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Job Satisfaction of Jamaican Elementary School Teachers Author(s): Fay Rodgers-Jenkinson and David W.

Chapman Source: International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift fr Erziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l'Education, Vol. 36, No. 3 (1990), pp. 299313 Published by: Springer Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3444507 Accessed: 02/02/2010 23:10
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JOB SATISFACTION OF JAMAICAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS and DAVID W. CHAPMAN FAY RODGERS-JENKINSON

of job satisfaction correlates Abstract- This studyinvestigated amongpublic(N - 190) and private(N - 100) Jamaican school teachers.Empharis elementary of factorsthat could be affectedthroughadministrative was on the identification intervention. Resultsindicatedthat the qualityof school workingconditionsand respondents'relationshipswith other teachers were significantlyrelated to satisfactionfor both public and private school teachers.School prestige and parental encouragementwere also significantpredictors for public school relationand teacher-parent teachers;leadershipstyle, organizational structure, of these for privateschool teachers. Implications ships predicted job satisfaction education are discussed. for Jamaican findings - Diese Studie untersuchteGriinde fiir Zufriedenheit im 7aisinmmenfasung in Schulen und BerufunterLehreman offentlichen privaten (N 190) (N 100) von Faktorengelegt, Jamaica. BesondererWert wurdeauf die Herausarbeitung beeinfluft werdenkonnten. des Verwaltungsapparates die durchdas Einwirken in der wiesendarauf Die Ergebnisse derArbeitsbedingungen hin, daBdie Qualitiit zu anderenLehrernsowohl bei den Lehrer an Schule und die Beziehungen offentlichenals auch bei den Lehrkriftenan privatenSchulenin besonderem Fur Lehrer im offentlichen im Beruf einwirkten. MaBe auf die Zufriedenheit von groBer BereichwarenzudemPrestigeder Schuleund elterliche Anerkennung lassen Ffihrungsstil, bei Lehrernim Privatschulbereich organisatoWichtigkeit; im Beruf erwarten. und Lehrer-Elter BeziehungZufriedenheit rische Struktur werden in Jamaika dieserErgebnisse aufdas Erziehungswesen Die Auswirkungen betrachtet. de la satisfaction R/sume - Cette etude presenteune comparaison professiondes ecoles elementaires nelle des enseignants publiques (N - 190) et privees(N des facteursqui L'accenta eti mis sur la ddtermination 100) i la Jamaique. Les resultatsobtents administrative. peuventetre touches par une intervention ont indiqueque la qualitedes conditionsde travaila l'ecole et les rapportsdes en grandepartiede avec les autresenseignants interrogees dipendaient personnes la satisfactiondes enseignants des ccoles publiqueset privies. Le prestigede I'ecole et le soutien des parents etaient egalementjuges comme des indices le mode de direction,la des 6coles publiques; importants pour les enseignants la et parentsaccusaient entre les relations structure enseignants organisationnelle, des enseignantsdu prive. On examine ensuite les satisfactionprofessionnelle de ces resultats jamaicain. pourl'enseignement implications One of the main challenges facing Jamaica is to iuipiove the efficiency of
- Internationale Review fur Erziehungswisenschaft International Zeitschrift of Education in theNetherlands. Printed andKluwerAcademic Publishers Education
Revue Internationalede Pidagogie 36(3): 299-313, 1990. 0 1990 Unesco Institutefor

300 the education system in the face of limited resources for education. Among the most importantthreats to system efficiency are apparent declines in teachermorale and rising rates of teacherturnover,both of The presentstudyinvestigated whichare indicators of low job satisfaction. factors related to job satisfactionamong Jamaicanelementaryschool of factorsassociated interestwas the identification teachers.Of particular of withteachersatisfaction thatcould be influencedthroughthe alteration in schools. Jamaican administrative and policies practices Background of teachers' The importance job satisfaction assignedto the consideration arises from two sources. First, issues of rapidly growing concern to Jamaicaneducatorsare low teacher morale and, secondly, an apparent Associincreasein teacherturnover Teachers' 1982; Jamaican (McKnight ation 1983, 1985). In part,this patternhas emergedfrom the combined inflation.In part,it is a reflection impactof low salariesand accelerating of the increased opportunitycosts for ^diicators,as teachers have an increasingrange of better paying employmentalternativesavailableto them. The loss of experiencedteachershurts the qualityof instructionand drives up the costs of recruitingand trainingnew teachers,consuming money that could otherwisebe spent to expand access to schoolingor At a time thatdemandfor teachersoushtips improveinstructional quality. supply,the abilityto retainteachersalreadyin the system has taken on is Previousresearchsuggeststhat job satisfaction increasing significance. an importantfactor in favor of teachers' being retained in teaching 1983,1984; Chambers (Chapman 1984). There is also some evidence that higher levels of job satisfaction has been contributeto better teaching: for example,teacherenthusiasm found to be positively related to student achievementin the USA Kelly and Holloway 1977). It is unlikelythat unhappy,dis(Chapman, effectiveinstructors over a sustained satisfiedteacherswill be particularly of time. period Previous research in Jamaica has examined the job satisfactionof secondaryschool teachers (Chambers1984). Virtuallyno attentionhas been given to identifyingthe factors related to the job satisfactionof teachersat the elementaryschool level. Previousresearchin the USA, however,has found differences in the factorsassociatedwithjob satisfactionbetweenelementary andsecondary schoolteachers 1983). (Chapman The present study investigatedcorrelates of job satisfactionamong

301 Jamaican The studywas grounded school teachers. in a model elementary of the factors associated with teacher satisfactionwhich posits that satisfactionis a function of (a) fixed characteristics of the school, (b) of the teacher,and (c) schoolpersonaland professionalcharacteristics relatedfactors.These last refer to the workingconditionsand interpersonal relationships that characterize the work setting.The model, presented in Fig. 1, draws from earlier work by Chapman(1983, 1984), and Hutcheson(1982), and Holdaway(1978). In operationalizChapman the was givento school-related factorsfor two model,specialattention ing reasons. First, such factors are the most susceptibleto policy interventions. Fixed characteristics of the school, such as location and type of control(public/private) are not easily altered.Similarly, the personaland of the teachers characteristics refer to variablesthat professional largely are not easily changed through outside interventionor would have requiredan interventionat a much earlier point in a teacher'scareer factorsare School-related development(such as duringteachertraining). in thepresent. moresusceptible to intervention The second reason for emphasizingschool-relatedfactors was that in recent researchsuggeststhat, as a set, they are particularly important in for the USA has satisfaction. Research found that, elementary job school teachers,higherlevels of job satisfaction are positivelyrelatedto from supervisors, and approval recognition family,and friends(Chapman is negatively and Hutcheson 1982; Chapman1983, 1984). Satisfaction to increases. related to the importance assigned salary Procedure During 1984, a stratified random sample of 290 elementaryschool teachers from the metropolitancenters of Kingston and St. Andrew completed the JamaicanTeacher SatisfactionSurvey(JTSS).The JTSS about the and plofessionalinformation collected personal,demographic, respondents,school-relateddata, and respondents'ratingsof their job of satisfaction. Multipleregressionwas employedto test the significance and school factorsand between personal,professional, the relationships teachers' job satisfaction. Sample was used to select 28 elementary randomsampling A stratified procedure centersof Kingstonand St. Andrew,Jamaica. schools in the metropolitan amountof fees was on the basis of control(public/private), Stratification

School Demographics School-Related Factors - school type (public/private) - size -

Personal and Pi'ofessionalCharacteristics

- organi7ationalstructureof school - sex, age, maritalstatus, numberof decision-makingstructure dependents, teaching experience, - recognition of teacher performance qualifications,position on staff - principal'sleadership style - workingconditions - knowledge of aims and objectives - prestige of school - job tenure - board representation - interpersonalrelationships(peers, parents) Fig. 1. Model of the factors associated with teacher satisfaction.

303 charged, enrollment,and overall socioeconomic status of the student of the school.The finalsampleconsistedof 13 privateand 15 population for one school were lost in the public schools. However,questionnaires mail,leavinga total of 12 privateand 15 publicschoolsin the finalstudy. A total of 360 teachersin the 27 schools received questionnaires; 290 cent a of 81 useableresponseswere returned, rate per yielding response in Table1. Selectedsamplecharacteristics arepresented Instrumentation The JTSSis a 156 item surveywhichcollectsrespondents' ratingsof their on and school information and satisfaction professional job personal, from a review Items were dimensions. 23 characteristics along developed of theliterature on teachersatisfaction. fromsix schoolsin the Kingston The JTSSwas pilotedwith 55 teachers area (3 public, 3 private)to assess clarity,ambiguityand internalconsistencyof the scales.Followingrevisions,scales were repilotedusing 39 teachersin six schools. A Cronbachalphawas againcomputedfor each is availablein RodgersThe full questionnaire scale (whereappropriate). Jenkinson (1987).
Table1. Selected characteristicsof respondentsample. Characteristic School type private public Gender male female Age under 25 25-34 35-44 45 and over no response Time teachingsame grade lyear 1-3 years 4-6 years 7-9 years over 10 years no response Frequency Percent

100 190 35 255 32 160 56 40 2 90 91 57 23 25 4

34.5 65.5 12.1 87.9 11.0 55.2 19.3 13.8 0.7 31.0 31.4 19.7 7.9 8.6 1.4

304 variablesincludedtype and size of school. Personaland Demographic professional variables included teachers' gender, age, marital status, number of dependents, amount of teaching experience, qnalifications, positionon the school staff, length of time te^rbingthe same grade,job and whetheror not they were represented on tenure,union membership. theirschools Boardof Management. Ten variable to measureschoolcharacteristics: setswereconstructed
-

- decision-making of the school(alpha-*0.81); structure

school organization(alpha - 0.82);

principal'sleadershipstyle (alpha - 0.91); school's recognition of teacher performance(alpha - 0.85); workingconditions (alpha - 0.89);

teacher-teacherrelationships(alpha - 0.82); teacher-parentrelationships(alpha - 0.84); parentalencouragement(alpha - 0.90).

of educational goals(alpha- 0.80); knowledge teachers'perceptionof the social acceptanceof their school (alpha0.80);

The dependentmeasure,job satisfaction, was operationalized througha of 0.895. Items that composedthe 20 item scale with an alphareliability in Table2. scaleandselectedotherscalesarereported job satisfaction Analysis Returnedquestionnaires were coded and the data subjectedto computer Three analysis. stepwise multipleregressionanalyseswere computedto the amount of variancein job satisfactionexplainedby the investigate The first analysisincludeddata from all responindependentvariables. dents.Followingthat,separateanalyseswere computedfor teachersfrom andfrompublicelementary schools. private Results The five variablesets that enteredthe stepwisemlltiple regression for all teachers combined yielded an overall F of 40.26 (p < 0.0001) and in teachersatisfaction explained58 per cent of the variation (Table3). As in Table 3, school prestigewas the best predictor indicated of job satisfacin the dependentvariable. for 38 per cent of the variance tion, accounting Another20 per cent of the variancein job satisfaction was explainedby other with teachers,relaconditions, working interpersonal relationships

305 2 Itemsandtheirscalesof measurement. Table Item DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS Schooltype Schoolsize PERSONAL FACTORS Gender Age Marital status of dependents Number Teaching experience of timeatsamegrade Length
Qualifications

Scaleof measurement
I

(private/public) (6 sizecategories)
(male/femnale)

Present position Jobtenure SCHOOL-RELATED FACTORS Boardrepresentation in union Membership

ageentered) (actual (single/married) number (actual entered) 4 10 yrsor more) (1 - 0-2 years; (actual years) 5 non-graduate; (1 - pre-trained, postgraduate) 4 - department (1 - classteacher, head) (yes/no) (yes/no) (yes/no) of items Alphareliability Number 7 23 20 7 8 14
9

structure Organi7ational Leadership style Jobsatisfaction Peerrelationships Teacher/parent relationships structure Decision-making of teacher Recognition performance conditions Working of school'saimsandobjectives Knowledge of school Prestige Paiwital encouragement

0.82 0.93
0.90

13 6 6 7

0.82 0.84 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.80 0.80 0.93

tionships with parents, and organi7ationalstructure.Teachers who worked in higher prestige schools characterized by good working conditions, who enjoyed good relationships with other teachers and parents, and who felt a part of the school structure, tended to report higher levels of job satisfaction. Four variable sets entered the regression analysis of public elementary school teachers to yield an overall F of 85.51 (p < 0.0001). School prestige, working conditions, the quality of interpersonalrJationships with other teachers, and the extent of parental encouragement were all positively related to job stisfaction. The analysis of data from private

306 Table 3. Summaryof stepwise regressionresults in analysis of teacher job satisfaction. Stepvariable Mult R R2 R2 Incremental Beta Change F

All Teachers Combined (N - 290) 1. Schoolprestige 178.37 0.618 0.383 0.383 2. Workconditions 63.56 0.703 0.494 0.110 3. Peerrelations 28.96 0.736 0.541 0.047 4. Teacher-parent 17.97 relationship 0.754 0.569 0.027 5. Orgsnizational 9.94 0.763 0.583 0.015 structure PublicElementary Teachers' Job School (N 190) Satisfaction, 1. Schoolprestige 0.712 0.506 0.506 192.73 2. Workconditions 35.95 0.765 0.586 0.080 3. Peerrelations 0.790 0.624 0.038 18.86 4. Parental 13.18 0.806 0.649 0.025 encouragement Private JobSatisfaction SchoolTeachers' Elementary (N - 100) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Leadership style Peerrelations structure Organi7ational conditions Working relationship Teacher-parent 0.571 0.633 0.666 0.670 0.716 0.326 0.402 0.444 0.484 0.513 0.326 0.073 0.042 0.040 0.029 47.32 12.63 7.22 7.38 5.67 0.62 0.38 0.25 0.22 0.15

0.71 0.35 0.23 0.21

0.57 0.29 0.26 0.22 0.21

elementary school teachers had an overall F of 19.82 (p < 0.0001). Five variable sets entered the analysis - leadership style, relationships with other teachers, organizational structure, working conditions, and teacherparent relationship.To assist in the interpretationof these results, Table 4 presents the item composition of the scales that entered any of the three regression equations. Discussion In many countries teaching has been regarded traditionallyas employment of higher status than the salary level would indicate. Typically, teachers' status in their community operates as a non-monetary incentive helping to offset the otherwise low wages. In many countries that equation is being threatened by a drop in the perceived status of teaching, thereby changing the incentive value of the job, and by salaries falling too low to be meaningfullyoffest by such intangiblesas status.

307
Table 4. Item composition of scales entering regressions analyses to predict teachers'job satisfaction. School Prestige 1. I do not feel my school is held in high regard. 2. The prestige of preparatory school teachers in the rommlwity is higher than that of primaryteachers. 3. I am proud to tell others where I teach. 4. I feel the job I do contributesto the good of the society.. 5. My school is well regardedby the con-.nunity. 6. My school is involved in commnlnity affairs. OrganizationalStructure 1. I am involved in formingthe goals of my school. 2. I participatefully in changingschool policies. 3. The members of the Board visit the school, particularly for special functions. 4. I am encouragedto make suggestionsfor improvements. 5. I have plenty of freedom on the job to use my own judgemont. 6. I reallyfeel part of this organi7atinn. 7. The Principalfollows policies of the Board/Ministry of Education without consultationwith staff. Principal's Leadership Style 1. I get full supportfrom the Principalin disciplinarymattcs. 2. The Principalis easily sccessible to staff. 3. The Principalencouragesuifo mal chats with the staff. 4. The Principalgets everyone to work in a team. 5. The work atmospherehere is encouraging. 6. Studentstake theirwork seriously. 7. If I have a complaintto make, I feel free to talk to the Principal. 8. The sense of discipline in this school is good. 9. Managementis doing its best to give us good workingtonritions. 10. Teachers have ready access to the school's files and records. 11. The Principal readily pants time off for staff to attend workshops and seminars. 12. The Principalencourages staff to improve their education. 13. The school has an on-going staff development progilA.,,ne. manner. 14. The Principalruns the staff meetings in an authoritarian 15. Some members of staff appear to be closer to the principal than other members. 16. Sometimes I feel that I count for very little in this organisation. 17. When problems arise, the Principalconsults only a small group of staff 18. Studentsare often absent or late without reasonableexcuses. 19. Managementkeeps us in the dark about thingswe ought to know. 20. You have to follow "proper chalnnls" in this school to have your complaintsheard. 21. The Principaltends to show up teachers in front of parents. 22. The Principaltends to show up teachers in front of other teachers. 23. The Principal sometimes asks us to do things without a thorough discussion as to why and how these things ought to be done.

308 4 (Continued) Table Conditions Working 1. Someof theworking conditions hereareveryannoying. 2. Thenoiselevelin myschoolis unbearable. andcomfortable. 3. The staffroomis adequate 4. I oftenspendmybreaksin the staffroom. 5. Thereis adequate forbooksandmaterials. spaceprovided storage 6. Thisschoolis securefromthieves. fearof having in theclassroom without it vandali7ed. 7. I canleavematerials in myschool. aredoneregularly 8. Repairs andmaintenance 9. Toiletfacilities for staffareadequate. 10. Toiletfacilities forpupilsareadequate. 11. Thereis a comfortable placefor staffto havelunch. 12. Theschoolis wellventilated. 13. Lighting in thisschoolis goodforworking. RelationsWithOtherTeachers 1. The peopleI workwithareveryfriendly. 2. You can count on the cooperationof other members of staff when activities. fieldtripsor festival planning 3. Teachers myclasswhenI amabsent. willingly supervise 4. Mostof the teachers hereacceptthe faultsof theircolleagues. out myteaching 5. I feel isolated in carrying activities. frommycolleagues 6. Teachers in thisschoolhavea goodworking relationship. 7. Youcancounton thesupport in thefaceof a problem. of colleagues TeacherParentRelationships 1. Parents blameteachers whenchildren do notdo well. 2. Parentsshow thatthey are indifferent to conditionsunderwhichteachers haveto work. 3. I havea goodrapport I teach. withthe parents of the children 4. The ParentsTeachersAssociationof the school occasionallyputs on a dinner for thestaff. 5. Theparents whatteachers do fortheirchildren. appreciate 6. The ParentsTeachersAssociationof this school expressesits regardfor its teachers at its meetings. 7. The Parents Teachers Association sometimes holds functions to give teachers fortheworktheyhavedone. recognition 8. Parents oftencome into the school to helpthe teachers withcertainschool activities the lunch program, sportsactivities). (forexample, Parental Encouragement 1. Theparents in theeducation of theirchildren. hereshowa keeninterest 2. I can counton the parentsof the children I teachto insistthathomework is done. 3. Parents checkregularly on the progress of theirchildren. 4. When acadmic reports on the childrenare bad, most parentsin this schoolwouldaskfor reasons why. 5. Paieits in this school are concernedif they cannot providebooks and instructional materials fortheirchildren.

309 Table4 (Continued) 6. Most parentshere see to it that their children are punctualfor school. 7. Parentsin this school insist that their children attend regularly. Job Sqtisfaction (Dependent Variable) 1. I am satisfied with my job as a teacher. 2. My piesent job measures up well to the sort of job I wanted when I applied for the position. 3. I find real enjoymentin my work. 4. What I do at work is more importantto me than the money I earn. 5. I am satisfied with the way employee benefits are handled here. 6. I would recommend this school to other teachers as a good place to work. 7. Opportunitiesin my school are better than in other types of schools. 8. The staff gets together socially at least once per term. 9. If I were offered a similar teaching position in another urban school, I would take it immediately. 10. I am often bored with my job. 11. Most of the times I have to force myself to go to work. 12. I do not feel that I can choose my own tasks in relation to my teaching. 13. I feel so isolated from my colleagues. 14. Myjob could be more ebhalenging. 15. Nobody appreciateswhat I do. 16. I am happy workingwith the parents of this school. 17. I am generallysatisfiedwith the salaryI earn. 18. Compared to teachers in other areas of the system (public/private),I think I am reasonablywell paid. 19. I feel motivatedto attend the activitieswhich occur at my school

In Jamaica, this threat is occurring at a time when teachers have more job alternatives.As the modem sector of the Jamaican economy expands, teachers have more employment possibilities available to them. The 'opportunitycost' of remaininga teacher increases, which could result in a teacher shortage. What is more likely is that it results in a quality decline in the teaching force. This occurs as those potential teachers with the strongest skills are the ones who have the most attractive alternatives, leaving those with weaker skills to serve as teachers. This pressure can be offset by higher teacher salaries (unlikely, given the stringent economic condition of the country), by recruiting and training new teachers (at considerable cost to the system), or by seeking to adjust non-monetary incentives to make remaining in teaching a desirable alternative for current teachers. Given the economic and fiscal condition of Jamaica, the most feasible solution, if it can be effected, is to retain the techers already in the system. Job satisfaction lepresents one type of non-monetary incentive. Such a stiategy requires that the factors associated with high levels of job satisfaction be well understood and that systematic efforts be made to

310 ensure that those factors are present.The commlonproblemswith this of job satisfaction are not are,first,thatthe correlates approach frequently understoodand, second, even if they are, that the short-termcost of interventions to raise satisfaction are difficultto cover, even when it can be shownthatthese costs are less thanthe long-term costs of low teacher moraleand/or attrition. This studyrepresents one step in the equationas it helpsidentify schoolfactorsrelatedto teachers' job satisfaction. Results of this study indicated that the job satisfactionof Jnmaican school teacherswas relatedmost stronglyto their perception elementary of the prestigeof theirschool withinthe community and, secondly,to the amounts specificworkingconditionsof their school. However,significant of variancein job satisfaction were also relatedto teachers'relationship and rapport with other teachers, the recognitionand approval they receivedfrom the parentsof their students,and the extentto which they felt they participatedin the operation of their school. More satisfied teacherswere those who felt their school was held in high regardwithin the community, thatthey receivedsupportand appreciation from parents, and that they had the respect and cooperationof other teachersin the school. In thesethings,Jamaican school teachersdifferedsomewhat elementary from elementary school teachersin the United States.Researchin both countrieshighlightsthe importanceof pzofessionalstatus and interpersonal relationships in teachers' However,researchin the job satisfaction. USA has indicatedthat more satisfiedelementaryteachersassign more and supervisors,less to importanceto recognitionby administrators recognition by peers (Chapman1983). More satisfiedJamaican teachers, at leastin the publicschools,appearedto assigngreaterimportance to the reactionsof the largercommunity than to those of school administiatots, wasalsoimportant although peersupport differencesin the correlatesof satisfaction, Important however,were observedbetweenteachersin public and privateschools.Teachers'relations with other teachersand the workingconditionsthat typifiedtheir school - both of which are in-school factors - were significantly and to related for satisfaction both school positively job groups.However, scalesenteredonly the publicschool prestigeand parental encouragement analysis;leadership style, olganiational structure,and teacher-pameut enteredonlythe private schoolanalysis relationships (Table5). The qualityof school workingconditionsand respondents'relationwere significantly relatedto satisfaction for both shipswithotherteawchrs and describethe quality public privateschool teachers.These dimensions of the physicaland intcypersonal of theirworkplace. It is not enviolounent surprisingthat improvementsto the immediateenvironmentin which

311 Table 5. Publicandprivate schoolcorrelates of satisfaction. Publicschoolteacher Parental encouragement


School prestige

Private schoolteachers structure Organi7ational Teacher-parent relationships


T .adershipstyle

Both
Work conditions

Peerrelations

teachersspend the bulk of their day and performtheir piofessionalrole are among the factors most strongly related to satisfaction.In some school respectsit is also a positivefinding,since changesto the immediate those addressed are most enviolment easily throughadrminritraamong tiveinterventions to raisejob satisfarction. designed Parentalinterestin the activitiesof the school was relatedto satisfaction for both public and privateteachers- but in differentways. The relaand teacher-parent betweenthe parentalencouragement distinction tionship scales is subtle but important.Items on the teacher-parent scale tap teachers' relationship perceptionof parents'appreciation for the scale conveys parents' teacher'swork while the parentalencouragement involvementand interest in the progressof their rhildren'seducation. Results suggest that private school teachers assigned more value to parents' appreciationwhile public school teachers assigned more to parental involvement.This finding might reflect existing differences betweenthe two types of school.It may be a case of people valuingwhat possess.Parentswho send theirchildrento privateschool alreadymay be the teacher's moreinvolvedin theirchild'sprogress, allowing considerably in school Teachers interestto shiftto parents' settings public appreciation. of schooling. for theactivities support maybe contentto secureparental structureand principals' Only in privateschools were organizational of teachers' prejob satisfaction, leadershipstyle significantpredictors to sumablybe"alse teachersin private schools have more opportunity of the managein thesetypes of decision.A greater proportion participate at levelsabovethe school mentdecisionsin publicschoolsare centralized to findingsof researchin the USA, in These findingswere comparable that satisfactionwas significantlyrelated to teachers' opportunityto exercise leadershipwithin the school and participatein decisions that affectschoollife. betweenthe correlatesof teachers' The reasonsfor the differences job satisfactionbetween public and private schools are speculative.The may need to be important findingis that strategyfor raisingsatisfaction
they do not have - and possibly undervaluing those things they already

312 differentfor the two systems- to reflectdifferencesin the correlatesof satisfaction. Thata school factoris Correlation does not necessarily implyrausality. relatedto teachers' does not meanthataltering thatschool job satisfartion factorwill necessarilyresultin higherlevels of satisfaction. Nonetheless, such correlations publicrelations identifygood places to begin.Aggressive to help communicate of the school to the activitiesand accomplishments the cornmninity of school prestigeand it mayhelp raiseritizens'perception and rapport. Adminconmmunication may help to improveteacher-parent the conditions within school to effoits istatols' impiove physicalworking and to establisha positivetone of collaboration and colleagueship appear to be particularly if teacher satisfaction is the goal. appropriate iinploved Withinprivateschools, the principal's management practicesand leaderto be important in enhancing teachers' job satisfaction. shipstyleappear This study has identifieda nlmber of factors relatedto teachers' job satisfactionwhich, for the most part, can be affectedby administrative interventions. The problem is that nearly all the interventionsrequire some amount of money. For example, the poor physicalconditionsof many Jamaicanschools have been underscoredin studies by Campbell (1979), Andrews (1980), and Chambers(1984). Results of this study in suggestthat one of the most direct ways to increasejob satisfaction both publicand privateschools would be to improvethe physicalconditions in whichteacherswork.But schools have little money and certainty of short-term cost appearsnot to be clearlyoffset by the probability of gain. long-term The issue is one of ffiriency. It maybe less expensiveto fundinterventions to raisethe job satisfaction of currentteachersthanto lose themand have to recruitand trainnew teachers.It may be less expensiveto raise the job satisfaction of currentteachersthan to sufferthe and enthusiasm consequencesof disillusioned, unhappyteachersin the classroom.Short on finmdr, school asministratorsoften gamble that the probabilityof teachersleaving(and the cost of replacingthem) does not outweighthe cost of effectingthe change that would raise satisfaction.Some of the not being sure what interventions gamble comes from administrators would have the greatestlikelihoodof impact.The correlatesof teachers' job satisfactionidentifiedby this study may provide a basis for more effective interventions. References
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313
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