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Technical Re

MFSA Qualit

Metal Finishing Guides

Chemical Surface Preparation For Electroplated and Metallic Coatings

INTRODUCTION This Quality Metal Finishing Guide deals with pretreatment of surfaces for metallic coatings. In this context, pretreatment is defined as the process of substrate preparation to re specific metallic coating.

Generally, the objective of applying a metallic coating is to provide one or several new proper basis metal. Coatings include decorative finishes such as copper or brass on zinc diecast, and coatings such as hard chrome or electroless nickel on aluminum, or corrosion resistant zinc al steel.

Regardless of the function, these coatings all must adhere completely to the basis metal if the provide the decorative or functional properties required. Plate adhesion must exceed the cohe strength of either the substrate or the electroplate. In other words, an attempt to peel the me

OSP Fi a Fi i h Ve ifica i P g a E h eA i F cci, Ma age Ma e i g C Ne A chi e De i e f eica i

c ai gf he b ae h d e f he b a e a he b da . I he b a e a d he a ed e a .

e a a e f he ba i e a a i g, hi e e f adhe i

i h i

e a ai f he ib e be ee

Safe Ha b REACh C C A ha Se ic d c Pac agi g E h eA G

ia ce

Wha e e he echa i , adhe i de e d he c di i f he face bei g a ed. P e he ef e, c i f he c i ica e ed i he e a fa de i ab e c a i a i e fe e i h he i e -a ic adhe i . T ica c a i a a e i ch a i , g ea e, f ide a d ca e. P e ea e a affec he c a i g e ie . E e if adhe i i g , e i de i , a d fai e d e h d ge e b i be e a ed face e a a i . P e a e fai e e c e e c e age b a ed c e i i ec ed i i ia , b i e e e cc i ga a ae

E ec

ic

i gf c i ca be a ided b e fec face he ecified c a i g. A i e a d he i d ie e idi g g- e d c- e f a ce a a ie . f a gi e e ea e ce i dic a ed b fac .

e a ai he i eg

.c

The

i a

e ec i

1. THE METAL BEING PROCESSED AND THE CLEANING SOLUTION Ge e a , ee a d c e ca i h a d g a a i e c ea e ( H 10-14), a d acid ic 50% h d ch ic acid, i h i e a ac f he ba i e a.B ea db a e i e ( H 9-13) a d e e e a e e e he e ec i e e a f he i c f he a (de i cifica i ). Zi c a d a i e i e e i de i hibi ed a a i ( H 9-12) a d i d a P ie a f ai a e a ai ab e ee he e eed .

2. THE TYPE OF SOILS TO BE REMOVED S i i a b a ce he face f he e a ha i i e fe e i h he e a -fi i hi g e f ed. S i a be he e f i e i a a ica i he e a f a a e ia ha fac e a i g, ha d i g, a d e e high e e a e he a he e. Ge e a i ga ic. a. O ganic ea i g, he e f i ca be b e d i b ad ca eg ie : ga ic

Sa ifiab e a i a a d ege ab e i . U a ifiab e i e a i a d a e . Mi ce a e c a i a ei he f ed i i hibi f ce ai acid ic i g i b. Ino ganic Sca e a d P i hi g c Mi ce a e The e a e a fe a a e -i - i e e e ai e . Ma i a fac , ed ci eadi ,

( e a ic a ede i i g

f he

ed i he b ffi g e a.

ide a d e a ic e id e . d , ab a i e, g i di g a d i hi g e id e h d a d de i g f e .

g i .

f he i e c e ed. S e f he he i c de ai , c ea i g i , fi ge i ,a di ga ic c a i g ch a h ha e , ch ae

f he b ica ,c a a dc i e e i e ed da a e be e ifia e be c ea ed i a i d, -ca ic- da-c ai i g a a i e c ea e a e e a a ae b e b ica ca be e ed a ia b a a ae e- i e, he g c ea e c a i ai a d i i i i g c ea i g b e . Pa ic a e a e i a e ed b i d, -e e a e c ea i g.

MECHANISMS OF SOIL REMOVAL M c ea i g a d i e a i acc i hed b e e f he f i g e i echa i :

1. WETTING The ce b hich he c ea e , h gh he e f face-ac i e age , b d b he di ace e f i a d he e i g f face a d i e facia e i he fi e i e e f c ea i g i ed e a . 2. EMULSIFICATION O ce e i g a e ace, he ce fe ifica i ca cc i i cib e i id . E ifica i i de e de he i e c ec da i fac ch a H, e e a e a d agi a i .

he e a . We i g,

. Thi i he di e i f e ed a d he ch ice f fac

3.SAPONIFICATION The eac i f fa acid a ifica i f b ffi g c

i hh

a ai d ce be d a d ea a e d a i g c

e d .

ifiab e

.E a

4. SOLUBILI ATION The ce b hich he bi i f a b a ce ( i ) i i c ea ed i a ce ai he e e ec i f face ac i e age . Ma i ed da a e, i fac , 5. DEFLOCCULATION The ce he eb he i i b e i i i he ai ai ed a a di e i a d bei g c ea ed.

edi ae

, e.g., b e.

e fi e a ic e a d di e ed i he c ea i g e e ed f agg e ai ga d e e i g h

6. SEQUESTRATION The ce i hich de i ab e i ch a Ca++ Mg++ a d hea e a a e " ied " deac i a ed, he eb e e i g he f eac i g i h a e ia ha a df i d c . The c a ic e a e i he ha d a e c f ed he a he ic de e ge ed. The c f ed i he eac i be ee a a d he Ca++ Mg++ i i ha d a he a e i f e ed, he Ca++ a d Mg++ i a e " ied " e e e ed, e e i g he eac i g.

7. MECHANICAL ACTION Thi i a e e e i a fac i e a c ea i g, i ce i ca g ea i c ea e he ee efficie c f i e a . Mecha ica ac i ca be acc i hed b i e e he i e f. S e e f i agi a i a e ai , echa ica , a ic, a a d ga f e ec ic c ea i g. Ai agi a i i a efficie a he he e h d . CLASSES OF CLEANERS C ea e fi i h ee g e , e i-a e i . e a da e . e ic ed a a e

1. SOLVENT-BASED CLEANERS B h a deg ea i g a d e i c ce a de i e a eg a i

a e bei g ha ed

2. SEMI-AQUEOUS OR DIPHASE CLEANERS The e a e e i f a e , ga ic e a de i e , i ce he e i e ec da a e c ea i g 3. AQUEOUS CLEANERS C i e he a ge g c ea e : a d ca he

ifie . The ha e i i ed a e . h ee ca eg ie : acid, e

ica i

e e be fi i

a,a

a. Acid Cleane Ba ed c ce ai f ga ic i ga ic acid ch a ci ic a d h h ic. The he igh e a ide a e e e . The e f acid a d addi i e ac age ed de e d e a, e f i a d b e e ce i g. A ica i f acid c ea e i c de b ffed a b a he e i i a ac f he face i e a ed. b. Ne al cleane (al o called de e gen cleane ) Nei he acid a a i e ba ed. The a c i f e e e i g age , di e a ,b age a d e i g age . High c ce ai a d e e a e a e hei e i i ed. c. Alkaline cleane The h e f he i d . The a e ea e, e a i e afe a d ea c . The e f e ib e a d ha e b ade e ai g i i ha he c ea e . A a i e c ea e a e c che ica ha ide a a i e c di i i g, a ifica i f fa i a d i e i . Gene al chemi Ca ic alkali a d he de f ie ed in alkaline cleane : c he . The a e ed i e ec

ide he highe e e f a a i i , i h ea ab a ac i e. The ide e ce e a a i i

Ca bona e ide b ffe i g, i e e a d f e ide a ide a ge f a a i i . Ca b a e ca ca i ed i h he a e - f e i g age . Silica e - a e c e he ca ic a a i i e e ifie a d he i i e di g. Si ica e e e i b e i icic acid ge f f i g.

ae b eci i a i . De e di g e ca i g i ha d a e a ea if . The a e g i ed i

fa ai i be e

d b ffe , e ce e acid di ic

Pho pha e ide a e f e i g, i d a a i i a d e i g age , e ha ci g he e a c ea i g effec .

e b ffe i g. The a e

e gi

ETTING AGENTS (SURFACTANTS) We i g age a e c i ica he f c i f c ea e . The e e f ha i g a e e e i g (h d h bic) a d a e a ac i ec e . Thi a ag i ic effec a f he e e a i f he c a i a - e a face), i e face , he eb faci i a i g e a C fac a ed i c ea e a e: Anionic - hich ide g S a i a e a e fa a f a e . d de e ge c . The a e a g dc a de i ed a i ic fac a . A i

ga ic a e ia g (h d hi ic) e a e ia a he a d bi i a i f

e i ee ae f a i

i g age ic fac a

he he a e ge e a

Nonionic - a e he ic a e ia a d a e g d e ifie . I addi i , he a e ed e ed c ea e a d f f a c i a c ea e . The bi i f i ic fac a c ea i g i dec ea e i h i c ea i g e e a e a d c ce a i . Thi i ca ed he i . Whe a a a i e c ea e c ai i g i ic fac a i e a ed ab e he ec e e a e a d c ce a i , he fac a bec e ae i b e a d begi ac i e i c ea e hi i de i e a a d ca ca e he f he fac a h gh i I a a c ea e , -c d- i i ic fac a a e fe ed a def a e . Ampho e ic - a e i i a a i ic fac a abi i i g a a i e i id . A h e ic acid , hich i c e he ca i ic fi f Ca ionic acid . fac a a e fi f e a da e he ed i fac a e . ed i a a i e c ea e . The be e i ed i a

id c

ecia a a i e c ea e

a d a i hibi

ALKALINE DESCALING A a i e de ca i g i a ecia fe b a e . The c ea e

e f c ea i g ha i de ig ed e e igh ide a d ca a e ba ed high a a i i i c bi a i i hc e i g

chelating agents. Used at 168.8-185 F, alkaline descalers are capable of dissolving light oxide by immersion.

One or more additional cleaning actions as described under Mechanism of Soil Removal are us involved in soak cleaning applications. Removal of buffing compounds, for instance, requires saponification, emulsification and deflocculation. On the other hand, if the emphasis is on sep skimming of oils from cleaners, displacement, rather than emulsifying type cleaners are selec with chemicals that provide good wetting characteristics.

METHODS OF SURFACE PREPARATION A total surface preparation process consists of one or several operations. They are carried out sequence designed to produce an optimum condition for the application of the intended coatin steps are typically classified in accordance with their particular cleaning mechanism, as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. MECHANICAL CLEANING (spra and ultrasonic) SOAK CLEANING ELECTROCLEANING ACID ACTIVATION

While some pretreatment processes call for soak cleaning followed by acid activation, others m all or most of the above operations.

1. MECHANICAL CLEANING Mechanical cleaning in the context of surface preparation for metal coating encompasses spra ultrasonic cleaning. Mass finishing is also used, but is described in detail in a separate QMF Gu Mechanical cleaning relies in great part on mechanical energy in physically removing soils fro surface. To assist the removal process, detergents, alkalis or acids, deflocculants and so on ar Heat also helps, although low to moderate solution temperatures are the norm.

a. Spra Cleaning This is a very common cleaning technique, often used in dedicated spray machines, or built in within a plating line. Primps deliver cleaning solutions through spray nozzles at pressures var 20 to 200 psi. Some high-pressure systems can produce 800 psi or more. The cleaning solutio

recirculated through a reservoir, which is usually fitted with heaters, oil skimmers, and level c

Spray-cleaning solutions are formulated with low or non-foaming detergents. Since the cleani relies mostly on the spray-impact energy, the solution concentration is kept relatively low, as temperature. Spray cleaners are designed for specific applications, taking into account the ba being processed and types of soils to be removed.

Mild acid or alkaline cleaners are used on nonferrous and highly finished metals, e.g., buffed b aluminum. Stronger cleaners, incorporating rust inhibitors, are used on ferrous metals, includ alloys. Typical soils removed by spray cleaners are buffing compounds, heavy oils, drawing an compounds. Parts that benefit from spray cleaning include cabinets and other geometric shape deep corners and recesses. For superior cleaning, turbojet nozzles are used inside an immersi

Parts may be cleaned in stationary positions or on conveyors moving across banks of spray no positioned to reach all areas to be cleaned. Spray cleaning may be single or multiple stations rinsing, inhibiting and drying or other surface-preparation steps.

b. Ul a onic Cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning takes place when small vacuum cavities caused by high-frequency sound w traveling in a liquid implode against surfaces submerged in the liquid. Transducers attached to or bottoms of cleaning tanks supply the ultrasonic waves to the cleaning solution. Temperatur 140-160 F should be avoided, as they tend to reduce the ultrasonic efficiency.

When this technique is used with a water-detergent solution, the scrubbing action that results surface is effective in removing various contaminants, especially insoluble particles, smut, dir that are difficult to remove by conventional wetting or emulsification. It does not, however, e remove oils, which is why it is used after degreasing.

2. SOAK CLEANING Cleaning by immersion is intended to remove the bulk of the soils, particularly those that hav mechanically deposited on the surface. Examples of such soils are cutting fluids, grease, finge buffing compounds. There are various types of soak cleaners designed for different cleaning m

By saponification of fatty acids such as those encountered in buffing compounds, certai and drawing compounds. Saponification relies on the level of alkalinity available in the

a di ed b high e e a e . B e ifica i f i , g ea e, fa acid a d hei de i a i e . Thi i acc i hed he e f ecia fac a b e d a d ce ai a a i ch a i ica e . B di ace e f i a d g ea e, h gh he e f ecia fac a . Di ace he i be e a i ied he fac a a he e a face, he e he a e e ea ed a he face f he i . Effec i e i e be ed i h ch c ea e e d ag f e ea ed i he . The e c ea e a e i e e fa i ce he a e ea i a a ed i h i .

3. ELEC ROCLEANING E ec c ea i g i a i a e i e aface e a a i . I i a e ec ic ce , cha ac e i ed b he e f di ec c e a d a ecia f a ed e ec e. The bei ce ed a be e ec ica c ec ed a he a de, ca h de, b h (a e a e ), de e di a ica i . A h gh e ec c ea i g i a diffe e i eg a a f he e a e c c e. a d di i c e h d f face c ea i g, i h d be c

E ec c ea e a de c ibed he e a e a a i e, a d i ge e a f ecede acid ac i a i i he e a e c c e. Thei ba ic f c i i e ed b i e a c ea i g deg ea i g. E a e f ch

a a i e a c ea e e e i ha c d i a ea f : i

Fi ge i ,d a i gc d ,a d i d i e i face Fi e di ided a ic e ch a i hi g ab a i e , e a ic fi e e ai , ca b a d he a i gee e . Of e he e fi e efe ed a , a be he d he face b i e echa i a hi i g ea e a i . Me a ida i d c , he e fe e he a he a hea ea e , f gi g, e di g, e c.

a ied de f g i di g e a ic a e a e , g ica f ce , e ec a e, a he a

A h gh e ec c ea i g a a e e a a ic a e f i , i c di i i f ea ie e a i he b e e e i he c c e. F i a ce, a adhe e i e ed e gh be if ed i he f i g i e a . S face ide a be ed ced e bef be ea i di ed i he acid a .

d e i

a. Electrol sis of Electrocleaners A c e i a ied a e ec c ea e , he f i g e ec che ica e ec i g a e . The a a i e e a he c d c i e edi . A A he A de: 4[OH]- --> 2H20 + 02 + 4e 4H20 + 4e --> 4[OH] + 2H2

eac i

a e

ace,

he Ca h de:

A ca be ee ,

ice a

ch h d

ge

ibe a ed a f ai i

he ca h de a

ge

he a

de.

b. T pes of Electrocleaners E ec c ea e a e c a ified P a i T e f

he ba i

e e a ed c i e ia:

f he i he a . b a e bei g ea ed.

Anodic Electrocleaning The i c ec ed he i i e (a de) ide f he ec ifie . Thi ce i a e ec c ea i g, i ce he a i i i e ha i e ec a i g. A de c ibed de e ec ge i ibe a ed a he face f he ( he a de) he c e i a ied. A he ga , i c ea e a echa ica c bbi g ac i ha e a d if he i . T g he ac i he he e aa a e ace. A ge b bb e a e f bef e he i e i c i a e . I i be ie ed ha he face i e ea ed h gh he a e f b bb e , faci i a i g . Thi he e a a ie he he de f e ec

ed he face, he c a a ic cha ge h di g fi e a i e a h gh he c c ea i g.

Che ica effec , ida i a dd i Ha a e ace a he a de face. If e ce i e, ida i ca be ee ch e a a b a , i c a d i e , a he di c , ai e ch. i hibi ed a dic e ec c ea e a e a ai ab e f b a a d i c. Whe ic e i a eac i a ed. dica ea ed, i i ic a i aea d e e ai g i face

A i i a effec i e e ie ced i h e ec c ea i g, he ea high-ca b ic e a d i e a e a ac ed a A be ai Pa

ai e ee . Reg a ee a e ee a e e e i i ea d e i hed b a dic e ec c ea i g.

ad e e affec ed i e de a i . A

ge i ibe a ed a he a de, he e H a e e d i c ea e a he i e face. Thi iced ee if a e ec c ea e ' a a i i i b de ig a a e f b e a ce. The ee i e a id idi ed, a d eci i a ed i h d ide f he e i i g he a i ha e a e ched a ea a ce, e ecia i high-c e -de ai be ca be eadi ec ified b i c ea i g he a a i i a e ai g e e . f he ba h b ed ci g

The i de i

Cathodic Electrocleaning The i c ec ed he ega i e e i a (ca h de) ide f he ec ifie . Thi i a di ec e ec c ea i g. I hi ca e, h d ge i ibe a ed a he ca h de. T ice a ch h d ge i ge e a ed. C e e , e c bbi g ac i a d c ea i g abi i a e e ec ed. e ec c ea i g, h e e , ha f da ide ead e i i d f ea : he c ab h d ge e b i e e a a e fc i h d ge e ea e a he face; a d he ae f cha ged i i ie f he i he ca h dic face. The a e a e ce ib e he ca a b e e a he a e i he a , b ead adhe i f b e ec de i .C a i a eadi g ch adhe i fai e a e e a ic fi e , ce ai fac a ,c id , e a ic a a d d agged-i he a a e ch e.

Ca h dic c ea e , he e c ea a d e ai ai ed, a e ed f ce i g b ffed b a hi e e a , i h a i hi g, a d f e ec c ea i g ic e a d high ic e ee i h a i a i . Whe ed ee a d c e a e ad a age f hei e i c b-c ea a ec da a dic e ec c ea e h df , if e e f a fe ec d . Thi e i de i i ie ha a ha e de i ed he b ca h dic ac i . Periodic-Re erse Electrocleaning Thi e h d f e ec c ea i g f fe e a e ac bi a i f b h a dic a d ca h c ea i g. A e i dic- e e e i ( a P.R.) i i a ed he ec ifie ' . The PR i chi g echa i ha e e e he a i a c ed a d i ed i e a . The i a e a e a i g a dic a d ca h dic a i ie f he ecified c ea i g i e.

ica e i g i 10 ec. ca h dic - 10 ec. a dic. B cha gi g he e i g, e ca h dic a be ed effec a i c ea i g. The i ca be g a ed ha he a eg f a dic bef e he i e e i g h ff he ec ifie . Thi e e e a fa cha ged a a ha e a ed he d i g ca h dic c ea i g. The c i bef ida i a d ed c i a he face c e ha a e ic ed b c a ide che a i g age he b i ide a d ca e i he c ea e f he

PR c ea e e e a bec e ac ica , he ca be ege e a de ca i g a d de i g high he eb c i g h d ge e ec e ded f he e a a i e b i e e ).

a a ed i h di ed i ide a d be e aced. Wh ed b ai g he i ca h dica . PR. c ea i g i e ef e gha d i g ee i h he e f de ca i g acid i b i e e . (ASTM B242 dea ecifica i h he a da d f high ca b ee f e ec ai g i i i e h d ge

c. Operating Parameters and Process Considerations A e ai ed ea ie , e ec i i he ai d i i g ce i e ec c ea e . The a e ib e f he c bbi g ac i a he e ec de i a f c i f he a fc e h gh he ce . The ef e, he e a a e e c i gc e h d be c ide ed:

Solution Conductivit Thi i i af ci f c ea e c ce ai a d e e a e a a gi e age. The hig c ce ai a d e e a e, a ac ica e e , he highe he c d c i i a d he a ga i g a d c bbi g ac i . V age A ied-C e V. Highe a e a e i c ea e ca i h e "b age, a h gh he a e i e i g" gh e a . ica a d he a a e e e a ef fc e (a f). C a e a i

a e

Surface Area Being Cleaned The face a ea bei g c ea ed e ec c e de i (CD). I i ea ed i efficie c . Ade a e ec a e d ce

ied e de i

i af affec

e ded CD a ge f diffe e ba i e a a e a i ed i Tab e I. CD b igh a gi a e ec c ea i g. Highe a e ge e a ead e chi g a d

f he

face. a ica i . The a i i

A de ca h de a ea a i f 1:1 a e ade a e f he ecified c e de i ie a e ai ai ed.

c i ica

TABLE I: Recommended Electrocleaning Current Densit -Rack Applications A S ee , -ca b e gh ee /f 2 P a i (A=A A,C A C A, C A, C (a A, C (a C C C

dic, C=Ca h di

47-93 28-47 47-74 47-74 19-37 19-37

S ee high S ai e C B a Zi c dieca Nic e a d i Lead a d i Si e a d i e

dic i hibi ed)

dic i hibi ed)

a a a

19-28 47-74 19-28

*In barrel applications, a fraction of the above C.D. values should be e pected. Selection and Use of Electrocleaners - The e a e ge e a c e f e ec c ea e : Formulation - Se e a The e f ai h d ie a f ide he f f ai a e a ai ab e, c i g e ie : he i ica e e a e e ce i ide a i e i ga i he e ec i a

ide a ge f a f ee , adhe i g

ic

A i ab e deg ee f a a i i a db a . A e ai fh d ide

ed, e.g., high a a i i b e i ica e fi f

and affecting plate adhesion. TABLE II: T pical Operating Conditions for Electrocleaners Steel and Copper Alkalinity, g/L (as NaOH) Temperature F Time, seconds 50-100 140-195 1-5 Brass 15-20 120-160 1-3 Zinc 15-20 120-160 1-3

Ni and C 30-60

120-175 1-5

The above are typical average operating conditions. Suppliers of proprietary electrocleaners u specify optimum operating parameters for specific applications. Alkalinity expressed as NaOH represent from 20 to 80% of the total product formulation.

Equipment Maintenance and Operation-Corrugated or mesh steel can be used as anodes or ca provide optimum surface area and solution circulation. Periodic cleaning of the anode/cathode necessary to remove plated-on smut, oxides and other charged particles. Using the tank as th cathode is not recommended, as it leads to uneven current distribution and provides a source current. Many electrocleaning problems, such as under- and over-cleaning, have been traced such a practice.

Solid polypropylene or plastic-lined steel tanks are recommended for alkaline electrocleaners. should be fitted with steel, stainless steel or Teflon heaters. Recirculating pumps are recomme provide solution recirculation, overall homogeneity, and to prevent stratification. It should be solution inlets and outlets must be located at two opposite diagonal top and bottom corners of for efficient solution movement. TABLE III: Most Common Electrocleaning Problems Problem Etching, tarnishing Probable Causes

Too high C.D. Cleane non-inhibi ed fo nonfe o W ong pola i Tempe a E ce Ro ghne e oo high fo nonfe o ion ing b n on

me

i e oil in ol oo

Cleane C.D.

eak, ca

ee

In anodic cleaning: p lling allo ing elem face

In ca hodic cleaning: depo i ing cha ged and m on face Incomple e in ing of elec ocleane Ha e nde pla e Cleane film. Cleane empe a oo eak e oo high, ca

ing d

Incomple e in ing af e cleaning Inefficien oak o p ecleaning p io elec ocleaning He a alen ch ome con amina ion Poo adhe ion, bli e , pi ing of pla e Cleane oo eak o oo high o

C.D. oo lo

Cleaning ime oo lo

oo high

Re e e of in ended pola i He a alen ch ome con amina ion In fficien in ing af e cleaning

E ce

i e oil, g ea e in cleane

4. ACID ACTI ATION Acid ac i a ion i ed o ac i a e he face of a me al af e alkaline p a , oak, o elec oc ch, he acid ne ali e e id al alkalini a ell a objec ionable o ide , and e po e an a eadil pla eable face.

Thi p oce i ed o emo e chemicall fo med oil f om he me al face. T picall he e me al o ide and hei al . The fo m a a e l of e po e o high empe a e, o o he a mo phe e. E ample a e hea - ea ing o ide and cale , fo ging and ca ing cale , ,a o ida ion.

Al ho gh ome of he e o ide a e pla eable, he lead o poo pla e adhe ion and co o ion f O ide emo al i gene all ca ied o b acid ea men . The acid a e elec ed acco ding o he me al being p oce me al occ . The e a e h ee majo pe of acid ac i a o : ed, o ha limi ed o no a ack o

O ganic and Mild Mine al Acid - E ample a e gl conic, pho pho ic, and ci ic acid . The e picall ed o ac i a e highl poli hed o en i i e me al ch a al min m, b a and in dieca ing , and ome poli hed eel . S fac an and e ing agen ma be ed o ed ce he

face en ion and imp o e acid a

Mine al Acid - H d ch ic a d f ge e a ed de ca e a d ac i a e Ni ic acid b i e f a i a di a i . c bi a i

ic acid a e e a e ee a d e ai e i h f ic a d h d f

g ee . ic i

i e a acid . The e a ed de a d

F b ic a d h d ch ic a e ed eaded ee a d eaded b a . C bi a i f i ic, a d h d ch ic a e e i e ed i de ca i g a d b igh di i g c e a db a ,a h ge e a e hea i ge ide f e a d be ha d ed i h e e e ca e. S ecia ab e a d i hibi a be ed i h he e acid di e e i g ea e e id e, i e e face ac i a i , a d f i i i i g a ac f he ba i e a. Acid Sal - Acid a a e ica e ai i g h d ge i i he a Ad a age f acid a fac a a d i hibi C a d a d e d acid a e a f c i e f he ide fa e e, ba ed fficie acidi a ia ac i a e . e e a a i ed f face .

ic

i c de afe ha d i g a d he f e ibi i c d ce a ide a ge f ecia ac i a

d he

i h acce

a ,f e a e, i c de f ide a d i hibi ha a e e effec i e fe e a , e i hibi a ac f ba i e a . The a e ge e a a e i e . ca ef c ide a i hi a gi e i e . The e ec ed acid f ai , i i ga d

The e f acid ac i a f a ac he e a bei g c ea ed, a b e e c a i g. The ha i

agg e gh e

e f acid ed a be c a ib e i h he a i g ce . H d ch ic acid, f be ed i acid c e a i g. Ch ide c a i ai ca e i affec e f a i g ba h. Li e i e, f ic acid i ec e ded f ead eaded a ,a i b e ead fa e he face f a . g i h i e a, ch acid i i hibi ed acid h d be e ic ed ead h d ge e b i e e . a be ed b i e di i i g- a d high-ca b e i , e ec ica ee ,

U e f eac i

Acid ac i a

e a ec ce

he e a bei g ea ed. Ge e a e ec ic acid ac i a i a . The a a e a c ec ed ca h dica ( ega i e a de a e ed. Ce ai e a ch a ai e ee a e a ac i a ed ide e i adhe i f he a ed c a i g. Nic e a d ic e a ed a a e acid ac i a ed e ec ica f he a i g. I hi ca e, he ic e i c ec ed ca h dica ed ced a he ca h de. S ecia i ed a d efficie b ica i a d ec e f acid ac i a e da i . f ie

i ed fe a d ai cha ged) i he a . Lead dica ( i i e ) cha ged e e he a i e fi . The a i e fi , ic e d ce f i f ai

id

a eg

SURFACE PREPARATION OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLO S S face e a a i fa i f a i g i diffe e f ha f fe diffe e ce i ca ed b he high deg ee f a i eac i i . O e a id a d c e he face f a i . Thi a e e e di ec b A b a d he e a e ai , a ide di g i h he ba i

he b e i he diffe e ce i ic c e be ee diffe e a i a a d h gh ab b he a ea e f he a e a . The e i a a ge f e ec che e ie e i i g diffe e e ea e a d ac i a i ech i e . A i h he e a b face i ch a i , g ea e, b ffi g c d, fi ge i , e c. a a be e e a e ed. A ge e a c c e a f ed e ea a i i a f : DEGREASING O IDE REMOVAL SURFACE CONDITIONING TO PREVENT REO IDATION PLATE

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. DEGREASING The e f deg ea i g i b ffi g c d , fi ge i Ge e a ,a a ac f he

e e , e c. face a hi

echa ica i

de d be

i ed

he i gi

face, e.g., ab ch

e e , e

c di i . The deg ea i g e , he ef e, h d be de ig ed ba i e a . Mi d a a i , de e ge ,a d e a ied i h e. A ai e -e ch c ea e a a f hei c i i e e a e i f i fi e i e he e ff

e he e i h a

i h ic a e

a ed

a e ide ed i hi e . The e c ea e a a c a . Si ica e a e e ce e deg ea i g age , b a high c ce ai bea i i ica e fi he face. T be e ed effec i ide addi i e i b e e acid de e . e . g d fac a a d def cc a i g age deg ea e

Si ica e-f ee -e ch c ea e i h ea i g i hibi i g fi S e ece i a e ca ef

de e e ha e ade i ib e c bi e a high deg ee f de e ge c i e chi g e ie . The e f ai a e i i ed e a f igh i , a d i ed, i ce he e ch a e a be affec ed b i adi g i he i . ide a e i e e e e a i face . The a e ' hic i gee e , a fac i g ech i e a d hea ea e . Re e i he e a e c c e. O ide e a ca be achie ed b a i ai i g a. di h d ide ffe a high a e f a ac fa i

2. O IDE REMOVAL A e ai ed ea ie , a ha d e de e d a ide a e i a c i ica a a i e ea e . High a a i e e effec i e i Di ed a he ba h. A he f ai Re a ee e ag e i e chi g. Acid e cha i

i c ide e

e ai i i a a i aea ga fficie be f addi i e a e ed c e ch a e, e ch a e f h d a ed a i ide ca e a d hea e a d a

f ee a a i i i a g ai i e, a d a . di i ic

f ide b a a i e e chi g, h e e , ea e behi d a e id e f a i g ha a e a ai e b e. Thi e id e, de c ibed a , a c ai , e c. de e di g he a c i i . The ef e a de i g e f a ea a ai ab e. The a e ed he e agg e i e a a i e e chi g i

e ,c a a

de i a

.A D .T IV .A . E , , , .R ), 3. A FACE CONDI IONING , .A , T .N .T .T .T T .T . A .T , . .D , , . , , , . ., .T , , , , . , .H , , " " ( .T , , ,

, .T , .

.A

Addi ional n clea ion i e de elop, e l ing in a mo e nifo m, e en and adhe en la e p e en eo ida ion of he face, making an fe ime p io o pla ing le

inc allo c i ical.

Ano he fea e of allo inca e i hei capabili o p o ec edge and ha p co ne of in ba el o b lk f om being o n, a common p oblem leading o bli e in ba el pla ing. TABLE IV: T pical Desmutting and Acid-Deo idi ing Solution For 1XXX and 2XXX Allo s Ni ic acid Wa e 30-70% / Balance

For 2XXX and 4XXX Containing Silicon and Most Castings Ni ic acid Fl o ide Wa e 30-50% / 60-100 g/L Balance

For 5XXX Containing Magnesium (Ma also be used as all-purpose desmutter) Ni ic acid S lf ic acid 30-50% / 20-30% 60-100 g/L Balance

Fl o ide Wa e

For Copper Magnesium Allo s (Fluoride ma be added for silicon-containing allo s.)

Sulfuric H drogen Pero ide Water

5-10% v/v 3-5% Balance

Proprietar , nonfuming, stable-acid desmutters are also available for most applications. TABLE V: T pical Preparation C cles 1. For Simple Allo s and Castings: Non-etch soak Etch Desmut Zincate Plate 2. For Heat Treated Allo s: Non-etch soak Deo idi e Etch clean Desmut Zincate Plate 3. For Magnesium and Heat Treated Allo s: Non-etch soak Etch Desmut Zincate Strip (50% nitric acid)

Zincate Plate

Rin ing The chemistries of the different steps could vary substantially from tank to tank in a given su preparation process. Types and degrees of alkalinity or acidity, surfactants, etc. may not be co among the different solutions. Such cross contamination can create a general drop in cleaning and cause objectionable residues to form on the surface being prepared. Silicate residue, for e contact with acids will precipitate insoluble silica acid on the metal surface, leading to haze, p loss of adhesion when parts are plated. Rinsing is therefore considered an important and integ the surface-preparation process.

Adequate rinsing should provide a flow rate adequate to remove residues from the previous s the given rinse time, taking into account the extent that a maximum level of that residue is a Flow controllers, conductivity meters and counter-current-flow rinse techniques are tools used optimize quantity and quality of water used.

Rinse-water temperature is a factor often ignored in preplate cycles. Temperatures below 60 inadequate in rinsing off alkalis and surfactant residues. This is a problem often encountered weather, with incoming rinse water at 40-50F. Optimum temperature for efficient solubility o cleaners and salts is 70-90F. Higher temperatures are effective but may induce flash rusting

Air agitation and spray rinsing greatly improve rinsing efficiency and are often used where fea Reclaimed water for reuse in rinsing is generally acceptable in preplate cycles as long as the r are compatible with the different chemistries used in the process. A fraction of fresh water ma used to prevent an increase in residual content.

P oce Con ol Control of cleaners is usually done by titration of the acid or alkali contents. Maintenance add replenish the basic constituents as well as surfactants and other components included in the f Suppliers of proprietary cleaners provide complete control procedures and kits that allow the means to control and maintain the solutions at optimum operating conditions. Although the essential components can be maintained, contaminants build up and eventually

.O , G .I T S H .C ,

, .I .H . , , , .T

.T . Cleanline T UVT .T , , ASTM B320-60, .T C W , Adhe ion Te ing B T .S C i e ia .T , W B

.M UV , T .T , .T -

, , , .

.T .

.A .

.H . ASTM B-322, S 30

Since surface preparation has a direct impact on adhesion of the plate, adhesion testing is oft performed to measure the adequacy of the preplate process. There are several adhesion tests as a form of production control. The choice of a particular test is limited by the type of part an intended use.

For example, if a part is expected to be exposed to high temperature, a heat-and-quench test relevant. Bending would be an adequate test for post-plate forming operations. ASTM B-571-9 the following tests in detail. One or more may be specified for a particular application. In all t coating is expected to remain intact, with no signs of peeling or flaking off the substrate.

a. Bend Test Bending of parts at a 90 angle around a mandrel, or back and forth through 180 until failur basis metal occurs. Cracks in the metal without lifting of the deposit do not constitute a failur

b. Chisel-Knife Test An attempt is made to undercut and lift the coating with a sharp chisel or knife. Not recomme soft or thin deposits.

c. Burnish Test Rubbing and applying pressure on the plate with a smooth-ended tool, producing a burnishing no peeling or blistering. Not satisfactory for thick deposits.

d. File Test The cross section of the part is filed with a coarse file at a 45 angle so that the substrate is f leaving the edge of the plate protruding. The plate should not lift or peel when pulled. e. Grind-Sa Test Grind or saw the plated article in the direction that favors separation of the plate.

f. Heat-Quench Test Articles are heated in an inert or reducing atmosphere, then quenched in water. The tempera different basis and plated metals are specified in ASTM B57. Appearance of blisters may occur deposit cannot be peeled off the substrate in areas around the blisters, it is not an adhesion fa g. Impact Test

A hammer or an impact device is used to strike and deform the plated part.

h. Peel Test A strip of steel or brass is soldered or secured by a heat cured adhesive to the plate. The strip 90 to the surface.

i. Push Test A blind hold is drilled through the substrate on one side of the part, short of reaching the coat other side. A punch is pushed through the hole against the supported part until a button is pu No exfoliation or peeling in the punched area should occur.

j. Scribe-Grid Test This is a commonly used test in which the surface is scribed with a sharp blade in a grid patte special adhesive tape is applied to the scribed area, then pulled off rapidly. No peeling should TABLE VI: T pical Cleaning C cles Substrate Alkalinit gm/l of NaOH T pical Cleaner Condition

COLD ROLLED STEEL Soak clean high Electroclean Rinse Acid Activate Rinse Electroclean 50-100 20-100 ASF Anodic n/a no current or 15-25 ASF Cathodic 80-100 50-100 20-100 ASF Anodic or Cathodic followed by Anodic

Rinse Mild acid dip plate STAINLESS STEEL Compound remover Soak clean Electroclean Rinse Acid activate or Plate INC DIE CAST Compound remover Soak clean moderate Electroclean Rinse Acid dip plate COPPER n/a 5-15 low, 5-15 10-20 10-15 ASF Anodic Soak or Ultrasonic 50%Hcl 15-25 ASF Anodic 5-15 20-100 50-100 used if parts are polished soak or Ultrasonic 8 oz/gal, 4 min, 160 F 20-50 ASF Anodic n/a 3-5% HCI

Soak clean high Electroclean Rinse Acid acti ate BRASS Soak clean moderate Electroclean Rinse Acid dip TUNGSTEN Soak clean high Acid dip Rinse Anodic etch plate anodic T PICAL ALKALINIT

20-100 20-100 20-50 Anodic

n/a

5-15 10-20 10-15 ASF Anodic or Anodic

n/a

20-100 n/a

20-100

100-300 ASF Anodic

RANGE

High Moderate Low

20-100 10-20 5-15 (May not contain free Hydroxides)

Temperature and time vary depending on supplier recommendations and process used. 1. LIQ ID CLEANERS

Traditional cleaning products were dry powdered materials. Though liquid cleaners were avail early as the 1970 s, they were not accepted, for a variety of reasons. The most commonly cite were that liquid cleaners were not concentrated, as were powders, had narrower operating ra that the user was "paying to ship water." Advances in surfactant technology and the wide use potassium salts have enabled chemical manufacturers to overcome these perceived problems. another way, liquid cleaners are not powdered cleaners pre-dissolved in water. Liquid cleaner chemically different than powders in the use of potassium salts, safe solvents, surfactants, an carbonates and other fillers. A final factor in the acceptance of liquid cleaners is the inherent they imply to the user, some of which are:

Improved safety, no risk of splashback. Automatic control and replenishment-hands-off operation, consistent bath chemistry, r fewer defects. They are more suitable for SPC. Less down time for make up - less sludge generated, less demand on the waste-treatm Effective and economical cleaning.

Cleaner filtration is gaining in popularity, with the aim of prolonging the bath life between du Several filtration techniques have been proposed, ranging from simple bag filtration to comple of soil skimmers, coalescers and ultrafiltration. Since the cost of such systems varies apprecia feasibility study must be undertaken before adopting a particular system. In general, however been reported that any type of filtration does increase the bath life by at least 20%, and or more.

Recent developments in preplate products promote the use of environmentally acceptable che

Substituting effective biodegradable surfactants for hard chelates and use of safer solvents an emulsifiers in place of chlorinated solvents are examples.

Emphasis on simplified water treatment is another aspect of newer cleaning technologies. Rec developments allow oil separation from process cleaner. While water treatment is made easie cleaner solution life is extended and its performance maintained at optimum longer. Separate reclaimed and reused.

SAFET AND HANDLING The majority of people who operate cleaner and acid tanks pay only minor attention to this ex important subject. Many serious accidents, such as chemical burns, respiratory problems and can be avoided. This information is given to the user by the suppliers, including specific instru handling process chemicals. The following safety tips should help inexperienced personnel to a injuries.

When making up acid-dip tanks, never add water to the concentrated acid, always add the water, with constant stirring to avoid spattering. Sulfuric acid is a good example. It react violently if not handled properly. Never add dry cleaner (alkaline) directly to a hot tank above 120 F. Violent eruptions large quantities of dry cleaner are added directly to the tank. Instead, add dry product continuous agitation. Avoid breathing fumes from acids and cleaners. Otherwise respiratory problems can oc Avoid skin and eye contract when handling chemicals. Wear protective clothes, gloves, goggles and other protective equipment. A fume hood should be used when an analytic involves the liberation of hazardous fumes. In case of injury, contact a physician immediately. Give first aid and see MSDS sheet. If a spill occurs, clean up the spill as soon as possible and prevent the spill from any co other chemicals, to prevent reaction. Maintain your own safety first, secure the area an Do not allow personnel to work over hot solution without adequate precautions. Never in an area where chemicals are in use. Provide professional training to those involved in handling chemicals. Check appropriate MSDS sheets prior to the handling or use of all chemicals. Good laboratory safety practice requires that incompatible chemicals be stored, transported,

of in ways that will prevent their coming together in the event of an accident. Tanks should b labeled and identified by type of chemical used, hazard classification and safety information. The preceding material has been reproduced from the MFSA Qualit Metal Finishing Guide, Volume 1, No. 1-P "Chemical Surface Preparation for Electroplated Metallic Coatings"

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