sr and the hour angle at the end of the sunrise hour at the start of the day, INT(sr)+1 and midway between the hour angle at beginning of the sunset hour INT(ss) and the hour angle at sunset, ss, where INT refers to the integer of the expression. Unless this measure is adopted in the place of the standard mid hour calculation used for other hours, no solar geometry will be generated if sunrise occurs after the middle of the sunrise hour in the morning or sets before the middle of sunset hour in afternoon. Furthermore unrepresentatively low mean solar elevations will be calculated for the period if the sun is in fact up.

3.8 The solar radiation at the surface of the earth


The global irradiation is the short wave energy that actually reaches a horizontal surface after all the absorption and scattering processes. This amount is influenced by the path length through the atmosphere, the clarity of atmosphere, the amount and type of cloud cover. The interaction of the solar radiation with the atmosphere involves a series of quite complex processes. In order to simplify understanding of the role of the atmosphere, the energetic equilibrium between the atmosphere, the surface of the earth and incoming solar radiation can be separated into three processes: 1. Solar radiation entering the atmosphere being absorbed and scattered before reaching the ground. 2. Thermal (long wave) radiation originating from the surface of the earth and the atmosphere above. 3. Non-radiative heat and energy transport processes in the atmosphere and between soil and the atmosphere. This Atlas deals primarily with processes which belong to the first category concerning the short wave solar radiation in the waveband 0.2 to 4.0 m, though there is a module in the CD-ROM tool box and in the User's Handbook dealing with the estimation of the long wave radiation balance.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

35

The incoming extraterrestrial irradiation enters the atmosphere and interacts with the atmospheric components, i.e. the various gases, (including water vapour) and the condensed water droplets and other aerosols. Some of these absorb short wave radiant energy, and others scatter it. In broad terms Absorption by gas molecules, aerosols and condensed water accounts for 20% of the energy loss. This results in a heating of the atmosphere. Back scattering and back reflection mainly from clouds sends 23% of the incoming solar energy directly back to space. Averaging over the globe, only 57% of the primary incoming solar energy reaches the ground. 30% of the incident extraterrestrial energy reaches the ground as beam radiation. 27% of the incoming extraterrestrial energy reaches the ground as beam radiation. Depending on the reflectance of ground for solar radiation (the albedo), 8% of the short wave radiation is reflected back to space from the ground. This occurs with only minor spectral degradation. 49% of the extraterrestrial flux is absorbed at the surface and is transformed into sensible heat or converted chemically bound energy forms like biomass, or transformed into other renewable energy (wind, water). The second path of heat loss to space is through thermal radiation in the band 4.0 to 100 m. The thermal radiation resulting from the absorption of short wave radiation complements the thermal radiation to space resulting from the Earth's internal geological processes and radioactive decay. The proportion attributable to the solar budget is 49%. There is an added contribution to the outgoing long wave radiation to space from the short wave energy absorbed in clouds and in the atmosphere. This brings the absorbed short wave contribution to outgoing thermal radiation to 69% of the incoming short wave radiation. The global energy balance of the outer surface of the atmosphere of the earth is thus: Incoming short wave radiation Scattered and reflected short wave radiation Thermal radiation to space 100% -31% -69%

Figure 3.8.1 shows these processes in a graphical form.

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

Solar radiation
Fig. 3.8.1 The mean distribution of the solar energy and radiation in the system earth/atmosphere. Modified after Treubert at al., IPCC 1996

3.9 User needs


Users of solar energy need to be able to establish the following parameters quantitatively: G(, , t1, t2) the total amount of solar irradation at latitude , longitude , between time t1 and time t2 on surfaces of any orientation The relative proportion of beam irradiation and diffuse irradiation. The spectral breakdown of the radiation at the surface.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

37

The Atlas allows the provision of radiation data at a number of time scales. The maps present daily averages of global, beam and diffuse radiation over each month and also annual averages. The CDROM tool-box (The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2) allows breakdown of this primary data to shorter time intervals.

3.10 Transmission of solar radiation through the cloudless atmosphere

3.10.1 Direct and diffuse irradiation The global solar irradiation on a horizontal surface has two components, the direct beam component B and the diffuse component D. Clouds impact strongly on the global radiation received. So it is difficult to predict the components of global radiation in the presence of clouds. Under clear sky conditions, reasonably accurate predictions can be made from a knowledge of the solar geometry and the level of water vapour and particulates in the atmosphere.

3.10.2 Relative optical air mass The path length through the atmosphere exerts an important influence. This path length is described by the relative optical air mass m. Its value depends on the solar altitude angle s and on the site atmospheric pressure p, which is influenced by site height above sea level. The value m of the relative optical air mass can be calculated with an error of less than 0.5% for all solar elevations (F. Kasten & A.T. Young, 1989) as: m = (p/po)/{sin s + 0.50572 (s + 6.07995o) -1.6364} where s is the solar altitude in degrees and (p/po) is the pressure correction for station height. The following simple expression is adequate to estimate (p/po) : (p/po) = exp(-z/HR) (3.10.2) (3.10.1)

where z is the site elevation above sea level in metres and HR = 8400 m. Figure 3.10.1 gives a schematic representation of the relative optical air mass at sea level.

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

space, p = 0

atmospheric layer m=1 m= 1 sin + a ( + b ) c

earth surface at sea level, z = 0 p p0


Fig. 3.10.2 The relative optical air mass m at sea level. It is important for sites significantly above sea level to apply the correction (p/po).

3.10.3 The Linke turbidity factor The other factor in the attenuation of the atmosphere is a function of the concentrations of the various constituents in the atmosphere. Their impacts can be assessed by comparison of the actual observed optical depth with the theoretical optical depth of a perfectly clean dry scattering Rayleigh atmosphere, r(m). This reference optical depth is a function of air mass. It is calculated as described below. The ratio of the two optical depths is known as the Linke turbidity factor, TLK. The clear sky beam irradiance normal to the beam at the surface is calculated as: Ic = 1367. exp ( - 0.8662 TLK m r(m) ) W/m2 where TLK is the air mass 2 Linke Turbidity Factor, m is the optical air mass corrected for station height, r (m) is the Rayleigh optical depth at air mass m, is the correction factor to mean solar distance. (3.10.3)

The beam irradiance on a horizontal surface from the clear sky is calculated by resolving the beam normal irradiance onto the horizontal plane, as: B c = 1367. exp ( -0.8662 TLK m r (m) ) sin s W/m2 where s is the solar altitude in degrees. With the formulation now adopted, no solar altitude correction has to be applied to TLK, unlike the formulation used in earlier versions of the European Solar Radiation Atlases. The two formulations (3.10.4)

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

39

match perfectly at air mass 2, which is used as the reference base for Linke turbidity factor data derived from observations. The following are rough guide-line values for selecting the Linke turbidity factor. More detailed methods appropriate for specific sites are given in the User's Handbook. very clear cold air in winter clear warm air moist warm air polluted air TLK = 2 TLK = 3 TLK = 4-6 TLK > 6

In Europe there is normally an annual cycle of Linke turbidity factor with the lowest values in December and January and the highest values in July and August. The first step in using these equations 3.10.3 and 3.10.4 is to estimate the Rayleigh optical depth for the perfectly clean dry atmosphere. 3.10.4 Estimating the Rayleigh optical thickness The Rayleigh optical depth is calculated from the optical air mass by the algorithm as first set down by Louche, Peri and Iqbal and modified by Kasten (1996). If m<20 then 1/r(m) = 6.6296 + 1.7513 m - 0.1202 m2 + 0.0065 m3 - 0.00013 m4 where m is the optical air mass. The polynomial equation fit limit is an air mass less than or equal 20. If m greater 20, the following expression must be used: 1/r(m) = (10.4 + 0.718 m) (3.10.5.b) (3.10.5.a)

The Equation 3.10.5a gives unreliable erratic results in this region, and its use should be strictly avoided in this range. 3.10. 5 Estimating clear sky diffuse irradiance The detailed estimation of the clear sky diffuse irradiance on horizontal surfaces is discussed in the User's Handbook. The diffuse irradiance increases as the Linke turbidity factor increases. Figure 3.10.1 illustrates the relationship between diffuse irradiance and Linke turbidity factor as a function of solar altitude for a sea level site. As the beam irradiance decreases, the diffuse irradiance from the clear sky increases.

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation


Clear sky diffuse irradiance on horizontal surfaces as a function of Linke turbidity factor at m.s.d. 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Solar altitude, degrees Linke turb 8 Linke turb 7 Linke turb 6 Linke turb 5 Linke turb 4 Linke turb 3 Linke turb 2

Fig. 3.10.1 The clear sky diffuse irradiance falling on a horizontal surface as a function of solar altitude and air mass 2 Linke turbidity factor, TLK

3.10.6 The clear sky global irradiation The clear sky global irradiation on a horizontal surface is estimated as the sum of the horizontal beam irradiance and the horizontal diffuse irradiance. The hour by hour values can be integrated to provide daily values of clear sky global irradiation on horizontal planes for any Linke turbidity factor. Inputting a Linke turbidity factor of 3.5 enabled Figure 3.10.2 to be calculated. This shows the clear day global irradiation in the Northern Hemisphere as a function of Latitude and Julian day number for a Linke turbidity factor of 3.5. The steep fall off in winter at high Latitudes is very evident. The latitudinal gradient of solar global radiation on clear days is very much less in summer.

3.11 Monthly mean daily global radiation and the monthly mean daily Clearness Index
While God and hence the monthly mean (God)m, can be calculated, Gd has to be either directly observed or indirectly estimated. Cloud cover has a big impact on the monthly mean global irradiation. Satellite observations allow the cloud cover to be spatially assessed. The impact of cloud on ground level sunshine availability and on the consequent irradiation is very great. The monthly mean global radiation data in this Atlas have been compounded from three sources: Ground stations observing solar radiation and usually sunshine as well. Ground stations observing only sunshine. Satellite observations.

Diffuse irradiance, W/m^2

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

41

Ground based sunshine observations can be used to assess monthly mean global radiation. A key physical concept, fundamental to the development of this Atlas, is the Clearness Index. Its daily value is calculated as the ratio Gd/God. Graphical values of the denominator God are given in Figure 3.10.1 as a function of Latitude and Julian day number. This daily ratio is often called the daily KT value, KTd. The monthly mean daily Clearness Index is designated as (KTd)m = (Gd)m/(God)m. This dimensionless quantity is used in many standard calculation procedures. This monthly mean daily Clearness Index is the primary monthly mapped variable in this Atlas. A powerful technique, widely used in the development of this Atlas, has been the use of daily observed sunshine data which are more widely available than global radiation data to estimate the Clearness Index from ground observations of sunshine for a number of sites with no radiation observations. This process has reinforced the more limited ground observed solar radiation data base. The following relationship called the Angstrom formula was used: (KTd)m = am + bm(d)m where and am and bm (d)m are site dependent monthly regression coefficients is the monthly mean relative sunshine duration. (3.11.1)

It follows that (Gd)m = (am + bm(d)m ) (God)m (3.11.2)

Site dependent values of am and bm are available in the ESRA Database (The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2) as quality controlled values calculated from 10 year daily series of observed sunshine and observed global radiation for a large number of sites. The satellite data base was then related to this expanded ground data base expressed in the dimensionless form of monthly mean daily Clearness Indices. Readers should note the mapped values of monthly mean global radiation, beam and diffuse radiation provided in this Atlas were derived from the satellite interpolated (KTd)m mapped values, pixel by pixel.

3.12 Splitting the monthly mean daily global radiation into its beam and diffuse components
The diffuse radiation data presented in the maps of this Atlas are all estimated data. Observed monthly mean diffuse radiation data were available for a number of sites. These data were used to construct a polynomial model to estimate the ratio of the monthly mean daily diffuse irradiation to the monthly mean daily global irradiation, (Dd)m/(Gd)m from the monthly mean daily Clearness Index, (KTd)m. The basic model took the form: (Dd)m/(Gd)m = co + c1 (KTd)m + c2( (KTd)m)2 + c3 ( (KTd)m)3 If (Dd)m/(Gd)m >1 then (Dd)m/(Gd)m = 1 (3.12.1)

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 3 Basics of solar radiation

The coefficients co, c1 c2, c3 were derived dividing the observed data into 4 latitude bands grouped in 4 seasons. The monthly mean diffuse maps were developed from the monthly mean daily clearness index maps, pixel by pixel, using the above equation using the appropriate coefficients for the latitude band and the season for each pixel. For details refer to the User's Handbook (The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2). If (KTd)m falls to 0.2 virtually all the radiation is diffuse and there is practically no beam radiation. In very sunny climates between 20% and 30% of the radiation on horizontal surfaces is diffuse. More typically the beam diffuse mix lies in the range 40%-60% according to mean sunniness. Diffuse radiation thus forms a significant part of the resource.

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4 From solar measurements to the solar data base

Two types of solar radiation measurements used for the Atlas have to be distinguished: ground based measurements made at specific sites at the earths surface and measurements derived from satellite images covering a certain section on earth with restricted solution. Geostationary satellites which have a fixed position respective to the Earth routinely measure the energy reflected by the system earth/atmosphere in different wave length bands. Thus they are capable of observing the same wide geographical area with a high repetition in time. The images provided by satellites are very useful in meteorology for daily forecasting or for the monitoring of devastating tropical cyclones. They are frequently displayed on TV channels and are well known to people. A series of METEOSAT satellites have been observing Europe and Africa. These data have been of primary interest in the construction of this Atlas.

4.1 Ground measuring techniques for solar radiation components


There are four basic types of measuring instruments for radiation components: sunshine recording, pyrheliometers, pyranometers and pyrgeometers. The first one delivers information on sunshine duration. The second delivers information on short wave beam radiation normal to the beam. The third measures the hemispherical short wave solar diffuse and global radiation. The last measures long wave terrestrial radiation. Most solar energy measuring instruments have digitised data outputs stored by computers. Errors within these data are mainly caused by insufficient maintenance and calibration but also by using unsuitable instruments.

4.1.1 Sunshine duration The most simple and widely used instrument for registration of sun hours is the Campbell-Stokes Heliograph (Fig. 4.1.1). The key component is a glass bowl working as a burning glass. It burns a track in a registration paper if sun is shining with sufficient intensity. The threshold intensity normal to the solar beam for registration of sunshine by this measuring technique is about 120 W/m2 . There are four main types of errors in sunshine duration regristration with this type of instrument: the overburning of the registration paper during intermittened sunshine which results in overestimates of sunshine duration, the threshold sensitivity of the Campbell-Stokes recorder of 120 W/m2 which results in underestimates of sunshine duration, the analysis of the registration paper made by hand may cause additional errors in either direction, and finally deteriorations of the performance of the glass sphere caused by weather phenomena like rain or hoarfrost and by insufficient maintenance which results in underestimates of sunshine duration.

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 4 From solar measurements to the solar database

Fig 4.1.1 Campbell-Stokes-Heliograph

New types of sunshine recorders based on photoelectric measuring techniques combined with a digitised data output, generally stored by computer, could minimise the possible errors except those due to the soiling of the instrument. The threshold value of 120 W/m2 is implemented artificially to meet a WMO convention which aims to keep data measured with different types of instruments homogeneous. This requirement has to be respected especially at higher latitudes, where elevation of sun may be small all day causing errors in the registration of sunshine.

4.1.2 Hemispherical solar radiation The horizontal solar irradiance is generally measured with pyranometers (Fig. 4.1.2). One measuring principle used is based on the differences of temperature between two thermo-elements with different heat capacities. Protected against long wave radiation and other weather influences by a special glass dome, only letting solar radiation from 0.3 to 3 m pass, the solar radiation heats one element. Simultaneously the other element is heated by electricity to keep the same temperature. The squared power of the electric heating is then proportional to the solar energy. The calibration factor has to be determined for each individual pyranometer. The accuracy of well calibrated and modern pyranometers is about 2% but may be deteriorate considerably in case of insufficient maintenance or in case of operating instruments of moderate quality. Pyranometers are used for measuring the global solar radiation as the total energy of solar irradiance from all directions of the sky including the beam solar radiation. For measuring diffuse radiation a shading disk or ring is fitted to the pyranometer shading the suns direct radiation. When shading rings are used, measured data have to be corrected for the shaded part of the sky. The correction depends on the radius and the width of the shadow ring. Further advice on the use of pyranometers is given in standard ISO 9060. This ISO standard can act as a guideline in choosing the right detector specification.

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Fig 4.1.2 Pyranometer

To complete the list of instruments measuring solar radiation quantities the pyrheliometer for recording direct solar radiation has to be mentioned. The registration method is again based on temperature differences caused by heating of absorbing planes, but the instrument itself is constructed in a different way. It has to be oriented exactly in direction of the suns disk. New types of pyrheliometer mounted on automatic tracking supports therefor are very expensive. Fig 4.1.3 shows an example for a roof installed solar tracker. Unfortunately pyrheliometers are generally not used within routine observations because direct solar radiation can be easily derived from the difference between global and diffuse radiation. Indeed routine measuring of all three radiation quantities would make the detection of errors within one quantity easier.

Fig. 4.1.3 Solar tracker, equipped with a pyrheliometer, the tubular instrument on the left, and three horizontal pyranometers, using two shading disks

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 4 From solar measurements to the solar database

4.1.3 Terrestrial radiation Pyrgeometers are used for measuring the terrestrial long wave radiation. They differ essentially from pyranometers in the composition of the dome, which is mirrored in a way that as much as possible short wave radiation from the sun is reflected. The material used only allows infrared radiation from 3 to 50 m to pass. Nevertheless, about 3 % of the short wave radiation still penetrates the dome and increases the thermopile output. To reduce this pyrgeometers should be used in combination with a shading disk to exclude effects of direct solar radiation.

4.2 Solar radiation data from satellite images


Meteorological satellites are generally equipped with sensors having broad spectral bands and thus observe most of the sunlight reflected by the system earth/atmosphere. Several methods have been developed to derive the global solar radiation impinging at ground from these remote measurements. Most of them are based upon the same principles. The radiation received by a location under clear-sky can be modelled either by empirical laws or by sophisticated numerical models of the radiative transfer within the atmosphere. The energy measured by the satellites sensor at a specific instant is compared to this clear-sky radiation. The discrepancy is a function of the optical thickness of the atmosphere which is interlinked to the clearness index. The clearness index is the ratio of the global solar radiation to the extraterrestrial radiation. The accuracy of these data is not as good as ground measured data. For the Mser-Raschke model (W. Mser, E. Raschke, 1984) tests have shown that the modelled daily totals of global solar radiation deviates from ground measurements by about 10% during summer and by about 20% during winter. When considering monthly means the deviation reduces to about 5% (F.J. Dieckmann et al., 1988). These deviations are caused mainly by insufficient estimation of the atmospheric transmission in the presence of clouds but also by an insufficient temporal sampling rate of the satellite images which is mostly hourly. Ground based data are measured generally with a sampling rate of a minute and record therefore micro-scale processes in variation of solar radiation. In contrast, satellite derived data with an hourly sampling rate record only meso-scale processes. Nevertheless, satellite derived data offer a unique possibility for assessing the solar radiation in areas where ground based measurements are scarce or even non-existent.

4.3 Detection of errors within raw data


When taking observations and processing their results, errors may be made which should be detected and corrected. The major responsibility for the correctness of ground measured solar radiation data remains with the national services or the bodies delivering these data, except for data that were delivered explicitly with reference to a missing validation. The results of radiation measurements should be checked in two stages: a technical control and a quality control. The technical control deals with the correctness of arithmetic calculations, the quality control with physical agreement of the observed parameter to other radiation parameters. For measured data which are used in this Atlas, it was assumed that all data had passed already through a technical control. Because of different quality control methods all daily totals of solar radiation data were controlled using the following steps:

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solar radiation values had to be less than extraterrestrial values, sunshine duration values had to be less or equal the corresponding astronomical value, solar radiation values had to lie within the range of the expected clear-sky extreme values considering the influence of the atmospheric layer, values of solar radiation parameters had to be in a specific range compared with nearby station values with allowance for their spatial variability basic relationships between different radiation components should be fulfilled variation of the relative terms G/G0 of the Angstrom regression should lie within a defined range. Obviously erroneous values are rejected from the entire data set in contrast to questionable data. These are marked with an indicator in order not to reject values that may be still of scientific interest. With the quality control algorithms used (U. Terzenbach, 1995) a rate of about 4% of the entire solar radiation data had to be rejected or marked as questionable.

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5 The ESRA database

5.1 The reference period and the reference area


The data base of ESRA, available on the CD-Rom of the European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2, has been constructed in order to allow proper descriptions of the irradiation both in space and time, permitting an appropriate exploitation of the data to derive information of ahigher level. The user of solar data generally needs exact information on the distribution of solar energy in space and in time. He expects that the future trend can be extrapolated from historical measurements. As long term measurements are available only from a limited number of unevenly distributed stations, and as older measurements often are not fully reliable, it was decided to adopt the following framework: The reference period for the bulk of data selected was between 1981 to 1990. This statement is valid for the ground measured data of solar radiation and other meteorological parameters. Satellite derived data, which were used to obtain information in areas, where no ground measurement stations were available and to aid interpolation, do not cover the whole period. The area covered by the Atlas extends from 25 North to 75 North and from 30 West to 70 East, and thus includes the whole of geographical Europe, North Africa and the western part of Asia.

5.2 Ground measured and derived data


The many year measurement series of solar irradiation and sunshine duration from the European radiometric and synoptic network stations were collected and quality controlled in a common data base. The list of sites is given in Annex 2. Measurements of daily sums of global solar irradiation on the horizontal plane within the period 19811990 were delivered by the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC), Saint Petersburg (Russia), and by several national weather services in Europe (see Table 5.1). Data for 586 sites were provided. Daily sums of observed diffuse solar radiation on the horizontal plane within the period 1981-1990 were available for 63 sites with nearly complete measurements for 36 sites. Hourly sums of global and diffuse solar irradiation on the horizontal plane were available for the following sites:
Belgium (1981-1990) Cyprus Germany (1981-1990) Norway (1981-1990) Sweden Uccle, Ostende, Melle Athalassa (1984-1990) Hamburg, Braunschweig, Wahnsdorf, Trier, Wrzburg, Weihenstephan Bergen Lulea (1983-1990), Stockholm (1986-1990), Norrkpping (1984-1989), Lund (1983-1990)

Daily sums of sunshine duration were available at 586 sites. Sunshine duration data delivered by WRDC provided only monthly sums. Sunshine duration for 691 sites were supplied as monthly sums, with nearly complete observations, that is at least 96 monthly sums, for 558 sites.

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Hourly means of spectral solar irradiance measurements were recorded at Uccle, in Belgium, Grenoble, in France, and at two stations in Germany. The spectral range is 320 - 1050 nm within the period 19891991 for Stuttgart-Vaihingen and Widderstall. Hourly datasets for 2700 hours were supplied for StuttgartVaihingen and 1000 hours for Widderstall. Radiation data and other meteorological data were calculated for the period 1981-1990 as long time monthly means (12 values per site and per parameter) for the following parameters: daily sum of horizontal global irradiation (588 sites) daily sum of sunshine duration (558 sites) daily minimum air temperature (254 sites) daily maximum air temperature (254 sites) daily sum of precipitation (254 sites) atmospheric pressure (247 sites) water vapour pressure (254 sites)

The coefficients am and bm of the ngstrm regression were derived at 199 sites with available daily values of sunshine duration and global solar irradiation by regression methods. Finally 141 pairs of ngstrm coefficients of excellent quality were obtained using the remaining sites, called reference sites. The number of sites with available monthly means of global solar irradiation (observed and estimated) increased to 610 by using the ngstrm regression at sites where only sunshine duration measurements are available, or at sites where the number of observations of daily global solar irradiation was small and their monthly mean values were not representative for the whole period 1981-1990.

5.3 Satellite derived data


Images originating from the geostationary Meteosat satellite have been processed by several weather services and research institutes for the assessment of the global irradiation on horizontal plane (see e.g., Grter et al. 1986). Some of these satellite-derived assessments have been made available to the Atlas project for the construction of the final maps in the CD-ROM (the European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2). The existing maps offered various geographical coverages, spatial resolutions and temporal coverages, making their merging into a single map difficult. Major datasets were the following:
World, without poles regions (SRB project, Anonymous 1994) Western and Central Europe (Solar radiation atlas of Africa 1991) Western and Central Europe resol. about 180 km resol. about 50 km resol. about 10 km 1985-1988 1985-1986 1983-1985

5.4 Sources of data


Measurements of daily sums of global solar irradiation and monthly sums of sunshine duration were supplied by the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC), Saint Petersburg (Russia). Additional data of daily sums of sunshine duration were provided by several national weather services and scientific institutes. Some of these delivered measurements of global and diffuse radiation as well, on a daily or hourly basis. Several maps of satellite-derived global radiation were also kindly supplied to build the Atlas. The support provided from these data was greatly appreciated by all project participants. All these institutions are especially thanked for their good will and co-operation. Table 5.1 lists the supporting institutions.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 5 The ESRA database


Table 5.1 List of institutions that have supplied data for the construction of the Atlas (alphabetic order) Country Austria Belgium Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Jordan Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Russia Switzerland Sweden Turkey United Kingdom United States of America Organisation Zentralanstalt fr Meteorologie und Geodynamik, Wien Institut Royal Mtorologique de Belgique, Bruxelles Drzavni Hidrometeoroloski Zavod, Zagreb Meteorological Service, Nicosia Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Praha Solar and Ozone Observatory, Hradec Kralove Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Section for Agrohydrology and Bioclimatology, Taastrup Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach GKSS - Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht Zentrum fr Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart Hellenic National Meteorological Service, Athens Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest Icelandic Meteorological Office, Reykjavik Meteorological Service, Dublin Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare, Roma Joint Research Center of the European Commission, Ispra Meteorological Department, Amman Civil Airport, Amman Meteorological Office, Civil Aviation Department, Luqa Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Institut, De Bilt University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw World Radiation Data Centre, St. Petersburg Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt, Zrich Sveriges Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut, Norrkping Turkish State Meteorological Service, Ankara Meteorological Office, Bracknell NASA Langley Research Centre, Virginia NCDC, Asheville, North Carolina

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Data for the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) have been provided by the World Radiation Data Centre, St Petersburg, Russia; all the countries of the former USSR are not listed, only Russia.

The Test Reference Years (TRY) were kindly supplied by Institut Royal Mtorologique de Belgique (Uccle), Irish Meteorological Service (Dublin), Hungarian Meteorological Service (Budapest), Greek National Observatory (Athens), Deutscher Wetterdienst (Freiburg). The Design Reference Year (DRY) for St. Petersburg and Copenhagen as well as the Biomass Reference Years (BRY) were compiled during the realisation of this Atlas. Digital information on terrain elevation were taken from the ETOPO5 digital terrain model, freely available from the National Centre of Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Co., USA. Coastlines, water bodies, and borders originated from the Defence Mapping Agency (USA). All this information was corrected for Europe during the realisation of the Atlas, using the maps published by Institut Gographique National (France) and other geographical atlases. Names of countries originated from the CD-ROM GEOname digital gazetteer, from GDE Systems, Inc., USA.

5.5 Data guarantee


The database was subjected to quality control procedures. These checking procedures enabled a number of data errors to be corrected. While checks have been applied in the development of the database,

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 5 The ESRA database

neither the European Commission, nor the institutions responsible for the realisation of the Atlas, nor the publisher can accept any guarantee or any liability arising from potential defects in the data given in this publication or on the CD-ROM (the European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2). Users must therefore make their own judgements on the reliability of any data provided in this publication and on the CD-ROM (the European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2). A complete list of station data available in the database is compiled in Annex 2.

5.6 Maps of solar radiation components


The database comprises digital maps of solar radiation components. That means for each pixel (approximate size: 10 km) within the whole geographical area covered by this Atlas, values of solar radiation components are available. These maps are ten-years averages of monthly means of daily sums of global irradiation on horizontal plane, of its diffuse and direct components and of the clearness index. The maps have been constructed taking advantage of both kinds of data. Ground measurements and satellite observations have been combined to provide an unique set of consistent information on solar radiation, thus enhancing the quality of the predicted spatial distribution of the solar radiation, compared with pure interpolation between ground measurements. Co-kriging technique was used for merging both types of data. The two datasets were subjected to separate processing to prepare them for application within the co-kriging technique. In brief, this technique is a linear interpolation technique, making use of weights which are defined according to the effective distance between the location under concern and the neighbouring WMO stations. The definition of these weights takes into account the structure of the spatial correlation of the latitude-free clearness indices computed on the one hand from the observations made by the WMO network, and on the other hand from the satellite dataset, as well as of the cross-correlation between both datasets. This procedure is fully described in detail and justified in Beyer et al. (1997). This procedure provided maps of the ten-years average of the monthly means of clearness index for the whole area. From these twelve maps, a yearly mean was computed. Starting from these 12 maps of clearness index, the twelve maps for the monthly means of daily sums of global irradiation on the horizontal plane, as well as the yearly mean, were computed. Maps are made up of pixels. Each pixel is coded on one byte, that is it can only take values in the range of 0 to 255. The irradiations were converted into bytes. It follows from this digitisation that there is an uncertainty of 25 Wh m-2 in the reading of the value of any pixel on the map. The maps for the diffuse component were calculated by using the appropriate algorithm
( Dd ) m 3 = C0 + C1 (KTd ) m + C 2 (KTd ) 2 m + C3 (KTd ) m (Gd ) m

with KT from the clearness index maps and C0, C1, C2 calculated with a regression process for three latitude bands and for four seasons using measured diffuse irradiation values. This algorithm was applied on the maps of global irradiation and clearness index. The uncertainty factor for the global radiation and beam radiation maps is 25 Wh m-2. Twelve monthly maps plus the yearly average were thus constructed. Finally, the direct component was mapped by calculating the difference between the global and the diffuse component for each pixel. Again, thirteen maps were made, including the yearly mean. The uncertainty factor is 50 Wh m-2 These results are stored for each pixel in the database.

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5.7 Zones of similar irradiation climates


The irradiation maps give a pattern with high resolution in space from which the user can extract easily the monthly mean of daily sums of global, diffuse and direct irradiation in time as an average over the ten Reference Years 1981 1990. Due to this averaging the fine structure of irradiation is not available for each pixel but the user is referred to the geographically nearest ground measuring station where long-term measuring series are available. Nevertheless each station exhibits to its own specific microclimate. The nearest station may not be representative of the site selected by the user. To overcome this situation, 20 zones have been defined, within which the average variation of the yearly mean of the clearness index KT is small. Then one or more stations were selected which exhibit the best agreement with the zones average KT as representative station of each zone. The long-term measured series of these representative stations are considered to be the best choice for a user, who wishes to link his selected site to the available long-term measurements. Nevertheless, the reference station values are not identical with the selected site, but a simple proportionality relationship can be used for fine structure studies. The proportionality factor can be calculated using the relation of the monthly mean KT of the reference station KTm, ref.st. and the site KTm site. Thus the irradiation at any time at the site can be approximated by G (t )site G m, site KTm, ref. st G(t) ref.st. Gm ref.st. KTm , site

(5.7.1)

Now, G(t)site could be Gd, site, Gh, site and similar for D(t) and B(t). For further details please consult the ESRA User Guidebook (the European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2).

5.8 Zones of similar biomass parameters


Both, solar radiation and other meteorological parameters are important in biomass productivity. Monthly means of daily sums of global irradiation, mean temperature and daily temperature variation and precipitation have been calculated from 503 measuring stations. Nineteen zones of similar biomass climate (biomass zones) have been defined. A clustering procedure similar as for the zoning of the clearness index was used. The parameters used in the clustering procedure (Tmean, Tmax - Tmin,), global irradiation and precipitation are uncorrelated as far as possible. Biomass production in most cases is influenced in the same direction by high temperatures, high global irradiation and (sufficient) high precipitation. However there are crop-specific threshold values or nonlinearities for all three parameters. The same applies to many other problems, for which these daily data could be useful. The clustering procedure was run for the full year, for the growing season (April through September) and for the heating season (October through March). However, the length of the growing season depends on crop types. Furthermore both seasons are latitude dependent. However the clustering procedure was forced to use constant length for both seasons for all stations. The result is a map of zones of similar biomass parameters which can be displayed and scrutinised from the CD-ROM (the European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2). The limits should be considered with care. One or more measuring stations were selected as representative of each of these zones. For these stations, daily values for mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, daily sums of precipitation,

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atmospheric pressure, water vapour pressure and global irradiation are available from the database on CD-ROM.

5.9 Test, Design and Biomass Reference Years


Test reference years (TRY), design reference years (DRY) and biomass reference years (BRY) are special time-series of meteorological and radiation parameters, extracted from continuous observations spanning over ten or more years. TRYs and DRYs are made up of hourly values of several parameters using twelve months selected from different years. These reference years are "typical" years, which means that every month is selected, according to criteria based on the statistical distribution of the important parameters. For example, the Danish method used in some countries for the generation of the test reference years is based on minimal departures of monthly means and monthly standard deviations of daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature, and daily sums of global irradiation from the long term series values in each month, using at least 10 years data. This mathematical selection is combined with a more general climatological evaluation incorporating 10 - 20 parameters. The main reason for constructing a reference year for a particular site is to give industrial engineers, consultants, architects, and research institutions a standardised set of climate data to be used as input data for computer simulations of complicated systems needing more than one climate parameter, and normally also containing non-linearities. Reference years with hourly data are often used for calculations of indoor climate, building energy consumption or energy conservation measures; however many other uses have been observed. Such reference years describe a typical year. They are not suitable for tasks for which weather extremes occurring with frequencies less than once per year are required. BRYs are made up of time-series of daily values for a year assembled of twelve months out of ten or more years or for ten or more consecutive years. They can be used for computer simulations, where daily data are sufficient. BRYs have been developed for five stations only for this Atlas. For the multi-year BRYs each month has been ranked using four parameters: daily sum of global irradiation and of precipitation, daily mean temperature and relative humidity.

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6 The ESRA software package (The European Solar Radiation Atlas, vol. 2: database and exploitation software, CD-Rom and guidebook)

6.1 The CD-ROM: necessary requirements and content

6.1.1 Computational resource requirements The complete ESRA software package is available on CD-ROM. It works on personal computers under Windows 95. The following hardware is necessary: PC-compatible (at least 486-DX2-66, preferred Pentium 120) SVGA display (at least 800 x 600, 256 colours, preferred 1024 x 768 and 64 k colours), CD-ROM drive (at least speed = x 4, preferably x 8) Necessary software: Windows 95 (not installable on Windows 3.1x, nor Windows NT) The complete user instruction is integrated in Chapter 4 of the Users Guidebook.

6.1.2 Content of the CD-ROM The main contents of the CD-ROM are: The map data base, consisting of the geographical and solar irradiation mapping data, The solar and meteorological data from ground measuring stations, the algorithmic chains, the application models, the output programme which generates maps, charts and tables from the database and initiates calculations run with inputs from the data base. The computional chains are explained in the Chapter ESRA in a nutshell. These elements are accessible under the following operational modes using the relevant sub-menus: the map mode allows the user to visualise the maps from the data base, the station mode allows the user to consult data from measuring stations integrated in the data base,

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package

the sub-menu data base allows the user to visualise measured climatolotical data for any selected site with data, the sub-menu calculation produces derived data with the help of the integrated algorithmic chains, the sub-menu applications permits the calculation of the impacts of sun radiation on water heater, PV-system and passive solar building performance, the sub-menu draw allows the production of diagrams and spread-sheets with data from the database or calculated by the calculation sub-menu.

6.2 The map mode


The map mode is used to view maps from the data base on the computer screen. As an example, Fig. 6.2.1 shows the direct solar irradiation on horizontal plane over the mapped area. This map in reality , in computational terms, is composed of the solar direct irradiation map of June with an overlay, showing frontiers, oceans and other water bodies. The irradiation values are suppressed over the water bodies. However, the irradiation information over the water is available as is shown in Fig. 6.2.2. This presents the complete irradiation pattern, covering the whole geographical area. Nevertheless, it is difficult to work with such a map unless further information and orientation aids are integrated. It should be noted, that in Fig. 6.2.1 the computer screen does not show the entire geographical zone.

Fig. 6.2.1 Example of a map : average daily direct irradiation over Europe in June. Access to the whole mapped area is obtained by scrolling the map using the scroll bars.

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The integrated colour-bar with gradation indicates visually the intensity of irradiation. The mouse pointer can be used for precise information in our example, it is located at 53 0 N and 13 20 E where the June average for direct irradiation is 2,025 Wh m-2 . For a selected site at 43 40 N and 6 55 E the closest ground measuring station which is available from the database is Nice at 43 39 N and 7 12E. Similar maps can be produced for the following quantities: 10 year monthly daily means of global, diffuse and direct irradiation on horizontal plane and for the monthly mean clearness index KT, one map per month plus the yearly average, countries, relief, measuring stations, solar radiation zones, biomass zones and two maps of global irradiation from the Upper Rhine valley with high precision information. The daily irradiation information is given in steps of 50 Wh m-2 for global and direct irradiation and 25 Wh m-2 for diffuse irradiation.

Fig. 6.2.2 Average daily direct irradiation in June over the area covered by the Atlas

The following options exist within the map mode: Draw: this option allows the user to draw diagrams of available parameters over the day, the month and the whole year for a selected site. Figure 6.2.3 gives an example.

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Monthly Averages (1981-1990) Hourly and Daily Irradiations (Azim: 0/Tilt: 50) Global Irradiation

KWh/m 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 24 18 0 6 9 Months (5015' / 74' / from map) 3 12 6 12 0 Hours

Fig. 6.2.3 10 year mean hourly global irradiation on a South oriented plane with 50 tilt for a site at 50 15and 7 4 calculated with chain 3 from monthly averages

Calculation: Starting from the parameters displayed on the map for a selected site, derived values can be calculated. As the irradiation maps in the data base can provide only daily means of monthly averages as input parameters, only Chain 3 can be used. This generates monthly average daily mean profiles of hourly direct, sky diffuse, ground reflected diffuse and global irradiation as well as the respective daily sums (see Fig. 6.2.4). If the Linke turbidity factor is available for the site, monthly average daily mean profiles of hourly direct, sky diffuse and ground reflected diffuse and global irradiation under cloudless sky as well as the respective daily sums may be calculated using Chain 5. Fig. 6.2.5 shows an example, where the default values of the CD-ROM have been used where the Linke turbidity factor TLK has been set at a constant value of 3.0 for all months.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package


Monthly Averages (1981-1990) Hourly and Daily Irradiations (M=January) Global Direct Diffuse Reflected

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0.2 0.18 0.16 (Azim: 0 / Tilt: 50) kWh/m 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0

9 12 15 Hours (5015' / 74' / from map)

18

21

24

Fig. 6.2.4 10 year mean hourly irradiation in January on a south-oriented flat plate collector with a 50 tilt at a location of 50 15 N and 7 4 E. Ground albedo 0.2.

Monthly average Hourly and Daily clear sky Irradiation (M=January) 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 Hours (5015' / 74' / from map) 18 21 24 Global Direct Diffuse Reflected

kWh/m

(Azim: 0 / Tilt: 50)

Fig. 6.2.5 Mid month hourly clear sky irradiation on a south-facing, 50 tilted flat plate collector in January with TLK = 3.0. Ground albedo = 0.2

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Application: makes use of simple model calculation for solar hot water heaters, PV-generators and passive solar buildings. Animation: shows a movie of the twelve monthly maps in sequence Copy: allows the displayed maps, graphs and tables to be into the Windows-Clipboard. The graphs and maps these can be printed with the draw-option.

6.3 Station mode


In order to obtain data from a specific station, it is possible to start in the map mode and select as indicated in Fig. 6.2.1 the indicated nearest station. It should be noted that in all these cases this is the geographically nearest station. In contrast, when working with zones or biomass zone maps, the indicated station is not the geographically nearest site but the most representative site for that specific zone. Alternatively, a station can be selected from the station list of Annex 2 using the station name or the stations WMO number. The station mode supplies data as represented in Figure 6.3.1 The tabulated data of the station can be visualised on the screen in addition to the identification parameters of the station.

Fig. 6.3.1 Typical display for a ground measuring station when working under station mode, with sub-menu Database and option daily

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61

6.4 Sub-menus and examples


Certain of sub-menus allow the user to work with daily irradiation data for some 89 stations: Data base sub-menu is used to visualise the data available in the data base for the identified station on the screen. With help of the following options specific parts of the data set in the data base can be selected: climatological data set: 10 year monthly mean observed data (1981 1990) in all stations (see Fig. 6.4.1) monthly data set: monthly sums of sunshine duration in the period 1981 - 1990 (all stations) daily data set: long-term series of daily observed values of meteorological parameters in the period 1981 - 1990 (89 representative stations) hourly data set: long-term series of hourly observed values of meteorological values (only few stations) half-hourly data set: long-term chains of half-hourly averages of irradiation and sunshine duration (only one station: UCCLE).

Fig. 6.4.1 Climatological means of monthly means in the period 1981 - 90 in Uccle.

Calculation: This sub-menu is the interface to the ten algorithmic chains as described earlier and can be applied to map data as well as to station data, but is dependent on the availability of the necessary inputs for individual algorithmic chains. The following options are available under this submenu:

62

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package options: permits the choice of site input data defined by the user for blackbox calculations (tilt, azimuth, etc....) also allows for adjustment of Linke turbidity factor and ground albedo solar irradiation: calls in Chain 1 for generation of hourly and daily mean irradiation values or Chain 3 for monthly averaged daily mean profiles, clear sky irradiation: calls in Chain 5 for hourly and daily clear sky irradiation, illuminance: calls in Chain 4 for hourly values, sky downward longwave irradiation: calls in Chain 10 for monthly average, hourly and daily longwave irradiation from the sky alone, spectral irradiation: calls in Chain 6 for average spectral irradiance temperature: calls in Chain 7 for calculation of hourly mean temperature values, statistics: calls in Chain 8 and 9 for irradiance and illuminance probability and utilizability based calculations use your own data: permits the use of the blackbox chains with external input data supplied by the user radiation summary: permits the user to display the summary of horizontal surface irradiation parameters. Fig. 6.4.2 6.4.8 show some examples.
Hourly and Daily Irradiations (period 1/1990) (H=00-24 ) 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 Days 15 20 (5048' / 421' / Uccle) 25 30 Global Direct Diffuse Reflected

Fig. 6.4.2 Day by day irradiation in January 1990 on a south-oriented flat plate solar collector with 50 tilt at Uccle (calculated with chain 1). Note (H = 00 - 24) in the header indicates a daily sum has been extracted. Ground albedo 0.2

kWh/m

(Azim: 0 / Tilt: 50)

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package


Monthly Average (1981-1990) Hourly and Daily Illuminances (M=January) 18 16 14 (Azim: 45 / Tilt: 90) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 3 6 9 Hours 12 15 (5048' / 421' / Uccle) 18 21 24 Global Direct Diffuse Reflected

63

Fig. 6.4.3 Monthly average hourly illuminance on a South-West oriented vertical window at Uccle in January presented as an average daily profile (calculated with chain 6) . The ground reflected component was calculated from a ground albedo of 0.2

Klux
0.242 0.24 (Azim: 0 / Tilt: 50) kWh/m 0.238 0.236 0.234 0.232 0.23

Monthly Average (1981-1990) Hourly and Daily sky downward long wave irradiation (M=January) 0.244 Global

9 Hours

12 15 (5048' / 421' / Uccle)

18

21

24

Fig. 6.4.4 Monthly mean hourly long-wave irradiation from the sky alone in January on a 50 tilted collector at Uccle calculated with chain 10

64

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package


5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 Monthly Average (1981-1990) Hourly and Daily Ambient Temperatures (M=January) Temperature

9 Hours

12 15 (5048' / 421' / Uccle)

18

21

24

Fig. 6.4.5 10 year monthly mean hourly temperature in January at Uccle calculated with chain 7

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Monthly Average Global Spectral Irradiation on Horizontal plane (M=January) Global

Wh/m/nm

400

500 600 700 800 Nanometers (5048' / 421' / Uccle)

900

1000

Fig. 6.4.6 10 year monthly mean daily global spectral irradiation in January at Ucle calculated with chain 6.(Horizontal surface is the only option).

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package


12 Summary of solar data (From daily values) - Irradiation Gmean Gmax Gmin G0 Dmean

65

10

8 kWh/m

4 5 6 7 8 Months (5048' / 421' / Uccle)

10

11

12

Fig.6.4.7 Summary of monthly irradiation data on horizontal plane for Uccle obtained by using radiation summary for the period 1981 - 90. Gmax is the absolute maximum daily irradiation in any month. Gmin is the absolute minimum daily irradiation in any month.

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Summary of solar data (From daily values) on normalised values G/G0 Ktmax Ktmin D/Gmean S/S0

4 5 6 7 8 9 Months (5048' / 421' / Uccle)

10

11

12

Fig. 6.4.8 Summary of monthly solar data (normalised) from radiation summary in Uccle in the period 1981 - 90

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package

Reference Years: is a sub-menu which allows the user to examine data from Reference Years. While data from Design Reference Years and Biomass Reference Years only can be visualised on the screen and transferred to the text editor for further use, the Test Reference Year data for Dublin airport, Uccle, Budapest, Athenai Observatory and St. Petersburg Observatory can be processed by the algorithmic chains, the applications sub-menu and the draw sub-menu. Applications: is a sub-menu which allows the user to calculate the performance of some simple types of solar applications. There are five system options: 1 - yearly energy output from a solar water heater 2 - photovoltaic grid connected system 3 - photovoltaic stand-alone system with batteries 4 - daily energy output from a solar water heater 5 - passive solar heating (direct gain) in buildings

Figure 6.4.9 gives the example of a PV stand-alone system with batteries and Fig. 6.4.10 for solar gain in a passive solar house with one south-oriented window.

Fig. 6.4.9 Sizing of a stand-alone PV-system with battery. Design power output is 1 kWh per day with 24 volt and battery autonomy for 10 days without sunshine

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package

67

The first line on the screen display shows the site coordinates and the orientation of the collector. The programme selects the monthly averages of daily sums of global irradiation for the site from the database. The next block in the table shows the monthly averages of the electric load, the desired autonomy and the voltage of the system. These are user inputs. The blackbox module sizes the system, i.e. the normalised PV-peak power and the battery capacity needed. In addition, the critical months for the panel sizing and the battery sizing are identified.

Fig. 6.4.10 Calculation of gross solar gains, gross space heating and consequent net space heating load for a building with vertical South double glazied windows at Uccle, Belgium. Heating period October through May.

The passive solar heating direct gain module calls in the necessary climate data of the site and the window orientation selected. The monthly mean daily solar irradiation on the window, and the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are extracted on a month by month basis. These values appear at the top of Figure 6.4.10. The user then enters the building parameters, and the heating period. The heating base temperature also has to be defined. In the evaluation, the number of degree days are estimated and the gross heat load. The gross solar heat gain through the window is calculated using the window area and the transmission of the window type selected. The gross space heating load is calculated and the net space heating load is found from the difference.

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 6 The ESRA software package

Draw: This is a sub-menu which is used to plot data displayed as diagrams on the screen. Two options are available: draw 2D: under this option, two-dimensional diagrams are produced (Figures 6.4.2 6.4.8 are produced with this sub-menu). draw 3D: permits the production of three-dimensional graphs (see Fig. 6.2.3).

6.5 Further applications


The direct and well organised access to a large number of solar and meteorological data as well as to composed data sets (TRY, DRY, BRY) opens a wide potential of preparing input files for more complex applications. For instance, synthetic programmes as TRNSYS can be operated with site specific data sets which can be generated using the data files of the ESRA CD-ROM. Climatologists may profit from the systematically organised and quality controlled meteorological data sets as well as biologists, agronomists, town planners and landscape designers. Users of ESRA have at their disposal high quality long-term data sets as well as good coverage over large geographical areas from the solar maps. This information will improve the quality of the prediction of direct or indirect solar impact as well for individual solar application as for large scale planning.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 7 Maps

69

7 Maps

7.1 The geographical area of the Atlas


Map 1 shows the geographical area of the Atlas in Albers-projection, with relief overlay and country borders.

7.2 Ground based measuring stations


Map 2 shows the measuring stations used in preparing this Atlas. Annex 2 gives a list with all necessary information.

7.3 Global solar irradiation (Ten year average)


Maps 3 to 6 show the monthly means of daily sums of global solar irradiation on horizontal plane for March, June, September and December. Map 7 gives the annual mean. Maps 8 and 9 show an example of a high resolution digital map for monthly means of daily sums of global irradiation of the Upper Rhine Valley.

7.4 Diffuse solar irradiation (Ten year average)


Maps 10 13 show the monthly means of daily sums of diffuse irradiation on horizontal planes for March, June, September and December. Map 14 shows the ten annual means.

7.5 Direct (beam) solar irradiation (Ten year average)


Maps 15 18 show the monthly means of daily sums of direct solar irradiation on horizontal plane for March, June, September and December. Map 19 gives the annual mean.

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THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS 7 Maps

7.6 Clearness index (Ten year average)


Maps 20 23 show the monthly mean of daily sums of the clearness index for March, June, September and December. Map 24 gives the annual mean.

7.7 Zones of similar irradiation climates


Map 25 shows 20 zones with similar irradiation climates defined by cluster analysis.

7.8 Zones of similar biomass productivity parameters


Map 26 shows 19 zones of similar biomass productivity parameters.

THE SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS References

71

References

Anonymous (1994). SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) dataset document. NASA Langley Research Center, Maryland, USA. R. Aguiar et al. (to be published), Book of Algorithms N. Asimakopoulos et al. (1996), European Daylighting Atlas. Published for the Commission of the European Communities by National Observatory of Athens, Greece Atlas of hydrometeorological data (1991). Europe vol. 1. In Russian. Published by Army Publishing House, Moscow. 371p. Bayerisches Staatsministerium fr Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie (Pub.), Bayerischer Solar- und Windatlas (1995), Bayerisches Staatsministerium fr Wirtscahft, Verkehr und Technologie, Pringenregentenstrae 28, 80538 Mnchen Beyer H. G., Czeplak G., Terzenbach U. and Wald L. (1997). Assessment of the method used to construct clearness index maps for the new European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA). Solar Energy, 61, 6, 389-397. B. Bourges (Ed.) (1992), Climatic Data Handbook for Europe. Climatic Data for the Design of Solar Energy Systems. Published for the Commission of the European Communities. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht/Boston/London Commission of the European Communities, European Solar Radiation Atlas (1984), Volume I, (2nd edition) F. Kasten, H.J. Golchert, R. Dogniaux, M. Lemoine, Ed., W. Palz, Verlag TV Rheinland, Cologne Commission of the European Communities, European Solar Radiation Atlas (1997). W. Palz, J. Greif (Ed.), Springer Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York ISBN 3-540-61179-7 Commission of the European Communities, Solar Radiation Atlas of Africa. E. Raschke, R. Stuhlmann, W. Palz and T.C. Steemers (Ed.) (1991), A.A. Balkema/Rotterdam/Brookfield Diekmann, F.J. et al.: An operational estimate of global solar irradiance at ground level from METEOSAT data: results from 1985 to 1987, Meteorol. Rundschau 41, 65-79 (1988). ESRA - European Solar Radiation Atlas (1994), JOULE II project no. JOU2-CT-94-00305 Grter W., Guillard H., Mser W., Monget J.-M., Palz W., Raschke E., Reinhardt R. E., Schwarzmann P. and Wald L. (1986). Determination of solar radiation at ground level from images of the earth transmitted by meteorological satellites, Solar Energy R&D in the European Community, Series F, vol. 4: Solar radiation data from satellite images, D. Reidel Publishing Co. for the Commission of the European Communities, 100 p. ISO, Solar Energy - Specification and classification of instruments for measuring hemispherical solar and direct solar radiation. Instrumental Standard ISO 9060. International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland (1990). F. Kasten,and A.T.Young (1989), Revised optical air masstables and approximation formula. Appl. Optics 28, 4735-4738 9). Mser, W. and E.Raschke: Incident solar radiation over Europeestimated from METEOSAT data. (1984) Jour. of Climate and Appl. Meteorology 23, 166-170. K. Scharmer et al. (1989), Solar European Microclimates. Final Report. EC-Contract no. EN3S-00490-D(B) Terzenbach, U.: Quality control algorithms on solar radiation data. Internal paper of ESRA Project No. JOU2-CT94-0305, Task II Algorithms (1995). Treuberth, K.E., J.T.Houghton, L.G.Meira-Filho: The Climate System: an overwiew. Climate Change 1995: Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assesment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 58 (1996) WMO: Meteorological aspects of the utilization of solar radiation as an energy source. (1981) Geneva: Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Techn. Note No. 172; WMO-No. 557, 122

Annex 1 Symbols and Definitions

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Annex 1

Symbols and Definitions

A1.1 Introduction
During the second meeting of Task II Group (Lyon, 30th November) it was decided to elaborate a document containing the symbols and definitions necessary to the European Solar Radiation Atlas project. This proposal is based on previous work of European Community Experts, namely the work of Dogniaux et al. (1984). The structure of this reference is used here as the basis for the introduction of new proposals of symbols. The elaboration of this document is also based on proposals contained in other references, namely the previous version of the Solar Radiation Atlas, (1984), the list of symbols used within Eufrat Project (B.Bourges, 1992). Other sources are those from the list of symbols of the CIE, TC-4.2.Daylighting (Draft for discussion, Nov., 1986) and Daylighting in architecture. A European Reference Book (1993).

A1.2 Basic concepts and General Rules


Based on R.Dogniaux et al. (1984), some basic concepts and general rules are first established. Basic concepts: Solar radiation at the earth surface - radiation between 0.29m and 4m (corresponding to 99% of the sun's radiation reaching the earth) Terrestrial radiation - radiation above 4m. Radiance - radiant power per unit area per unit solid angle (steroradian) (Wsr-1m-2) Irradiance - radiant power per unit area (Wm-2) Irradiation - radiant energy per unit area (Wh m-2 or Jm-2) For the terms Luminance and Illuminance see the definitions given in Daylighting in architecture. An European Reference Book (1993) General rules: For radiance and luminance the symbol used is L with subscripts e and v, respectively. For irradiance and illuminance the proposed symbols are listed below. Luminance values will always have the subscript v. G - global irradiance or illuminance values D - diffuse irradiance or illuminance values (diffuse component of solar radiation) I - normal direct irradiance or illuminance values (normal beam component of solar radiation)

74

Annex 1 Symbols and Definitions

B - direct irradiance or illuminance values (beam component of solar radiation) R - reflected irradiance or illuminance values Symbols used for irradiance, irradiation and illuminance are all referred to horizontal planes except in the case of symbol I for normal direct irradiance. For tilted planes azimuth and slope are indicated in brackets, e.g. G - Global irradiance on the horizontal plane G(,) - Global irradiance on a plane of azimuth and slope Letter I is also used for irradiance on a solar collector, which is calculated based on the beam, diffuse and reflected components of solar radiation, with expressions depending on collector type (see e.g. Rabl (1985)). Symbols specifically referred to collector performance are listed in a separate table (see Table A1.3.4). The basic time intervals to which the irradiation values refer are identified by the following subscripts: h d m hourly values daily values mean monthly values

When these subscripts are used in combination, a bracket is used, e.g. (Gd)m will stand for monthly mean daily horizontal global irradiation. Other subscripts used are: 0 g c b max min extraterrestrial or astronomical values ground related values clear sky (i.e. cloudless sky) values overcast sky values maximum value of some quantity minimum value of some quantity

This way of indicating time scales and averages was adopted also in view of the ability to provide a clear translation to constant, parameter and variable names used in computer programming. Superscript * is used to indicate radiation threshold levels and angles related to points on the the sky dome. This description of the system used for symbols and nomenclature, as well as the listing provided in the following tables, are however not exhaustive. In particular contexts other symbols have been formed which are defined locally in the texts produced.

Annex 1 Symbols and Definitions

75

A1.3 Definitions
Table A1.3.1. Angles (rad.) Symbol j'

Definition
Day angle, i.e. day in the year expressed as an angle from the start of the year Azimuth angle of a plane, i.e. the angle between the projection of the normal on the horizontal and true south (in northern hemisphere) or true north (in southern hemisphere). East negative. West positive Sky point azimuth. Measured from due south in northern hemisphere north (in southern hemisphere. East negative. West positive) Solar azimuth. Measured from due south in northern hemisphere: west from south positive, east from south negative Wall solar azimuth angle, i.e. the angle between the vertical plane containing the normal to the surface and the vertical plane passing through the centre of the solar disk Inclination angle of a plane with respect to the horizontal plane Sky point elevation i.e. altitude angle above horizon of a point in the hemisphere Vertical shadow angle, also called vertical profile angle Solar elevation i.e. altitude angle above horizon Solar declination i.e. the angle between the sun's rays and the equatorial plane. Positive in northen hemisphere summer Solar zenith angle i.e. angle between the vertical and the centre of the sun's disc: /2 s Sky point zenith angle i.e. angle between vertical and the point in the hemisphere: /2 Angle of incidence between the sun's rays and an inclined plane with azimuth and inclination Longitude (sign convention East of Greenwich positive) Latitude (sign convention North of Equator positive) Solar hour angle. Measured from solar noon: p.m. is positive Sunset hour angle (-s: sunrise hour angle)

* s F * *vert s s * (,) s

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Annex 1 Symbols and Definitions

Table A1.3.2. Radiation related quantities with dimensions Symbol AT (AT)m B Bc Bch Bcd Bd (Bd)m Bh (Bh)m (B(t))m Bv D Db Dbh Dbd Dc Dch Dcd Dd (Dd)m Dh (Dh)m (D(t))m Dv E() G Gb Gc Gch Gcd Gd (Gd)m Gh (Gh)m (G(t))m Gv Gvb Gvc G0 G0d (G0d)m I Ic Ich Icd Definition Thermal amplitude of ambient temperature for a certain day Monthly average thermal amplitude Direct irradiance, i.e. direct solar irradiance on the horizontal B = I cos s Clear sky direct irradiance Hourly clear sky direct irradiation Daily clear sky direct irradiation Daily direct irradiation, i.e. daily integral of direct irradiance Monthly mean daily direct irradiation Hourly direct irradiation, i.e. hourly integral of direct irradiance Monthly mean hourly beam irradiation Monthly mean beam irradiance at time t Illuminance from direct sunlight on a given surface Diffuse irradiance, i.e. irradiance from the sky on the horizontal Overcast sky diffuse irradiance Hourly overcast sky diffuse irradiation Daily overcast sky diffuse irradiation Clear sky diffuse irradiance Hourly clear sky diffuse irradiation Daily clear sky diffuse irradiation Daily sky diffuse irradiation, i.e. daily integral of irradiance from the sky Monthly mean daily sky diffuse irradiation Hourly diffuse irradiation, i.e. hourly integral of irradiance from the sky Monthly mean hourly diffuse irradiation from the sky Monthly mean diffuse irradiance received from sky at time t Diffuse illuminance on a given surface Spectral irradiance, i.e. irradiance (direct, diffuse or global) per unit band width centered at a wavelength Global irradiance: sum of diffuse and direct irradiance Overcast sky global (=diffuse) irradiance Clear sky global irradiance Hourly clear sky global irradiation Daily clear sky global irradiation Daily global irradiation, i.e. daily integral of global irradiance Mean monthly daily global irradiation Hourly global irradiation, i.e. hourly integral of global irradiance Monthly mean hourly global irradiation from the sky Monthly mean global irradiance received from sky at time t Global illuminance on a given surface Illuminance from an unobstructed overcast sky on a given surface Illuminance from an unobstructed cloudless sky on a given surface Solar constant, i.e. annual mean value of the extraterrestrial irradiance normal to beam (1367 W.m-2) Daily extraterrestrial global irradiation on a horizontal plane Monthly mean daily extraterrestrial global irradiation on a horizontal plane Normal direct irradiance, i.e. direct solar irradiance normal to beam Clear sky direct irradiance normal to beam Clear sky hourly direct irradiation normal to beam Clear sky daily irradiance normal to beam Unit C C Wm-2 Wm-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wm-2 lux Wm-2 Wm-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wm-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wm-2 lux Wm-2nm-1 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wm-2 lux lux lux Wm-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wm-2

Annex 1 Symbols and Definitions

77

Table A1.3.2 Contd Radiation related quantities with dimensions Symbol Id (Id)m Ih (Ih)m (I(t))m K0 K Kb Kg Ksky L L L Lsky (,) Lg(,) L* Le Le(*,*) Lv Lv(*,*) N Rg(,) Rgd(,) Rgh(,) (Rg(,,t))m (Rgh(,))m Rv SB Definition Daily normal direct irradiation Monthly mean daily normal direct irradiation Hourly normal direct irradiation Monthly mean daily extraterrestrial global irradiation on a horizontal plane Monthly mean direct irradiance normal to the beam at time t Luminous efficacy of extraterrestrial radiation Luminous efficacy of global radiation Luminous efficacy of beam radiation Luminous efficacy of ground reflected diffuse radiation Luminous efficacy of sky diffuse radiation Terrestrial irradiance, i.e. long-wave radiation of terrestrial origin Incoming terrestrial irradiance from the sky, i.e. long wave radiation from the atmosphere falling on a horizontal surface Outgoing terrestrial irradiance, from the ground towards the sky, i.e. long wave radiation from a horizontal surface emitted upwards towards the atmosphere Incoming terrestrial irradiance emitted from the sky falling on an inclined surface of tilt and azimuth Terrestrial irradiance emitted from the ground and sky obstructing surfaces falling on an inclined surface of tilt and azimuth Net longwave balance on horizontal surfaces (L - L) Radiance Radiance of a sky element at zenith angle * and azimuth * Luminance Luminance of a sky element at zenith angle * and azimuth * Cloud amount Reflected diffuse irradiance from the ground (reaching an inclined surface) Daily ground reflected diffuse irradiation Hourly ground reflected diffuse irradiation Monthly mean irradiance on a surface of tilt and azimuth at time t due to ground reflected radiation Monthly mean hourly irradiation on a surface tilt and azimuth due to ground reflected radiation Reflected illuminance Radiation wavelength Stephan-Boltzmann constant (5.67x 10-8 Wm-2 K-4) Unit Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wm-2 lm W-1 lm W-1 lm W-1 lm W-1 lm W-1 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wm-2 Wsr-1m-2 Wsr-1m-2 cd m-2 cd m-2 okta Wm-2 Wh m-2 Wh m-2 Wm-2 Wh m-2 lux nm Wm-2 K-4

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Annex 1 Symbols and Definitions

Table A1.3.3. Other quantities and functions with dimensions Symbol E ET j LAT LMT M (no suffix) M (w/suffix) p p0 pw Sh Sd S0h S0d S(0d)m t tmax tmin T Td Th Thm(t) Tm Tmax (Tmax)m Tmin (Tmin)m v w W(x*) z Definition Energy transfer over defined period Equation of time used in conversion from LAT to LMT day number in year, i.e. Jan. 1st = 1, , Feb. 1st =32, Mar. 1st = 60 in non leap year, or 61 in leap year Local apparent (solar) time Local mean (clock) time Mass Mass flow rate Atmospheric pressure Mean atmospheric pressure at sea level Partial vapour pressure Hourly sunshine duration, i.e. for a certain hour of the day, measured sunshine duration for which direct irradiance exceeds a certain threshold Daily sunshine duration, i.e. measured sunshine duration for which direct irradiance exceeds a certain threshold (this occurs in DRYs and TRYs) Astronomical hourly sunshine duration, i.e. normally 1 hour, except in the sunrise and sunset hour Astronomical daily sunshine duration or daylength, i.e. the time during which the solar elevation is positive (no correction for refraction is made) Monthly mean astronomical daily sunshine duration, i.e. the monthly mean time between sunrise and sunset (no correction for refraction is made) Time in decimal hours, usually in LAT, except in some TRYs and DRYs Time of a maximum event in the day Time of a minimum event in the day Temperature (also referred as ambient or dry bulb temperature) Daily mean temperature Hourly mean temperature Monthly mean daily profile of temperature, i.e. value of the hourly mean monthly temperature for time t. Monthly mean temperature Maximum temperature for a certain day Monthly average of maximum daily temperatures Minimum temperature for a certain day Monthly average of minimum daily temperatures wind speed at measurement height (usually 10 m) Precipitable water content of the atmosphere Available energy for threshold x* of parameter x Station height above sea level Unit Wh or J h day h h kg kg s-1 Pa Pa Pa Decimal h h h h h h h h C C C C C C C C C ms-1 kg m-2 Wh m-2 m

Annex 1 Symbols and Definitions


Table A1.3.4 Dimensionless quantities and functions Symbol am, bm F(x < y) KTd (KTd)m KTh m or AM Definition Angstrom regression coefficients (monthly basis) in Gd/G0d = am + bm (Sd/S0d) Distribution function for value y of parameter x (also referred as cumulative frequency curve) Daily clearness index for global irradiation on a horizontal plane, i.e. Gd/G0d Monthly average daily clearness index for global irradiation on a horizontal plane, i.e. Gh/G0h Hourly clearness index for global irradiation on a horizontal plane

79

Relative optical air mass, i.e. the length of path through the atmosphere traversed by the direct solar beam, expressed as a multiple of the path to a point at sea level with the sun at zenith (the latter is called AM 1, extraterrestrial is called AM 0). Fractional cloud amount View fraction of the sky dome, i.e. the fraction of the sky dome that is viewed by an inclined plane with tilt angle View fraction of the ground, i.e. the fraction of the ground that is viewed by an inclined plane with tilt angle Linke turbidity factor. Ratio of the observed optical thickness of the atmosphere (due to scattering and absorption) to the theoretical optical thickness of a dry and dust free Rayleigh clear sky at air mass m. Its value is dependent on the formula used to calculate the Rayleigh optical thickness. Linke turbidity factor for AM 2 Linke turbidity factor for AM 2, calculated using the Kasten formulation for the Rayleigh optical thickness Monthly mean Linke turbidity factor for AM 2, calculated using the Kasten formulation for the Rayleigh optical thickness Angstrom turbidity coefficient i.e. the spectral extinction coefficient of the atmosphere due to gases and aerosol particles Rayleigh optical thickness (of a dry and clean atmosphere when only Rayleigh scattering occurs) Sun-Earth distance correction factor Long wave emittance of a surface involved in long wave heat exchanges Efficiency of a step or an overallprocess, used in conjunction with suffixes Utilizability function for threshold x* of parameter x Ground albedo, i.e. reflectivity of the ground for solar radiation Daily fraction of bright sunshine, Sd/S0d, also referred to as the sunshine fraction or the relative duration of bright sunshine Monthly mean percentage of daily possible sunshine, often called monthly relative sunshine duration, i.e. (Sm/(S0m) Utilizability function, i.e. fraction of the total energy available above a defined reference threshold radiation x*

n ri() rg() TL(m) TL TLK (TLK)m A R l (x*) g m (x*)

Acknowledgements
In the 2nd draft important suggestions made by R. Dogniaux, B. Bourges and P. Littlefair were included. The 3rd, 4th and 5th drafts also included suggestions from J. Page and R. Aguiar.

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References

C.E.C. European Solar Radiation Atlas (1984): Vols. I and II. EUR 9344 and 9345; Publisher: Verlag TUV Rheinland C.E.C. Climatic Data Handbook for Europe (1992): Climatic data for the design of solar energy systems. Edited by Bernard Bourges, Kluwer Academic Publishers C.E.C. Daylighting in architecture (1993): A European reference book. Edited by N.Baker, A.Fanchiotti, K.Steemers, James &James (Science Publishers) Ltd Guide on daylighting of building interiors, Part I. CIE, Technical Committee TC-4.2. Daylighting (1986): Draft for discussion at the Second International Daylighting Conference, Long Beach, California, USA, November Dogniaux, R. et al. (1984): Solar Meteorology (Units and Symbols), recommendations by the solar energy R&D programme of the European community. Int.Journal of Solar Energy, vol.2, page 249-255, 1984. Rabl, A. (1985): Active solar collectors and their applications. A. Rabl, Oxford University Press

Annex 2 List of Stations

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Annex 2

List of stations

This annex provides the list of ground-measuring stations whose data are published in the CD-ROM. The countries are ranking by alphabetic order, according to their names in English. Within a country, stations are ordered by their number in the list of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). The spelling of the names is similar to what appears onto the screen using the companion software. The selected font in this software is Arial, which is available in each PC. Accordingly, a limited number of characters are available, i.e. the English characters only. For each station are given its WMO number, its name, its geographical co-ordinates (in hundredths of degrees) and elevation above mean sea level (in meters). Some indicators provide information on the availability of data for each station. Under the heading Daily values: Gd stands for daily sums of global horizontal irradiation (units are Whm-2) S stands for daily values of sunshine duration (unit is 0.1 h) T stands for daily temperature and precipitation values Under the heading Month: Sm stands for monthly means of sunshine duration (unit is 0.1 h) Under the heading Ten-year average: Gdm stands for ten-year averages of monthly means of daily sums of global irradiation (units are Whm-2) Sm stands for ten-year averages of monthly means of daily values of sunshine duration (unit is 0.1 h) Tm stands for ten-year averages of monthly means of daily values of minimum and maximum temperatures rrm stands for ten-year averages of monthly sum of precipitation pm stands for ten-year averages of monthly means of daily values of air pressure pwm stands for ten-year averages of monthly means of daily values of water vapour pressure

Table A2.1. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO number 11013 11028 11035 11036 11037 Name of the station Austria Steyr St. Poelten Wien / Hohe Warte Wien Schwechat Airport Gross Enzersdorf lat. lon. elev. Daily values Gd S T Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm pwm

4807 4820 4825 4812 4820

1460 1562 1637 1657 1657

309 272 203 183 153

x -

x -

x -

x x x x x

x x -

x x -

x x x -

x x x -

x x -

x x -

82

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 11150 Salzburg Airport 11155 Feuerkogel 11212 Villacheralpe 11231 Klagenfurt 11240 Graz-Thalerhof Airport 11290 Graz Universitaet 11320 Innsbruck Universitaet Belarus Minsk Brest Belgium Oostende / Middelkerke Munte Melle Chievres Uccle Stabroek Gosselies Dourbes Gembloux Gorsem St. Hubert Bierset Kleine Brogel Nadrin Bosnia-Herzegovina Banja Luka Sarajevo Bulgaria Lom Pleven Varna Cherni Vrah Sofia Observatory Chirpan Burgas Sandanski Croatia Rijeka / Kozala Parg Puntijarka Zagreb / Gric Zagreb / Maksimir Varazdin lat. 4780 4782 4660 4665 4698 4708 4727 lon. 1300 1373 1367 1433 1545 1545 1138 elev. 434 1618 2140 448 342 366 577 Daily values Gd S T x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x -

26850 33008

5387 5212

2753 2368

234 144

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x -

x -

06407 06428 06430 06432 06447 06448 06449 06454 06457 06468 06476 06478 06479 06485

5120 5093 5098 5057 5080 5133 5047 10 5058 5083 5003 5063 5117 5015

287 373 383 383 435 437 445 436 469 518 540 545 547 568

5 55 17 63 100 5 187 240 159 39 556 191 65 405

x -

x -

x -

x x x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x -

x -

x -

13242 13354

4478 4382

1722 1833

153 510

x x

x -

x -

x -

x -

15511 15526 15552 15613 15614 15635 15655 15712

4382 4342 4320 4258 4282 4220 4248 4152

2325 2457 2792 2327 2338 2533 2748 2327

32 64 41 2286 586 173 16 206

x -

x -

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x -

x x x x -

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x -

x x x x -

14216 14219 14235 14236 14240 14246

4533 4560 4592 4582 4582 4630

1445 1463 1597 1598 1603 1638

120 863 988 157 123 167

x -

x -

x -

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

Annex 2 List of Stations

83

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 14258 Daruvar 14283 Osijek / Zeleno Polje 14284 Pula 14314 Mali Losinj 14321 Rab 14323 Senj 14324 Zavizan 14328 Ogulin 14330 Gospic 14370 Slavonski Brod 14428 Zadar / Puntamika 14438 Sibenik 14442 Knin 14445 Split / Marjan 14447 Hvar 14452 Lastovo 14472 Dubrovnik / Gorica 14480 Sinj 14481 Krizevci Cyprus Acheila / Paphos Akrotiri Athalassa Larnaca Czech Republic Cheb Tusimice Plzen Churanov Kocelovice Usti n. Labem Praha / Ruzyn Praha / Karlov Praha / Libus Liberec Kosetice Hradec Kralove Svratouch Kucharovice Luka Brno / Turany Straznice Ostrava / Mosnov Ostrava / Poruba Denmark Toldboden / Kobenhavn Risoe / Roskilde lat. 4560 4553 4487 4453 4475 4498 4482 4527 4455 4517 4413 4373 4403 4352 4317 4277 4265 4372 4603 lon. 1723 1873 1385 1447 1477 1490 1498 1523 1537 1800 1522 1592 1620 1643 1645 1690 1808 1667 1655 elev. 161 89 30 53 24 26 1594 328 564 88 5 77 255 122 20 186 52 308 155 Daily values Gd S T Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm -

17600 17601 17607 17609

3473 3458 3515 3488

3248 3298 3340 3363

45 23 162 2

x x x x

x x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

11406 11438 11448 11457 11487 11502 11518 11519 11520 11603 11628 11649 11683 11698 11710 11723 11755 11782 11790

5008 5038 4967 4907 4947 5068 5010 5007 5000 5077 4953 5018 4973 4888 4965 4915 4888 4968 4980

1240 1333 1328 1362 1383 1403 1428 1442 1445 1502 1508 1583 1603 1608 1695 1670 1732 1812 1825

471 321 364 1122 522 376 380 262 303 400 470 285 737 339 518 238 187 256 242

x x x

x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x -

x x x x x -

06101 06163

5568 5570

1260 1208

20 2

x -

x x

x -

84

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 06182 Taastrup / Kobenhavn Eire Roches Point Valentia Observatory Cork Airfield Rosslare Kilkenny Shannon Airfield Galway Birr Cascement Aerodrome Dublin Airport Claremorris Mullingar Clones Belmullet Malin Head Estonia Tallin Finland Utsjoki Kevo Ivalo Sodankylae Kemi Oulu Kajaani Kruunupyy Valassaaret Vaasa Kuopio Ylistaro Joensuu Jyvaeskylae Tampere-Pirkkala Pori Lappeenranta Jokioinen Utti Lentokenttae Maarianhamina Turku / Abo Helsinki / Vantaan Kotka Rankki Korppoo Utue France Cherbourg Caen lat. 5567 lon. 1230 elev. 28 Daily values Gd S T x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x pwm -

03952 03953 03955 03957 03960 03962 03964 03965 03967 03969 03970 03971 03974 03976 03980

5180 5193 5185 5225 5267 5270 5328 5308 5330 5343 5372 5353 5418 5423 5537

-825 -1025 -848 -633 -727 -892 -902 -788 -643 -625 -898 -737 -723 -1000 -733

40 9 153 23 63 14 18 70 97 68 69 101 87 9 20

x x -

x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

26038

5942

2480

44

02805 02807 02836 02864 02875 02897 02903 02910 02911 02917 02920 02929 02935 02944 02952 02958 02963 02966 02970 02972 02974 02976 02981

6975 6862 6737 6578 6493 6428 6372 6343 6305 6302 6293 6267 6240 6142 6147 6108 6082 6090 6012 6052 6032 6037 5978

2703 2742 2665 2458 2537 2768 2315 2107 2177 2780 2250 2963 2568 2358 2180 2815 2350 2693 1990 2227 2497 2697 2138

107 143 179 10 12 132 24 4 4 94 26 116 141 112 13 105 104 99 4 49 51 11 9

x x x -

x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x -

07024 07027

4965 4918

-147 -45

139 78

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x -

x -

Annex 2 List of Stations

85

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 07061 St. Quentin 07070 Reims 07110 Brest 07130 Rennes 07145 Trappes 07150 Paris le Bourget 07156 Paris Montsouris 07180 Nancy / Essy 07186 Phalsbourg 07190 Strasbourg 07197 Colmar 07221 Ile de Noirmoutier 07222 Nantes 07240 Tours 07255 Bourges 07265 Auxerre 07280 Dijon 07300 Saint Sauveur 07306 La Roche sur Yon 07315 La Rochelle 07385 Macon 07434 Limoges 07460 Clermont Ferrand 07480 Lyon 07503 Biscarosse 07510 Bordeaux / Merignac 07517 Captieux 07524 Agen 07558 Millau 07586 Carpentras 07591 Embrun 07610 Pau 07630 Toulouse 07635 07643 07645 07650 07678 07690 07739 07747 07761 Carcassonne Montpellier Nimes Marignane Toulon / Ile du Levant Nice Odeillo Perpignan Ajaccio Georgia Tbilisi Germany Helgoland List / Sylt lat. 4982 4930 4845 4807 4877 4897 4882 4868 4877 4855 4792 4700 4717 4745 4707 4780 4727 4670 4670 4615 4630 4587 4578 4572 4443 4483 4418 4418 4412 4408 4457 4338 4363 4322 4358 4387 4345 4303 4365 4248 4273 4192 lon. 320 403 -442 -173 202 245 233 622 730 763 740 -233 -160 72 237 355 508 -233 -138 -115 480 118 317 495 -125 -70 -28 60 302 505 650 -42 137 232 397 440 523 647 720 212 287 880 elev. 98 95 99 37 168 66 75 225 377 153 211 2 27 108 161 207 222 32 90 4 221 396 332 200 33 49 132 61 715 99 871 188 152 130 5 60 6 110 4 1580 43 6 Daily values Gd S T x x x x x x x x x x x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

37549

4168

4495

490

10015 10020

5418 5502

790 842

4 33

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

86

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 10033 Flensburg 10035 Schleswig 10040 Ploen 10091 Arkona 10113 Norderney 10141 Hamburg Sasel 10147 Hamburg Airport 10161 Boltenhagen 10162 Schwerin 10166 Heiligendamm 10170 Rostock Warnemuende 10177 Teterow 10184 Greifswald 10203 Emden Hafen 10224 Bremen 10261 Seehausen 10270 Neuruppin 10280 Neubrandenburg 10289 Gruenow 10291 Angermuende 10313 Muenster 10317 Osnabrueck 10338 Hannover 10348 Braunschweig 10361 Magdeburg 10378 Potsdam 10381 BerlinDahlem 10384 BerlinTempelhof Airport 10393 Lindenberg 10406 Bocholt 10410 Essen 10411 Gelsenkirchen 10419 Luedenscheid 10430 Bad Lippspringe 10438 Kassel 10444 Goettingen 10449 Leinefelde 10452 Braunlage 10453 Brocken / Harz 10458 Harzgerode 10460 Artern 10466 Halle / Saale 10469 Leipzig Airport 10474 Wittenberg 10480 Oschatz 10486 Dresden Wahnsdorf 10488 Dresden Airport 10496 Cottbus 10499 Goerlitz 10501 Aachen lat. 5478 5453 5417 5468 5372 5365 5363 5400 5365 5415 5418 5377 5410 5335 5305 5290 5290 5355 5332 5303 5195 5225 5247 5230 5212 5237 5247 5247 5222 5183 5140 5150 5122 5178 5130 5155 5140 5173 5180 5165 5138 5152 5142 5188 5130 5112 5113 5178 5117 5078 lon. 945 955 1040 1343 715 1012 1000 1120 1138 1185 1208 1262 1340 720 880 1173 1282 1320 1393 1400 758 805 970 1045 1158 1308 1330 1340 1412 653 697 708 763 883 945 995 1032 1060 1062 1113 1130 1195 1223 1265 1310 1368 1378 1432 1495 607 elev. 58 59 26 42 29 49 14 15 59 21 4 46 2 5 24 21 38 73 55 56 60 104 56 83 79 107 51 50 98 24 152 63 465 162 237 175 356 615 1142 404 164 96 131 105 150 246 222 69 237 213 Daily values Gd S T x x x x x x x x x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x -

Annex 2 List of Stations

87

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 10517 Bonn Friesdorf 10519 Bonn Roleber 10532 Giessen 10548 Meiningen 10552 Schmuecke 10554 Erfurt Airport 10555 Weimar 10567 Gera / Leumnitz 10577 Chemnitz 10578 Fichtelberg 10582 Zinnwald 10609 Trier 10628 Geisenheim 10637 Frankfurt am Main Airport 10655 Wuerzburg 10671 Coburg 10708 Saarbruecken 10729 Mannheim 10739 Stuttgart 10761 Weissenburg 10763 Nuernberg 10803 Freiburg 10863 Weihenstephan 10866 Muenchen Riem 10893 Passau 10929 Konstanz 10961 Zugspitze 10962 Hohenpeissenberg Greece Trikkala Thessaloniki Alexandroupolis Kerkyra Larissa Arta Aliartos Andravidha Korinthos Athinai / Filadelfia Athinai / Observatory Athinai / Helliniki Zakynthos Samos Airport Argos / Pyrgela Kalamata Naxos Santorini Souda lat. 5070 5073 5058 5057 5065 5098 5098 5088 5080 5043 5073 4975 4998 5005 4977 5028 4922 4952 4883 4902 4950 4800 4840 4813 4858 4768 4742 4780 lon. 715 720 870 1038 1077 1097 1132 1213 1287 1295 1375 667 795 860 997 1098 712 855 920 1097 1108 785 1170 1170 1347 918 1098 1102 elev. 65 160 201 450 937 312 275 311 418 1219 877 278 111 111 275 331 325 106 318 428 312 308 472 530 412 450 2960 990 Daily values Gd S T x x x x x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x x x x x x x x x -

16619 16622 16627 16641 16648 16654 16674 16682 16690 16701 16714 16716 16719 16723 16724 16726 16732 16744 16746

3955 4052 4085 3962 3963 3917 3838 3792 3798 3805 3797 3790 3762 3770 3760 3707 3710 3642 3548

2177 2297 2592 1992 2242 2100 2310 2128 2273 2307 2372 2373 2090 2692 2278 2202 2538 2543 2412

112 8 7 2 73 10 110 17 12 136 107 28 8 2 100 6 9 40 146

x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

88

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 16749 Rodos 16754 Heraklion 16759 Timbakion Hungary Miskolc Sopron Szombathly Budapest Budapest / Lorinc Debrecen Nyiregyhaza Pecs Szarvas Szeged Iceland Reykjavik Hveravellir Akureyri Haganes Israel Bet Dagan Tel Aviv Airport Jerusalem Eilat Italy Bolzano Dobbiaco Udine / Rivolto Monte Pian Rosa Torino / Caselle Torino / Bric della Croce Novara / Cameri Ispra Mt. Bisbino Milano / Linate Verona / Villafranca Treviso / San Angelo Venezia / Tessera Trieste Genova / Sestri Monte Cimone Bologna / Borgopanigale Cervia Rimini Capo Mele Pisa / Santo Giusto lat. 3640 3533 3500 lon. 2808 2518 2475 elev. 4 37 7 Daily values Gd S T x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x -

12772 12805 12812 12840 12843 12882 12892 12942 12975 12982

4810 4768 4727 4752 4743 4748 4802 4600 4687 4625

2078 1660 1663 1903 1918 2163 2173 1823 2053 2010

233 233 220 118 138 110 105 202 85 82

x -

x -

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

04030 04056 04063 04099

6413 6487 6568 6558

-2190 -1957 -1808 -1707

52 641 23 280

x -

x -

x -

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x -

x x -

x x -

x x -

40179 40180 40184 40199

3200 3200 3178 2955

3482 3490 3522 3495

30 40 809 12

x -

x -

x -

x x x x

x x x -

x x x x

x x x

x x x

x -

x x -

16020 16033 16045 16052 16059 16061 16064 16067 16072 16080 16090 16099 16105 16110 16120 16134 16140 16148 16149 16153 16158

4647 4673 4598 4593 4522 4503 4552 4582 4587 4543 4538 4565 4550 4565 4442 4420 4453 4422 4403 4395 4368

1133 1222 1303 770 765 773 867 860 907 928 1087 1218 1233 1375 885 1070 1130 1230 1262 817 1038

241 1222 51 3480 301 709 178 200 1319 107 67 18 2 20 2 2173 36 6 12 221 6

x x -

x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

Annex 2 List of Stations

89

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 16181 Perugia 16191 Falconara Marittima 16197 Elba / Monte Calamita 16219 Monte Terminillo 16224 Vigna di Valle 16230 Pescara 16239 Roma / Ciampino 16252 Campobasso 16261 Foggia / Amendola 16289 Napoli 16310 Capo Palinuro 16320 Brindisi 16350 Crotone 16362 Lamezia Terme 16400 Isla Ustica 16420 Messina 16429 Trapani 16453 Gela 16470 Isla Pantelleria 16480 Cozzo Spadaro 16520 Alghero / Fertilia 16531 Olbia 16550 Capo Bellavista 16560 Cagliari / Elmas Jordania H-4 Amman Airport Ma'an Kazakhstan Kustanaj Karaganda Gur'yev Balhas Sam Fort Shevchenko Kuwait Kuwait Airport Latvia Riga Lebanon Beyrouth Khald Liechtenstein Vaduz lat. 4308 4362 4273 4247 4208 4243 4180 4157 4153 4085 4002 4065 3900 3890 3870 3820 3792 3708 3682 3668 4063 4090 3993 3925 lon. 1250 1337 1040 1298 1222 1420 1255 1465 1572 1430 1528 1795 1707 1625 1318 1555 1250 1422 1197 1513 828 952 972 905 elev. 208 12 396 1874 266 10 105 793 57 88 184 10 155 15 242 54 7 11 191 46 23 11 138 18 Daily values Gd S T x x x x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x x x x

40250 40270 40310

3250 3198 3017

3820 3598 3578

686 767 1069

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x -

x x x

28952 35394 35700 35796 35925 38001

5322 4980 4702 4690 4542 4455

6362 7313 5185 7500 5620 5025

171 555 0 423 82 -20

x x x x x x

x -

x -

x x x

x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

40582

2922

4798

55

26422

5697

2407

40100

3382

3548

29

06990

4713

952

460

90

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO number 26629 Name of the station Lithuania Kaunas Luxembourg Luxembourg Macedonia Bitola Skopje / Petrovac Malta Luqa / Malta Morroco Tanger Larache Al Hoceima Oujda Kenitra Taza Rabat-Sale Sidi Slimane Fes Sais Meknes Casablanca Nouasseur Ifrane El Jadida Khouribga Safi Kasba Tadla Beni Mellal Midelt Bouarfa Rachidia Essaouira Marrakech Agadir Ouarzazate Tan-Tan Tetouan Nador Netherlands Gemert Numansdorp Dedemsvaart Schiermonnikoog De Kooy Amsterdam / Schiphol lat. lon. elev. Daily values Gd S T Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm pwm

5488

2388

73

06590

4962

622

376

13583 13586

4105 4197

2137 2165

586 238

x x

x -

x -

x x

x x

16597

3585

1448

91

60101 60105 60107 60115 60120 60127 60135 60136 60141 60150 60155 60156 60160 60165 60178 60185 60190 60191 60195 60200 60210 60220 60230 60250 60265 60285 60318 60340

3573 3518 3518 3478 3430 3422 3405 3423 3397 3388 3357 3337 3350 3323 3288 3228 3253 3237 3268 3257 3193 3152 3162 3038 3093 2847 3558 3515

-592 -613 -385 -193 -660 -400 -677 -605 -498 -553 -767 -758 -517 -852 -690 -923 -628 -640 -473 -195 -440 -978 -803 -957 -690 -1115 -533 -292

16 47 12 465 5 509 76 52 572 549 57 200 1664 270 771 45 518 468 1515 1142 1037 7 464 32 1136 229 5 7

x x -

x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

06211 06212 06213 06214 06235 06240

5155 5173 5260 5347 5292 5230

568 443 647 617 478 477

0 0 10 15 0 -4

x -

x -

x -

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x

x x

Annex 2 List of Stations

91

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 06260 De Bilt 06270 Leeuwarden 06275 Deelen 06280 Eelde 06290 Twente 06310 Vlissingen 06350 Gilze-Rijen 06380 Zuid / Limburg 06395 Harderwijk 06396 Ijmuiden 06397 Heel 06398 Scheveningen 06399 Tollebeck Norway Bergen Poland Kolobrzeg Gdynia Suwalki Pila Mikolaski Kolo Warszawa Legnica Sulejow Belsk Pulawy Zamosc Bielsko Biala Zakopane Lesko Portugal Corvo (Azores) Horta (Azores) Angra do Heroismo (Azores) Ponta Delgada (Azores) Funchal (Madeira) Lisboa Porto Coimbra Faro Evora Penhas Douradas Castelo Branco Braganza Sal lat. 5210 5322 5207 5313 5227 5145 5157 5092 5235 5247 5118 5208 5267 lon. 518 575 588 658 690 360 493 578 562 463 590 427 567 elev. 2 0 50 4 36 8 11 114 0 0 0 0 0 Daily values Gd S T x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x -

01316

6040

532

41

12100 12145 12195 12230 12280 12345 12372 12415 12469 12471 12491 12595 12600 12625 12690

5418 5452 5410 5313 5378 5220 5228 5120 5135 5183 5142 5070 4980 4930 4947

1558 1855 2295 1675 2158 1867 2097 1620 1987 2080 2195 2325 1900 1995 2233

3 22 193 72 140 116 98 122 188 180 147 211 398 857 420

x x x -

x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x

08503 08506 08511 08513 08522 08535 08546 08549 08554 08557 08568 08570 08575 08594

3967 3852 3867 3775 3263 3872 4113 4020 3702 3857 4042 3983 4180 1673

-3112 -2863 -2722 -2567 -1690 -915 -860 -842 -797 -790 -755 -748 -673 -2295

28 60 74 35 58 77 93 141 7 309 1380 386 691 54

x x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x -

x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x

92

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO number Name of the station lat. lon. elev. Daily values Gd S T Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm pwm

15085 15090 15120 15247 15260 15310 15360 15420 15450 15480

Romania Bistrita Iasi Cluj / Napoka Timisoara Sibiu Galati Sulina Bucuresti Craiova Constanta Russia Polar GMO IM.E.T. Krenkelja Ostrov Vize GMO IM.E.T. Fedorova Ostrov Dikson Khatanga Murmansk Kanin Nos Kandalaksha Arkhangel'sk Reboly Vytegra Nar'jan / Mar Khoseda Khard Sale Khard Pechora Turukhansk Tarko Sale Troicko-Pecerskoe Nyaksimvol Syktyvkar Bor Khanty Mansiysk St. Petersburg Observatory Velikie Luki Vologda Kirov Kazan Moscwa Moscwa University Perm Tobol'sk Ekaterinsburg Omsk Ufa

4713 4717 4678 4577 4580 4550 4515 4450 4423 4422

2450 2763 2357 2125 2415 2802 2967 2613 2387 2863

366 102 410 86 443 71 3 90 192 13

x x

x x

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x -

x x x x x -

20046 20069 20292 20674 20891 22113 22165 22217 22550 22602 22837 23205 23219 23330 23418 23472 23552 23711 23724 23804 23884 23933 26063 26477 27037 27196 27595 27612 27613 28225 28275 28440 28698 28722

8062

5805

20 11 13 47 33 46 49 26 13 181 59 7 84 35 56 32 27 107 50 96 63 40 4 98 118 164 64 156 192 161 44 237 94 197

x x x -

x x -

x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x -

7950 7698 7772 10428 7350 8023 7198 10247 6897 3305 6865 4330 6713 3243 6458 4050 6382 3082 6102 3645 6765 5302 6708 5938 6653 6653 6512 5710 6578 8795 6492 7782 6270 5620 6243 6087 6167 5085 6160 9000 6097 6907 5997 3030 5638 5928 5865 5578 5575 5570 5802 5815 5680 5493 5475 3060 3987 4962 4918 3757 3750 5630 6818 6063 7340 5600

Annex 2 List of Stations

93

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 28900 Samara 34122 Voronez 34172 Saratov 34646 Volgodonsk 34731 Rostov na Donu 34824 Primorsko-Ahtarsk 34880 Astrakhan 35121 Orenburg 35358 Turgay 37050 Pyatigorsk 37099 Sochi Former Spanish Sahara El Aaiun Sidi Ifni Dakhla Saudi Arabia Guriat Rafha Tabuk Hail Wejh Dhahran Slovakia Bratislava Hurbanovo Sliac Strbske Pleso Poprad / Tatry Trebisov Slovenia Ljubljana / Bezigra Portoroz Spain La Coruna Oviedo Santander Bilbao Santiago / Labacolla Vigo / Peinador Burgos / Villafria Logrono Zamora Valladolid Zaragoza Airport Zaragoza lat. 5325 5170 5157 4773 4725 4603 4627 5175 4963 4405 4358 lon. 5045 3917 4603 4225 3982 3815 4803 5510 6350 4303 3972 elev. 44 164 156 104 77 5 18 109 123 0 0 Daily values Gd S T x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x x x -

60033 60060 60096

2717 2937 2372

-1322 -1018 -1593

64 50 11

x x x

x x x

x x x

x -

x -

40360 40362 40375 40394 40400 40416

3142 2963 2837 2743 2623 2627

3727 4348 3658 4168 3643 5015

509 449 778 1015 20 26

x x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

11816 11858 11903 11933 11934 11978

4817 4787 4863 4912 4907 4867

1712 1820 1915 2008 2025 2173

292 119 316 1353 718 107

x -

x -

x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x -

x x x x -

x x x x -

x -

x x -

13015 13105

4607 4552

1452 1357

299 92

x -

x -

x x

x x

x x

x -

x -

08001 08015 08023 08025 08042 08045 08075 08083 08130 08141 08160 08161

4337 4335 4347 4330 4290 4222 4237 4247 4150 4165 4167 4163

-842 -587 -382 -293 -843 -863 -363 -238 -573 -477 -102 -90

58 335 64 40 370 245 894 364 670 734 257 221

x -

x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x

x x x x

94

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 08181 Barcelona Airport 08184 Gerona 08210 Avila 08213 Segovia 08215 Navacerrada 08220 Madrid Universidad 08222 Madrid Barajas 08232 Molina de Aragon 08261 Caceres 08272 Toledo 08301 Palma de Mallorca 08306 Palma de Mallorca / San Juan 08314 Mahon 08329 Badajoz 08359 Alicante 08390 Sevilla / Tablada 08391 Sevilla / San Pablo 08419 Granada Aiport 08430 Murcia 08433 Murcia / San Javier 08482 Malaga Airport 08487 Almeria Airport 08495 Gibraltar Sweden Kiruna Geofysika Lulea Oestersund Umea / Robacksdalen Karlstad Borlaenge Airport Stockholm Goeteborg Norrkoeping Visby Airport Lund Vaxjoe / Kronoberg Switzerland Basel Binningen Neuchatel Chasseral Moleson Payerne La Chaux de Fonds Fahy La Fretaz Schaffhausen Guettingen lat. 4128 4190 4067 4095 4078 4045 4042 4085 3947 3988 3955 3955 3987 3888 3837 3737 3742 3718 3800 3778 3667 3685 3615 lon. 207 277 -452 -412 -402 -372 -368 -188 -633 -405 262 273 423 -697 -50 -600 -590 -378 -117 -80 -448 -238 -535 elev. 4 143 1130 1005 1894 664 655 1056 405 515 6 4 87 198 81 8 34 567 61 5 16 15 5 Daily values Gd S T x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x x x x x x

02045 02185 02226 02283 02415 02435 02483 02513 02571 02590 02627 02641

6783 6555 6318 6382 5937 6043 5935 5770 5858 5767 5572 5693

2043 2213 1450 2025 1347 1550 1807 1200 1625 1835 1322 1473

408 17 376 10 46 153 30 5 5 51 73 182

x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x

x x -

x x -

x x -

x x -

06601 06604 06605 06609 06610 06612 06616 06619 06620 06621

4755 4700 4713 4655 4682 4708 4743 4683 4768 4760

758 695 707 702 695 680 695 658 862 928

316 485 1599 1972 490 1018 596 1202 437 440

x x -

x x -

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x

x x -

x x -

Annex 2 List of Stations

95

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 06628 Plaffeien 06631 Bern / Liebefeld 06633 Buchs / Suhr 06639 Napf 06643 Wynau 06645 Ruenenberg 06650 Luzern 06655 Engelberg 06659 Pilatus 06660 Zuerich SMA 06664 Reckenholz 06669 Laegern 06670 Zuerich Airport 06672 Altdorf 06673 Waedenswil 06679 Taenikon 06680 Saentis 06681 St. Gallen 06685 Glarus 06700 Geneve-Cointrin 06702 La Dole 06705 Changins 06711 Pully 06712 Aigle 06716 Fey 06717 Grand St. Bernard 06720 Sion 06722 Evolene / Villaz 06724 Montana 06727 Visp 06730 Jungfraujoch 06734 Interlaken 06735 Adelboden 06744 Grimsel Hospiz 06745 Ulrichen 06748 Zermatt 06750 Guetsch 06753 Piotta 06756 Comprovasco 06759 Cimetta 06760 Locarno / Monti 06762 Locarno / Magadino 06770 Lugano 06771 Stabio 06780 Weissfluhjoch 06782 Disentis 06783 San Bernardino 06786 Chur-Ems 06788 Hinterrhein 06791 Corvatsch lat. 4675 4693 4738 4700 4725 4743 4703 4682 4698 4738 4743 4748 4748 4687 4722 4748 4725 4743 4703 4625 4643 4640 4652 4633 4618 4587 4622 4612 4632 4630 4655 4667 4650 4657 4650 4603 4665 4652 4647 4620 4617 4617 4600 4585 4683 4670 4647 4687 4652 4642 lon. 727 742 808 793 778 788 830 842 825 857 852 840 853 863 868 890 935 940 907 613 610 623 667 692 727 717 733 752 748 785 798 787 757 833 832 775 862 868 893 880 878 888 897 893 982 885 918 953 918 982 elev. 1042 565 387 1406 422 610 456 1035 2106 556 443 868 436 449 463 536 2490 779 515 420 1670 430 461 381 737 2472 482 1825 1508 640 3580 580 1320 1980 1345 1638 2287 1007 575 1672 366 197 273 353 2690 1190 1639 555 1611 3315 Daily values Gd S T x x x x x x x x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x -

96

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO number 06792 06793 06794 06798 Name of the station Samedan Davos Robbia Scuol Syria Kamishli Aleppo Palmyra Damascus Turkey Samsun Samsun Istanbul Gebze Istanbul Goztepe Ankara Izmir Diyarbakir Antalya Turkmenistan Krasnovodsk Chardzhou Ashkhabad United Kingdom Lerwick Kirkwall Airport Stornoway Cape Wrath Aviemore Kinloss Kinbrace Aberdeen Tiree Dunstaffnage Onich Auchincruive Whithorn Edinburgh East Craigs Edinburgh Airport Eskdalemuir Mylnefield / Dundee Shanwell Ronaldsway Airport Hazlerigg Boulmer Leeming Whitby lat. 4653 4680 4635 4680 lon. 988 982 1007 1028 elev. 1705 1592 1078 1298 Daily values Gd S T Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm -

40001 40007 40061 40080

3702 3618 3455 3342

4122 3722 3830 3652

452 390 395 610

x x x x

x x

x x

x x x x

x x x x

17029 17030 17061 17062 17130 17220 17280 17300

4127 4128 4080 4097 3995 3843 3788 3687

3630 3633 2943 2908 3288 2717 4018 3073

162 4 130 33 891 25 686 50

x x x x x

x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

38507 38687 38880

4003 3908 3797

5298 6360 5833

89 36 228

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x x

x x x

03005 03017 03026 03049 03063 03066 03072 03091 03100 03112 03115 03136 03137 03159 03160 03162 03169 03170 03204 03224 03240 03257 03282

6013 5895 5822 5862 5720 5765 5823 5720 5650 5647 5672 5547 5470 5595 5595 5532 5645 5643 5408 5402 5542 5430 5448

-118 -290 -632 -500 -383 -357 -392 -222 -688 -543 -522 -457 -442 -333 -335 -320 -307 -287 -463 -275 -160 -153 -62

82 26 9 112 220 7 103 65 12 3 15 48 40 61 41 242 30 4 16 95 23 40 41

x x x -

x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x -

x x x x x x x x -

Annex 2 List of Stations

97

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 03302 Valley 03318 Blackpool Airport 03322 Aughton 03334 Manchester Airport 03356 Cawood 03360 Finningley 03377 Waddington 03415 Shawbury 03468 Kirton 03470 Denver Complex 03496 Hemsby 03500 Gogerddan 03502 Aberporth 03534 Elmdon / Birmingham Airport 03561 Silsoe 03570 Broom's Barn 03586 Honington 03655 Wallingford 03660 Grendon Underwood 03679 Rothampstead 03680 Hoddesdon 03715 Cardiff / Wales Airport 03720 Long Ashton 03721 Yeovilton 03740 Lyneham 03763 Easthampstead/ Bracknell 03774 Crawlay 03776 London Gatwick Airport 03779 London Weather Centre 03790 East Malling 03797 Manston 03808 Camborne 03827 Plymouth Mount Batten 03829 Bude 03862 Bournemouth Airport 03863 Efford 03870 Rustington 03894 Guernsey 03895 Jersey Airport 03917 Belfast / Aldergrove Ukraine Kiev L'vov Odessa Simferopol Khar'kov Uzbekistan lat. 5325 5377 5355 5335 5383 5348 5317 5280 5293 5258 5268 5243 5213 5245 5202 5227 5233 5160 5190 5180 5178 5140 5143 5100 5150 5138 5108 5115 5152 5128 5135 5022 5035 5083 5078 5073 5082 4943 4922 5465 lon. -453 -303 -292 -227 -115 -100 -52 -267 -5 35 168 -402 -457 -173 -42 57 77 -117 -102 -35 0 -335 -267 -263 -198 -78 -22 -18 -12 45 135 -532 -412 -455 -183 -157 -52 -260 -220 -622 elev. 11 10 54 78 6 17 70 72 4 3 13 40 133 96 59 75 54 49 70 128 47 67 51 18 156 73 144 62 77 37 55 87 50 15 11 16 8 101 84 81 Daily values Gd S T x x x x x x x x Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

33345 33393 33837 33946 34300

5040 4982 4648 4502 4993

3045 2395 3063 3398 3628

179 325 64 205 152

x x -

x -

x x -

x x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

98

Annex 2 List of Stations

Table A2.1 Contd. List of the measuring stations included in the ESRA database WMO Name of the station number 38262 Cimbaj 38413 Tamdy 38457 Tashkent Yugoslavia Beograd Negotin Kopaonik Bar Podgorica / Golubovci Pristina lat. 4295 4173 4127 lon. 5982 6462 6927 elev. 66 220 428 Daily values Gd S T Month Ten-year average Sm Gdm Sm Tm rrm pm x x x x x x x x x x pwm x x x

13274 13295 13378 13461 13462 13481

4480 4423 4328 4210 4237 4265

2047 2255 2080 1910 1925 2115

132 42 1711 4 33 573

x -

x -

x x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x -

x x -

x x -

x x -

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