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February 14, 2013

A Penton Media Publication


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HOW TO DEAL
WITH WATER
HAMMER,
page 54
NICE THREADS:
BASICS OF METAL
INSERTS,
page 66
LUBRICATION
FOR LIFE, page 72
New
developments
in 3D printing
page 46
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RS# 101
Solve the puzzle then unscramble the letters in the yellow squares above
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ACROSS
1. Fearless stuntmans frst name
5. Everyone
8. Magentic resonance imaging
(abbr.) systems
11. ___ rly or cheap
12. Lukes sister, the Princess of
Alderaan
13. Umpires call
14. Privy to
15. North-central Utah city
16. No longer working (abbr.)
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a wide range of ___
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between power supply and
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20. ___ Pepper, too!
21. Scatter seed
22. Avago Technologies
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supplies from operators
and patients in medical
applications.
26. Part of speech
29. Youll fnd one in an atlas
30. Replace the logo on
Supermans chest?
33. One-time password (abbr.)
34. Escape
36. Avago Technologies ofer
several types of motion-
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meet the needs of diferent
electrical motor systems.
38. Howard and Kobes league.
40. Charged particle
41. Avago Technologies, as explained
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46. However
47. Ready for picking
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51. Key bakery employee
52. ___-majesty
53. Sales pro
54. Long time
55. Green-building certifcation
(abbr.)

DOWN
1. Electromagnetic interference
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6. In ___ of
7. ___ from Avago
Technologies serve as
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backlighting for medical and
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8. Need for a dying fre?
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12. Behind todays sophisticated
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semiconductors that sense
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connect signals in order to
process digital data.
18. Bradley or Sharif
19. First name of horror movie
star.
22. International Monetary Fund
(abbr.)
23. Gal of song
24. What you do with a wrapped
present
25. Wide shoe size
27. Utah mascot
28. Commercial-free radio net.
31. Sharpshooter
tribe
37. Actor Ed
39. Hawks nest
41. Join together
42. Puerto ___.
43. Not closed.
44. Canadian tribe.
45. Manuscript encl.
46. Light-___ and ___-graph
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50 51
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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
11 12
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28
41
equipment
49. Light-emitting diode (abbr.).
32. Member of ancient Gaelic

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FEATURES
Water hammer canaffect
most any fluidsystemwith
rapidly changingflows.
FLUID POWER
Water hammer (or steamhammer) is a violent flow transient in piping named
for the loud banging it generates. It can affect almost any fluid system that
experiences rapidly changing flows, including power-plant piping, water-
supply systems, pumped storage facilities, oil pipelines, and hydraulic and
general fluid-handling lines.
Water hammer is not just a nuisance. It can rupture or collapse pipes, uproot
anchors, and cause other calamities associated with excessive pipe movement.
Proper design and operation prevent such destruction.
Pressure waves
To design piping systems that stand up to the forces that water hammer gen-
erates, engineers first need to recognize pressure-wave propagation in pipes.
This includes both the size and swiftness of the pressure surge, and how pres-
sure waves affect pipe.
Suddenly closing a gate or valve builds up pressure by p that propagates up-
streamat the speed of sound. The pressure wave is reflected at the reservoir or
junction and travels back to the gate, changing pressure in the pipe by p. The
wave reflects off the closed gate, turns into a negative pressure wave and travels
toward the reservoir for a second round trip. The pressure wave decays in two
to three cycles.
Engineers can determine the magnitude of the pressure surge by considering
a layer of fluid adjacent to the gate (as shown in the Control volume illustration).
As the gate closes to block flow, the resulting boundary forces on the control
volume accelerate the fluid mass inside.
Violent flowtransients
can destroy piping.
Heres a look at the
causes, and howto
head off problems.
Authored by:
Moo-Zung Lee
West Hills, Calif.
Edited by Kenneth J. Korane
ken.korane@penton.com
Key points:
Water hammer can affect most any fluid
system with rapidly changing flows.
It can rupture or collapse pipes, uproot or
damage supports, and break connections to
equipment.
Solutions include well-designed restraints,
slowing valve openings, and eliminating
entrapped air.
Resources:
Moo-Zung Lee has a BSME from the National
Taiwan Univ., MSME from the Univ. of
Houston, and a Ph.D. from NewYork State
Univ. at Stony Brook. He has nearly 40 years
experience in power-plant construction and
dynamic and stress analyses of nuclear-power-
plant piping and aerospace and defense
systems.
Taming
WATER
HAMMER
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 54
INSTRUMENTATION
Authored by:
JimSchwartz,
National Instruments Corp.
Austin, Tex.
Edited by LelandTeschler
leland.teschler@penton.com
Key points
Consider the complete systembefore testing begins.
Account for hardware, software, data storage and
processing, and the testing environment when
developing a test system.
National Instruments Inc., Austin, Tex., www.ni.com
More on this case study, http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/
doc/p/id/cs-14909
ITM, Milford, Ohio, www.un-yah.com/
Tips for
large
machinery
test
systems Visualizing test data
Whentestinglarge cranes under potentially dangerous
loadingconditions, the ability tovisualize and
interpret the data inreal time canprevent failures and
make things less risky for personnel. This application
employeda structural test environment called
iTestSystemfromITMthat includedcapabilities to
process the data duringacquisition.
Data storage andpost-processing
Test systems for compliance withsafety standards
must output data ina standardfile format. Because
ITMcollecteddata ina standardfile format, Manitowoc
engineers couldanalyze data andverify test results
usingexistingin-house software.
Electromagnetic
interference
Noise sources likeTVand
radiostations canaffect
measurements, necessitating
data filters toensure
accuracy. For example,
the NI CompactDAQdata
acquisitionplatformfrom
National Instruments
includes integratedsignal
conditioningsuchas filtering,
amplification, andexcitation.
Quarter bridge
measurements
Instrumentationoptions
are limitless. Youneedto
chose hardware that canbe
optimizedfor the application.
ITMengineers usedNI C
Series modules withthe
NI CompactDAQplatform.
Eachmodule includes
built-inbridge completion,
excitation, amplification, and
filteringrequiredfor making
quarter bridge straingage
measurements.
Shielding fromthe elements
Most large equipment wont fit ina test lab. Its
usually exposedtothe elements. Eachpiece of
instrumentationshouldsit inrugged, sealed
enclosures. InITMs case, Nema 4Xenclosures
protectedinstruments.
Safety standards
Engineers at ITMhadtopay close attentionto
SAE J987, whichoutlines the methods for testing
static loads ona lattice boomcrane. This let them
supply Manitowoc withthe test results toshow
compliance. SAE J987 dictates this particular test,
but nearly every large piece of machinery has
certainstandards andcodes.
Instrumentationanddocumentation
The safety standardusually includes the required
instrumentationaccuracy, calibrationprocedures,
anddocumentationsteps for the final report. But
different manufacturers may have more detailed
or stringent requirements. Failure tounderstand
themcancost hours of test time
Choice of straingage
Straingages have nearly
unlimitedvariations based
onqualities suchas size,
sensitivity, material temperature
coefficients, temperature ranges,
andmeasurement axis. Pay
attentiontothe straingage
properties andthe material
it mounts on. Here, 32 strain
gages mount toeachlattice
sectionalongthe entire length
of the boom, accordingtothe
methods describedinSAE J987.
Measurements of buckling
stresses inthe crane boom
lattices came fromsingle-axis
350-straingages usedina
quarter bridge configuration. In
total, ITMused144 straingages
alongthe lengthof the boom.
Lead wire resistance and
shunt calibration
Astrainmeasurement is
essentially a resistance
measurement, soleadwire
resistance cancause offsets.
Quarter-bridge measurements
are inherently sensitive tothe
resistance of wiringbetween
the sensor andmeasurement
device. Solongwire runs on
off-highway equipment are a
problem. Amethodcalledshunt
calibrationcanquantify the lead
wire resistance andnullify this
effect, either insoftware as data
is acquiredor inpost-processing.
What to look out for when
sensors get widely dispersed
over big machines.
With data acquisition projects, the costs of delays are often
high. Thats particularly true for heavy machinery like
cranes, mining shovels, and excavators. Examples come
from obstacles commonly faced by engineers measuring
strain along the length of a 300-ft crane boom made by
Manitowoc Cranes. Mark Yeager and Tim Carlier, test
engineers for Integrated Test and Measurement (ITM),
a service provider (employed by Manitowoc Cranes)
specializing in challenging test applications, took these
measurements over several weeks. MD
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 64 FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 65
VOLUME 85
ISSUE 2
FEBRUARY 14, 2013
Access our Reader Service
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products and services found
in the pages of MACHINE DESIGN.
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64
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The changing face of 3D printing
Technology once deemed too expensive for
wide use has infiltrated manufacturing and
even become a hit with consumers.
Taming water hammer
Violent flow transients can destroy
piping. Heres a look at the causes, and
how to head off problems.
Tips for large
machinery test systems
An example shows how to configure
data-acquisition instrumentation
when sensors are widely dispersed
and subject to the outdoors
environment.
Putting inserts in plastic
parts: Ultrasonic or heat?
Threaded inserts can be placed in
thermoplastic parts using heat or
ultrasonics. Here are the advantages
and disadvantages of each.
Motion-Control
Technology Guide
Reliability and lubrication
VFDs: Boosting efficiency in hoisting applications
Practical protection of motion designs and workers
Baggage-scanning system minimizes lost luggage
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 2
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RS# 103
DEPARTMENTS
EDITORIAL
Secret to achieving goals: Dont try too hard
EDITORIAL STAFF
LETTERS
SCANNING FOR IDEAS
Rifle lets sniper set new record
Torque limiter protects machinery
REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
LOOKING BACK
COMMENTARY
Acquihire: When companies have more money than brains
SENSOR SENSE
Pulse-ranging technology
TAVENNER ON SAFETY
Rolling equipment, fractured feet
VANTAGE POINT
Meeting and beating new-product cost targets Julie Driscoll
ORR ON ENGINEERING
The nature of design
SOFTWARE REVIEW
Direct modeler builds a better fuel tank
PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT
Mechanical slides, drives, & gears
PRODUCTS
DATA FILES
BUSINESS INDEX
AD INDEX
CLASSIFIEDS
BUSINESS STAFF
BACKTALK
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ON THE COVER
Model of a head printed on
Mcors full-color 3D printer.
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FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 4
- MateriaIs tear, |am or curI
- Webs and Ims cIing
to themseIves
- Iectronic sensors faiI,
making faIse readings
- Hazardous sparks or shocks
- Product cIings to itseIf,
roIIers, machine beds
- Dust attraction ruins
surface nishes
\hen the humiuity is low, static electricity problems will happen.
EXAIR manuIactures a complete line
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RS# 104
Kep-O-seal

Adjustable Relief
Valves
Available as in-line or cartridge insert
types, these valves feature the industry
proven Flexible Seal Seat design which
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they are designed for applications requir-
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tamper-proof pressure adjustment. Fully
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Linear & Angular Position,
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Wide Range of Strokes
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Free 76-page catalog and technical assistance
Controls microsite
Heidenhain has launched a microsite on its TNC
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covers a range of controls, features, and applications,
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Relays and controls
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and technical documentation on design, safety,
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Littelfuse.com/RelaysControls.
The Model X from Tesla
At this years North American International Auto
Show, Editor Leland Teschler talks to a Tesla
Motors product planner about the new ModelX.
The electric car blends a minivan and SEV and has
unique falcon wing doors that swing up and out
of the way. With optional all-wheel drive, the Model
X sports 0 to 60-mph acceleration in under 5 sec.
Get a preview at www.engineeringtv.com/video/
The-Model-X-Complete-with-Falco;Only-Engineering-
TV-Videos.
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RS# 158
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 6
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RS# 106
EDITORIAL
Secret to achieving
goals: Dont try too hard
Spring is in the air, and to many people, that means its time to pursue a
national pastime. No, not baseball: evaluating last years employee per-
formance goals and setting new ones.
I dont know what the process looks like in your company, but at
mine, it often involves going back to last years performance reviews
and changing goals that were obsolete two weeks after they were writ-
ten. Managers then write in another set of goals that pretty much reflect
what their employees actually accomplished last year.
I used to stress out over whether changing goals after the fact this
way defeated the purpose of the whole exercise. But that was before I
became aware of an increasing body of research showing that pursuing
business goals too relentlessly can be counterproductive. Among those
who have come to this conclusion is Chris Kayes, a George Washington
University professor of management science. Specifically, Kayes noticed
problems cropping up when organizations set big, audacious goals for
themselves, a tactic frequently advocated by management consultants.
Evidence often emerged that the goal was either wildly out of reach or
just unwise. But instead of abandoning the whole idea, some organiza-
tions would pour even more effort into it. This redoubling of exertion
oftentimes resulted in plans going farther off track.
Interestingly, Kayes thinks a lot of these ill-advised escapades hap-
pen because the people involved find it easier to continue investing in a
strategy that isnt working than to change course. The goal, he explains,
can become part of their identity. Uncertainty about the goal then no
longer merely threatens their plans, it threatens them as individuals.
Sticking to the plan makes them feel better by giving them a sense of
certainty about the future, even as evidence mounts that theyve got the
wrong plan.
Another management consultant who finds fault with conventional
ideas about goal setting is Stephen Shapiro, author of books such as,
Goal-free Living, and a speaker at TEDx conferences. Shapiro once
commissioned a survey that found 41% of the respondents werent any
happier after achieving goals theyd set for themselves. It also revealed
18% claimed goals had destroyed a friendship, a marriage, or another
significant relationship. Another 36% claimed adding goals on their to-
do list made them worry more, though over half of them had a goal of
reducing the amount of stress in their lives.
Shapiro now tells companies that they can get more out of their
employees by getting rid of goals. Instead, he says, its better to have a
broad sense of direction but without a precise vision for the future.
Similar themes emerge from the work of University of Virginia busi-
ness research professor Saras D. Sarasvathy. She questioned successful
entrepreneurs about the best way of bringing a new product to market.
They largely pooh-poohed the idea of devising a business plan with a
lot of specific goals. Better to just go out and try things, they said. Youll
find you what your immediate goals should be as you go along.
Which pretty much explains why we generally figure out annual em-
ployee goals only in hindsight.
Leland Teschler, Editor
RS# 107
FEBRUARY 14, 2013
Mi c r ohy dr a ul i c s .
Ma c r o c a pa bi l i t i e s .
Lee Shuttle
Valve. Shown
actual size.
Designed to
isolate the
normal from
the emergency
hydraulic sys-
tem. So small,
it ts right
into the head
of an actuator.
W e s t b r o o k G e r r a r d s C r o s s P a r i s F r a n k f u r t M i l a n
So much reliability and performance, in so little space.
Creating high-performance ow control on a micro scale has been
The Lee Companys exclusive focus for more than 50 years. And
its been a successful mission, as evidenced by thousands of applied
Lee Microhydraulics designs ranging from less than 0.10 in. to 1.00 in.
in diameter, and 0.1 to 68 grams, for operating pressures to 8,000 psi.
But small size and light weight are just the beginning. Theres
also absolute reliability built into every Lee component through
100
%
testing and inspection. Zero defects. Its a production benchmark
that has enabled Lee to meet demanding application needs in all
sorts of industries. Aerospace, medical instrumentation, automotive,
machine tools and oil drilling, to name a few.
The innovative problem solvers.
We dont just satisfy requirements. We also solve problems
whether by simple modication, or ground-zero design engineering.
The Lee Company is the worlds most capable and proven source
for hydraulic-component innovation. And weve documented this
claim in extensive detail with the Lee Technical Hydraulic Handbook.
An invaluable reference, the Lee handbook contains essential data
on the entire Microhydraulics product line, which includes:
Lee Shuttle Valves. Detented, spring-biased, inverse,
loose ball and zero leak shuttle valves from 50-700 Lohms.
Lee Safety Screens. Best protection for critical system
elements. 75 to 500 micron hole size. Pressures to 7,500 psid.
Lee Pri. Pressure relief valves in insert form.
50 to 400 Lohm capacity. 20 to 5,400 psid cracking pressures.
Lee Directional Flow Control. 40 to 20,000 Lohms
in metered direction. 12 to 470 Lohms in free-ow direction.
Lee Restrictors. Single and multi-orice restrictors.
200 to 2.2 million Lohms.
Lee Plugs. The best way to seal drilled holes to 32,000 psi.
No O-rings, threads or sealants required.
Lee Cheks. All-metal and zero-leak check valves.
4 to 400 Lohms.
Essential reading
for designers of
hydraulic systems.
Send for your
free copy.
The Lee Company
2 Pettipaug Rd, Westbrook CT 06498-0424
860-399-6281 Fax: 860-399-2270
1-800-LEE PLUG
www.TheLeeCo.com
Innovation in miniature.
RS# 108
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Spring
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Brakes
EDITORIAL STAFF
1300 E. 9th St. Cleveland, OH 44114-1503
EDITOR
Leland E. Teschler
leland.teschler@penton.com
MANAGING EDITOR
Kenneth J. Korane
ken.korane@penton.com
SENIOR EDITORS
Elisabeth Eitel
elisabeth.eitel@penton.com
Leslie Gordon
leslie.gordon@penton.com
Stephen J. Mraz
stephen.mraz@penton.com
ASSOCIATE EDITORS
Lindsey Frick
lindsey.frick@penton.com
Robert J. Repas, Jr.
robert.repas@penton.com
INDUSTRY COVERAGE:
AUTOMOTIVE, PACKAGING,
MEDICAL
Stephen J. Mraz
CAD/CAM, MANUFACTURING
Leslie Gordon
ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONICS
Robert J. Repas, Jr.
FASTENING & JOINING,
MATERIALS
Lindsey Frick
FLUID POWER
Kenneth J. Korane
MECHANICAL
Elisabeth Eitel
Lindsey Frick
Kenneth J. Korane
EDITORIAL PRODUCTION
Denise Greco
Editorial Production Manager
Randall L. Rubenking
Art Director
RS# 110
RS# 109
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 10
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RS# 111
LETTERS
looking for those trained employ-
ees, dry your eyes and try spend-
ing a little bit of your millions to
train a few people for yourselves.
Richard Distel
Snow clones?
I read the article, Rethinking the
Snowmobile (Nov. 20), and noticed
that the Snow Runner is similar to
the Snow Hawk which has been
around since 2002. The asking price
Companies crying
crocodile tears
Your editorial is just another tearful
plea by companies for more low-
cost yet fully trained employees
(More Green cards, More H-1B
Visas, Nov. 6). If they want em-
ployees trained beyond the ability
to read, speak, think, and perform
math, I suggest they train those
employees themselves.
Over the years that I ran a tool-
and-die company, we routinely
trained apprentices at a ratio of
one for every eight journeymen.
It was a four-year program and
included almost 1,000 hr of class
time, paid at straight time, but
wages rose as the apprenticeship
progressed. The apprentice paid
tuition but got it back as a lump-
sum reward after graduation. Un-
fortunately, these new journey-
men then went to the bottom of
the seniority list and got laid off
first and soon, due to the cyclical
nature of the automotive trade.
Most of them quickly found an-
other job. About half returned and
several stayed with us over the
years, several rising to managerial
positions in our company.
I guess we trained them too
well. Many went on to manage-
ment or engineering jobs at the
big three (gasp on only a four-
year apprenticeship after high
school). The goal was that any
graduate apprentice, left alone
in the shop with a part print and
a wood model (or later a math
model and a computer) would be
able to design, build, and tryout
dies for a sheet-metal part from
a bracket to a quarter panel. We
were a small company, but we
did okay in competition with the
Henry Ford Trade School and the
GM Technical Institute. Those in-
stitutions are also gone now, of
course. No need to train people
if we can get them trained to our
specifications at public expense
from state universities either here
or in China, India, or Korea.
Hey, Microsoft, while youre
for the SR-125 ($5,550) is compara-
ble to a Ski-Doo MX Z Sport ($6,549),
which seems like a better deal.
Jim Smouse
Yes, our Snow Runner and the
Snow Hawk are both single-ski ve-
hicles, but thats where the simi-
larity ends. Look at the design re-
quirements we set out and met in
the development process com-
pl etel y di fferent than the Snow
Hawk or traditional snowmobiles.
Shortage? What shortage?
Several readers commented
on Leland Teschlers recent
blog entry (Not So Bad:
Manufacturing Skills Gap is
Local, Not National, Oct. 16).
It mentioned a study that
indicated machinists and
welders were in short sup-
ply in only five of the top 50
manufacturing cities in the
U.S. Readers, all manufac-
turers, disagreed.
Tulsa, Okla., may not be one of the top five manufacturing centers, but
we manufacture a lot of the equipment used in oil and natural-gas
production and refining. There are billboards, roadside signs, and even
a sign in a local BBQ restaurant put up by local companies looking for
CNC machinists with at least three years of experience with starting
pay of a minimum of $25/hr. Skilled welders start at $18 to $20/hr, plus
overtime. That is good money in this region with some of the lowest
housing costs and gasoline prices in the country.
Don Allen
This is the biggest load of nonsense Ive read in a long time. Manu-
facturers, including me, have a completely different experience with
trying to hire and retain good machinists and manufacturing people.
Chis Reeve
I think the studys analysis is severely flawed. In our area in central Min-
nesota, we have serious skill gaps in many areas, especially for welders
and skilled machinists. A large effort is being expended in our area to
address the skill gaps and train workers.
Lester Engel
Their statistics dont match the on-the-ground experience among
manufacturers Im networking with in the Los Angeles area. Its a bo-
gus study.
William Pratt
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 12
RS# 112
We designed the AGR series motorized rotary stages to provide significant
improvements in speed, load capacity and long-term positioning performance over
previous generations of worm-gear-drive stages. The AGR series incorporates dual
large diameter pre-loaded angular contact bearings optimally separated to provide
excellent error motion specifications, as well as best possible load handling capability.
The large clear aperture (sizes from 50 mm to 200 mm) allows the AGR series to
address applications requiring a through-hole fixturing.
Contact our Application Engineers today for more information on the AGR series or
any of our other superior direct-drive and worm-drive rotary stages.
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Five models fit almost any application
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Dedicated to the
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Add an Aerotech award-
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LETTERS
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Please include your name, address, and daytime
phone number. Letters may be edited for
brevity and to focus on essential points.
Mail: Letters, MACHINE DESIGN,
1300 E. 9th St., Cleveland, OH 44114-
1503, Fax: 216-621-8469
E-mail, Editorial: mdeditor@penton.com
Such projects are worth funding
early on for addition to our scien-
tific knowledge-base. However,
failing to honestly identify further
development projects as impracti-
cal nonstarters illustrates what is
wrong with how our government
decides where and how to spend
our money.
Selfish researchers, bent on
making a name for themselves,
or on creat i ng a f asci nat i ng
open-ended career-length proj-
ect, should not be permitted so
much influence over the decision-
makers. Objective experts should
have majority influence, not the
pioneering expert or the ignorant
politicians.
Mike Netbith
and fossil fuel to make this fuel
(Navy Tries Turning Seawater into
Fuel, Nov. 20,). There are many bet-
ter ways to reach this objective.
Al Nabhani
First off, you do not catalytically
combine CO
2
and H
2
to get hydro-
carbons without a lot of energy
input. Second, there is no free hy-
drogen in seawater. Any hydrogen
would have to come from breaking
down water molecules, a process
which requires more energy than
the resulting fuel can supply. And
finally, there is not a lot of carbon
in seawater. Seawater is 1.4% CO
2
.
Jim Deggit
If this is for real and is an indication
of the science in the U.S. military,
they need to start firing a lot of
people, starting with the idiot who
approved this garbage.
Brian Dermot
The concept sketches and idea for
the vehi cl e star ted i n 2001 and
sat for a while until our patented
ski was developed. The ski turned
our vehicle from a difficult-to-ride
vehicle into the fun, easy-to-ride
machine it now is. We have had
people from 10 years old to well
over 70 riding vehicles in just sev-
eral minutes of practice with no
instruction and, in some cases, do-
ing extreme maneuvers just not
possible with other vehicles.
I coul d go on and on but the
Snow Runner and Snow Hawk
fit different niches in the market
place (cost, size, weight, end user,
zero pollution electric, etc).
Good l uck and have a great
winter snow season. Jim Wade
Seawater not fit for fuel?
Why do we neglect the obvious,
cold fusion? It still takes nuclear
RS# 113
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 14
WHAT MOVES YOUR WORLD
ITS TIME TO CHANGE
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How can we improve your machine design?
Download our comprehensive white paper on electric and hydraulic
solutions in high-performance machines at http://info.moog.com/4
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SCANNING FOR IDEAS
Suppressor
reduces muzzle
flash and noise
Adjustable bipod
supports rifle
Magazine lets shooter rapidly
fire five rounds but is sized to not
interfere with alignment of barrel.
Adjustable cheek piece lets
shooter align his eye with the
telescopic sight
Folding stock shortens the
length of the rifle, letting it be
carried in a backpack.
Telescopic sight
magnifies targets by a
factor of up to 25.
Full-length
aluminum
chassis
Fixed butt plate
and spacers
Three-position safety
Short throw bolt
Free-floating barrel
Edited by Stephen J. Mraz
For more on new rifles
and their design, scan
this code or go to http://
machinedesign.com/
article/a-21st-century-
rifle-0112
Rifle lets sniper
set new record
The L115A3 long-range rifle was used by a British soldier to hit
and kill two Taliban targets at a distance of 8,120 ft, a record for
sniper shots. The weapon is a version of the 338 Lapua Mag-
num rifle from Accuracy International of North America Inc.
in Fredricksburg, Va. (www.accuracyinternational.us), the U.S.
headquarters of a British firm. It was modified under the British
Ministry of Defenses Sniper System Improvement Programme.
So now it fires an 8.59-mm round, which is heavier than the
original 7.62-mm round and, therefore, less likely to be af-
fected by winds during long shots. It also has a spotting
scope that magnifies by a factor of 25 instead of the
original scope which only has 12 magnification.
Muzzle velocity also increased from 838 to
936meters/sec.
The civilian version of the rifle is avail-
able to qualified buyers, but prices
are in the $9,000 range.
RS# 401
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 16
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RS# 115
Friction discs
Contrinex Inc.
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E-mail: info_us@contrinex.com
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Contrinex Series 700 the worId's toughest
inductive proximity sensors
ExceptionaIIy rugged and impervious
Housings machined from a single piece of stainless steel
Mechanically and chemically very rugged and resistant to operating
pressures of up to 850 psi.
Condet

technology provides long operating distances of 3 mm


(embeddable) and 6 mm (non-embeddable) on steel and aluminum
ldeal for applications where harsh liquids are present and
contact with machine parts, sparks, or hot shavings is possible
SCANNING FOR IDEAS
Torque limiter protects machinery
When torque is transmitted
from one machine compo-
nent to another, equipment
can be damaged when a
jam prevents rotation of
the driven component. To
prevent torque overloads
from transferring to costly
upstream components, en-
gineers at Mach III Clutch
Inc. Walton, Ky. (www.
machiii.com), have devel-
oped a series of torque lim-
iters that prevent damage
by slipping until the over-
load stops or the machine
shuts down.
The torque out-
put of the device
is proportional to
the compression
of the disc spring
and can be set or
adjusted in the
field. The device
comes in 30 dif-
ferent models with
torque capacities rang-
ing up to 17,257lb-in.
There are also five different
mounting options.
RS# 402
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 18
RS# 116
Timing pulley
Setscrew
O-ring seal
Precision-
machined drive
plates
Disc spring
Adjustment nut
Bronze bushing
www.pelicanoem.com/md
PELICAN PRODUCTS , INC.
23215 Early Avenue, Torrance, CA 90505
866.628.9890 (TOLL FREE)
Q
310.326.4700
Q
FAX 310.326.3311
All trademarks are registered and/or unregistered trademarks of Pelican Products, Inc., its subsidiaries and/or afliates.
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these custom case solutions can provide you with the highest level of
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Use of the military image does not imply or
constitute Department of Defense endorsement.
RS# 117
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CMANS |1.
3D printing means
virtual inventories and
low-volume production,
which for manufacturers
is the next big step.
A few examples of the Stratasys 3D
Printer line.
3D technology is all around us. Its changing how
we design and manufacture products, make movies,
heal our bodies and interact with the world. Work that
used to take place on a page or screen now reaches
into space. And faster than ever before, 3D technology
is transforming our world.
To see the impact of 3D, look to the realm of design.
Designers led the way in embracing 3D CAD and then
3D printing, incorporating more and more physical
models into their iterations and thinking with their
heads and their hands. And theyve reaped the ben-
efits: design problems surface sooner and solutions
are less costly. Inspiration happens faster. Ultimately,
products are better and consumers are happier. Black
& Decker makes a safer tree trimmer and Lamborghini
makes a faster car because reviews and trials are more
frequently executed on models very much resembling
a final product.
Now, 3D printing applications are expanding from
design into production, and freeing manufacturers
to build with-
out traditional
restrictions.
DDM stands for
direct digital
manufacturing,
a way to pro-
duce a finished
product, part or tool straight from a computer design.
More importantly, DDM means the rewards of faster,
leaner, smarter methods are coming to the produc-
tion floor. When we at Stratasys (and publications like
The Economist, Forbes and The New York Times) call
3D printing the next industrial revolution, were not
exaggerating.
A hundred years ago, the assembly line changed
the world with mass production. It brought luxuries to
the middle class, good wages to workers and econo-
mies of scale to investors. Today, companies like BMW
already know that DDM is mass productions heir
The Future of 3D Technology
From This Day, Forward By David Reis,
Stratasys CEO
ADVERTISEMENT
TM
F O R A 3 D W O R L D
3D printing means
prototypes like these,
that help product designers
put their best foot forward.
They look like shoes. They feel like shoes. But they're actually
prototypes. Printed layer by layer on a 3D printer. Every
day, 3D printing rewrites another rule of how things are made.
3D printers are at work in product design studios, engineering
departments and manufacturing plants. ln schools and hospitals
and dental labs. Wherever speed, effciency, and accuracy
matter. lt is the next industrial revolution. And Stratasys is here
to lead it. Come explore the game-changing possibilities of
a 3D World at Stratasys.com.
Learn more at StratasysForA3DWorId.com
Stratasys is a registered trademark of Stratasys, lnc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
A pediatric
engineering
research
lab has
developed
and
3D-printed
custom
devices for
their smallest
patients.
This rover includes about 70 FDM parts,
including housings, vents and fixtures.
a Delaware hospital creates a durable ABS-plastic exo-
skeleton customized to perfectly fit one child, Emma,
allowing her to play, explore and hug for the first time.
Then that researcher can make a 3D-printed exoskel-
eton to fit a different child. And another. And a dozen
more. Now 15 children with rare disorders can raise
their hands because of mass customization.
Ideas born today your ideas are freer to solve
problems faster than ever before. Now, two innovators
who helped spark this revolution have fused to lead
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Welcome to the new Stratasys, leader of the next
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ing, casting
and machin-
ing, gaining
economy
without the
scale. 3D print-
ing leads us
beyond mass
production
and into mass
customiza-
tion. Its how a
researcher at
apparent. One factory-floor fixture, a nameplate-ap-
plication device, offers an elegant example. Liberated
from tooling constraints, BMW engineers reduced the
devices weight by half and replaced its blocky stock-
metal handles with ergonomic grips a great relief to
workers who might lift the fixture hundreds of times
per shift.
Today, NASA can shape a complex, human-sup-
porting vehicle suitable for Martian terrain, despite
the fact that its parts are too complex to machine, too
rapidly iterated to outsource and too customized for
traditional tooling.
In a 3D world, we leave behind injection mold-
RS# 118
REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
Throwable robots paddle along
thanks to upgraded servomotors
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 22
ReconRobotics Inc., Edina, Minn., decided to upgrade its 1.2-lb throwable recon-
naissance microrobot to include paddlelike wheels specifically designed for climb-
ing. But to do so, the company had to boost the power of the wheel-driving servo-
motors. The robot had to be able to lift its own weight, explains ReconRobotics
Product Management Engineer Casey Carlson. The original ThrowBot was designed
to navigate relatively uncluttered urban environments and could surmount some
household objects such as power cords. But we wanted the robot to be able to rou-
tinely climb obstacles such as door thresholds and other obstructions commonly
found within and around urban dwellings. We also wanted to keep the same size and
shape for the main body of the robot, which houses all of the functional aspects of
the robot including motors.
Resembling a small dumbbell, the new ThrowBot TXT comprises a pair of 4.5-in.-
diameter wheels linked by a 1.5-in.-diameter, 6-in.-long crossbar. It is tough enough
to survive a 30-ft drop onto concrete. SWAT teams and military personnel typically
throw the small robots into hostile areas to get remote video and audio of poten-
tially deadly situations. A human operator pilots the robot with a wireless joystick.
Each wheel is driven independently by a 10-mm-diameter, high-power-density dc
motor from MICROMO, a member of the Faulhaber Group, in Clearwater, Fla. The
1016 coreless dc micromotors in the ThrowBot TXT are specified to be run at a maxi-
mum voltage of 6 V, but the engineers at ReconRobotics needed extra power, which
called for feeding the motor at 10 V. We needed the motor to output about 65%
more power than what the motor was originally rated for, says Carlson.
The standard version of the motor comes with gold brushes. To tolerate the
overdriving, MICROMO swapped in silver brushes and added a capacitor ring that
minimizes damage to the brushes from arcing. The team also modified the motor
windings to optimize output for a particular performance point the ReconRobotics
team required. MICROMO also terminates the gearmotors by soldering custom cable
assembles to the terminals, as well as mounting a pinion on the front shaft. Finally,
MICROMO set up mean-time-to-failure testing to validate the new motor.
ReconRobotics also modified the clutching mechanism between the wheels and
motor-drive system on the new ThrowBot TXT. The clutch decouples the wheels from
the drive in hard landings so the instantaneous acceleration does not damage the
gearmotor. The clutch is designed to disengage just above the maximum torque of
the motor. Thus, there is no energy wasted transferring motor torque to the wheels.
When higher torque is applied during impact, however, the clutch disengages, pre-
venting the landing shock from reaching the motor and
gearhead.
MICROMO delivers an assembly consisting of motor,
gearhead, and cabling. As a result, the modules arrive at
Recon already tested and operational. The more plug and
play we can get, the better, says Carlson.
Though the ThrowBot TXT is relatively new to market,
Recon says the response from customers has been quite
positive, which Carlson attributes in part to the perfor-
mance of the motors. They give us the performance and
lifetime we need and MICROMO is willing to lend its ex-
pertise and adapt the motor to our needs. MD
Resources:
MICROMO, www.micromo.com
RS# 406
ReconRobotics, www.recon-scout.
com/
MACHINE DESIGN also covered
an earlier model of the robot,
machinedesign.com/article/high-
density-servos-make-possible-
compact-recon-missions-0217
The ThrowBot XT
weighs just 1.2 lb
and can be thrown
up to 120 ft thanks
to a suspension
system that prevents
shock loads
from damaging
the servomotor
drivetrain. Each
wheel is driven by
its own high-energy-
density servomotor.
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 23
Quick Disconnect
vs Hard-Wiring: What is the
ideal connectivity system
for your industrial application? askTURCK.com
2013 TURCK
REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
A Sopwith Dolphin, a
World War I fighter aircraft
made by Sopwith Avia-
tion, the same company
that made the Sopwith
Camel, was fully restored
using parts scavenged
from other Dolphins
along with parts made
to specs from original
drawings. Those remanu-
factured parts include a
pair of music-wire exten-
sion springs for the pair of
Lewis machine guns. The
new springs were built
by Lee Spring, Europe,
which is headquartered
in the U.K. They closely
match the original set,
which were 2.25-in. long,
made out of 20-gauge
steel wire with a 5/16-in.
OD. Extension springs
are generally loaded in
tension and have hooks or loops on their ends which
let them apply a pull force. Extension springs are usu-
ally attached to components at both ends, and when
those components are moved apart, the spring tries to
move them back toward each other.
The Dolphin was the first fighter plane to boast four
machine guns two Vickers guns pointing forward
through the propellers, and a pair of Lewis guns fir-
ing forward and upward, and mounted on top of the
wings. While 1,778 Dolphins were built, this restored
version is believed to be the only Dolphin now in exis-
tence. Restoration on the Dolphin began in 1968, and
now that its finished, the plane sits on display at the
RAF Museum in Hendon, U.K. MD
RS# 119
Only 45 years to restore
World War I fighter
Resources:
Lee Spring, www.leespring.com
RS# 407
RAF Museum, rafmuseum.
org.uk/research/collections/
sopwith-dolphin-5fi/
Accelerating Your Success!

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RS# 120
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M
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High Strength, Long Life
Quiet Operations
Same Price As
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V Series geared
AC motors offer
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and now they are
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conventional models.
Quick & Stable
Lead Time.
Visit
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Technical Support Tel: 800-468-3982
7:30am- 7:00pm, CST (M-F)
Stepping Motors Servo Motors AC Motors Brushless Motors
Linear & Rotary Actuators Cooling Fans
REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
Nanotube pencil
draws sensors
Chemists at the
Massachusetts
Institute of
Technology
have new tools
for creating
carbon-nano-
tube sensors:
pencils. But the
graphite in these
pencils has been
replaced with
a compressed
powder of car-
bon nanotubes.
This makes cre-
ating sensors as
easy as drawing
a line on a sheet of paper.
Carbon nanotubes are carbon atoms
linked together to form a tube. The carbon
provides little opposition to the flow of
electrons, creating a low-resistance path
compared to normal carbon. Gases bind to
the nanotubes, impeding electron flow and
raising the tubes electrical resistance, which
is key to making the simple sensors.
The first sensor made with the new tech-
nology detected ammonia. Researchers drew
lines of nanotubes between gold electrodes
imprinted on a piece of paper and applied an
electrical current. As the nanotubes attracted
ammonia gas, the resistance changed. So re-
sistance measurements indicated the amount
of ammonia present.
Different kinds of paper provide different
responses, with sensors drawn on smooth pa-
per yielding the best reactions. Surprisingly,
test results have remained consistent even
when marks arent uniform.
Researchers hope that with adjustments,
sensors could detect nearly any gas, includ-
ing nerve gas. Soldiers could then carry pen-
cils to quickly build sensors to detect chemi-
cal weapons.
Other gases being investigated include
ethylene, emitted by ripening fruit. Ethylene
sensors might show whether fruit being
shipped or stored is too ripe. Likewise, nano-
tubes sensitive to sulfur could lead to sensors
that detect natural gas leaks. MD
Resources:
Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, www.mit.edu
Nanotube sensor video,
youtu.be/kWTrZxt4j50
MIT chemists designed
a new type of pencil
lead consisting of
carbon nanotubes,
allowing them to draw
carbon nanotube
sensors onto sheets of
paper.
RS# 121
FEBRUARY 14, 2013
B
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u
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Compact, High Torque
Wide Speed Range
Continuous Duty
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Brushless Motors
offer all the design
exibility needed for
many different types
of applications.
Learn more about the
Brushless Motor
Advantages from
Oriental Motor.
Quick & Stable
Lead Time.
Visit
www.orientalmotor.com
Technical Support Tel: 800-468-3982
7:30am- 7:00pm, CST (M-F)
Stepping Motors Servo Motors AC Motors Brushless Motors
Linear & Rotary Actuators Cooling Fans
CoDeSys lets users issue
commands and transfer files over the network without
authentication.
point is that the CoDeSys runtime offers a transmission-control-protocol
listener service. The listener service typically runs on port 1200, although
ports 1201 and 2455 were used on other controllers. Services provided by
this listener include a command-line interface where instructions may be
sent directly to the ladder-logic runtime service
and a file-transfer service that permits download-
ing and uploading logic files.
Unfortunately, CoDeSys software executes this
connection without user authentication. Anyone
who knows how can connect through the CoDeSys
software to execute commands and transfer files.
For example, they can stop and start the running
ladder logic, wipe the PLC memory, and list files
and directories. As the runtime operates with high-level privileges, all sub-
directories and files are accessible, including critical system files such as
/etc/passwd and /etc/shadow in Linux and the Windows registry in CE.
Right now, the only sure way of securing this or any industrial system is
to keep it off any network. However, IT staff can make access more secure
by placing systems on private networks that can only be entered through
specific machines that carry out user authentication. MD
Ladder-logic software
vulnerable to hackers
Researchers have discovered a design flaw lets anyone carry out com-
mands without authentication on software called CoDeSys, which is
widely used in industrial controls.
CoDeSys is an IEC 61131-3 software suite from 3S-Smart Software
Solutions GmbH, Germany, that runs ladder-logic operations. It is used
by over 260 manufacturers to run ladder-logic programs on PLCs, drive
controllers, and other industrial controls. The vulnerability was uncovered
by the company Digital Bond, Sunrise, Fla., during its Project Basecamp, a
research effort to demonstrate the fragility of industrial control systems.
Researchers at Digital Bond used a Wago IPC 758-870 Model PLC as
their test unit, but say all systems running CoDeSys PLC software seem
affected. The Wago PLC runs embedded Linux on an
x86 central-processing
unit, but other
operating sys-
tems such as
Nucleus RTOS
and Windows CE
Resources:
3S-Smart Software
Solutions GmbH, www.
codesys.com
Digital Bond, www.
digitalbond.com
are also affected.
Given the way
CoDeSys oper-
ates within the OS,
manufacturers of-
ten run the ladder
logic with elevated
root or administra-
tor privileges. Or
they use an OS that
does not have user
privilege controls.
One critical
RS# 122
FEBRUARY 14, 2013
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RS# 123
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REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
Software simulates rugged
offshore machines
Researchers at the University of Agder in Norway are using MapleSim
simulation software, from Maplesoft, Waterloo, Ont., Canada, to predict
the performance of complex offshore material-handling equipment. In the
short term, the work helps designers pick components. In the long run, it
aims to automate more of the design process.
Offshore oil and gas-drilling rigs cost millions of dollars a day, so crews
need to get the job done as quickly as possible. Crews must
assemble thousands of meters of flexible pipe while work-
ing safely on a remote platform with limited space in all
kinds of weather.
Modern drilling platforms use highly specialized material-
handling equipment to move components quickly and keep
the rig on schedule. Equipment is typically hydraulically oper-
ated. Most modern platforms also have sophisticated elec-
tronic controls that simplify operation and help support automation.
The design of the control systems can be challenging because the
behavior of cranes in motion depends on how the control valves and hy-
draulic actuators operate, the cranes inertia and its load, and the complex
interactions among components. Researchers hope to simplify designs by
giving engineers a way to build and run detailed simulations of equipment
before they assemble a single part.
The model-based-design approach lets users model the entire struc-
ture and control system in sufficient detail to get a realistic idea of a drill-
ing rigs performance, says project head Morten Kollerup Bak. MapleSim
can divide the whole system into mechanical, hydraulic actuation, and
electrical-control models. The software includes a large library of standard
elements and also lets engineers easily incorporate custom parts.
We had hoped to build hydraulic models from standard catalog data, says
Bak. But component manufacturers dont always provide the data needed to
model the behavior of components in dynamic conditions. To get this data,
Bak built custom models of key components such as control valves and vali-
dated their accuracy by conducting tests on single components.
Once Bak is confident of the custom elements performance, he incor-
porates them into MapleSim models of the actuation system and evaluates
the complete cranes likely performance. We already built a model of an
existing crane and demonstrated that it accurately predicts the real cranes
behavior. The model lets us study the likely impact of design changes to
individual components.
And to use the model for design automation, researchers input perfor-
mance requirements and the software searches the component library for
the best option. The software studies thousands of parameters, a task de-
signers would find dull, difficult, and time consuming.
Searches like these need efficient search algorithms. Bak plans to use
the Complex Method found in Matlab and Simulink, from MathWorks,
Natick, Mass., to which MapleSim directly links. This populates the simula-
tion with a number of randomly generated designs and evaluates the per-
formance of each, he says. The algorithm also picks the poorest perform-
ing design and factors in that data. The process repeats until the solutions
converge on the optimal result.
Currently, Bak uses stability and accuracy as performance criteria. There-
fore, the design yielding the lowest level of hydraulic oscillations that can
precisely follow the position reference is best. In the future, Bak plans to
add other criteria such as price and long-term reliability. MD
Resources:
Maplesoft, www.
maplesoft.com
RS# 408
MathWorks, www.
mathworks.com
RS# 124
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 29
REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
Inverse
design code
boosts HVAC
efficiencies
When Daikin Industries in Japan set
out to develop a fan for its new line of
air conditioners, engineers wanted to
use 3D inverse-
design technol-
ogy instead of
standard CAD
software. In the
standard ap-
proach, geom-
etry is changed
iteratively using
CFD analysis and physical tests. But the
inverse approach computes geometry
for a certain flow distribution where the
loading distribution is specified. Then
the blade geometry is computed.
This inverse approach is a more sys-
tematic way to handle aerodynamic
turbomachinery because the input
specification can be used to rapidly
generate new prototypes once it has
been chosen for a given criteria (such as
minimum loss, cavitation suppression,
or secondary-flow suppression). The 3D
inverse approach was possible because
of the TURBOdesign software suite from
Advanced Design Technology in Lon-
don. ADT supplies tailor-made software,
design services in turbomachinery, and
aerodynamic design codes that let engi-
neers control blade design.
TURBOdesign1 had already in-
creased the efficiency for our compres-
sors, so we expected it would also work
for fans, says researcher Toru Iwata at
Daikin Industries Environmental Tech-
nology Laboratory.
TURBOdesign1 is currently the only
nonproprietary software for designing
turbomachinery that can do 3D inverse
design. We were almost immediately
productive using the software to design
our fan, says Iwata. Then, it took only
about a year to become fully versed in
all its capabilities. The software let us re-
duce development time and slash mate-
rial use, as well as develop new models
of high-efficiency fans. MD
Resources:
Advanced Design
Technology, www.
adtechnology.co.uk
Daikin Industries,
www.daikin.com
RS# 125
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 30
RS# 126
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REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
LOOKING BACK
10 YEARS AGO 2003
Be the next Dick Tracy: Wear your
PDA on your wrist. Thats the idea of
new Palm-powered watches from
Fossil Inc., Dallas. The Wrist PDA is
sleek, compact, and lightweight, says
Fossil, and fully compatible with the
Palm OS platform from PalmSource
Inc., Sunnyvale,
Calif. Contract
manufacturer
Flextronics, Sin-
gapore, developed
the Wrist PDA, bringing
it from concept to completion in just
five months.
The Wrist PDA sports
an illuminated touch-
screen with a stylus tucked
into the band for Graffiti
input, 2-Mbyte internal memory,
a rocker switch, and rechargeable
battery. An infrared port supports
beaming between all Palm-powered
devices. Applications already loaded
into the watch include Address Book,
Date Book, Memo Pad, Calculator,
and To Do List.
30 YEARS AGO 1983
Longest ball screw?: A 60-ft preci-
sion-ground ball-bearing leadscrew
was turned out recently by 20th
Century Machine Co., Sterling
Heights, Mich. The firm believes the
ball screw is the longest ever pro-
duced in the
U.S. The screw
will be used on
a lathe that will
turn the out-
side diameter
of a large forg-
ing. The screw
boasts a thread
tolerance
within 0.005 in. per lineal foot. An
internal ball-return circuit totally en-
closed within the nut body protects
against damage during shipment
and installation, as well as during
operation.
50 YEARS AGO 1963
The latest wrinkle in tire manufac-
turing are tiny metal kerfs that put
vertical ridges inside grooves, rein-
forcing the
tread. Ridges
present after
the kerfs are
removed
make the tire
more rug-
ged, keep
stones out,
and increase
wear by reducing squirming action
of tread elements as they contact
the road. The kerfs are used by B.F.
Goodrich Tire Co. in molding its
new Extra Miler truck tires, and the
company credits them with extend-
ing tire life by 32%. MD
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 32
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RS# 127
REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
COMPANY NEWS
TEACHING LAB
Measurement-services provider
Agilent Technologies, Santa
Clara, Calif., and Bangor Univer-
sity, Bangor, North Wales, have
opened a laboratory at the School
of Electronic Engineering at the
university. The lab is equipped
with Agilent instruments to help
in the teaching of undergraduate
and postgraduate courses in elec-
tronic engineering.
STRATEGIC ALLIANCE
EAO Corp., Milford, Conn., and
Digital Switching Systems LLC,
Raleigh, N.C.,
have formed
an alliance to
develop and
promote rug-
gedized intelligent keypads and
digital switching technology for the
heavy-duty/specialty vehicle, ma-
chinery, and public transportation
markets. EAO is a HMI systems and
components supplier and Digital
Switching Systems manufactures
open-source keypad solutions.
CERTIFICATION AND
TESTING SERVICES
TV SD America, Peabody,
Mass., a testing and certification
services firm, will now offer test-
ing and certification services to
the Indian Boiler Regulation 1950
(IBR) as an Inspecting Authority
and Competent Authority recog-
nized by the Central Boilers Board
in India. Compliance to the IBR is
mandatory for all material or com-
ponent manufacturers of boilers,
boiler piping, mountings, fittings,
and valves that export their prod-
uct for use in India.
DONATION
The Omron Foundation Inc.,
Schaumburg, Ill., has donated
$20,000 to the American Red
Cross Hurricane 2012 Fund to
assist Hurricane Sandy victims
through the Red Cross disaster
relief and recovery efforts. The
company also encouraged its
employees to make individual
donations in support of local relief
efforts, which are matched by Om-
ron Foundation within program
guidelines.
RELOCATIONS
SICK Inc., Minneapolis, , a manu-
facturer of sensors, safety systems,
machine vision, and automatic
identification products for fac-
tory and logistics automation, is
expanding and relocating its facili-
ties to the Eagle Creek Industrial
Park in Savage, Minn.
VersaLogic Corp., Eugene, Oreg.,
is expanding and moving its head-
RS# 128
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 34
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RS# 129
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REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
COMPANY NEWS
and direct digital manufac-
turing solutions, and Objet
develops, manufactures and
markets ultrathin-layer, high-
resolution 3D printing solu-
tions for rapid prototyping
and rapid manufacturing.
AWARD
Spirol Industries Ltd., Windsor,
Ont., Canada, has received the
General Motors 2012 Supplier
Quality Excellence Award. GM
engineers and personnel consider
quality performance in areas of
line interruptions, recalls, and cor-
rective actions to determine award
winners. Spirol manufactures fas-
tening and joining components.
HEV AND EV MATERIALS
Fabrico, Kennesaw, Ga., a maker of
flexible materials converting and
advanced-assembly capabilities,
has partnerships with DuPont,
3M, Von Roll, and ITW Formex
that let it provide the latest in
electrical insulation materials and
adhesives. After 2013, the specifi-
cations for EV and HEV insulating
materials will increase to H-class,
with the requirement that these
motor materials hold up to 180C.
AGREEMENT
SpaceClaim Corp., Concord,
Mass., and Geomagic, Morrisville,
N.C., will produce the first-ever
product for designing 3D parts
directly from 3D scan data. Space-
Claim provides flexible and afford-
able 3D for engineering design
and manufacturing. Geomagic
offers products that advance and
apply 3D technology.
SERVICE EXPANSION
3D Systems Corp., Rock Hill, S.C.,
is expanding its Quickparts on-
demand parts service with the
launch of its proprietary instant
online quoting engine in Europe.
Quickparts provides quick-turn
custom manufacturing services for
engineers and designers to create
real plastic and metal parts fast for
their prototyping and production
needs. MD
nies Stratasys Inc., Min-
neapolis, and Objet Ltd.,
Rehovot,
Israel, is
complete.
Stratasys is
a provider of
3D printing
quarters to Portland. It will main-
tain a satellite office in Eugene.
VersaLogic provides high-quality
board-level products for embed-
ded OEM applications.
MERGER
The merger of 3D printing compa-
RS# 130
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 36
RS# 131
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RS# 132
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when selecting the best proximity
sensor for abusive environments,
the decision has always carried
a difcult tradeoff - durability vs
sensing distance. The 1cc% stainless
steel X-series Pile 0river is the rst
sensor to deliver both.
Row durable! Impact
withstandability is zcX beyond
traditional plastic-face products.
Row far! Sensing ranges exceed
industry standards by up to z.X.
So what does this 1-z combination
mean to you!
N Fewer sensor-target impacts
N Increased machine uptime
N keduced maintenance and
troubleshooting
N Fewer re|ects and increased quality
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5)&"#*-*5:508*5)45"/%
16/*4).&/5*4(00%#65
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www.sensing.netJxpd
Pepperl+Fuchs, Inc. Twinsburg, 0hio c.86.ccc1
SENSOR SENSE
Pulse-ranging technology
Laser-based distance measurement often serves as a way of positioning
parts, navigating automated vehicles like stacker cranes, and measur-
ing the dimensions of objects like boxes. There are three common
technologies behind laser-distance measurement: optical triangula-
tion, phase correlation, and true time-of-flight (TOF) technology.
Some products claim to use TOF, when they actually employ phase
correlation instead. Phase correlation has significant weaknesses
compared to true TOF; it has shorter measurement distances, greater
sensitivity to object color, and is more susceptible to environmental
influences like lighting. Because of this confusion, the term pulse-
ranging technology, or PRT, is used to define true TOF technology.
Pulse-ranging-technology sensors emit short bursts of high-inten-
sity laser light at up to 250,000times/sec. The light intensity of a PRT
sensor can be up to 1,000 greater than that of a phase-correlation
sensor, which uses an emitter that is on continuously.
The light bursts travel to an object or reflector and then reflect back
to the sensors receiver, or light-sensitive element. The sensor mea-
sures the time lapse from the emission of the light burst to the detec-
tion of the burst by the sensors receiver element. This time is then
used to calculate the distance from the sensor to the detected object:
s = c t
l
/2, where s = distance measured in meters, c = speed of light
in air (299,792,458 m/sec), and t
l
= measured elapsed TOF of the light
burst in seconds.
Because phase correlation measures distance based on the shifted
phase angle of reflected light, its use is limited to the range over
which the light phase can shift by up to 360. If a phase-correlation
device is used beyond that range, it may falsely identify the range as
a 360 phase shift closer or farther away. The PRT design does not have
any such limitation. MD
Pepperl+Fuchs (www.pepperl-fuchs.us) supplied information for this column.
Edited by Robert Repas
PRT sensors measure the time needed for a burst of laser light to travel to the target
object and return to the sensor. It then calculates the distance to the target object
using that time and the speed-of-light constant.
Receiver
Sensor Target
object
Transmitter
RS# 139
FEBRUARY 14, 2013
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COMMENTARY
Stephen J.
Mraz
Senior Editor
Acquihire:
When companies have
more money than brains
Life can be good for engineers, especially those whiz
kids involved in Internet/social media start-ups. What
prompts this observation is the fact that some large, well-funded firms like
Facebook and Google are in desperate need of high-quality, high-tech engi-
neers. These companies are unwilling to rely solely on the traditional routes
used to round up technical talent. They dont want to waste time or money on
headhunters, recruiting from colleges, or growing their own talent. So they
go the acquihire route.
This tactic calls for the company in need of brainpower to reach into its
deep pockets and buy an entire company just to get its engineering employ-
ees, usually just a handful. The start-ups intel-
lectual property is shelved and the products it
was working on are mothballed.
Its a win/win situation all around, almost.
The newly hired engineers get a significant
amount of cash, often as signing bonuses, and
possibly higher salaries. They must also get
quite an ego boost it must be satisfying to
have a major company buy your employer just
to get your services. The purchasing company
can then explain to engineers already working
for it that the new hires are making the same
salary, they just had to be compensated for the
equity in the firm they were in. Engineers or
staffers not hired by the new owner, however,
might be a bit miffed.
The start-up owners get to make a profit
out of the deal, sometimes enough to finance
a permanent retirement. At the least, they will be able to say their brainchild
was snapped up by some savvy, successful company.
Investors backing the start-up get some money back, and maybe even
some profit. This must be especially sweet if they know the start-up would
have needed another round of major financing before even a glimmer of
profits appeared on the horizon.
And, of course, the big company can put is newly acquired high-tech Top
Guns to work in a hurry. In some instances, the larger company also manages
to eliminate a potential competitor.
But there are people who arent too happy about such deals.
In some instances, the start-up already has a product in the marketplace,
usually an app. Its customers have grown to depend on and even love it.
These people are not too happy when the killer app they cherish suddenly
disappears from the market never to return. This happened when Thinkfuse
was acquihired by Salesforce.com, which then quickly shutdown Think-
fuses product, some online software that let people share progress reports.
They told customers to use another piece of similar software, Mailchimp.
Even the former owners can end up second-guessing their business de-
cision. But they can always start another new company somewhere down
the road, and a six or seven-figure payout makes for a mighty soft pillow
to cry on. MD
Start-up owners
get to make a
profit out of the
deal. Investors
backing the
start-up get some
money back. But
there are people
who arent too
happy about such
deals.
RS# 134
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 40
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TAVENNER ON SAFETY
Rolling equipment,
fractured feet
In a recent incident, an employee rolled a piece of equipment weighing
740 lb into a room for cleaning. During cleaning, one wheel accidently
rolled into a drain causing the apparatus to tip and fall onto the worker.
He received immediate medical attention for several injuries including a
fractured ankle, tibia, and fibula.
How could this injury have been avoided?
The right caster Matching the best caster design to the equipment
it supports makes for easier movement and more stability. The wrong
caster can be a direct source of injury if the floor is not in good condition.
Cracks, holes, and drains can stop moving equipment from rolling and
make it tip. Strains or more-severe injuries often follow when employees
try to overcome the floor defect. The right caster may not eliminate the
issue but can help prevent it.
Equipment stability Those who design heavy mobile equipment
should keep in mind that stability is critical to avoiding these types of
injuries. Facilities with damaged floors, protruding objects, tight corners,
large cracks, or holes are unfortunately commonplace. So it is important
to design-out as many risks as possible before equipment gets put in use.
Floor-drain design Drains should be as flush as possible with the
floor while still maintaining enough pitch to remove water. This point
might seem obvious, but it is commonly missed or businesses arent
prompt about fixing a damaged drain grating. The more flush the grating
system is with floor, the less likely an employee is to roll equipment into
the drain.
Defect-free floors In many facilities, floor condition plays a large part
in accidents. All floors should be free of holes, cracks, and defects that can
cause slip, trip, or, in this case, tip-over hazards. OSHA has requirements
for floor conditions that can be found in 29 CFR 1910.22(a)(3). While this
standard doesnt identify drains, it is critical for people designing facilities
to include them in analysis and design considerations. It is easy to over-
look the location and type of drains as well as other floor-safety elements
though they can be a primary cause of injuries.
Standard operating procedures Employees can reduce the risk of
injury by following procedures and using safe practices. It can often be a
challenge to move a 740-lb large piece of equipment into a washing area
especially so if you are trying to do it by yourself. Just as it often takes
two people to lift heavy objects, the same concept is in force when moving
heavy, awkward, or unstable wheeled equipment.
All in all, equipment designers cant count on employees being trained
to follow best practices for moving heavy equipment and handling other
nonroutine tasks. Correct procedures can enable good decision-making
and go a long way in reducing the risk of injury. Good designs can em-
power employees to make safe choices that go a long way in avoiding
incidents and ensuring they go home at the end of the day.
Joe Tavenner
Joe Tavenner, CSP, CFPS, is a long-time Certified Safety Professional who works in
occupational safety and design for safety. Got a question about safety? You can reach Joe at
josephtavenner@yahoo.com.
Edited by Leland Teschler
RS# 136
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 42
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RS# 137
VANTAGE POINT
Meeting and beating
new-product cost targets
If you are working on a new-product-development ini-
tiative (NPI), youre likely under pressure to hit specific
cost, weight, market, and quality targets under tight
time frames. Designing and making products that meet
all these criteria, particularly cost, can be extremely
challenging.
The cost implications of design decisions made dur-
ing development are often more significant than most
manufacturers realize. Cost overruns reduce profit mar-
gins. And time spent firefighting cost surprises delays
introduction. Expensive postproduction rework can
also result. At the core of these challenges is the inability
to accurately identify, assess, and manage detailed prod-
uct costs early in a products life cycle.
Best-in-class companies start managing costs at the
earliest stages of product design, letting engineering,
manufacturing, and sourcing teams collaborate on cost
analysis. As a result, the firms realize benefits, including:
Getting cost targets right the first time, before prod-
ucts or parts go into production.
Quickly evaluating the cost of design alternatives, let-
ting engineers focus more on product innovation and
less on cost analysis.
Identifying the real cost drivers behind a product
design and minimizing engineering changes later in
the release cycle where they cost more to address.
Eliminating long waits for price quotes from internal
experts and external suppliers.
Creating should-cost estimates to help select ven-
dors, validate quotes, and negotiate with suppliers.
Its not uncommon for engineering, sourcing, and
manufacturing teams to complain that product-cost-
management (PCM) activities slow them down. In fact,
the opposite is true PCM can actually speed devel-
opment. Efficiency gains often come out of faster cost
estimates from suppliers and less late-stage, expensive
rework. Cost-management operations fit naturally into
engineering and sourcing processes, and the right PCM
software complements the tools most companies al-
ready use.
There are some core requirements for effectively
managing new-product costs, including:
Early cost visibility. NPI teams must know early on
how different design alternatives impact costs. Compa-
nies should evaluate tools that let engineers determine
cost by automatically pulling geometric and feature in-
formation from CAD models. Team members who are
not cost or manufacturing experts can quickly create an
estimate and compare it against established target costs.
Also, regularly reassess costs as features and designs
change, to evaluate trade-offs and cost impacts. OEMs
should establish cost-evaluation
milestones at stage gates in the NPI
process to assess the implications
of various design ideas and alter-
natives. Sourcing managers and
manufacturing engineers should
also have early visibility into product designs and up-to-
date cost estimates, so they can comment on alternative
designs, sourcing options, and manufacturability.
Cross-functional view of product cost. Providing prod-
uct costs to cross-functional teams at each stage of de-
velopment is also important. This ensures that all par-
ties access the same information, collaborate early, and
work to prevent late-stage cost surprises. The resulting
benefits are significant. For instance, sourcing manag-
ers can consider make-versus-buy decisions earlier. This
can improve profitability and make better use of supply-
chain partners and their design and manufacturing ex-
pertise. Manufacturing engineers can regularly evaluate
designs for manufacturability and suggest changes that
reduce cost and time-to market. And cost engineers get a
broader range of information, giving them greater influ-
ence over a projects overall economics.
Integration with enterprise systems. Its important that
PCM software works with existing PLM or ERP systems.
Common requirements include loading a bill of materi-
als and carryover part costs from the enterprise system,
and storing PCM cost data in the PLM or ERP database
to create a closed-loop flow of information.
Without these core practices and tools PCM remains
highly manual and decentralized, and cost-engineering
teams have limited ability to reduce product costs. For
example, they may only focus on a portion of a prod-
uct because they do not have the resources to cost all
components. They are also forced to assess costs when
designs are nearly final, severely limiting the window
of opportunity to identify and act on potential cost sav-
ings. It also leads to inconsistent estimation methods
with static information that is difficult to update, man-
age, and share.
Best-in-class manufacturers are distancing themselves
from their competition with a systematic approach that
makes product-cost management a normal course of
responsibility and decision-making. Effective PCM pro-
grams can increase profit margins, ensure faster time to
market, and improve product quality, too. MD
aPriori (www.apriori.com) develops product-cost-management
software used in sourcing, manufacturing, and design engineering.
Edited by Kenneth Korane
Julie Driscoll
Vice President,
Strategic Marketing &
Product Management
aPriori Inc.
Concord, Mass.
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 44

Autonics' graphic touch panels are the ideal solutions to make complicated controlling systems simple with
convenient interface. The LP/GP Series HMl's have flexible functionality coupled with a high visibility
wide screen display at a reasonable price. These exceptional features allow them to be used in many
different types of industrial applications.
RS# 138
CAD
The Creatr 3D printer comes
precalibrated.
itself from other consumer printers in several regards, says company co-
founder Mathijs Kossen. First, unlike other printers, the device is made
entirely of aluminum, so it is sturdy and steady. And it also has larger,
more-reliable electronic components, he says. For example, stepper-motor
drivers in consumer printers typically break almost right away. We replaced
them with professional drivers, as well as a more-robust belt and driving
shaft. The printer, therefore, wears out less quickly.
While most printers in the Creatrs price range (approximately $1,500)
need calibration, the Creatr comes preassembled and precalibrated, so us-
ers can just start printing, out of the box. The machine targets people who
dont want to spend 20 to 40 hours building a machine and calibrating it
they just want to design immediately. This makes our printer accessible to a
broad range of people.
In addition, the 23 27 23-cm build volume is large for a consumer
printer. Whats more, the device sports an optional dual extruder. The Creatr
builds using thermoplastic extrusion. A machine with a single extruder would
It seems just about everyone
is busy printing objects in
3D. Examples range from
high-end airfoils to jew-
elry, lattice structures, and
even self-portrait figurines.
Here, we kick the tires of a
few machines, both con-
sumer and commercial.
The machines we profile
have one thing in common
a price tag of under about
$20,000. And most are much
less expensive.
LeapFrog
Aimed at the home user, the
Creatr 3D printer from LeapFrog
in the Netherlands distinguishes
Technology once deemed too
expensive for wide use has infiltrated
manufacturing and even become a hit
with consumers.
Authored by
Leslie Gordon
Senior Editor
Resources:
FormLabs, www.formlabs.com
LeapFrog, www.lpfrg.com
Mcor Technologies Ltd., www.
mcortechnologies.com
RepRap Ltd., www.reprap.org
Stratasys, www.stratasys.com
The changing face of
3D printing
The model of a
head shows the
capabilities of
Mcors full-color-
version printer.
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 46
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RS# 139
CAD
The relatively inexpensive Form 1 stereolithography
machine can print detailed models like this Eiffel Tower.
The Mojo can build parts such
as this medical model of a
foot, which would be used
for preoperative surgical
planning.
print ABS, for everyday design engineers who use CAD as
part of their jobs. The company first introduced its other
FDM product lines, including the Dimension in 2001 at
about one-half the price of other 3D equipment available
at that time. It has since developed numerous Dimension
products, taking the price down to about $20,000. About
five years ago, the company introduced the uPrint, which
was in the $15,000 to 20,000 price range. The Mojo came
out in April 2012. It is said to be the first professional-
grade printer to cost less than $10,000.
Whats striking about the Mojo is its shape and size,
says Cobb. The machine really mimics the form factor
of a 2D printer one might get from HP. Also, its software
lets users drag and drop from CAD files, as well as quickly
print second, third, or fourth models. The system also ar-
ranges the parts in the build envelope.
Mojo build material, which is in the form of a filament,
along with the feed head, is all part of the print cartridge.
Stratasys says users can set up the printer in about 10 to
15min.
not be able to build a bridge, for example, says Kossen.
To make the pylon, when the first layer on the road is
printed, the plastic coming out of the nozzle would fold
down into the air. But the second extruder fills in that
space with a soluble material, letting users print almost ev-
ery shape and form. When the build is complete, users can
easily wash out the water-soluble material that supports
overhangs during a build.
Building materials are in the form of a filament that
comes on reels. The machine prints ABS or PLA plastic.
PLA is a little more brittle than ABS with a lower melt
temperature, making it possible to print smoother edges.
Users might be more likely to print end models with
ABS, says Kossen. On the other hand, they may be more
likely to print display models out of PLA. PLA is also bio-
degradable. Interestingly, ABS is the material used to make
Legos.
The Creatr typically builds in 200-micron layers. But
mechanically and experimentally, its possible for the toler-
ances to go much lower, say, to 100 microns, says Kossen.
The speeds of the X and Y axes go up to 0.35 m/sec and the
extrusion speed is 200 mm/min. The machine can print an
iPhone casing in about 10 to 15 min.
FormLabs
According to FormLabs founder Maxim Lobovsky, the
Cambridge-Mass.-based company recently introduced the
Form 1, the first stereolithography (SL) machine that is
anywhere close to costing only $3,000.
We have made it easy to use the machine to tar-
get what we call pro-
sumers or designers,
engineers, and mak-
ers, he says. The
software is intuitive and
it includes tools to handle the fin-
ishing steps. The machines use a less-common ver-
sion of SL, where resin is exposed from the bottom
of the tank, rather than from the top. We didnt
invent that overall process, but we simplified it and
reduced costs. For example, new lasers on the mar-
ket make that part of the system way less expensive.
For materials, the machine uses a proprietary
photopolymer, a liquid in a bottle that costs about
$149/liter. The resin price is about half that of the
higher-resolution machines, says Lobovsky.
The machine produces layers with a minimum
thickness of 25 microns and a minimum feature
size of 300 microns. The machine prints at a typical
rate of about 15 mm of height per hour. The build
envelope is 4.9 4.9 6.5 in.
Stratasys
Stratasys Technical Director John Cobb says the
company recently introduced the Mojo 3D printer,
which uses fused-deposition modeling (FDM) to
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 48
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RS# 140
CAD
The RepRap
Huxley
is copying
itself.
any self-replicating object, whether its a butterfly or a whale,
must sit at a whole series of points that are optimal in relation
to their surroundings. And most of the surroundings are
themselves self-replicating entities, he says. This idea of op-
timal positioning is the basis of a rigorous mathematical idea
that supports an evolutionary stable strategy.
Says Bowyer, The RepRap copies itself by printing its
own parts, but it obviously cant succeed on its own it
needs a human to put the bits and pieces together, which
is the equivalent of insects helping flowers reproduce.
How might the machine persuade humans to do that? The
answer is by giving them consumer goods. Humans then
have an incentive to help the machines copy themselves.
This is a way to make the machine stable in the world.
By the machines nature, it had to be open source, says
Bowyer. Should you put a machine that copies itself out in
the world and try to patent it, what you are saying is, Ive
made a machine that copies itself. Now, world, you cant
copy it, he says. Thats a recipe for spending the rest of
your life in court trying to stop people from using the ma-
chine for the one thing it was designed to do.
Estimates are that between 20,000 and 30,000 machines
now exist. Bowyers company is currently shipping ma-
chines at the rate of about 100/month. The build envelope
is about 8 8 5.5 in. The machine prints in layer thick-
nesses of 0.020 in. The minimum feature size is 0.080 in.
Mcor Technologies
With its Iris 3D printer, Mcor Technologies Ltd. in
Ireland has modernized an old idea that of creating 3D
The Mojo comes with its own part-cleaning apparatus,
which Stratasys calls the WaveWash 55. The size of a tra-
ditional coffee maker, the WaveWash 55 is geared toward
desktop users. It holds up to a gallon of water, which is
good for about 8 lb of material. Users simply drop the soap
in the water and place parts in the cleaner. It removes the
support material in about 15 to 30 min, depending on part
complexity. The printer and accessories come in a bundle
costing about $9,900.
The Mojos build envelope is 5 5 5 in. It prints in
layer thicknesses of 0.007 in.
RepRapPro
The RepRap 3D printer, which also prints using ther-
moplastic extrusion, is touted as being self-replicat-
ing. This label comes from Adrian Bowyer, director of
RepRapPro Ltd. in the U.K., who says that even as a child,
he was interested in creating a self-replicating machine.
One only has to look at the natural world to see what
can be created by things that copy themselves, which is af-
ter all, the very definition of a biological entity, says Bow-
yer. When I was an academic, my university bought a few
RP machines, and as an engineer, I found them a complete
liberation. For the first time, I had a device that let me sit
at a computer screen and design whatever I wanted and
then have it in my hand an hour or so later. Once I became
aware of the versatility of the technology, it seemed a good
way to make a machine that could copy itself.
In this endeavor, Bowyer was concerned that whatever
he created would be evolutionarily stable. This is to say,
3D printing from
Staples?
Mcor recently struck a deal with Staples
to launch a new 3D printing service called
Staples Easy 3D, online via the Staples
Of ce Centre at www.staples.nl.
Consumers, product designers, archi-
tects, health-care professionals, educators,
and students can simply upload electronic
fles to the Centre and pick up the mod-
els in their nearby Staples stores, or have
them shipped to their address. Staples
creates models using the Mcor Iris, a 3D
printer said to have the highest color ca-
pability in the industry and the lowest op-
erating cost of any commercial 3D printer.
Printed objects might include prototypes,
art objects, architectural models, medical
models, and 3D maps. The service will be
available in the Netherlands and Belgium
early in 2013 and quickly roll out to other
countries, says a company spokesperson.
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 50
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RS# 141
CAD
The Iris builds up models from
sheets of office-size paper.
hesive. The machine cuts the paper
with a tungsten-carbide blade.
We have been in business since
2005, says MacCormack. The Iris
is both low cost and eco friendly. All
of our competitors are either using
a plastic or powder to produce 3D
models. Parts that come out of the
Iris are strong and high quality. They
have a resolution of 0.1 mm, about
the thickness of a sheet of paper, so
surfaces are smooth and parts can be
quite complex. The machine mostly
targets the commercial and educa-
tional markets.
Recently, the company introduced
a full-color version of the printer. It
applies colored ink to white paper
and from that builds up 3D models.
The quality of the print is high
5,760 1,440 508 dpi and 1 million
colors, says MacCormack.
The company sells its products in
an interesting way. As well as buying
the machine outright, users can pur-
chase one of our 3D plans, which go
for one, two, or three years. The price
is set and users can use the machine
and also get unlimited consumables
as many blades and as much glue
as needed to run the machine for the
length of the contract. This opens the
door to educational and professional
users who couldnt otherwise afford
the technology. The machines start
at $15,000.
The Iris build size is 9.39 6.89
5.9 in. Layer size is 0.004 in. MD
adhesive, making waste removal dif-
ficult. The old machine also cut with
a laser, which proved to be a fire haz-
ard. In addition, the models from this
machine were brown because the la-
ser burned the paper. In contrast, the
Iris uses sheets of office paper and it
selectively applies the water-based ad-
models by gluing together layers of
paper. Many designers may remem-
ber a similar idea that surfaced years
ago. According to Mcor spokesperson
Deidre MacCormack, the difference
between the old Helisys machine and
the Iris is that the Helisys used a large
roll of paper that was preapplied with
RS# 142
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 52
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RS# 143
Water hammer can affect
most any fluid system with
rapidly changing flows.
FLUID POWER
Water hammer (or steam hammer) is a violent flow transient in piping named
for the loud banging it generates. It can affect almost any fluid system that
experiences rapidly changing flows, including power-plant piping, water-
supply systems, pumped storage facilities, oil pipelines, and hydraulic and
general fluid-handling lines.
Water hammer is not just a nuisance. It can rupture or collapse pipes, uproot
anchors, and cause other calamities associated with excessive pipe movement.
Proper design and operation prevent such destruction.
Pressure waves
To design piping systems that stand up to the forces that water hammer gen-
erates, engineers first need to recognize pressure-wave propagation in pipes.
This includes both the size and swiftness of the pressure surge, and how pres-
sure waves affect pipe.
Suddenly closing a gate or valve builds up pressure by p that propagates up-
stream at the speed of sound. The pressure wave is reflected at the reservoir or
junction and travels back to the gate, changing pressure in the pipe by p. The
wave reflects off the closed gate, turns into a negative pressure wave and travels
toward the reservoir for a second round trip. The pressure wave decays in two
to three cycles.
Engineers can determine the magnitude of the pressure surge by considering
a layer of fluid adjacent to the gate (as shown in the Control volume illustration).
As the gate closes to block flow, the resulting boundary forces on the control
volume accelerate the fluid mass inside.
Violent flow transients
can destroy piping.
Heres a look at the
causes, and how to
head off problems.
Authored by:
Moo-Zung Lee
West Hills, Calif.
Edited by Kenneth J. Korane
ken.korane@penton.com
Key points:
Water hammer can affect most any fluid
system with rapidly changing flows.
It can rupture or collapse pipes, uproot or
damage supports, and break connections to
equipment.
Solutions include well-designed restraints,
slowing valve openings, and eliminating
entrapped air.
Resources:
Moo-Zung Lee has a BSME from the National
Taiwan Univ., MSME from the Univ. of
Houston, and a Ph.D. from New York State
Univ. at Stony Brook. He has nearly 40 years
experience in power-plant construction and
dynamic and stress analyses of nuclear-power-
plant piping and aerospace and defense
systems.
Taming
WATER
HAMMER
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 54
RS# 144
an|mat|cs.com408-748-8721
>PUK
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ZWVVSL]LY`
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:THY[4V[VY

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Spool integrity depends on a
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FLUID POWER
(p
o
+ p)A + A(V
o
+ V)
2
p
o
A AV
o
2
= A(a V
o
)t(V/t)
p = (a V
o
)V (V
o
+ V)
2
+ V
o
2
p = aV(1 + V
o
/a) aV.
The acoustic velocity of water in Schedule 40 to 60 steel pipes is about
4,000fps. For steam or gases, calculate acoustic velocity using:
a = (144g
c
kpv)
0.5
.
The specific heat ratio, k, is 1.25 to 1.3 for steam and 1.4 for air and most
gases.
For quick full-gate closings, V = V
o
, the pressure surge and corresponding
force on the gate are, respectively:
Ap
max
S
f
(aV
o
) S
f
a
vW
A

_
,

S
f
a
W
g
c
A

_
,

S
f
a
W
g
c
A

_
,

AF
max
Ap
max
A S
f
a(W/ g
c
) (momentum equation)
A safety factor, S
f
=1.1, is generally appropriate for surge-pressure calcula-
tions. Pressure surges measured in 24-in. main steam pipes of power plants dur-
ing turbine trip tests are less than 5% above the analytical prediction using these
equations. This is a reasonable validation of this calculation method which ne-
glects friction, compressibility, and related factors.
Pressure design
Pressure design for water-hammer load must consider both rupture and
buckling failures. Overpressure may rupture the pipe from hoop-tension fail-
ure. Hoop-tension stress in a pipe wall from internal pressure is:
S
hp
= pr/h = pd
i
/2h, p = p
0
+

Longitudinal stress in pipe is half of the hoop stress. But it must be combined
with tensile and bending stresses from all concurrent loads and could dictate
the design.
Pressure wave traveling in pipe
Gate open
Gate shut
L
V
o
p wave
V
0
a V = 0
p wave
V = 0 a
p wave
a
V = 0
p wave
V = 0
a
Reservoir
t < 0
0 < t < L/a
L/a < t < 2L/a
2L/a <t < 3L/a
3L/a < t < 4L/a
Sudden gate or valve closing creates a pressure wave that travels through
the pipe. Here, V = flow velocity, V
o
= initial flow velocity, and a = acoustic
velocity.
RS# 145
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FLUID POWER
If pipe pressure (p
o
p
max
) becomes negative, the pipe may collapse or
buckle from external pressure. The critical net external pressure for buckling a
cylindrical shell is:
p
cr

E
4(1
2
)
h
r

3
Low-pressure, large-diameter pipes and bellows are most vulnerable to
buckling. The external pressure from underground seepage on buried pipes or
tunnel linings can be high enough to buckle pipe during water-hammer events,
when drained, or even during construction. Stiffener rings can be used instead
of thicker shells. The critical pressure per unit axial length for buckling a ring is:
q
cr
= 3EI/r
3
.
A good practice is to weld the stiffener to the outside of the shell wall with
full-penetration continuous welds so that the combined moment of inertia of
the cross section exceeds the sum of the two individual moments of inertia.
The speed of pressure surge at the gate depends on valve characteristics in
terms of mass flow rate versus time. A typical nonlinear valve-characteristic
curve may be approximated by a straight line. The linear effective closing time
is about one-half to one-third of the nominal stroke time. For linear-valve char-
acteristics, surge pressure ramps up to p
max
in time, t
g
, and then remains con-
stant. This is a ramp function, p(t), defined as:
p(t) = p
max
(t/t
g
), 0 t t
g
; p(t) = p
max
, t
g
t.
The longitudinal load on a pipe section is generated by a wave front hitting
the two ends with a time lag. Consider a straight pipe section between elbows B
1
and B
2
shown in the accompanying graphic. The wave front reaches B
1
at time t
1
and arrives at B
2
at t
2
. Forces on B
1
and B
2
are time-shifted ramp functions:
F(t) = p(t)A; F
1
(t) = -F(tt
1
), F
2
(t) = F(tt
2
).
The net unbalanced force on the pipe section is a trapezoid pulse:
F
s
(t) = F
1
(t) + F
2
(t) = F(tt
1
) + F(tt
2
).
Control-volume boundary forces
Mass element
Gate shut
a V
o
p
o
+ p
V
o
+ V
A(V
o
+ V)
2
momentum
(p
o
+ p)A
a V
0
Mass element
(a V
o
)t
p
o
V
o
AV
o
2
, momentum
p
o
A
This graphic shows forces acting on a mass element (ignoring friction).
Here, A(a-V
o
)t is the mass volume and

p is the pressure surge.
RS# 147
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 58
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For long pipe sections, defined as L
s
at
g
, F
smax
= F
max
. For short pipe sec-
tions, where L
s
< at
g
, F
smax
= F
max
(t
2
t
1
)/t
g
. Thus, short sections are subjected
to smaller forces because the wave front hits B
2
before F
1
(t) reaches the peak.
For L
s
< L
cr
= at
g
, the load on the pipe section is smaller.

sms

mx
t

t
g

g
c

s
t
g

s
g
c
t
g

s


s mx


g
c
t
g

s

cr

This indicates that unbalanced forces, F


smax
, on pipe sections can be re-
duced by slowing down the valve for L
s
< L
cr
. Most pipe sections in utilities and
other plants are shorter than these critical lengths.
Dynamic-load factor
Dynamic-load factor (DLF) is a multiplier to estimate maximum dynamic
load from static load considering the input interactions with the single degree-
of-freedom dynamic system. For example, in loading an object on a scale, if the
scale swings to 15 lb before settling down to 10 lb, the static load on the scale is
10 lb while the maximum dynamic load on the scale is 15 lb. So DLF is 1.5.
DLF depends on the input
pulse shape, how rapidly the load is
applied, and system stiffness. DLF
for a particular input pulse is cus-
tomarily presented as a function
of /T, where = the time interval
that defines the input pulse and T
= the systems natural period of vi-
bration. Water-hammer load on
a pipe section is a trapezoidal or
triangular pulse when L
s
= at
g
. The
maximum response to a trapezoi-
dal pulse may occur before or af-
ter the input decays. In the former,
DLF of the ramp function is used;
for the latter, the residual DLF ap-
Valve-fow characteristics
LINEAR-VALVE CHARACTERISTICS
Flow rate (W)
100%
0%
Efective closing
time (t
g
)
Stroke time (t)
CORRESPONDING
PRESSURE SURGE
Pressure surge
p
max
0 t
g
Time
p(t)
Linear fow-rate change
Actual fow-rate change
Gate flow-rate
characteris-
tics can be
linearized for
simplicity. For
linear-gate char-
acteristics, the
corresponding
pressure surge is
a ramp function.
Longitudinal forces in pipes
F
1
(t) F
2
(t)
B
1 B
2
p wave
L
s
Water hammer can impart longitudinal
loads on a pipe section.
RS# 148
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 59
FLUID POWER
plies. Those DLFs are plotted with = t
g
and /T = f
n
t
g
in the chart, DLF for wa-
ter-hammer loads. The design DLF, an envelope of all the above, is an educated
approximation on the part of the design engineer.
Problems, solutions
Water hammer induces longitudinal loads on pipe sections, resulting in ex-
cess pipe movements that can overstress the pipe or break small branches. It
may uproot anchors, permanently deform supports, or overload connections to
adjacent equipment. Pipes may even ram the surrounding structures or equip-
ment. Therefore, piping must be restrained to handle water-hammer loads at or
near the sources and limit movement.
Water-hammer restraints include axial and offset restraints, and equipment
connections. In selecting the restraint type, engineers must consider other loads
such as thermal movement of the pipe. Typical restraints include:
Rigid rod, clamp, and bracket devices are common for cold-pipe supports.
Snubbers lock up and function like a rigid strut when subjected to a fast-
acting axial force, and otherwise allow slow thermal movements with little
resistance.
U-bolt clamps may slip or bend under out-of-plane load.
Expansion joints may slip if either end is not rigidly held. (The expansion
joint acts like a hydraulic jack.)
The separation force, pA, on an expansion joint may be huge even without
water hammer, though water hammer may expose otherwise hidden support
weaknesses. Neglecting these forces often leads to support failure around an
expansion joint. Small branch pipes must be flexible enough to tolerate move-
ments, or they may be overstressed and even break. Long and large pipes such
as penstocks are typically anchored at the bends and have an expansion joint in
every section between anchors.
Design
Ramp
Triangular Trapezoidal, residual
DLF for water-hammer loads
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
-
l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
/T
0 1 2
The dynamic-load factor is a multiplier used to estimate maximum
dynamic loads based on static-load conditions.
RS# 149
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 60
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Quick gate opening directly ramps up pressure to accelerate the fluid mass,
and the wave front rushes ahead at the speed of sound. A fast actuator-operated
valve that taps water from a high-pressure source could cause water hammer in
a branch line. Loose parts in a valve assembly may rattle to initiate water ham-
mer under certain conditions.
Slowing the valves closing rate reduces water-hammer loads on piping. The
wicket gates of hydraulic turbines and main steam-inlet valves of steam turbines
in power plants must close quickly to prevent turbine generators from excess
overspeeding when the unit at a high output is cut off from the power grid.
Here, the quick-closing gate causes water/steam hammer and the piping system
must be ready to bear the loads.
On the other hand, many valves close much faster than necessary simply
because theyre driven by fast actuators. If the hydraulic or pneumatic actuator
speed is not adjustable, inserting an improvised flow restrictor (tube connector
with a small flow area) on the actuator control fluid line slows the actuator with-
out impairing its force capability.
How slow is a slow valve? Pick the pressure-wave round trip time, t
r
= 2L/a,
as a benchmark. By slowing the valve to t
g
> t
r
, the p wave returns to the gate
before full gate closure to cancel further pressure surges. This proportionally
reduces the crest of the pressure surge.
Ap
g
Ap
max
t
r
t
g

, or Ap
g
(S
f
)aV
o
2L
at
g

(S
f
)
2LV
0
t
g

, p
g
p
o
By setting an acceptable pressure-surge magnitude, one can calculate a nec-
essary t
g
. Actual valve-closing time required, (2 to 3)t
g
, depends on the valve
characteristics.
Entrapped air may also cause annoying water hammer. Air gets trapped by
filling an empty pipe with liquid too quickly while impeding orderly evacua-
Calculating water-hammer loads
As an example, consider a power-plant steam turbine that draws
2.8 10
6
lb/hr saturated steam at 900 psia through a 400 ft, 24-in. Sch. 60 pipe.
Assume the turbine inlet valve closes in 50 msec to shut of the fow linearly. Assume
f
n
20 Hz for the piping system.
Here are typical calculations to determine water-hammer loads on the pipe
section.
For 24-in. Sch. 60 pipe, A = 382.35 in.
2
, d
i
= 22.064 in., and h = 0.968 in.
Saturated steam is at p = 900 psia (p
o
= 885.3 psig) and specifc volume v =
0.50091ft
3
/lb.
Specifc heat ratio k = 1.265 (Ref. Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings and Pipes, Crane
Technical Paper 410).
Acoustic velocity in steam a = (144g
c
kpv)
0.5
= 1,626 fps.
Safety factor S
f
= 1.1.
Pressure surge p
max
= S
f
aW/(Agc) = 1.1 [1,626(2.8 10
6
/3,600)]/(382.35 32.2) =
1.1 102.73 = 113 psi.
Maximum internal pressure p
max
= p
o
+ p
max
= 998.3 psig.
Minimum internal pressure p
min
= p
o
p
max
=772 psig. Buckling is not an issue.
Hoop stress in pipe S
t
= (p
max
d
i
)/(2h) = 11.38 ksi.
Maximum force from the pressure surge on the gate F
max
= p
max
A = 43.2 kip.
Critical pipe length L
cr
= at
g
= 1,626 0.050 = 81.3 ft.
Dynamic load factor (DLF) = 1.3 from the chart for /T = f
n
t
g
20 0.05 = 1.
Longitudinal loads on the pipe sections are calculated as follows:
L
s
> 81.3 ft, R = F
max
DLF = 43.2 1.3 = 56.2 kips.
L
s
< 81.3 ft, R
s1
= (56.2 /81.3) = 0.691 kip/ft (load per foot of pipe length). For example,
for L
s
= 50 ft, R = R
s1
L
s
= 0.691 50 = 34.6 kip.
Pressure wave traveling frequency f = a/(4L) = 1 Hz.
Given that the minimum tensile strength of typical power-piping ASTM A106
steels is at least 48 ksi (yield stress about 30 ksi), it appears this pipe would handle
water-hammer loads.
RS# 150
p
g
, for t
g
t
r
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FLUID POWER
tion of the air. An unusually low static head at the bottom of a vertical pipe may
indicate an entrapped air column. When fluid flows, air is pushed up and down
in elevation, and pressure at particular locations fluctuates and disturbs flow and
jolts the pipes. The compressed, entrapped air expands as it approaches the exit
to atmosphere and thrusts the water slug in front at high speed. The air and water
with a huge density disparity alternately exit the pipe and the reactive momentum
AV
2
changes abruptly to jolt the pipe and shake the entire line.
Because filling operations are infrequent and can be planned, it is more cost
effective to give sufficient
time to fill or discharge the
line slowly to alleviate the
impact of air entrapment,
rather than fortify the
supports. Long and large
pipes like penstock use
a bypass valve to slowly
fill the line and evacuate
air through an air-release
valve at the highest eleva-
tion. The air-release valve
stays open when dry and
shuts while flooded. Shut-
off force come from the
buoyancy of a bulky hol-
low disk.
An engineers prior-
ity for handling water
hammer is to remove the
sources or minimize the
effects. Slowing valves and
avoiding air entrapment
can eliminate many head-
aches. But when quick
valve action is mandatory
and water hammer is in-
evitable, piping systems
must be designed to ac-
commodate the loads. MD
Nomenclature
A = Pipe flow area, in.
2
a = Acoustic velocity, fps
d
i
= Internal diameter of pipe, in.
E = Modulus of elasticity, psi
F(t), F(t), F
s
(t) = Fluid force on gate, incremental,
on pipe section, lb
f
f
n
= System natural frequency of vibration, sec
-1
g
c
= Mass-gravitational constant, (32.2 fps
2
)(lb/lb
f
)
h = Wall thickness of shell, in.
I = Moment of inertia of area, in.
4
k = Specific heat ratio (c
p
/c
v
)
L, L
s
, L
cr
= Length; general, pipe section, critical, ft
p, p
o
, p
cr
= Pressure; general, initial, critical, psi
p = Pressure surge from valve closing, psi
q
cr
= Critical buckling pressure of circular ring per
unit length of center line, lb
f
/in.
r = Internal radius of shell or pipe, in.
S
f
= Safety factor for pressure-surge calculation
S
hp
= Hoop stress of shell, psi
T = 1/f
n
natural period of vibration, sec
t
g
= Effective gate closing time, sec
t
r
= Pressure wave round trip time (t
r
= 2L/a), sec
V, V
o
= Flow velocity; general, initial, fps
W = Flow rate, lb/sec
v = Specific volume, ft
3
/lb
= Poissons ratio
= Mass density, lb/in.
3
= Characteristic time of pulse, sec
Efect of gate-closing time
Fast-closing gate: t
g
t
r
, p
g
= p
max
p
max p
g
t
r
= 2L/a
t
g
t
r
Time
Slow-closing gate: t
g
> t
r
, p
g
= p
max
(t
r
/t
g
)
p
max
p
g
t
r
t
g
Time
Slowing the valve-closing time reduces the effects of water hammer.
RS# 151
FEBRUARY 14, 2013
RS# 152
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RS# 153
INSTRUMENTATION
Authored by:
Jim Schwartz
National Instruments Corp.
Austin, Tex.
Edited by Leland Teschler
leland.teschler@penton.com
Key points:
Consider the complete system before testing begins.
Account for hardware, software, data storage and
processing, and the testing environment when
developing a test system.
ITM, www.un-yah.com/
More on this case study,
http://www.ni.com/cranetest/
National Instruments Inc., www.ni.com
Tips for
large
machinery
test
systems
Choice of strain gage
Strain gages have nearly
unlimited variations based
on qualities such as size,
sensitivity, material-temperature
coefficients, temperature ranges,
and measurement axis. Pay
attention to the strain-gage
properties and the material
it mounts on. Here, 32 strain
gages mount to each lattice
section along the entire length
of the boom, according to the
methods described in SAE J987.
Measurements of buckling
stresses in the crane boom
lattices came from single-axis
350- strain gages used in a
quarter-bridge configuration. In
total, ITM used 144 strain gages
along the length of the boom.
Lead-wire resistance and
shunt calibration
A strain measurement is
essentially a resistance
measurement, so lead-wire
resistance can cause offsets.
Quarter-bridge measurements
are inherently sensitive to the
resistance of wiring between
the sensor and measurement
device. So long wire runs on
off-highway equipment are a
problem. A method called shunt
calibration can quantify the lead-
wire resistance and nullify this
effect, either in software as data
is acquired or in postprocessing.
What to look out for when
sensors get widely dispersed
over big machines.
With data-acquisition projects, the costs of delays are
often high. Thats particularly true for heavy machinery
like cranes, mining shovels, and excavators. Examples
come from obstacles commonly faced by engineers mea-
suring strain along the length of a 300-ft crane boom
made by Manitowoc Cranes, Manitowoc, Wis. Mark
Yeager and Tim Carlier, test engineers for Integrated
Test and Measurement (ITM), Milford, Ohio, a service
provider (employed by Manitowoc Cranes) specializing
in challenging test applications, took these measure-
ments over several weeks. MD
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 64
Visualizing test data
When testing large cranes under potentially dangerous
loading conditions, the ability to visualize and
interpret the data in real time can prevent failures and
make things less risky for personnel. This application
employed a structural test environment called
iTestSystem from ITM that included capabilities to
process the data during acquisition.
Data storage and postprocessing
Test systems for compliance with safety standards
must output data in a standard file format. Because
ITM collected data in a standard file format, Manitowoc
engineers could analyze data and verify test results
using existing in-house software.
Electromagnetic
interference
Noise sources like TV and
radio stations can affect
measurements, necessitating
data filters to ensure
accuracy. For example,
the NI CompactDAQ data-
acquisition platform from
National Instruments
includes integrated signal
conditioning such as filtering,
amplification, and excitation.
Quarter-bridge
measurements
Instrumentation options
are limitless. You need to
chose hardware that can be
optimized for the application.
ITM engineers used NI
CSeries modules with the
NI CompactDAQ platform.
Each module includes
built-in bridge completion,
excitation, amplification, and
filtering required for making
quarter-bridge strain-gage
measurements.
Shielding from the elements
Most large equipment wont fit in a test lab. Its
usually exposed to the elements. Each piece of
instrumentation should sit in rugged, sealed
enclosures. In ITMs case, NEMA-4X enclosures
protected instruments.
Safety standards
Engineers at ITM had to pay close attention to
SAE J987, which outlines the methods for testing
static loads on a lattice-boom crane. This let them
supply Manitowoc with the test results to show
compliance. SAE J987 dictates this particular test,
but nearly every large piece of machinery has
certain standards and codes.
Instrumentation and documentation
The safety standard usually includes the required
instrumentation accuracy, calibration procedures,
and documentation steps for the final report. But
different manufacturers may have more detailed
or stringent requirements. Failure to understand
them can cost hours of test time.
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 65
FASTENING/JOINING
Inserts like this let engineers use
screws to attach components to
plastic parts. Manufacturers can use
heat or ultrasonics to install inserts
in thermoplastics, and each has its
advantages and disadvantages.
Authored by:
Christopher G. Jeznach
Application Engineer
Spirol International Corp.
Danielson, Conn.
Edited by Stephen J. Mraz
stephen.mraz@penton.com
Resources:
Spirol International Corp.,
www.spirol.com
method. Engineers should
consider the advantages and
disadvantages of both meth-
ods before purchasing instal-
lation equipment or finaliz-
ing manufacturing plans.
Ultrasonic installation
During ultrasonic installa-
tion, a relatively small down-
ward force, typically gener-
ated by a pneumatic cylinder,
presses the insert into a pre-
drilled or molded hole while
an ultrasonic horn converts
electric power into high-frequency vibrations. Those vibra-
tions get delivered to the insert-plastic interface through
direct contact with the insert. The vibrations generate
enough heat to melt the plastic around the insert. Equip-
ment needed for ultrasonic installation includes an elec-
tronic power supply, cycle controlling timers, an electrical
or mechanical energy transducer, and an ultrasonic horn.
Here are some of the advantages of ultrasonic
installation:
It is generally fast for inserts under 0.250-in. OD,
leading to short cycle times. These times increase with
insert size.
The machines can be changed to accommodate dif-
ferent sized and shaped inserts.
Ultrasonic-installation machines can also be used for
plastic-to-plastic welding and other processes.
There are two primary
ways of putting
threaded inserts into
thermoplastics. Here are
the pros and cons of each.
Plastic parts and assemblies are becoming
more common as engineers work to reduce
costs and weight in their designs. But plas-
tics often arent strong enough to support fas-
teners such as screws or bolts. Using screws to
attach parts to plastic housings, for example,
often ends with stripped threads, failed hous-
ings, and assemblies that fall apart.
To get around this limitation, engineers first
install threaded metal inserts into plastic parts.
They give screws and bolts stronger metal
threads to mate with, letting plastic parts be
easily assembled, taken apart, and repeatedly
reassembled.
Two of the most common methods for in-
stalling inserts into thermoplastic parts are heat
and ultrasonics. (Thermoplastics can be remelted a num-
ber of times. Thermosets, on the other hand, have a one-
time reaction and cannot be remelted, making them un-
suitable for heat or ultrasonics.)
Insert basics
With both heat and ultrasonic installation, remelted
plastic firmly holds inserts in molded or drilled holes by
conforming tightly to the knurls, barbs, and undercuts
around the outside of the inserts. But the installation pro-
cess must create enough remelted plastic to entirely fill
these external patterns to get maximum performance,
including pullout and torque resistance, when the plastic
solidifies.
Both heat and ultrasonic installation depend on melting
the plastic around the inserts, but results can vary with each
Putting inserts in plastic parts:
ULTRASONIC
or
HEAT?
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 66
RS# 155
Learn more at www.nexengroup.com
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RS# 156
RS# 157
FASTENING/JOINING
Inserts can be installed using an
ultrasonic machine (left) or a heat
machine (right). Each melts plastic
around the insert, where it can
solidify and keep the insert in place.
When the plastic is properly heated, either by direct heat or ultrasonics,
it flows in and around the patterned features on the insert (left). When
the insert is not heated, the plastic does not flow around the patterned
knurls (right), which means the insert will not be as firmly seated in the
plastic and could fail under load.
Now heres a look at the downside of
ultrasonic installation:
Insufficient melt, or not enough plastic
being melted, can result in inserts being
reamed into solid plastic. This so-called
cold pressing can damage inserts and
the plastic parts. Cold pressing can be
caused by several factors. For example,
bad fixturing/clamping of the plastic
part can dissipate vibrations, pre-
venting enough heat from being gener-
ated around the insert. Slight size varia-
tions of inserts or holes can also lead to
cold pressing. And if inserts are driven
too quickly, the plastic does not have
time to fully melt, creating high stresses
and poor retention in the plastic. This
can lead to part failure during installa-
tion or, even worse, in the field.
Although sophisticated controls can
prevent cold pressing, the cost of such
controls nearly doubles the price of an al-
ready expensive ultrasonic installation
machine.
Here are some of the other downsides
of ultrasonic installation:
Ultrasonic vibrations can chip metal
particulates and flakes off of
inserts. These flakes could
prevent t he i ns er t f rom
seating properly, thus weak-
ening the plastic-to-insert
connection. The flakes are
also unsightly.
Ul t r as oni c i ns t a l l at i on
machines are loud due to
the metal-on-metal contact
between the insert and ultra-
sonic horn. And the bigger
the insert, the louder the
noise.
It is difficult and costly, if not
impossible, to install mul-
tiple inserts simultaneously,
depending on the design.
Using the wrong vibrational
frequencies or downward
force damages inserts.
Extra caution needs to be
taken when using non-
headed inserts to ensure
proper contact is made
between insert and the horn.
Otherwise, it is likely that
the inserts internal threads
will be damaged.
Ultrasonic horns are expen-
sive. They are also subject
to wear and often need to be replaced. It is
common for them cost over $1,000.
Heat installation
Machines that rely on heat to install inserts
use one of two approaches. In some, a metal
tip transfers heat to the insert. In the others, in-
serts are preheated and pneumatically pressed
into predrilled holes in the plastic. In both ap-
proaches, inserts are pushed into the plastic
by a controlled force, usually less than 50 lb.
Heat installation also requires the entire in-
sert be heated, not just the metal-plastic inter-
face. So for proper installation, inserts should
have enough thermal conductivity so that plas-
tic around the insert quickly heats and melts.
Thats why two of the most common insert
materials are brass and aluminum. Once the
plastic melts, it fills the inserts retention
features, then solidifies while inducing
minimal stresses.
Good thermal conductivity also lets
inserts cool quickly after installation.
Here are some of the advantages of heat
installation
Reliability and consistency. Lower instal-
lation forces let inserts be installed into
thin-walled parts which would be destroyed
by ultrasonic equipment. With stable and
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 68

RS# 159 RS# 160


RS# 161
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Phone: (336) 589-6920 viccontroIs.com
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FASTENING/JOINING
installation also works with headed
and nonheaded inserts.
Automation. Heat-insertion equip-
ment can be equipped with vibra-
tory bowl feeders so operators never
need to touch the inserts during
installation. This is important for
small inserts, which are difficult to
handle and orient.
Mi ni mal mai nt enance. Heat
machines seldom need maintenance
(if ever). Maintenance and spare-
part costs are low, and heat tips cost
approximately $55.
Better performance. Completely
heating inserts lets melted plastic
fully flow into all retention features.
Ultrasonically installed inserts
sometimes are insufficiently heated.
One problem with heat installa-
tion is that it takes longer if inserts
arent preheated. In fact, ultrasonic
installation has quicker insertion
and shorter cooling times, giving
it shorter cycle times than heat in-
sertion when installing a single un-
heated insert. However, preheated
inserts will have comparable in-
stallation times compared to ultra-
sonic equipment. In addition, when
installing multiple inserts simulta-
neously, heat insertion offers faster
throughput.
As much as 75% of an inserts per-
formance depends on how well it was
installed, therefore all the factors that
affect installation must be carefully
controlled to maximize performance.
In general, heat installation gives us-
ers more flexibility, consistency, and
performance at a lower cost. But with
so many different combinations of
inserts, plastics, and performance re-
quirements, manufacturers should
partner with fastening and assembly
experts. After all, choosing the right
insert and installation process can be
the difference between failure in the
field and integrity for the life of the
assembly. MD
Easy insertion into deep recesses. Longer heat tips can
place inserts in a parts deep recesses which would be
inaccessible to an ultrasonic horn.
Versatility. Platen-style machines can install several
inserts on different planes. And prototyping or low-
volume applications can be handled by manual machines.
The same machine can also install inserts of different
sizes by switching out the interchangeable heat tips. Heat
adjustable temperature, force, and depth settings,
installed inserts have predictable pull-out and torsion-
failure forces, which can be tailored for applications.
Noise levels. Heat installation is quieter than ultrasonic
installation.
More economical. Heat installation machines cost about
half of ultrasonic equipment because they are less com-
plex and do not require as many components.
RS# 162
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 70
1-2 Axis Multi-axis
RMC75 and RMC150
Motion Controllers

1, 2, or up to 8 axes

User programs control
position and pressure/
force

Wizards for quick, easy
setup and tuning

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Simulate to speed setup and testing.
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motion smoothly and precisely.
3. Optimize swiftly with motion wizards and graphs for
more throughput and machine life.
Squeeze more
from existing machines.
Call 1-360-254-8688 or
choose your controller
at deltamotion.com
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EZ INDEXER

IF YOU STILL THINK THE WORLD IS FLAT...


,HZ`[V0U[LNYH[L9VI\Z[*VUZ[Y\J[PVU5V4HPU[LUHUJL
A MECHANICAL INDEXER.
YOURE PROBABLY STILL USING
RS# 163
RS# 164
RS# 165
TM
MOTIONCONTROL TECHNOLOGY GUIDE
A
ny plant using linear motion
requires maintenance workers to
regularly apply lubrication to linear
guides, because insuffciently lubricated
mechanical components exhibit excessive
wear, performance problems, and premature
failure. However, manual lubrication
practices can be pricey, due to recurring
maintenance-personnel wages and the cost of
the lubricant itself. Such lubrication expenses
are even higher for remotely located grease
fttings, or those requiring downtime for
servicing.
One alternative for linear-motion
applications is lubed-for-life or
maintenance-free guides. Typically, these
subcomponents incorporate lubrication
storage and delivery systems to drastically
reduce or even eliminate the need to reapply
lubricant after bearings go into service.
Their drawback is complexity and cost.
Yet another alternative is maintenance-
free bearings with integrated mechanical
features in the bearing slider that store and
deliver oil. Such guides and ways abound,
but are typically designed for either the
longest possible maintenance-free intervals
or design compactness.
A third linear-component lubrication
option aims to meet both design objectives.
These long-life maintenance-free linear-
motion products are manufactured in
roller-guide, ball-guide, and ball-spline-
based shaft-guide versions. Track widths
from 5 to 65 mm exist, with the largest
guides offering a basic static load rating
of 172,000lb. All leverage lubricating
elements of sintered-resin powder and
a steel backing. The working resin
surface has a porous structure that can be
Boosting reliability with
lubricating surfaces
Before oil impregnation, the resin par-
ticles are fusion-bonded for strength. Af-
ter oil impregnation, lubricant is retained
in cavities formed by the resin particles.
Authored by:
John Longo
IKO International Inc.
Parsippany, N.J.
Resources:
For more information
on IKOs Super MX
roller, ML/ME/MH ball,
and MAG ball spline
guides equipped with
C-Lube technology,
visit ikont.co.jp/eg.
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 72
* See our Web site for details and restrictions.
Copyright 2013 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA
All right reserved.
0rder fodey, 5bps fodeyl*
the #1 value in automation
Our encoders
can squeeze
into the
smallest places
TRD-MX500BD
shown actual size
Small body with 25 mm diameter
and 29 mm depth
4mm diameter solid shaft
Resolutions from 100 to 1024
pulses per revolution
Open collector output (5 - 12 or
12 - 24 VDC), or line driver
output (5 VDC)
Up to 100 kHz response frequency
2m cable with tinned ends
IP50 environmental rating
Mounting bracket and couplings
also available
TRD-MX series Koyo
incremental industrial encoders
have small 25mm diameter
bodies, rugged solid shafts, and
a variety of output types.
Also available are hundreds
of encoders in mounting frame
sizes up to 2.5 inches (SAE)
or 78mm (metric).
All encoders are in stock for
same-day shipping.
www.automationdirect.com
1-800-633-0405
Go online or call to get complete information,
request your free catalog, or place an order.
For complete details and
pricing, visit:
www.automationdirect.com/
encoders
impregnated with copious amounts
of oil; the elements are formed into
either a plate or sleeve shape and
integrated into the bearings slider.
They then release the impregnated
oil slowly through direct, continual
contact with the linear guides
internal rolling elements for
maintenance-free operation to
20,000km or fve years which
is often the entire application life.
All of the geometric iterations offer
the same maintenance-free interval.
Therefore, the engineer can choose
the suitable product based on load
type, duty cycle, and other application
factors.
Lets take a closer look at each style:
Roller guides Designed for
applications requiring maximum
stiffness and resistance to moment
loads, these feature a slider on a
balanced set of four cylindrical rollers.
Here, the impregnated-oil element
is fashioned into a plate housed just
behind the sliders end plates.
Ball guides These run on
recirculating steel balls that run
through a sleeve made from the oil-
impregnated sintered resin. As the
balls travel through the sleeve, they
pick up oil and transfer it to the rail.
Ball-spline guides These
incorporate an internal oil-
impregnated plate-shaped element, so
as the balls traverse this plate, they
pick up oil allowing both the balls
and spline shaft to be lubricated. MD
On this ball guide,
oil is lifted and distribut-
ed by the balls. The resulting
flm protects both the balls and rail
from direct metal-on-metal contact.
Shown here is a linear way equipped
with external oil-impregnated
elements. The latter adds no
volume to the design
footprint.
RS# 166
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 73
Cast Iron Right Angle Gear Reducers:
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MOTIONCONTROL TECHNOLOGY GUIDE
Don Cameron
Improving the energy efciency of industrial
applications is top of mind for todays design
engineers. Variable-frequency drives (VFDs)
can make a difference by regenerating power
that would otherwise be lost as heat in hoisting
and other motion-control scenarios.
I
n what applications is power regeneration possible?
Many applications are a good ft for regen drives.
Overhead crane-hoisting mechanisms, elevators and
escalators, heavy conveyor loads in mining operations,
large-inertia centrifuges, and stamping presses are a few
examples.
What are the chief benefts of employing
regenerative drives?
Regenerative drives save users electricity, which is
often the main motivator for adoption. Due to their very
nature, applications such as those listed above have
a load that tends to override or overdrive the motor
shaft. When overridden, the motor acts as a generator
and feeds power back to the VFD. A regenerative drive
then routes this power back to the line. Without such a
drive, the potential to harness this free electrical energy
is lost, whether its generated by gravity or the load
itself. Instead, the power dissipates as heat in a resistor
bank or brake-chopper unit. Frequently, these units are
external to the VFD.
Safety is another concern. External resistors can
get extremely hot, which not only introduces off-
limits foor space, but also increases fre risk. Using a
VFDs:
Boosting efciency in
hoisting applications
Authored by:
Don Cameron
Senior Product Manager
Mitsubishi Electric
Automation Inc.
Vernon Hills, Ill.
Resources:
Mitsubishi Electric
Automation Inc., (847) 478-
2100, www.meau.com
RS# 167
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 74
* See our Web site for details and restrictions.
Copyright 2013 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA
All right reserved.
0rder fodey, 5bps fodeyl*
the #1 value in automation
Our encoders
are in stock
and ready for
anything
50 mm diameter and 35 mm depth
Splash proof (IP65 rating)
8 mm solid or hollow shaft
Incremental models:
- Resolutions from 3 to 2500
pulses per revolution
- Line driver or Totem pole
output (has sinking and
sourcing capability)
- Up to 100 kHz response
frequency
Absolute models:
- Resolutions from 32 to 1024
pulses per revolution,
expressed in 5 to 10-bit gray
code outputs
- Open collector outputs
- Up to 20 kHz response
frequency
TRD-N and TRD-NA series Koyo
encoders offer a wide range
of outputs and resolutions,
starting at just $119.
Additional series of Koyo encoders
are available, starting at just $90.
www.automationdirect.com
1-800-633-0405
Go online or call to get complete information,
request your free catalog, or place an order.
All encoders are in stock for
same-day shipping.
For complete details and
pricing, visit:
www.automationdirect.com/
encoders
Mitsubishis A701
regenerative drive
integrates all the
necessary components
into a single box to
save installation time
and reduce the design
footprint.
no special jobsite engineering
required. By integrating
components including the power
supply, reactors, braking unit, and
converter module, the installation
footprint is reduced by an average
of 50% versus a component-based
solution. No special motors are
necessary to complete the system.
Any fnal advice for engineers
planning to set up a power-
regeneration system?
The tipping point for adopting
an integrated regenerative drive
solution often hinges on the
ability to save on electricity costs,
and the ability to document the
expected savings. Unlike fan
and pump applications, however,
these estimates are not so easy
to ballpark. Too many variables,
including system inputs such as
friction and gearbox effciency,
must be considered. The only way
to accurately predict the outcome is
to set up the respective solutions on
identical equipment and document
net energy consumption. Some
drive manufacturers are willing to
facilitate a try before you buy
scenario to ease the rationalization
process. A two-to-three-year return
on investment is a reasonable
assumption in most cases. MD
regenerative drive eliminates
this concern.
Relying on resistors can
also limit performance. For
example, a machine using
brake choppers may need to
be throttled back to avoid a
situation marked by glowing
red-hot resistors not the
ideal way to determine a
machines cycle time. If the
energy is instead fed back
to the line, throughput can
be based on more relevant
criteria.
How is a typical regenerative-
power system congured?
One option is to use component-
based regeneration solutions, in
which the converter and other
components are assembled external
to the drive. Pure brake choppers
are another.
However, these setups pose
signifcant risk compared to
all-in-one designs. Any initial
cost advantage of a component-
based solution can be negated
by lengthy installation times or
component failures. Regarding
potential failures, an engineer
must determine whether individual
components will continue to be
available.
If not, the end user will
need to engage in fx-it-now
engineering should a component
fail a suboptimal situation if the
application is unloading ship cargo
by the metric ton, for example.
Are there other ways to set up
regenerative systems that might
save space, cost, or energy?
Yes. Another option is to install
a factory-engineered solution that
integrates all necessary components
into a single box. For example,
some drives look and install
just like a regular inverter, with
RS# 168
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 75





ATLAS Digital Ampliersthe
latest innovation from PMDpack an
amazing amount of output power in an ultra compact
design. These single-axis ampliers provide high-
performance torque control of DC brush, brushless DC,
and step motors. And, while theyre as small as a paper
clip, they offer up to 1 Kilowatt of total output power
all without breaking the bank. Learn more about the big
advantages of thinking small in digital amplication.
PERFORMANCE MOTION DEVICES, INC. | 80 CENTRAL ST. | BOXBOROUGH, MA 01719 P: 978.266.1210 | WWW.PMDCORP.COM
Small is the big
news in motion
ampliers.
Product shown is actual size.



TOTAL POWER OUTPUT TO
1 KILOWATT
DIGITAL HIGH PERFORMANCE
TORQUE CONTROL
ULTRA COMPACT DESIGN
LOW COST
PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL
MOTIONCONTROL TECHNOLOGY GUIDE
S
afety hazards associated with moving machinery can
be reduced or eliminated with articulating physical
barriers and torque limiters. Key to this undertaking
are detailed analyses and engineered solutions.
Isolating pinch points
Scissor-lift mechanisms, tilt tables, and similar equip-
ment represent potential sources of injury because pinch
points can be created when these mechanisms move. One
way to protect against these hazards is to enclose moving
parts with bellows that deter personnel from reaching into
hazardous areas yet permit machinery motion. Other
benefts are improved machinery aesthetics and protection
against dust, debris, and foreign objects.
Practical
protection
of motion designs and workers
GorFrame bellows are constructed of various materials
and internal wires that maintain its shape. Theyre
flexible to accommodate lateral and linear motion.
Authored by:
Steve Piacsek
Product Development Engineer
A & A Mfg. Co. Inc.
New Berlin, Wis.
Resources:
For information on networked
safety and IEC safety standards, visit
motionsystemdesign.com/mag/machine_
safety/index.html.
RS# 169
www.automationdirect.com
1-800-633-0405
Go online or call to get complete information,
request your free catalog, or place an order.
Small body with 2.0 in. diameter
and 2.15 in. depth
0.375 in diameter solid shaft
Removable 2.5 in. round flange
Resolutions from 100 to 2500
pulses per revolution
Line driver or Totem pole output
(has sinking and sourcing
capability)
Up to 100 kHz(totem pole) or
200 kHz (line driver) response
frequency
Military-style connector (mating
connectors and pre-made cables
sold separately)
IP65 environmental rating
* See our Web site for details and restrictions.
Copyright 2013 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA
All right reserved.
0rder fodey, 5bps fodeyl*
the #1 value in automation
Our encoders
arent afraid of
a little water
TRDA-25 series Koyo
incremental encoders are IP65
rated, with military-style
connectors for easy installation
and replacement.
SAE and metric-dimension
encoders are also available in
more shaft sizes and resolutions.
All encoders are in stock for
same-day shipping.
For complete details and
pricing, visit:
www.automationdirect.com/
encoders
Weld curtains protect against
welding flash and UV radiation while
containing weld spatter.
In one iteration, heavy-duty accor-
dion-type skirting is made from rigid
PVC coextruded with fexible high-cy-
cle polymer hinges and fabricated cor-
ners. The resulting rigid, movable cover
is suitable for lift tables and vertical-
motion applications. Vents allow uni-
form airfow during operation, while tie
strips guarantee proper expansion and
retraction.
For applications necessitating lateral
and linear motion, such as medical table
bases, imaging tables, dental chairs,
and amusement rides, bellows can be
constructed using various materials and
internal wires that maintain the necessary shape. Fabrication from myriad ma-
terials is possible, including some that meet UL burn standards or incorporate
antimicrobial agents. Suitable for shear-type or lateral movement, the designs
compactness allows retraction into tight spaces.
Controlling machine motion with safety clutches
In the name of safety, motion designs such as CNC machine-tool doors
and gear mechanisms can also be controlled with slip clutches. A continu-
ous slip clutch is a cost-effective safety option that can provide surprisingly
long life in myriad applications. A
typical unit consists of a cartridge
and a housing. The cartridge is
set screwed or keyed to the input
shaft. The housing is similarly at-
tached to the output shaft. Else-
where, the clutches connect via a
bronze bearing to output gears or
pulleys to allow their relative mo-
tion with the input shaft.
In short, torque is transmitted
from the fats on the clutch hub
to mating fats on inner plates
through friction pads to the outer
plates then through torque pins
to the housing and output gear or
pulley. Torque level is controlled
by compressing the springs with
an adjusting nut. For a fxed-
torque clutch, a collar is attached
to the hub in a fxed position rather than the adjusting nut.
Either the input shaft or the housing can act as the input; the other member
is then driven. Torque capabilities are from a few ounces-inch to 1,000 lb-in.
Automated access doors
Automatic-door actuators, which reverse automatically when objects are
detected in their path, are available for retroftting to existing automatic ma-
chining centers with single or double doors. For workers, these reduce injuries
from repetitive door operation and crushing incidents.
One door design incorporates a preprogrammed control module allowing
Steelflex roll-up metal covers
protect the pits of this large
fiber-placement machine at a
manufacturer of composite aircraft
fuselages, allowing workers to safely
access machine subsections.
RS# 170
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 77
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MOTION CONTROL
This
removable
jackhammer
jacket
reduces
sound
intensity by
about 88% to
help protect
workers
hearing.
several input and output commands.
These can be wired into the ma-
chines controller or a simple on-off
circuit; key outputs and messages
can also be fed to a controller. Dis-
tinct benefts are unlimited travel
distances, self-calibration, electric
(pneumatic-free) operation, and no
need for limit switches, light cur-
tains, pressure switches, or photo
eyes. Integrated braking engages at
all positions. Some large-equipment
OEMs of large machinery report that
operators required to open and close
safety doors can experience shoulder
pain, and door actuators reduces re-
petitive shoulder injuries by half or
more.
Covering open pits
and other hazardous
openings
Large machine tools such as
planer mills often are installed par-
tially below foor level, resulting in
potentially hazardous pits. Often,
workers must remove pit grates or
slats to service the machine. Here,
metal roll-up, walk-on covers of-
fer an alternative. Typically made
of reinforced stainless steel, these
covers allow partial pit access while
preventing falls at other times or into
other pit areas.
Case in point: One aircraft manu-
facturer uses large fber-placement
machines to build fuselages from
composites. Adjustable tailstocks of
the two-station machine travel on
Continued on page 82
RS# 172
RS# 171
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 78
High-Accuracy, Zero Backlash Gearhead
The OSF-.H Ou|ck Oonnect .earhead eas-
|Sy Tounts to any servo Totor yet Ta|nta|ns
aSS oM the benefts oM HarTon|c Dr|ve gear-
|ng |ncSud|ng 1arc-T|n accuracy and aero-
backSash. A h|gh capac|ty cross roSSer bear-
|ng |s used at the output and |s ava|SabSe w|th
e|ther a ShaMt or FSange output |nterMace. The
gearhead have rated torques oM 76 |n-Sbs to
,320 |n-Sbs and peak torques oM 343 |n-Sbs
to 46,550 |n-Sbs depend|ng on s|ae and ra-
t|o. .ear rat|os oM 50, 80, 100, 120 and
160:1 are ava|SabSe.
SHF/SHG Hollow Shaft Speed Reducers
Ava|SabSe |n a w|de range oM s|aes, these aero
backSash, 1 arc-T|n accuracy HarTon|c
Dr|ve gearheads enabSe des|gn eng|-
neers to pass shaMts, w|res, tub|ng, or other
coTponents d|rectSy through the center oM
the gear. They |ncorporate an output fange
supported by a Sarge cross roSSer bear|ng,
prov|d|ng except|onaS ToTent st|MMness and
Soad capac|ty. The sTaSSest un|t has a hoSSow
shaMt l.D. oM 14 TT and an outer d|aTeter
oM just 64 TT. The Sargest un|t oM the MaT|Sy
has a hoSSow shaMt l.D. oM 80 TT and has
a rated output torque oM 1236 |n-Sbs, and a
peak torque oM 6175 |n-Sbs. .ear rat|os MroT
30:1 through 160:1 are ava|SabSe.
Harmonic Drive LLC
800-921-3332
www.HarmonicDrive.net
CSF/CSG Precision Gearheads
The OSF and OS. h|gh torque Prec|s|on
.earhead Ser|es are |deaSSy su|ted Mor robot|c
and Tach|ne tooS appS|cat|ons. The OS. de-
S|vers 30% Tore torque and 40% Songer S|Me
wh|Se Ta|nta|n|ng aero-backSash, 1 arc-T|n
accuracy, and +/- 5 arc-sec repeatab|S|ty. An
accurate, h|ghSy r|g|d cross roSSer bear|ng |s
bu|St |n to d|rectSy support the externaS Soad. A
w|de var|ety oM s|aes and reduct|on rat|os are
ava|SabSe w|th Tax|TuT peak torques rang|ng
MroT 450 |n-Sbs. to 60,500 |n-Sbs.
H|gh-Prec|s|onMot|onContro|
Ca||800.921.3332
www.Harmon|cDr|ve.net
Power & Precision
SHA Hollow Shaft Actuator
Brushless Servo Motor
Harmonic Drive

Gearing
lntegrated Brake
17 Bit Absolute Encoder
H|ghTorqueDens|ty
1 arc-min Accuracy
5 arc-sec Repeatability
High Capacity Output
Bearing
ThenewSHAser|esofHo||owShaftActuatorshastheh|ghesttorque
dens|tyofanyactuator|n|tsc|ass,yetprov|desexce||entpos|t|on|ng
accuracy. Several sizes are available with output torques up to 30,000
in-lb. These actuators are ideally suited for robotics, automation,
machine tool, and antenna positioning applications where performance
and reliability are essential.
RS# 173
Airpot

Corp
Motion Controlled. Problem Solved.
W
hen your inventive vision calls for pneumatic control of
force, motion, and displacement that delivers unparalleled
accuracy and resolution, its Airpot first. Our problem- solving line up
of instrument -quality products will keep your project moving.
And our Accurate Force Pneumatics is the key.

With a precision glass cylinder/seal-free piston technology, coupled
with ultra-high quality pneumatics, youll nd products that give you
levels of force and motion control nearly unobtainable by any other
pneumatic means.
Whats more, many of our products can outlast any machine you
put them in. And thats something we can guarantee!
So, when your specications call for a damping, actuation, pressure
sensing, or displacement device that is optimized for exceedingly accurate
and repeatable force control and at a cost lower than other methods
providing comparable function and performance give one of our
application engineers a call.
Lets get started. Whether youre designing or improving a product
line to better serve your customers, or building specialized equipment for
research, high-level testing, or precision assembly, get AirpotCorp
involved early in your process. Call 800-848-7681 or visit airpot.com.
We will move you in ways you might never have imagined.
Accurate Force Pneumatics.
L et it move you.
Airpot

& Airpel

are registered trademarks of Airpot Corporation, Norwalk CT USA.


MADE IN USA
MOTIONCONTROL TECHNOLOGY GUIDE
Lost luggage is annoying
to travelers and incurs
signicant expense for
airlines. One new system
employs a panel PC, camera,
lighting, conveyor belts, and
encoder feedback to scan
bags for more-reliable sorting.
M
odern airport baggage-
handling systems quickly
route enormous quanti-
ties of luggage, but basic computer
scans and manual sorting remain
signifcant sources of error. For the
latter, airport staff must judge at a
glance whether a bag can travel on
dedicated conveyor belts without
causing problems. Overly bulky
items can jam conveyor tunnels,
round luggage can roll off belts,
and backpacks with loose straps or
handles can get trapped on pinch
points. Most nonstandard items are
manually segregated during pas-
senger check-in, but they frequently
end up back in the general baggage
stream when travelers change planes
for fight connections.
To address this problem, a new
system called Bagcheck was jointly
developed by Type22 of Delft,
Netherlands, and Vanderlande In-
dustries, the Netherlands,
a global package-handling
supplier. After luggage has
been weighed and stamped
with a barcode label, a con-
veyor moves it to the Bag-
check station for scanning.
However, unlike a security
check, the system scans
the luggage items outlines
rather than its contents.
How it works
By using a contour
scan camera, Bagcheck generates
a detailed 3D image of a bags out-
lines from above. Then a light cur-
tain generates side views, to record
how tall the luggage is and whether
it has a round shape, for example,
explains Jorick Naber, Type22s
Baggage-scanning system
minimizes lost luggage
The Panel PC
synchronizes a camera,
lighting, and conveyor
belts by using high-
resolution encoder
feedback over an
EtherCAT network.
RS# 174
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 80
Airpel

The Anti-Stiction Air Cylinder


Get our Anti-Stiction Air Cylinder free.
With no piston seals to wear out and no lubricant to leak out,
the Airpel Anti-Stiction

Air Cylinder delivers ultra-smooth motion


cleanly and precisely, even at extreme temperatures. See for yourself.
Visit airpel.com and request our free Airpel demonstrator.
Or call 800-848-7681 to speak with one of our helpful design engineers.
Airpel

and Anti-Stiction

are registered
trademarks of Airpot Corporation, Norwalk CT MADE IN USA
an initial implementation phase at
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is now
underway. At existing installations,
baggage jams and blockages on
conveyor belts have been reduced by
40% and lost luggage instances have
been signifcantly minimized. MD
explains Naber. Line rates up to
4,000 Hz require 125-sec control
cycles so the camera is linked
with the PC via 1-Gbit Ethernet.
Other PLC and soft PLC systems
fail to deliver suffciently short
cycle times, but Beckhoffs Ether-
CAT feldbus components combined
with TwinCAT NC PTP software do
the job with fast and accurate data
communication.
The Panel PC also delivers on
data capacity, integrating controls
with an SQL database that stores all
scanned-luggage image data. The
information is used to evaluate Bag-
check decisions against jam occur-
rences, allowing adaptive learning
to improve future sorting decisions.
Items missing their labels can also
be identifed: Here, Bagcheck
matches scanned luggage images
with those of the untagged item to
trace the luggage to its owner.
Finally, Bagcheck software al-
lows virtual separation of luggage
that is stacked or snagged together.
In traditional systems, stacked
luggage often causes conveyors to
stop or, even worse for travelers,
mistakenly direct both bags to the
same aircraft.
Five Bagchecks are in use at
London Heathrow Airport with
additional systems on order, and
technical director. Luggage unsuit-
able for the standard conveyor can
then be fltered out within 1 or 2sec.
The camera scans passing lug-
gage at 4,000 1-mm contours/sec. A
CP6502 Panel PC with a 19-in. TFT
display from Beckhoff Automation,
Burnsville, Minn., leverages feed-
back from high-resolution encoders
to synchronize the camera, lighting,
and conveyor belts.
The design relies on high-
resolution images, so the line-scan
cameras and LED lights must be
synchronized very accurately with
the conveyor velocity and position,
A new luggage-scanning system
called Bagcheck employs a Beckhoff
Panel PC to reliably sort bags to the
correct destinations. The control
panel shown here indicates which
luggage items can pass through
normal transport routes and which
items have problematic shapes or
features.
The Bagcheck camera scans passing
luggage at 4,000 contours/sec to
generate 3D bag images. Unusually
shaped luggage is then separated
from the main luggage stream
reducing jams by 40%.
Resources:
For more information, visit type22.aero,
vanderlande.com, and beckhoff.com.
RS# 175
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 81
Actuatorline has all the
precision you need and
wont keep you waiting
s
RAPID DELIVERY
s
ONLINE DESIGN
s
LIVE SUPPORT
Visit www.actuatorline.com
for technical papers and
application help or call
1.877.976.5566
75D
61CD
MOTIONCONTROL TECHNOLOGY GUIDE
This collapsible sound barrier is
easily moved and transported to
reduce sound levels from noisy
machinery.
Nonmetallic
roll-up covers
can contain
corrosive fumes
while allowing
tank access.
guideways located in a pit below foor level. Production workers must access
workpieces as theyre produced, necessitating pit covers during production,
yet also requiring a way to remove the covers for repairs and adjustments.
Grating is time consuming to move, and slats require complex support struc-
tures that complicate maintenance tasks.
Instead, the aircraft manufacturer uses rugged walk-on metal pit covers
with extruded aluminum stiffening ribs bonded to stainless-steel sheets; there
are no hinges to collect debris. These roll up onto steel rollers equipped with
take-up mechanisms.
Roll-up covers can also be used to enclose chemical tanks and other vessels
to contain fumes or prevent injury. These covers are not designed to support
the weight of workers, so they are made of lighter materials such as polypro-
pylene to withstand corrosive fumes. Wiper strips can keep the cover under
tension and remove debris before retraction; electric motors and gear drives
are employed in the take-up mechanisms.
Protecting against welding ash and spatter
Portable screens protect workers eyesight against welding fash and UV
radiation, and confne weld spatter. Basic weld curtains on stands can be
moved around the factory foor to provide shielding where needed. Freestand-
ing curtain modules simplify work-cell assembly.
Motorized weld curtains take it a step further in custom-engineered frames
suitable for robotic-welding areas and
automated equipment. Some incor-
porate gearless direct-drive motors
that can be programmed to open to
various widths at speeds to 2 m/sec.
Reducing equipment
noise levels
The noise levels of some equip-
ment, such as that on construction
sites, are diffcult to reduce. Howev-
er, portable sound barriers can be set
up to suppress sound. Some designs
retract into compact wheeled cases
for easy transport. Unlike traditional
sound curtains consisting of basic
frame-mounted material, these use
multilayer materials incorporated
into a pleated accordion design that
Continued from page 78
Continued on page 84
RS# 176
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 82
RS# 177
Standard and Custom Clutch, Brake
& Power Transmission Solutions
291 Boston Turnpike Bolton, CT 06043
Phone: 860-643-1531
Reliability
inaClutch
...a clutch, brake or power
transmission part for that
matter. Since 1903 Carlyle
Johnson has solved some of
historys toughest motion
control challenges its what
we love to do. Our precision
electrical, mechanical, air and
hydraulic power transmission
products consistently prove
reliable and dependable in
every application. Underwater,
on the ground and in the air,
CJM is everywhere.
www.cjmco.com
MOTIONCONTROL TECHNOLOGY GUIDE
2013 FIRST Robotics
Competition now underway
Last month, inventor Dean Kamen commenced the 2013 FIRST
Robotics Competition (FRC) season with the kickoff of a new game
called Ultimate Ascent. Nearly 51,000 high-school students in 81
cities around the world joined the 2013 kickoff event via live NASA-TV
broadcast and Webcast.
There is no stimulus package that will have as much return as stimulating
a bunch of kids to become the workforce of the future, the problem solvers, the
creators of the future, says Kamen.
The 2013 game will be played between two alliances of three teams each.
Each alliance competes by trying to score as many fying discs into their
goals as possible during a short match. Discs scored in higher goals score
more points. The match ends with student-designed robots trying to climb up
pyramids located near the middle of the feld. FRC teams receive a parts kit
of motors, batteries, a
control system, PC, and
a mix of automation
components with no
instructions. Working
with mentors, students
have six weeks to
design, build, program,
and test their robots
to meet the seasons
engineering challenge.
Teams then participate
in regional and dis-
trict competitions. For
more information, visit
usfrst.org. MD
increases sound mitigation and simplifes setup. For excessively hot operations,
screens can also double as heat shields when suitable materials are used.
Other equipment may be muffed directly with specially designed jacketing.
Pavement breakers, commonly called jackhammers, produce 120 to 125-dB
sound levels at the ear of the operator and approximately 90 dB at a distance
of 50 ft. A light jacket reduces these levels by around 9 dB, which cuts the
breakers perceived loudness by half. The jacketing can reduce sound intensi-
ty, which leads to hearing loss, by 88% because most of the noise is produced
by the breakers internal components.
The 2-lb jacket, made of three layers of material sewn together, is wrapped
around the breaker and fastened with industrial Velcro. It covers the lower
housing from just below the handle bar and encloses the opening at the bottom
that allows the tool bit to travel. A suspender strap over the handlebar keeps it
from blowing off due to air pressure.
In addition to reducing noise levels, the jacket protects the worker from
the exhaust air of these pneumatic units and the oil that often spews onto the
workers legs. Finally, refective strips make it visible at night for improved
operator safety. MD
Continued from page 82
RS# 178
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 84
FABCO-AIR www.fabco-air.com phone 1-352-373-3578
Multi-Power

Air Cylinders
Ho w t o ge t hyd r au l i c c yl i nder f or c e s f r om c ompr e s s ed a i r
Multi-Power

Air Cylinders
w w w. f a b c o - a i r . c o m
. . . deliver forces equivalent
to low pressure hydraulics
using only shop air pressure.
Forces from under a hundred
pounds to over 22 tons !
. . . are easy to install having
only two port connections and
a variety of mounting styles.
. . . cost far less and are
cleaner than hydraulics.
. . . conserve energy by using
only one piston for retract stroke.
. . . produce forces up to four
times that of a conventional,
single piston air cylinder.
Get orders lled in 2 days
5 body styles.
Bores 1/2 to 12.
Strokes 1/8 to 12.
Fabco-Air attaches multiple pistons
to a common shaft and provides
internal air passages through the
shaft to all pistons.
Supply air applied to the extend
port energizes all pistons simul-
taneously enabling tremendous
thrusts to be obtained.
What these cylinders do How they work
Specifications:
4" bore x 5" stroke, Magnetic Piston, Shock and Speed Control.
High force in a small footprint
for an automotive application
Multi-Power

cylinder adapted to a Fabco-Air


linear slide has optional Dial-A-Stroke

feature.
Supplying 4,720 lbs. of force at 100 PSI, the unit has a custom
mounting/bearing block with 8 pre-loaded, sealed linear ball
bearings supporting 4 hardened, precision guide shafts and a
steel tool mounting plate. The Dial-A-Stroke

option enables
precision adjustment of the extend stroke.
Specials like this amount to almost half of our business.
We can design, prototype and deliver custom samples
within 72 hours! FABCO-AIR solves problems. Let us help !
Cutaway view of a 4-piston model in extend mode
2-piston Multi-Power
cylinder with clevis mount
Retract port
Extend port
Air vent slot in
bafe plate
Male rod
extension
Air
Vent
Air
Vent
Air
Vent
Exhaust
from
Retract Port
RS# 179
MOTIONCONTROL TECHNOLOGY GUIDE
Headlines in Motion
NEW BOOK FOR YOUNG
AUTOMATION PROFESSIONALS
A new book from the International
Society of Automation (ISA) is designed
to help the next generation of automation
engineers steer clear of common career
obstacles. 101 Tips for a Successful
Automation Career by Gregory K.
McMillan and P. Hunter Vegas offers
guidance on technical issues as well as
interpersonal and workplace situations.
ISO STANDARDS ON ELEVATOR
AND ESCALATOR COMFORT
An updated ISO standard aims to
improve passenger experience when
using elevators, escalators, and moving
walkways. The new standard aims to
determine ride quality by specifying the
defnition, measurement, processing,
and expression of vibration and noise
signals that affect user experience.
NIST EXPERIMENTS CHALLENGE
THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETISM
A cornerstone of physics may
require some revision if fndings at the
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) are confrmed.
Recent experiments suggest that the
current theory of electromagnetism
one of the four fundamental forces in the
universe may not accurately account
for the behavior of atoms in exotic, highly
charged states. MD
Precision geared products market decelerates
According to a new report from IMS Research, Aus-
tin, shipments of precision geared products (gearboxes
and geared motors with backlash ratings of less than
20arc-min) were nearly 80% higher in 2012 compared
to 2009. However, uncertainty about the Eurozone econ-
omy and Chinas slower economic growth are leading
factors in the more than 1% decline expected for pre-
cision geared product shipments in 2013. Nevertheless,
this markets value is projected to reach nearly $1.7bil-
lion with more than 1.8million units shipped in 2013.
Precision gearbox shipments, which accounted for
more than 95% of the precision geared products mar-
ket in 2012, increased by more
than 70% from 2009 levels due to
pent-up demand for servo-driven
machinery and increased access to
capital. The new report, The World
Market for Precision Gearboxes
and Geared Motors, indicates
shipments will exceed 2 million
units by 2016 despite decelerat-
ing growth. For more information,
visit imsresearch.com. MD
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 86
SAFFiR (Shipboard Autonomous FireFighting Robotj
- Dr. Dennis Hong, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director
of RoMeLa (Robots & Mechanisms Laboratoryj at virginia Tech
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What drives Dr. Dennis Hong is
his quest to create truly humanoid
robots that can do useful work.
What drives his robots are maxon
motors and controllers. Where
precision, consistency, and easy
integration are critical, maxon pro-
vides the intelligent drive systems
to bring tomorrow's designs to life.
Learn how we can help you keep
your projects moving. visit us at
maxonmotorusa.com.
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ORR ON ENGINEERING
The nature
of design
As a systems manager for Metro Nashville in the
early 70s, I helped build one of the first municipal
automated mapping systems. This endeavor even-
tually brought me into contact with a wide variety
of designers people turning ideas into practice.
At the time, I thought of designers as almost god-
like because it seemed as if they created something
from nothing. However, after a while, I learned that
designing ex nihil (from nothing) is rare. Most
designers actually redesign existing products.
Thus began my long quest to better understand
design. Reading technical books and speaking to
professors showed me that little had been written
about design itself. Instead, people wrote about the
design of specific things such as buildings, engines,
fenders, and appliances. It was as if designing of a
fender was thought to be utterly unlike designing a building.
However, this idea seemed incorrect. After all,
design can be thought of as a process of concretiza-
tion. It involves moving things from the world of
the symbolic the sign world and placing
them in the world of the actual. De-sign. This spell-
ing of the word design comes from Gabriel Ricos
Writing the Natural Way. In discussing left-brain
(rational, logical) and right-brain (intuitive, holis-
tic) issues, she refers to the sign mind and the de-sign mind.
Exploring designs symbolically through mind-mapping, schematic draw-
ing, and simulation lets us test ideas quickly and inexpensively. But these ap-
proaches only go so far. Building prototypes often reveals issues designers didnt
even think of. So most design settings need both approaches. This means that
the best designers use both hemispheres of their brains.
To elaborate on this theme, design is closely related to art, but is not the same.
Examples abound of highly functional, ugly designs and of nonfunctional,
beautiful designs. Yet some products such as Apples are examples of the conflu-
ence of design and art they are both beautiful and utilitarian.
The trial-and-error process that design entails is actually a dialectic a
principle attributed to the historian Hegel. Hegels model of thesis-antithesis-
synthesis was used to interpret human history by Karl Marx (?). A thesis an
idea, concept, or principle gives rise to an antithesis, which represents objec-
tions to the thesis. Comparing the two gives rise to something new, a synthesis.
On your next design project, think of what you are doing as a dialectic. De-
fine and refine your thesis (concept). Then build a prototype, thinking of it an
antithesis of the thesis. Not because it is the opposite, but because it is a reflec-
tion in the real world of what was in your head. The antithesis will teach you
about the pieces you left out, or the pieces that dont work the way you thought
they would. Next, create a synthesis, which you can then proceed to refine
similarly. This kind of overview thinking about the nature of design that it is
iterative, progresses from abstract to concrete, and is dialectical can help you
improve your designs.
Please send comments to: joel.orr@gmail.com Joel Orr
Resources:
Joel Orr, Copywriter,
www.joelwritescopy.com,
(650) 336-3937
Edited by Leslie Gordon
Design is closely
related to art,
but is not the
same. Examples
abound of highly
functional, ugly
designs and of
nonfunctional,
beautiful designs.
RS# 182
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 88
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SOFTWARE REVIEW
The flat
pattern of
a Porsche
996 fuel
bladder
was
used to
program
a CNC
cutting
machine.
KeyCreators prune
and graft functions
can determine the
internal volume
of fuel bladders
and tanks, as well
as be used to copy
features.
Our engineers at Aero Tec Labo-
ratories, use KeyCreator 3D CAD
software to design crash-resistant,
nonexploding fuel-bladder tanks
for aircraft, race cars, and perfor-
mance boats. Our company makes
many standard bladder tanks and
custom designs for high-end cus-
tomers such as NASCAR, Ferrari,
Boeing, Lockheed, NASA, and
the U.S. military. Our customers
require that the tanks fit in ever-
changing compact spaces. Design
revisions for custom fits are fre-
quent and necessary.
Here is where KeyCreators
direct-modeling approach helps
us satisfy our customers. The com-
pany has been using KeyCreator
since the software was known as
Cadkey. I am familiar with Solid-
Works and Pro/Engineer from
my previous employers. Having
worked with both featured-based
and direct modeling, I can say that
KeyCreator lets us complete tasks
at least 20% faster than if we used
traditional feature-based CAD.
KeyCreator 3D Direct CAD is
a complete direct modeler that
does not use a feature tree to cre-
ate geometry. Users simply create
or modify models by directly ma-
nipulating displayed geometry.
The software works on any geom-
etry regardless of whether it is im-
ported from another CAD system
or is a native KeyCreator file.
Not having to work from a
feature tree lets us quickly make
a lot of changes. Working directly
on models makes it easier to ma-
nipulate them so they meet design
or customer requirements. Key-
Creator also impresses customers
when used in online collaboration
meetings. The software lets us
display a design and start making
changes on the fly with our cus-
tomers watching. They always ask
what program we are using.
Customers send us many CAD
file formats, including Catia,
SolidWorks, Pro/Engineer
(or Creo), and Rhino for-
mats. The direct model-
ing in KeyCreator gives
us the flexibility to work
with these files. And
when we receive
native Catia
V5 files from
our sister
branch in
England, Key-
Creator can ma-
nipulate these
files more easily
and with fewer
errors. Thats
because we
import native
files directly
into KeyCreator
Direct CAD in-
stead of using STEP or IGES files as
a go-between. The software mod-
els native Catia V5 files as shells.
KeyCreator trims and stitches the
shell into a solid and then creates
solid features so we can make de-
sign changes.
Designs often vary year to
year, resulting in slightly different
part dimensions. For instance,
many customized fuel bladder
designs start with a preexisting
basic shape. Instead of breaking
existing models and starting from
scratch, KeyCreators
Direct Dimension
Driven Edit-
ing and
Dynamic
Move
modifies
the preex-
isting shape
on the fly by let-
ting us select faces
and then pull them
into the desired
location or other-
wise modify them. In
addition, prune and graft
functions help us develop or
modify new designs by allowing
the copying and pasting of pre-
existing features from another
model for use into the current
design.
Aero Tec Labs has also made
a customized KeyCreator KXL
executable file that creates flat
patterns from 3D models. This
gives us the proper bending flaps
to manufacture designs. It takes
only two clicks to complete what
would have taken about 16 clicks,
saving at least an hour of engi-
neering time on each design.
Many fuel tanks and bladders
Authored by:
David Legemaat
Senior Mechanical Design Engineer
Aero Tec Laboratories
Ramsey, N.J.
Edited by: Leslie Gordon
Resources:
Aero Tec Laboratories, www.atlinc.com
The software comes from Kubotek USA
Inc., 2 Mount Royal Ave., Marlborough, MA
01752, (508) 229-2020, www.kubotekusa.com
RS# 426
Direct modeler builds a better fuel tank
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 90
www.machinedesign.com/rsc
Request free information via
our Reader Service Web site at
Turn up the energy. Turn down the heat.
CURING
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Lets nd a solution to your sanitization challenges.
Go to www.xenoncorp.com/cure
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A finished, FIA FT3-approved fuel bladder for a
Porsche 996.
The KeyCreator
model of the Porsche
996 fuel bladder as
viewed from the front
topside.
Direct CAD. After a few months, its clear
how much they appreciate di-
rect modeling. We send them
off with educational seats of
KeyCreator, and they continue
to use it for senior design pro-
grams. The college is consider-
ing using KeyCreator in its CAD
department. More colleges should
do this to give students and
new CAD users another way
of completing design work.
I highly recommend Key-
Creator Direct CAD Modeling,
especially if you work with
several CAD file formats on a
daily basis or if you need to make
changes quickly. Youll find that what
would normally take four to
five days is now completed in
4 to 5hours. Thats what it has
done for Aero Tec Labs. MD
are part of larger, more-complex
assemblies, so file size can be-
come an issue. File sizes can eas-
ily reach 500 to 600 Mbytes. After
recent face-to-face training with
Dr. Walt Silva, author of introduc-
tory guides to KeyCreator, we began
using referenced assemblies. Switching to
this new way of referencing (which lets parts
used more than once in an assembly be dynami-
cally referenced in each of their locations) lets
Aero Tec Labs keep files from getting too
large. The training gave us the confidence
to expand our use of KeyCreator and in-
crease our productivity.
One wish is that KeyCreator included
automatic cabling and piping functions.
Instead of having to create splines, it
would be faster to have a logic-driven
tool that would let users click to points
and quickly generate cabling or piping
features.
We expose college interns to lots of prac-
tice with mechanical design and using KeyCreator
RS# 186
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 91
SPOTLIGHT MECHANICAL SLIDES,
Modular motion
axes and systems
Ball-screw axes with recirculating ball-bearing guide EGSK
and EGSP focus on precision, repetition accuracy, compact
dimensions, and rigidity. The steel housing of these axes form
the guide rail, which prevents accumulative tolerances through
production. Four rows of balls give the guide carriage the same
basic load ratings in both radial coordinate directions.
The mechatronic multiaxis systems handle gripping, joining,
rotating, and positioning. Designers can use the systems with
standardized handling systems and combine them individually.
The ready-to-install systems reduce the number of interfaces.
Festo Corp., 395 Moreland Rd, Box 18023, Hauppauge, NY
11788, (631) 435-0800, www.festo.com/usa
RS# 448
Linear drive with
adjustable pitch
Model RG linear drives feature a man-
ual pitch control for a 10:1 adjustment
of the drives linear pitch. Seventeen
drive units are available, each having a
specific maximum linear pitch (the lin-
ear distance the drive will move on the
shaft per one revolution of the shaft).
Users can turn the pitch control down
in 0.01 increments across 100 discrete
settings.
The adjustable pitch feature allows
a variable-speed drive system to keep
the drive motor running at a constant
speed without requiring changes or
adjustments. Once set, the pitch will
remain the same regardless of the
drive motor speed.
Where a specific linear pitch range
is required, the traverse shaft may be
driven via belt and pulley linkage to
the main driveshaft. The ratio between
the two pulleys establishes the linear
pitch range.
The units rolling-ring
bearing assembly per-
mits adjustment of the
linear pitch. The angle
of the bearing assembly
relative to the shaft is ad-
justable via the pitch control.
Turning the pitch control changes
the bearing angle which changes the
drives pitch, causing the unit to move
faster or slower per one shaft revolu-
tion. This effectively changes the linear
speed of the drive unit independent of
drive-motor speed.
Amacoil Inc., 2100 Bridgewater Rd.,
Aston, PA 19014, (610) 485-8300, www.
amacoil.com RS# 446
Inch couplings
A new series of inch couplings features a lattice design, which
allows for large axial, radial, and angular misalignments
while transmitting high torque loads with zero backlash. The
S50CLM-... and S50SCLP... Series consists of 35 couplings that
feature a maximum angular offset of 7 and bores ranging
from 0.125 to 1.250 in. Maximum torque ranges from 5 to
300lbf-in. The hubs are made of 6061 aluminum; the discs of
420 stainless steel or polyamide resin; and the end flanges of
416 stainless steel.
Sterling Instrument, 2101 Jericho Turnpike, Box 5416, New
Hyde Park, NY 11042, (516) 328-3300, http://sdp-si.com/web/
html/newprdlatticecoupling.htm RS# 447
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 92
DRIVES, & GEARS
Linear-motion system
The new Omega Module linear motion system fea-
tures a low traveling mass that enables high speeds.
The belt drive is fixed to both ends of the main body and
looped around the driveshaft of the table part in the
shape of the Greek letter , reducing the modules mass
and making it highly dynamic. By guiding the modules
table part over ball-rail systems, the unit can achieve a
high degree of rigidity for precise movements.
Higher dynamics over longer distances in feed units is
possible due to its low traveling mass and fast belt drive.
The stationary drive can not only be set up in any posi-
tion, it can being used as a vertical axis. A pneumatic
clamping element maintains the position at
standstill and also clamps hanging loads.
The module comes in three sizes.
With a stationary main body, users can
specify custom lengths up to 5,500mm
and choose frames in widths of 55, 85 or
120mm. In the largest size, mechanics are designed
Maintenance-free
actuators
The new Type ES and Type EC actuators offer longterm
maintenance-free operation. Featuring a caged-ball LM
guide-type SRS and rolled ball screw equipped with a QZ
Lubricator,
the Type
ES actuator
operates for
extended
periods with-
out requiring
mainte-
nance. Caged
technology
uses a syn-
thetic resin
cage with a patented curvature that cradles each ball and
separates it from the next one. The spaces between the
rolling elements retain grease to act as a lubrication sys-
tem. The guide also acts as its base. The ES comes in four
models with widths ranging from 32 to 50mm, heights
from 40 to 52.5mm, and strokes from 50 to 600mm.
The Type EC actuator also uses a rolled ball screw
equipped with a QZ Lubricator and comes in two models
with widths ranging from 40 to 48mm, heights from 48.5
to 57.5mm, and strokes from 50 to 300mm.
THK America Inc., 200 E. Commerce Dr., Schaumburg,
IL 60173, (847) 310-1111, www.thk.com
RS# 449
Variable-speed drives
Guided by global positioning systems, custom vari-
able-speed drives meter and dispense seed and fertil-
izer. The drives are used as a prime mover connected to
a motor, or as a secondary drive connected to a shaft in
the machines driveline. When used as a prime mover,
the drive acts as a variable-speed device; as a second-
ary drive, it becomes a variable-ratio device. The drive
permits slow or fast, small or large speed changes.
Request free information via our
Reader Service Web site at
www.machinedesign.com/rsc
for input torques up to 154Nm. The module
offers acceleration speeds up to 50m/sec and
speeds up to 5m/sec.
Bosch Rexroth Corp., 2315 City Line Rd., Bethlehem,
PA 18017, (610) 694-8352, www.boschrexroth-us.com
RS# 451
The variable-speed feature permits more-accurate
settings for the map-based feeding and seeding pro-
cess. The drives can accommodate varying terrain and
soil conditions where real-time changes in fertilizer
output are required. For seeding, the flexible drives
help accommodate the narrow time-window for best
seeding and for different application rates needed for
seeding corn, wheat, oats, and other crops.
Many design options are available, including differ-
ent power inputs using chain, belt and couplings.
Zero-Max, 13200 Sixth Ave. N, Plymouth, MN
55441,(800) 533-1731, www.zero-max.com
RS# 450
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 93
Dura-Belt provides one-stop shopping Ior
Hutchinson ConveyXonic
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and a broad line oI glass reinIorced nylon drive
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charges. Economically priced. Dura-Belt also
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SPOTLIGHT MECHANICAL SLIDES, DRIVES, & GEARS
Harmonic gearhead
A harmonic gearhead featuring the latest har-
monic, strain-wave gearing technology replaces
larger, high-ratio planetary gearheads. The unit
features high torque, true zero backlash, and ex-
tremely precise positional accuracy.
A gearing-forward design overlaps com-
ponents, allowing the gears to be integrated into the same plane as the bearing. This
narrow, rigid design, combined with a large, rugged, crossed-roller output bearing,
handles all combinations of radial, axial, and overturning moment loads.
The gearhead is available with the companys roller-pinion system (RPS). The gear-
head is integrated directly into the pinion without adding any length to the system,
resulting in zero backlash from the driving-motor shaft through to the driven load for
both linear and rotary motion. The design virtually eliminates cumulative error. The RPS
reportedly outperforms traditional rack-and-pinion systems with a roller pinion/rack
combination thats easily adapted to any application. The pinion consists of bearing-
supported rollers that engage a tooth profile. Two or more rollers connect with the
rack teeth in opposition at all times, eliminating backlash. The RPS rollers approach the
tooth face in a tangent path and then smoothly roll down the tooth face. The low-fric-
tion design delivers 99% efficiency in converting rotary to linear motion, reducing wear
and providing longer service life at high speeds up to 36.1fps.
Nexen Group Inc., 560 Oak Grove Pkwy., Vadnais Heights, MN 55127, (651) 484-
5900, www.nexengroup.com RS# 452
Servocouplings
A diverse line of servocouplings
are for use in applications such as
stepper and servosystems, linear
actuators, ball screws, leadscrews,
encoders, and valve actuation.
The line includes rigid, beam, four-
beam, Oldham, jaw, disc, and bel-
lows couplings.
Ruland Manufacturing Co.
Inc., 6 Hayes Memorial Dr., Marl-
borough, MA 01752, (508) 485-
1000, www.ruland
RS# 453
RS# 187
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 94
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Nippon Pulse has been designing and
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RS# 188
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match your needs. Ultimate flexibility for
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Small and medium volume production or
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in turn contributing to energy efficiency.
Three variants of the module for con-
necting 20-mA, 1-A, and 5-A transform-
ers are available.
B&R Industrial Automation Corp.,
1250 Northmeadow Pkwy., S-100, Ro-
swell, GA 30076, (770) 772-0400, www.
br-automation.com RS# 465
Energy-measurement module
The X20AP energy-measurement module measures voltages, currents, frequencies,
and reactive components on all phases. Current and voltage measurements up to the
31st harmonic elevate the module to high-precision level while its extreme sensitivity
and fourth channel let it measure leakage currents on neutral lines.
The unit preprocesses signals and provides measurements together with calculated
effective performance values as sets of digital variables. Measurement-value curves re-
corded by the module provide the basis for optimizing traverse paths within a machine,
Adjustable-frequency
ac drives
The Series NFX9000
adjustable-fre-
quency ac drives
provide adjustable
speed control of
three-phase motors.
The drives come
with an easy-to-un-
derstand removable
keypad and feature
volts/Hertz motor
control and RS-485
serial communi-
cations. The unit
provides quiet motor
operation, high motor efficiency, and
smooth low-speed performance.
Omega Engineering Inc., One
Omega Dr., Stamford, CT 06907, (203)
359-1660, www.omega.com
RS# 466
Locking
washers
X-Series
multifunc-
tional washers
combine wedge-
locking protection
against spontaneous bolt
loosening (from vibration and
dynamic loads) with a spring effect
to protect against slackening due to
settlement and relaxation.
RS# 191
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 96
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Martin offers the industry's broadest
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Our broad selection continues to grow with
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Guided-motion air cylinders
A new family of guided-motion air cylinders
features extended load-carrying capabilities.
Twin guide shafts provide precision, nonrotating po-
sitioning. Users can choose sleeve or ball bearings. Four
mounting methods are available and dowel pin holes on
mounting surfaces provide accuracy. Magnetic pistons
are standard. Optional sensors adjust easily
in linear slots in the housing. The cylinders of-
fer bores from 12 to 63 mm and strokes to 100 mm.
Ask for Catalog #FGM-10.
Fabco-Air Inc., 3716 NE 49th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32609,
(352) 373-3578, www.fabco-air.com
RS# 467
Request free information via our
Reader Service Web site at
www.machinedesign.com/rsc
Impact sensor
The Series KG impact sensor monitors
the motion and performance of a ma-
chine or device. Featuring single-axis/
bidirectional sensitivity, the sensor at-
taches to the moving part of a machine
or device and monitors impact and then
relays the measurement to the user. A
PLC interprets the signal to warn of er-
ratic operation or shuts down a system
to prevent catastrophic failure.
Features of the sensor include a
predictive maintenance device that
detects change in impact; productivity
tripwire that alerts appropriate person-
nel of a machine crash, indicates when a
machine has crashed, and stops produc-
tion of bad parts; and counts impacts or
extreme vibration (<400 Hz), as well as
monitors centripetal forces.
PHD Inc., Box 9070, Fort Wayne, IN
46899, (800) 624-8511, www. phdinc.
com RS# 468
Each washer pair has cams on
one side and radial teeth on the op-
posite side to secure the bolted joint
with tension instead of friction. The
washers conical shape creates an
elastic reserve in the bolted joint to
compensate for the loss of preload
and prevents slackening.
Nord-Lock Inc., 1051 Cambridge Dr.,
Elk Grove Village IL 60007, (877) 799-
1097, www.nord-lock.com/x-series-video
RS# 469
RS# 192
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 97
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 98
EZ FLEX LINEAR SERVO CONVEYING SYSTEMS
High precision in-line belted con-
veying systems powered by
Centricitys servo indexing
technology.
Turnkey solutions with a variety of
belt materials including bolt-on or
weld-on tooling.
Simple touch screen configuration
includes bi-directional motion
profiles for setting index distance,
random positioning, continuous
run, and teach mode. Many other
features standard.
Simple mechanical and electrical
installation easily integrates with
todays control systems.
CENTRICITY CORPORATION
www.centricity.net
330-545-5624
RS# 255
Wondering if we carry a cable that meets your specs? Need to
complete your cabling system with the right accessories? Then the
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New tutorials and podcasts on Learn Web site
What is a PLC plus many more
topics on industrial control prod-
ucts including new videos and
podcasts on AutomationDirects
free self-service learning site.
Visit http://learn.automationdirect.com
to watch these and other tutorials
on a range of industry topics.
High- Performance
Magnets
New catal og features hi gh
performance magnet materials
such as NdFeB and SmCo,
molded magnets, ceramic and
al ni co magnets. MCE offers
magnet ci rcui t desi gn,
custom fabrication, assembly,
and advanced coati ngs.
Complete traceability is offered.
P h o n e : ( 3 1 0 ) 7 8 4 - 3 1 0 0 ,
Fax:(310)784-3192; mcesales@mceproducts.com;
www.mceproducts.com
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JHWWKHMREGRQH
408.748.8721
ZZZDQLPDWLFVFRP
Cross-referenced to metal
cam followers for
easy replacement
OnOyourpatentpendingiCamFoOOowers
offeraOOtheseadvantages:pOastictireeOimi-
natesraiOwear;noOubricationisrequiredin
thebearingorontheraiO;reducenoiseup
to10dB;absorbshocNandvibration;high
Ooadcapacity;baOObearingspermithigher
Oinearspeeds;Oighterweightreducesinertia;
aresuitabOeforuseincOeanrooms;wash
downs;worNweOOinsubzerotemperatures
(-40F).ForOoadratingsandsizesgoto
www.intechpower.com/icam.
,ntechCorporation,201-767-8066
SELF-LUBRICATING GEAR
SOLUTIONS CALCULATED FOR LIFE
The,ntech3ower-Coregearsareprecision
machinedandoffersoOutionstoappOications
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gears.0etaOCoreprovidesforasecureat-
tachmenttotheshaftandhighertorquetrans-
mission.GeardesignandsizingisbacNed
bydurabiOitycaOcuOationusingproprietary
software.
IntechCorp.,250HerbertAve.,COoster,N-
07624.(201)767-8066;Fax:(201)767-7797.
www.intechpower.com
RS# 251
RS# 260
RS# 263
RS# 254
RS# 259
RS# 262
Free design guide
to servo-hydraulic
motion control
www.deltamotion.com
Popular, practical 64-page guide
with 16 topics by Peter Nachtwey:
s#LOSEDLOOP#ONTROL
s3IZING#YLINDERSAND6ALVES
s3ELECTING!CCUMULATORS
s4RANSDUCERSAND2ESOLUTION
s4UNINGFOR/PTIMAL0ERFORMANCE
Fabco-Air.com
Gainesville, Florida
Air Table Slides
Dual pistons double thrust.
Repeatable workpiece
mounting via dowel hole &
slot on table surface.
Magnetic pistons are
standard. 3 ways to mount
body. Bores 8 to 25mm
Strokes 10 to 150mm
DATA FILE LITERATURE ADVERTISING
www.machinedesign.com/rsc
Access our Reader Service
Website to quickly find and
request information on the
products and services found
in the pages of MACHINE DESIGN.
RS# 257
RS# 264
RS# 253

BEIs Industrial Encoders


for Dummies
Visit www.beisensors.com/dummies
for your free copy today
Motion Control
Its What We Do
1. 800. 377. 6329
. c om
HighPerformance
MotionControIIers
Backedby
OurExceptionaI
CustomerSupport
CPV Manufacturing
Valves & Fittings Provide
Leakproof Protection to
6,000 psi
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DUH UDWHG IRU KHDY\GXW\ OLTXLG RU
JDV VHUYLFHV DQG SURYLGH \HDUV RI
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RSHUDWRUVWRFKDQJHRXWYDOYHVDQG
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JURRYHVRWKHKLJKHUWKHSUHVVXUHWKHWLJKWHUWKHVHDO7KHVHW
WLQJVDUHUDWHGIRUSVLDWWHPSHUDWXUHVIURPWR)
RS# 252
RS# 261
ACE Stainless Industrial Shock Absorbers
for Long Life Applications
Made of V4A high quality stainless
steel for long life and extreme
environment applications. The ACE
PMC Series includes a Tefon bellows
cap that protects against damaging
environmental agents.
Ideal for packaging, food processing,
medical, marine and more. Energy
capacities from 175 to 30,000 in. lbs/
cycle (20 to 3,400 Nm/cycle).
ACE Controls Inc.
Farmington Hills, MI
(800) 521-3320 (248) 476-0213
Email: shocks@acecontrols.com
www.acecontrols.com
RS# 250
RS# 256
RS# 258
Seal Master Corp., Kent, OH
SEALS, ACTUATORS,
GRIPPERS AND BAGS
Solve difficult closure prob-
lems with custom-built, fab-
ric-reinforced, fully molded
elastomeric Seal Master
infatable seals. With close
tolerance capability and re-
sistance to compression,
theyre ideal for imaginative production and processing
applications too. Engineered specialties include fabric-
reinforced bags, bladders, plugs and other custom rubber
products. Design assistance offered.
Taylor Devices Inc.
TAYLOR DEVICES UNI-SHOK
Taylor Devices offers the Uni-Shok industrial
shock absorber for high-speed, au-
tomated machinery. Available in
14 models, Uni-Shok provides
up to 5000 in-lbs. of
capacity. Patented,
self-adjusting fuidic
metering system eliminates adjustment down-time. Features
stainless steel piston rod, internal coil spring reset, bronze
bearings, silicone fuid and threaded body for mounting ease.
Contact: Taylor Devices Inc., 90 Taylor Dr., N. Tonawanda, NY
14120-0748.
Phone: 716.694.0800 Fax: 716.695.6015
Web site: www.taylordevices.com
MICROMO part of the FAULHABER Group is the quality
leader for full service, value-added dc motor solutions.
Decades ago, the Faulhaber
coil built an industry. Today,
MICROMO partners with
customers in medical,
robotics and defense markets
from custom design to
delivery through innovative
technologies such as
brushed, brushless, stepper,
piezoelectric and linear
motors. Call MICROMO at
800-807-9166, or visit our
web site at
www.micromo.com.
The DPGM409 covers the full spectrum in pressure measurement with Gage,
Sealed Gage, Absolute, Compound Gage, Vacuum, and Barometric pressure
ranges. Its core is a highly stable micromachined silicon sensor with a very high
0.08% accuracy. Each unit is supplied with a 5-point NIST traceable calibration
certicate and is tested to industrial CE standards. A user selectable analog
output of either 0 to 5 Vdc, 0 to 10 Vdc or 4 to 20 mA is standard on all models
and a built-in wireless transmitter option is also available.The electronics are
enclosed in a stainless steel and ABS housing that is washdown rated and has
a unique magnetic stylus system for programming that prevents accidental
programming changes.The display has large 25.4 mm (1 in) digits plus a 0 to
100% bargraph. MIN/MAX/AVG readings are front panel programmable and free
data logging and charting software is included. A wireless transmitter option
is available to transmit the readings to a receiver in your control room. Power
comes from a long life lithium battery (included) with a typical life of 4 years.
Price Starts at $695
OMEGA Introduces DPGM409 Pressure Gauge with Metric
Fittings and Ranges
Omega | Stamford, CT USA | www.omega.com
Email: info@omega.com | Twitter: @OmegaEng
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Omega-Engineering/121219014465
Phone: 1-800-TC-OMEGA or 203-359-1660
POWER TRANSMISSION STRETCH BELTS
Pyramid Inc. has manufactured round and flat
Pyrathane

belts for over 40 years.


Pyrathane

belts are used in a wide variety of


low and fractional horsepower drive
applications such as live-roller conveyor
systems, as well as transport devices for paper,
currency and small parts. Pyrathane

belts are
manufactured to our customers specifications
and are of the highest quality with exceptional
abrasion resistance and durability.
Pyramid Inc.
522 N. 9th Ave. E. Newton, IA 50208
Phone: 641-792-2405 Fax: 641-792-2478
E-mail: sales@pyramidbelts.com
Website: www.pyramidbelts.com
RS# 270
RS# 267
Nomex

Insulating Tubing & Bobbins


Nomex

is a calendered, aramid
insulation paper that, when wound
into an insulating tube with appro-
priate binders, offers superior high
temperature resistance and high
dielectric strength in insulating
tubing and bobbins Nomex also
possesses excellent mechanical
toughness, resilience and high
mechanical strength. Full PDF Lit
fle available at www.pptube.com.
Precision Paper Tube Co., Inc
The Original - Since 1934
847-537-4250
www.pptube.com
sales@pptube.com
Nomex is a registered trademark of the DuPont Co.
+acNHnsacN, 1J 0701 86A - +1.201.33.883
High Performance Epoxy Adhesive
|P11N!
- 0ptLFall FlHar
- 0HHts NASA lrw rat]assLQ] rHTaLrHPHQts
- CrQfrrPs tr !LtlH J, US Fr1H rf |H1Hral
kH]alatLrQs, |0A C|aptHr J, SHFtLrQ JIE.J1E
frr frr1 applLFatLrQs
- |rrPs |L]| strHQ]t|, rL]L1 ErQ1s
www.mastHUbond.com
RS# 266
RS# 272
RS# 269
RS# 271
Smalley Steel Ring Company
New Smalley Engineering
& Parts Catalog
Smalleys new catalog combines
existing Spirolox Retaining Ring
and Smalley Wave Spring selec-
tions with series recently released
from Smalley. Now a single catalog
includes new: Hoopster Rings, Met-
ric Wave Springs, Constant Sec-
tion Rings and more. Over 10,000
standard parts in carbon and stain-
less steel; free samples available.
Specials manufactured with
No-Tooling-Costs from .200-120.
Jnfo@smalleZcomXXXsmalleZcomgetcatalog
Trim-Lok Inc., Buena Park, CA
Vinyl & Rubber Extrusions
Trim-Lok Inc. releases a brand new
FREE Catalog 500 featuring How
to Order steps for the frst time
customer, along with an expanded
line of complete trims and seals.
FREE samples may be requested.
Latest additions include our Flap
Seal, Fire Retardanct Trim, adn
Hatch Seal. Contact us toll fee at
1-888-874-6565, e-mail us at info@
trimlok.com or visit us on-line at
www.trimlok.com
Over 15,000 products +
everything you need to know
about
Order your free copy today at: www.orientalmotor.com
- Stepping Motors
- Servo Motors
- AC Motors
- Brushless Motors /
AC Speed Control Motors
- Linear & Rotary Actuators
- Cooling Fans
RS# 274 RS# 273
RS# 276 RS# 275
RS# 265
RS# 268
users can
browse video
libraries using
technology-
based
navigation
to focus
on specific
technology
topics. They
can also
browse by
company
brand, trade
show, or by
publication-
specific video
playlists.
From tutorials
to trade-show
coverage,
Engineering TV
is the video
site for design-
engineering
professionals.
At
EngineeringTV.com
visit us at
EngineeringTV.com
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 99

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BUSINESS INDEX
This index includes all significant references
to parent companies mentioned in feature
editorial material within this issue of MACHINE
DESIGN. It doesnt cite companies listed solely
in the Products and Lit Section. Page numbers
listed refer to the pages where the articles
begin.
Ferrari. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Festo Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Flextronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
FormLabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Fossil Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
GM Technical Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
General Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Geomagic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
George Washington University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Google. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
HP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Heidenhain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Helisys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Henry Ford Trade School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Hong Kong Polytechnic University . . . . . . . . . . . 102
IKO International Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
IMS Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
ITW Formex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
igus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Indian Institute of Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Institut Superieur de LAeronautique
et de lEspace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Integrated Test and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
International Society of Automation. . . . . . . . . . . 86
Khalifa University of Science (UAE) . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Kubotek USA Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
LeapFrog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Lee Springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Littelfuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Lockheed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
MIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Mach III Clutch Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Manitowoc Cranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Maplesoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Massachusetts Institute of Technology . . . . . . . . 26
MathWorks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Mcor Technologies Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Metro Nashville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
MICROMO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Microsoft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Mitsubishi Electric Automation Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
NASA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84, 90
NASCAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
National Institute of Standards and Technology. 86
National Instruments Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
National Taiwan Univ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
New York State Univ. at Stony Brook . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Nexen Group Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
OSHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Objet Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Omron Foundation Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
PalmSource Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Pepperl+Fuchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
RAF Museum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
ReconRobotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
RepRapPro Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Ruland Manufacturing Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Salesforce.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
SICK Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Sopwith Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SpaceClaim Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Spirol Industries Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Spirol International Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Sterling Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Stratasys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Stratasys Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
THK America Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
TV SD America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Tesla Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Thinkfuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Type22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Univ. of Houston. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
University of Agder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
University of Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
University of Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Vanderlande Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
VersaLogic Corp.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Von Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Wago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Zero-Max. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
20
th
Century Machine Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3D Systems Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3M 36
3S-Smart Software Solutions GmbH. . . . . . . . . . . 27
A & A Mfg. Co. Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Accuracy International of North America Inc. . . 16
Advanced Design Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Aero Tec Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Agilent Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Amacoil Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
American Red Cross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Apple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
aPriori Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
B.F. Goodrich Tire Co.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Bangor University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Beckhoff Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Boeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Bosch Rexroth Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
British Ministry of Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Daikin Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Digital Bond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Digital Switching Systems LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
DuPont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
EAO Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
FIRST Robotics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Fabrico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Facebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Faulhaber Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
RS# 193
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 100
ADVERTISER INDEX
RS# . . . . . . . . COMPANY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE
196 . . . . . . . . . .A&A Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
134 . . . . . . . . . .Ace Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
113 . . . . . . . . . .Aerotech, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
153 . . . . . . . . . .Airfloat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
174 . . . . . . . . . .Airpot Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
175 . . . . . . . . . .Airpot Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
142 . . . . . . . . . .Amacoil, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
145 . . . . . . . . . .Animatics Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
150 . . . . . . . . . .ASM Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
103 . . . . . . . . . .Automationdirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
166 . . . . . . . . . .Automationdirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
168 . . . . . . . . . .Automationdirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
170 . . . . . . . . . .Automationdirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
138 . . . . . . . . . .Autonics USA Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
120 . . . . . . . . . .Avnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
146 . . . . . . . . . .Avnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
127 . . . . . . . . . .B&R Industrial Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
197 . . . . . . . . . .Baldor Electric Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IBC
140 . . . . . . . . . .Banner Engineering Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
194 . . . . . . . . . .BEI Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
198 . . . . . . . . . .Bimba Manufacturing Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BC
131 . . . . . . . . . .Bison Gear & Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
178 . . . . . . . . . .Carlyle Johnson Machine Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
163 . . . . . . . . . .Centricity Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
116 . . . . . . . . . .Contrinex Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
143 . . . . . . . . . .Control Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
164 . . . . . . . . . .Delta Computer Systems, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
156 . . . . . . . . . .Dexmet Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
171 . . . . . . . . . .Diamond Chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
151 . . . . . . . . . .Diequa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
187 . . . . . . . . . .Dura-Belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
106 . . . . . . . . . .EBM-Papst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
104 . . . . . . . . . .Exair Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
179 . . . . . . . . . .Fabco Air, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
139 . . . . . . . . . .Galil Motion Control Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
173 . . . . . . . . . .Harmonic Drive LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
177 . . . . . . . . . .Haydon Kerk Motion Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
148 . . . . . . . . . .Helukabel USA Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
125 . . . . . . . . . .Hiwin Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
147 . . . . . . . . . .Igarashi Motor Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
154 . . . . . . . . . .IKO International Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
191 . . . . . . . . . .IMS Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
149 . . . . . . . . . .Intech Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
105 . . . . . . . . . .Kepner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
108 . . . . . . . . . .Lee Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
110 . . . . . . . . . .Magnetic Component Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . 10
192 . . . . . . . . . .Martin Sprocket & Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
182 . . . . . . . . . .Master Bond, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
180 . . . . . . . . . .Maxon Motor USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
126 . . . . . . . . . .MICROMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
111 . . . . . . . . . .Moog Components Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
114 . . . . . . . . . .Moog Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
181 . . . . . . . . . .MTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
112 . . . . . . . . . .National Instruments Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
157 . . . . . . . . . .Nexen Group Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
188 . . . . . . . . . .Nippon Pulse America Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
172 . . . . . . . . . .Novotechnik U.S., Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
109 . . . . . . . . . .Ogura Industrial Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
102 . . . . . . . . . .Omega Engineering Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ondrives.us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
121 . . . . . . . . . .Oriental Motor USA Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
122 . . . . . . . . . .Oriental Motor USA Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
117 . . . . . . . . . .Pelican Products Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
132 . . . . . . . . . .Pepperl+Fuchs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
133 . . . . . . . . . .Pepperl+Fuchs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
169 . . . . . . . . . .Performance Motion Devices, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
190 . . . . . . . . . .Peter Paul Electronics Co. Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
162 . . . . . . . . . .PHD Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
184 . . . . . . . . . .Precision Paper Tube Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
115 . . . . . . . . . .Proto Labs, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
185 . . . . . . . . . .Pyramid Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
155 . . . . . . . . . .Quality Bearings & Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
183 . . . . . . . . . .Quality Transmission Components . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
165 . . . . . . . . . .RJS Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
136 . . . . . . . . . .Rollon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
176 . . . . . . . . . .Rollon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
193 . . . . . . . . . .SAB Associated Wire Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
130 . . . . . . . . . .Setco USA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
141 . . . . . . . . . .Setco USA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
101 . . . . . . . . . .SEW Eurodrive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IFC
128 . . . . . . . . . .Smalley Steel Ring Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
107 . . . . . . . . . .Spirol International Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
189 . . . . . . . . . .Stock Drive Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
118 . . . . . . . . . .Stratasys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2021
135 . . . . . . . . . .Taylor Devices Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
While every effort has been made to ensure the
accuracy of this index, the publisher cannot be
held responsible for any errors or omissions.
144 . . . . . . . . . .TDK-Lambda Americas Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
159 . . . . . . . . . .Techno Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
152 . . . . . . . . . .Techno Omil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
123 . . . . . . . . . .Thomas Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
124 . . . . . . . . . .Thomas Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
158 . . . . . . . . . .Trans-Tek Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
161 . . . . . . . . . .Trim-Lok Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
119 . . . . . . . . . .Turck Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
195 . . . . . . . . . .U.S. Tsubaki Incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
160 . . . . . . . . . .VIC Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
137 . . . . . . . . . .Wittenstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
167 . . . . . . . . . .WorldWide Electric Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
186 . . . . . . . . . .Xenon Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
129 . . . . . . . . . .ZERO-MAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
RS# 194
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To Advortiso in
5)+016-,-;1/6;
ClnssiBods Soction,
contnct Pnul Milnnnow nt
(312) 840-8462,
pnul.nilnnnowponton.con
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FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 102
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BACKTALK
Wing Yi Curie, Miss Chi Yuk Fung, and Mr. Ng Ka Kui of the
Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Dereck Bastienne,
Kaltham Saeed Khalfan Al Romaithi, Kaltham Yousef
Khalfan Al-Ali, and Abdel Rahman Farraj of the Khal-
ifa University of Science (UAE); and Danial Barkhurst,
Kodi Dixon, Cody McKinney, and Tyler Stingley from the
University of Wyoming.
Students had to apply the basic principles of alternative
Relay winners
First place in ASMEs 2012 Student Design Competition:
Energy Relay went to engineering students Clement
Jambou and Olivier Sintive from the Institut Superieur
de LAeronautique et de lEspace in Toulouse, France.
Mandar Zope, Mayank Porwal, and Kumar Keshav from
the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, took 2nd
place. Third place was a three-way tie between Miss Hau
RS# 195
Manus
competition
The Sixth Manus competition is
underway. The international con-
test, sponsored by igus, East Provi-
dence, R.I., seeks innovative and
challenging applications that use
self-lubricating, maintenance-free
polymer bearings to improve tech-
nology and reduce costs. Winners
will receive cash prizes totalling
over $11,000.
One area that can be improved
through the use of dry-running
plastic bearings is machine safety.
According to an MIT study, ma-
chine stoppages resulting from
insufficient lubrication cost up to
$240 million in the U.S. alone.
To enter, write a short descrip-
tion of the polymer-bearing appli-
cation, describe how the bearings
solved the problem, and accompa-
nying photos or drawings.
Applications using all-plastic
or plastic-compound bearings are
permitted, but not those that use
bearings coated in plastic. Go to
www.igus.com/manus to enter.
Deadline for entries is February 28,
2013. MD
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 103
TORQUE CONTROL FOR DRIVING, CAPPING AND OTHER
APPLICATIONS WHERE THRUST LOADS ARE APPLIED.
V-SERIES
POLYCLUTCH
Horizontal and vertical installation
without driveshaft modications
New self-supporting hub design leads
to easy installation
Proven long life friction materials:
Slip clutches can slip continuously or
intermittently for over 30 million cycles
10 to 150 inch pounds torque
Integrated ball bearing allows thrust
loads up to 650 pounds without any
effect on torque
A division of A&A Manufacturing Co. Inc.
1-800-298-2066 email: sales@aaman.com polyclutch.com
P O L YC L U T C H

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energy when designing four self-propelled devices that
would collectively compete in a relay race. Each device
had to contain an onboard energy source to trigger the
subsequent device.
For the 2013 competition, the challenge is to design a
Remote Inspection Device. Following the tragedy at the
Fukushima nuclear facility after the Tohoku earthquake
and tsunami in March 2011, the nuclear industry issued a
Request for Proposal to design and build a small, remotely
controlled inspection vehicle that could determine the
level of radioactivity at specified locations and inspect for
damage, protecting humans from absorbing high doses
of radioactive contamination. Participants must design a
vehicle to negotiate around obstacles, both in getting to
the inspection points and bringing the sensor to the desig-
nated return area. MD
RS# 196
FEBRUARY 14, 2013 MACHINE DESIGN.com 104
The First Name in
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RS# 197
ENGINEERING A BETTER EXPERIENCE
Every problem cant be solved by off-the-shelf solutions. From space constraints to
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the toughest actuation challenges. Its all about helping you develop the perfect solution
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thats a pretty big deal. Visit us online at bimba.com
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Copyright 2013 Bimba Manufacturing Company. All Rights Reserved.
RS# 198