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NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD

Office of Research and Engineering a^


Washington, D.C. 20594 *

February 19, 2002

Flight Path Study - United Airlines Flight 93

A. SUBJECT AIRCRAFT

Location: Shanksville, PA
Date: September 11, 2001
Time: 10:03 AM Eastern Daylight Time
Flight: United Airlines Flight 93
Aircraft: Boeing 757-200, registration: N591UA
NTSB#: DCA01MA065

B. GROUP

N/A

C. SUMMARY

This document provides a brief description of the flight path of the aircraft based
on information obtained from various sources of recorded radar of the subject
aircraft both before and after the hijacking events. Information from the Flight
Data Recorder (FDR) recovered on scene is also used to develop the
description. Flight paths are overlaid onto maps of the area, and time histories
of altitude data are presented

United Airlines Flight 93 - Flight Profile

The following profile of United Airlines Flight 93 is based on data from the flight
data recorder (FDR) recovered from the crash site, as well as radar data
obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration's Air Route Traffic Control
Centers and the U.S. Air Force 84th Radar Evaluation Squadron.

Figure 1 shows the flight path of the aircraft from take off at Newark, NJ to the
crash site near Johnstown, PA. Figure 2 shows the aircraft's altitude profile for
the 1 hour and 21 minute duration of the flight.
United flight 93 departed Newark, NJ at 8:42 am (point A in Figures 1 and 2) and
reached its assigned cruising altitude of 35,000 feet at about 9:02 am (B). The
flight appears normal until a brief descent of about 600 feet starting at 9:28 (C).
The words "get out of here" and sounds of a struggle were recorded on the air
traffic control radio at FAA's Cleveland Center facility at this time. The Cockpit
Voice Recorder (CVR) onboard the airplane began providing sounds from the
cockpit at approximately 9:32. At 9:34 (D) the airplane starts to climb from
35,000 feet, and shortly thereafter begins a left turn to a Southeast heading of
120° with the autopilot in heading select mode. The airplane maintained a
maximum altitude of 41,000 feet for about 2 minutes and then started
descending at about 9:39 (E), with the autopilot in vertical speed mode and at a
descent rate of 4,000 feet/minute. Radar stations stopped receiving transponder
returns from UAL93 at approximately 9:41.

There was a brief interruption in the descent at 9:46 (F) as the airplane climbed
from 19,000 feet to 20,500 feet before resuming its descent, but at a slower rate
(1,300 feet/minute). At about 9:57 the airplane started a left turn to the east. At
9:59 (G) the airplane was at 5,000 feet when about 2 minutes of rapid, full left
and right control wheel inputs resulted in multiple 30 degree rolls to the left and
right. From approximately 10:00 to 10:02 there were four distinct control column
inputs that caused the airplane to pitch nose-up (climb) and nose-down (dive)
aggressively. During this time the airplane climbed to about 10,000 feet while
turning to the right. The airplane then pitched nose-down and rolled to the right
in response to flight control inputs, and impacted the ground at about 490 knots
(563 mph) in a 40 degree nose-down, inverted attitude. The time of impact was
10:03:11.

Ritter
Chief, Vehicle Performance Division
NTSB
T

Figure 1. UA-93 Radar Ground Track


A - UAL 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EOT.
B - UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.
C - 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude (assumed takeover point.)
O D - Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.
o
O E - A t max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 m in. later.
01
F - Brief interruption in descent.
G - Rapid control wheel inputs; aircraft starts climbing.
H -Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent.
•S'o I - Aircraft aircraft impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.

Q LJ 010:03:11 AM

I
Figure 2. UA-93 Altitude Profile
45000

40000 -

_ 25000 -
Q>

3 20000 -

A - UAL 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EOT.


B - UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.
C - 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude (assumed takeover point.)
D -Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.
E - At max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 min. later.
F - Brief interruption in descent.
G - Rapid control wheel inputs; aircraft starts climbing.
H -Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent.
I - Aircraft aircraft Impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.

08:30:00 08:40:00 08:50:00 09:00:00 09:10:00 09:20:00 09:30:00 09:40:00 09:50:00 10:00:00 10:

Eastern Daylight Time, HH:MM:SS (= UTC - 4 Hours)


4
8:41:49 LC United ninety three wind three three zero at seven runway four left cleared
for takeoff. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
8:41:53 UAL-93 cleared takeoff four left United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
8:42:07 LC United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
8:42:41 LC United ninety three contact departure. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
8:42:43 UAL-93 going to departure United ninety three good day. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
8:43:00 UAL-93 United ninety three fourteen hundred for twenty five hundred. [N90 1238-
1256 Newark Dept.]
8:43:04 E155 United ninety three New York departure good morning radar contact climb
and maintain eight thousand and turn left heading three three zero vector
for ELIOT. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
8:43:12 UAL-93 eight thousand heading three three zero for ELIOT United ninety three.
[N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
8:43:48 E155 United ninety three turn left heading uh two eight zero. [N90 1238-1256
Newark Dept.]
8:43:52 UAL-93 left two eighty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
8:44:34 E155 United ninety three climb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90 1238-1256
Newark Dept.]
8:44:38 UAL-93 climb and maintain one zero thousand ten thousand United ninety three.
[N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
8:45:10 E155 United ninety three do not exceed two five zero knots. [N90 1238-1256
Newark Dept.]
8:45:13 UAL-93 not exceed two fifty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
8:45:54 E155 United ninety three resume normal speed contact departure one three five
point three five. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
8:46:00 UAL-93 one three five three five normal speed good day United ninety three. [N90
1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
8:46:18 UAL-93 United ninety three is with you one zero thousand, normal speed, heading
two eighty. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
8:46:23 B43 United ninety three departure good morning, climb maintain one four
thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
8:46:26 UAL-93 climb maintain one four thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256
Liberty West]
8:48:03 B43 United ninety three right turn heading of ah three one zero. [N90 1238-1256
Liberty West]
8:48:07 UAL-93 right heading three one zero United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty
West]
8:48:41 B43 United ninety three climb maintain one six thousand. [N90 1238-1256
Liberty West]
8:48:44 UAL-93 climb maintain one six thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256
Liberty West]
8:49:31 B43 United ninety three climb maintain one seven thousand go direct ELIOT on
course. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
8:49:35 UAL-93 up to one seven thousand direct ELIOT United ninety three. [N90 1238-
1256 Liberty West]
8:50.37 B43 United ninety three contact New York center one three two point one good
day. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
8:50:41 UAL-93 thirty two one good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
8:50:57 UAL-93 and New York United ninety three with you one seven thousand. [ZNY
1245-1258 R39]
8:51:03 R39 United ninety three New York center climb and maintain flight level two
eight zero. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
8:51:07 UAL-93 maintain two eight oh United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
8:54:09 R39 United ninety three cleared direct DEMO. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
8:54:12 UAL-93 direct DEMO United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
8:54:53 R39 United ninety three contact New York center one three three point four
correction New York center one thirty two eighty seven. [ZNY1245-1258
R39]
8:54:59 UAL-93 one thirty two eighty seven good day United uh ninety three. [ZNY 1245-
1258R39]
8:55:05 UAL-93 good morning New York United ninety three with you twenty five and a half
for two eight oh. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]
8:55:09 R73 United ninety three New York center good morning. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]
8:57:12 R73 United ninety three climb and maintain flight level three five zero. [ZNY
1250-1328 R73]
8:57:16 UAL-93 leaving two eight for three five oh United ninety three. [ZNY 1250-1328
R73]
9:22:20 UAL-93 United ninety three starting to pick up some light chop at thirty five, any ride
reports? [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]
9:22:26 RA73 the ah first complained I've had and United ah ninety three, contact the
Cleveland center now on one three three point zero seven. [ZNY 1308-
1328 RA73]
9:22:37 UAL-93 thrity three oh seven United ninety three. [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]
9:23:00 ACARS BEWARE ANY COCKPIT INTROUSION. . TWO AIRCRAFT IN NY, HIT
TRADE CNTER BUILDS
9:23:05 UAL-93 morning Cleveland it's United ninety three with you at three five oh ah
there's some light chop here at thirty five any ride reports? [ZOB 13:01-
13:31 Franklin-R]
9:23:14 FKL-R an no just a little light chop nothing worse than that United ninety three.
[ZOB 13:01-13:31 Franklin-R]
9:23:56 FKL-R United ninety three Cleveland one three three three seven. [ZOB 1301-
1331 Franklin-R]
9:24:00 UAL-93 one three three three seven good day United ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331
Franklin-R]
9:24:20 UAL-93 good morning Cleveland United ninety three is with you at three five oh
intermittent light chop. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:25:06 UAL-93 United ninety three checking in three five oh. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:25:08 LOR-R United ninety three three five zero roger. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:27:25 LOR-R United ninety three that traffic for you is one o'clock twelve miles east
bound three seven zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:27:30 UAL-93 negative contact we're looking United ninety three. [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
9:28:16 UAL-93 *** (mayday) *** (hey get out of here) ***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:28:48 UAL-93 *** (get out of here) *** (get out of here). [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:29:14 LOR-R United ninety three verify three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:29:20 LOR-R United ninety three verify you're at flight level ah three five zero. [ZOB
1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:29:34 LOR-R United ninety three verify you're level at three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
9:29:40 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:29:56 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:30:03 LOR-R United ninety three if you hear Cleveland center ident please. [ZOB 1314-
1333 Lorain-R]
9:30:58 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland if you hear the center ident. [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
9:31:55 UAL-93 *** please sit down, keep remaining seating, we have a bomb on board, so
***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:32:05 LOR-R er uh calling Cleveland center you're unreadable say again slowly. [ZOB
1314-1333 Lorain-R]
9:35:36 LOR-R ah United ninety three if able * ah squawk trip please. [ZOB 1333-1344
Lorain-R]
9:36:51 LOR-R [Cleveland center announces that UAL93 is turning south and east and
climbing]. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
9:39:10 UAL-93 ah this is the captain uh would like to all remain seated there is a bomb
aboard and we go back to the airport and to have our demands so please
remain quiet. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
9:39:19 LOR-R okay thats United ninety three calling? [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
9:39:24 LOR-R United ninety three understand you have a bomb on board go ahead. [ZOB
1333-1344 Lorain-R]
9:40:04 LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] _
9:40:12 LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] >
9:41:01 LOR-R United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center? [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-
R]
9:41:36 LOR-R [Cleveland center announces loss of transponder signal from UAL93] [ZOB
1333-1344 Lorain-R]
9:45:29 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland do you still hear the center? [ZOB 1344-
1400 Lorain-R]
9:45:35 LOR-R United ninety three do you still hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]
9:46:13 LOR-R United ninety three United ninerthree do you hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-
1400 Lorain-R]
9:47:28 LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-
R]
9:48:39 LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center. [ZOB
1344-1400 Lorain-R]
NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD
Vehicle Recorders Division
Washington, D.C. 20594

December 21, 2001

Air Traffic Control Recording

Specialist's Report
by Joseph A. Gregor

A. ACCIDENT

Location: Shanksville, PA
Date: September 11, 2001
Time:1
Aircraft: Boeing 757
NTSB Number: DCA01SA065

B. GROUP

N/A

C. SUMMARY

On September 11, 2001 United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 crashed near
Shanksville, PA. A certified analog copy of air traffic control (ATC) transmissions
recorded on September 11, 2001 at various tower, departure, and Air Route Traffic
Control Center (ARTCC) positions along the route of flight was sent to the audio
laboratory of the National Transportation Safety Board. These recordings were used to
create an audio and text transcript of the aircratt-ground communications from takeoff
to accident time.
- II -
D. DETAILS OF INVESTIGATION

Transmissions between the accident aircraft and ATC were recorded and an
analog copy was sent to the Safety Board's audio laboratory. The tapes cover the
following ATC positions and time periods:

Facility Time Period1 (UTC) Position

EWR 1235-1247 LC
N90 1238-1256 E155
N90 1238-1256 B43
ZNY 1245-1258 Sector 39R
ZNY 1250-1328 Sector 73R
ZOB 1301 -1331 FKL-R
ZOB 1314-1333 LOR-R
ZOB 1333-1344 LOR-R
ZOB 1344-1400 LOR-R

Sections of the tape recordings containing air-ground transmissions to and from the
incident aircraft were digitized at a 22,050 Samples/second data rate and saved as
standard Microsoft .wav files, individual .wav files were combined into a single 1 hour 3
minute 19 second long .wav file containing all transmissions to and from the incident
aircraft from 1241:49 UTC (aircraft cleared for takeoff) to 1348:47 UTC. A transcript
was obtained from the final composite recording. Times are approximate due to
limitations inherent in the data obtained from the FAA.

Joseph A. Gregor
Electrical Engineer
- Ill -

Transcript of ATC communications with a Boeing B-757 (United Airlines flight 93)
which crashed near Shanksville, PA on September 11, 2001.

LEGEND

UAL-93 Radio transmission from United B-757, flight 93

LC Radio transmission from Local Control

E155 Radio transmission from Newark Departure

B43 Radio transmission from Liberty West

39R Radio transmission from Sector 39 Radar position

73R Radio transmission from Sector 73 Radar position

FKL-R Radio transmission from Franklin Radar position

LOR-R Radio transmission from Lorain Radar position

* Unintelligible word

# Expletive

( ) Questionable insertion

[ ] Editorial insertion

Pause

- Interruption

Note 1: Times are expressed in universal coordinated time (UTC).

Note 2: Only radio transmissions to and from the accident aircraft were transcribed.

Note 3: Words shown with excess vowels, letters, or drawn out syllables are a phonetic representation of the words
as spoken.
Page 1 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

Start of recording

Start of transcript

1241:49*
LC United ninety three wind three three zero at seven
runway four left cleared for takeoff. [EWR 1235-1247
LC]

1241:53*
UAL-93 cleared takeoff four left United ninety three. [EWR 1235-
1247LC]

1242:07*
LC United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

1242:41*
LC United ninety three contact departure. [EWR 1235-1247
LC]

1242:43*
UAL-93 going to departure United ninety three good day. [EWR
1235-1247 LC]

1243:00
UAL-93 United ninety three fourteen hundred for twenty five
hundred. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
Page 2 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1243:04
E155 United ninety three New York departure good morning
radar contact climb and maintain eight thousand and
turn left heading three three zero vector for ELIOT. [N90
1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1243:12
UAL-93 eight thousand heading three three zero for ELIOT
United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1243:48
E155 United ninety three turn left heading uh two eight zero.
[N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1243:52
UAL-93 left two eighty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256
Newark Dept.]

1244:34
E155 United ninety three dimb and maintain one zero
thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1244:38
UAL-93 climb and maintain one zero thousand ten thousand
United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1245:10
E155 United ninety three do not exceed two five zero knots.
[N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1245:13
UAL-93 not exceed two fifty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256
Newark Dept.]
Page 3 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1245:54
E155 United ninety three resume normal speed contact
departure one three five point three five. [N90 1238-
1256 Newark Dept.]

1246:00
UAL-93 one three five three five normal speed good day United
ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1246:18*
UAL-93 United ninety three is with you one zero thousand,
normal speed, heading two eighty. [N90 1238-1256
Liberty West]

1246:23*
B43 United ninety three departure good morning, climb
maintain one four thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty
West]

1246:26*
UAL-93 climb maintain one four thousand United ninety three.
[N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1248:03*
B43 United ninety three right turn heading of ah three one
zero. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1248:07*
UAL-93 right heading three one zero United ninety three. [N90
1238-1256 Liberty West]

1248:41*
B43 United ninety three climb maintain one six thousand.
[N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
Page 4 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1248:44*
UAL-93 climb maintain one six thousand United ninety three.
[N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1249:31*
B43 United ninety three climb maintain one seven thousand
go direct ELIOT on course. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty
West]

1249:35*
UAL-93 up to one seven thousand direct ELIOT United ninety
three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1250:37*
B43 United ninety three contact New York center one three
two point one good day. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1250:41*
UAL-93 thirty two one good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-
1256 Liberty West]

1250:57*
UAL-93 and New York United ninety three with you one seven
thousand. [ZNY 1245-1 258 R39]

1251:03
R39 United ninety three New York center climb and maintain
flight level two eight zero. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1251:07
UAL-93 maintain two eight oh United ninety three. {ZNY 1245-
1258R39]

1254:09*
R39 United ninety three cleared direct DEMO. [ZNY 1245-
1258 R39]
Page 5 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1254:12
UAL-93 direct DEMO United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1254:53
R39 United ninety three contact New York center one three
three point four correction New York center one thirty
two eighty seven. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1254:59*
UAL-93 one thirty two eighty seven good day United uh ninety
three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1255:05*
UAL-93 good morning New York United ninety three with you
twenty five and a half for two eight oh. [ZNY 1250-1328
R73]

1255:09*
R73 United ninety three New York center good morning.
[ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

1257:12*
R73 United ninety three climb and maintain flight level three
five zero. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

1257:16*
UAL-93 leaving two eight for three five oh United ninety three.
[ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

1322:20
UAL-93 United ninety three starting to pick up some light chop at
thirty five, any ride reports? [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]
Page 6 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1322:26
RA73 the ah first complained I've had and United ah ninety
three, contact the Cleveland center now on one three
three point zero seven. [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]

1322:37
UAL-93 thrity three oh seven United ninety three. [ZNY 1308-
1328RA73]

1323:00
ACARS BEWARE ANY COCKPIT INTROUSION. . TWO
AIRCRAFT IN NY, HIT TRADE CNTER BUILDS

1323:05
UAL-93 morning Cleveland it's United ninety three with you at
three five oh ah there's some light chop here at thirty
five any ride reports? [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1323:14
FKL-R an no just a little light chop nothing worse than that
United ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1323:56
FKL-R United ninety three Cleveland one three three three
seven. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1324:00
UAL-93 one three three three seven good day United ninety
three. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1324:20*
UAL-93 good morning Cleveland United ninety three is with you
at three five oh intermittent light chop. [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
Page 7 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1325:06*
UAL-93 United ninety three checking in three five oh. [ZOB
1314-1333Lorain-R]

1325:08*
LOR-R United ninety three three five zero roger. [ZOB 1314-
1333Lorain-R]

1327:25*
LOR-R United ninety three that traffic for you is one o'clock
twelve miles east bound three seven zero. [ZOB 1314-
1 333 Lorain-R]

1327:30*
UAL-93 negative contact we're looking United ninety three.
[ZOB 1314-1 333 Lorain-R]

1328:16*
UAL-93 *** (mayday) *** (hey get out of here) ***. [ZOB 1314-
1 333 Lorain-R]

1328:48*
UAL-93 *** (get out of here) — (get out of here). [ZOB 1314-
1333 Lorain-R]

1329:14*
LOR-R United ninety three verify three five zero. [ZOB 1 314-
1333 Lorain-R]

1329:20*
LOR-R United ninety three verify you're at flight level ah three
five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1329:34*
LOR-R United ninety three verify you're level at three five zero.
[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
Page 8 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1329:40*
LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-
R]
1329:56
LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-
R]
1330:03*
LOR-R United ninety three if you hear Cleveland center ident
please. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1330:58*
LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland if you hear the center
ident. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1331:55*
UAL-93 *** please sit down, keep remaining seating, we have a
bomb on board, so ***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R)

1332:05*
LOR-R er uh calling Cleveland center you're unreadable say
again slowly. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1335:36
LOR-R ah United ninety three if able * ah squawk trip please.
[ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1336:51
LOR-R [Cleveland center announces that UAL93 is turning
south and east and climbing]. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-
R]
Page 9 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1339:10
UAL-93 ah this is the captain uh would like to all remain seated
there is a bomb aboard and we go back to the airport
and to have our demands so please remain quiet. [ZOB
1333-1 344 Lorain-R]

1339:19
LOR-R okay thats United ninety three calling? [ZOB 1333-1344
Lorain-R]

1339:24
LOR-R United ninety three understand you have a bomb on
board go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1340:01
LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-
R]

1340:12
LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-
R]
1341:01
LOR-R United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center?
[ZOB 1333-1 344 Lorain-R]

1341:36
LOR-R [Cleveland center announces loss of transponder signal
from UAL93] [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1345:29*
LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland do you still hear the
center? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]
Page 10 of 10
INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION
Time (UTC) Time (UTC)
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT

1345:35*
LOR-R United ninety three do you still hear Cleveland? [ZOB
1344-1400 Lorain-R]

1346:13*
LOR-R United ninety three United niner three do you hear
Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

1347:28*
LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB
1344-1 400 Lorain-R]

1348:43
LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three do you hear
Cleveland center. [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

End of transcript

'times verified via FAA timecode reader.


1241:49 LC United ninety three wind three three zero at seven runway four
left cleared for takeoff. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
1241:53 UAL-93 cleared takeoff four left United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247
LC]
1242:07 LC United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
1242:41 LC United ninety three contact departure. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]
1242:43 UAL-93 going to departure United ninety three good day. [EWR 1235-1247
LC]
1243:00 UAL-93 United ninety three fourteen hundred for twenty five hundred.
[N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1243:04 E155 United ninety three New York departure good morning radar
contact climb and maintain eight thousand and turn left heading
three three zero vector for ELIOT. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1243:12 UAL- 9 3 eight thousand heading three three zero for ELIOT United ninety
three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1243:48 E155 United ninety three turn left heading uh two eight zero. [N90
1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1243:52 UAL- 9 3 left two eighty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark
Dept.]
1244:34 E155 United ninety three climb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90
1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1244:38 UAL- 9 3 climb and maintain one zero thousand ten thousand United ninety
three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1245:10 E155 United ninety three do not exceed two five zero knots. [N90
1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1245:13 UAL- 9 3 not exceed two fifty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark
Dept.]
1245:54 E155 United ninety three resume normal speed contact departure one
three five point three five. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1246:00 UAL- 9 3 one three five three five normal speed good day United ninety
three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]
1246:18 UAL- 9 3 United ninety three is with you one zero thousand, normal
speed, heading two eighty. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
1246:23 B43 United ninety three departure good morning, climb maintain one
four thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
1246:26 UAL- 9 3 climb maintain one four thousand United ninety three. [N90
1238-1256 Liberty West]
1248:03 B43 United ninety three right turn heading of ah three one zero.
[N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
1248:07 UAL- 9 3 right heading three one zero United ninety three. [N90 1238-
1256 Liberty West]
1248:41 B43 United ninety three climb maintain one six thousand. [N90
1238-1256 Liberty West]
1248:44 UAL- 9 3 climb maintain one six thousand United ninety three. [N90
1238-1256 Liberty West]
1249:31 B43 United ninety three climb maintain one seven thousand go direct
ELIOT on course. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
1249:35 UAL- 9 3 up to one seven thousand direct ELIOT United ninety three.
[N90 1238r1256 Liberty West]
1250:37 B43 United ninety three contact New York center one three two point
one good day. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]
1250:41 UAL- 9 3 thirty two one good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256
Liberty West]
1250:57 UAL- 9 3 and New York United ninety three with you one seven thousand.
[ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
1251:03 R39 United ninety three New York center climb and maintain flight
level two eight zero. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
1251:07 UAL-93 maintain two eight oh United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
1254:09 R39 United ninety three cleared direct DEMO. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
1254:12 UAL-93 direct DEMO United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
1254:53 R39 United ninety three contact New York center one three three
point four correction New York center one thirty two eighty
seven. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
1254:59* UAL-93 one thirty two eighty seven good day United uh ninety three.
[ZNY 1245-1258 R39]
1255:05 UAL-93 good morning New York United ninety three with you twenty five
and a half for two eight oh. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]
1255:09 R73 United ninety three New York center good morning. [ZNY 1250-
1328 R73]
1257:12 R73 United ninety three climb and maintain flight level three five
zero. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]
1257:16 UAL-93 leaving two eight for three five oh United ninety three. [ZNY
1250-1328 R73]
1322:20 UAL-93 United ninety three starting to pick up some light chop at
thirty five, any ride reports? [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]
1322:26 RA73 the ah first complained I've had and United ah ninety three,
contact the Cleveland center now on one three three point zero
seven. [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]
1322:37 UAL-93 thrity three oh seven United ninety three. [ZNY 1308-1328
RA73]
1323:00 ACARS BEWARE ANY COCKPIT INTROUSION. . TWO AIRCRAFT IN NY, HIT TRADE
CNTER BUILDS
1323:05 UAL-93 morning Cleveland it's United ninety three with you at three
five oh ah there's some light chop here at thirty five any ride
reports? [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]
1323:14 FKL-R an no just a little light chop nothing worse than that United
ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]
1323:56 FKL-R United ninety three Cleveland one three three three seven.
[ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]
1324:00 UAL-93 one three three three seven good day United ninety three. [ZOB
1301-1331 Franklin-R]
1324:20 UAL-93 good morning Cleveland United ninety three is with you at three
five oh intermittent light chop. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1325:06 UAL-93 United ninety three checking in three five oh. [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
1325:08 LOR-R United ninety three three five zero roger. [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
1327:25 LOR-R United ninety three that traffic for you is one o'clock twelve
miles east bound three seven zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1327:30 UAL-93 negative contact we're looking United ninety three. [ZOB 1314-
1333 Lorain-R]
1328:16 UAL-93 *** (mayday) *** (hey get out of here) *** [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
1328:48 UAL-93 *** (get out of here) *** (get out of here). [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
1329:14 LOR-R United ninety three verify three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333
Lorain-R]
1329:20 LOR-R United ninety three verify you're at flight level ah three five
zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1329:34 LOR-R United ninety three verify you're level at three five zero.
[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1329:40 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1329:56 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1330:03 LOR-R United ninety three if you hear Cleveland center ident please.
[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1330:58 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland if you hear the center ident.
[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1331:55 UAL-93 *** please sit down, keep remaining seating, we have a bomb on
board, so ***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1332:05 LOR-R er uh calling Cleveland center you're unreadable say again
slowly. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]
1335:36 LOR-R ah United ninety three if able * ah squawk trip please. [ZOB
1333-1344 Lorain-R]
1336:51 LOR-R [Cleveland center announces that UAL93 is turning south and
east and climbing]. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
1339:10 UAL-93 ah this is the captain uh would like to all remain seated there
is a bomb aboard and we go back to the airport and to have our
demands so please remain quiet. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
1339:19 LOR-R okay thats United ninety three calling? [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-
R]
1339:24 LOR-R United ninety three understand you have a bomb on board go
ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
1340:01 LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
1340:12 LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
1341:01 LOR-R United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center? [ZOB 1333-
1344 Lorain-R]
1341:36 LOR-R [Cleveland center announces loss of transponder signal from
UAL93] [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]
1345:29 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland do you still hear the center?
[ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]
1345:35 LOR-R United ninety three do you still hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-
1400 Lorain-R]
1346:13 LOR-R United ninety three United niner three do you hear Cleveland?
[ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]
1347:28 LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1344-
1400 Lorain-R]
1348:43 LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three do you hear Cleveland
center. [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]
OFFICIAL USE
United Airlines Flight 93 - Flight Profile
ONLY
The following profile of United Airlines Flight 93 is based on data from the flight data
recorder (FDR) recovered from the crash site, as well as radar data obtained from the
Federal Aviation Administration's Air Route Traffic Control Centers and the U.S. Air
Force 84th Radar Evaluation Squadron. Figure 1 shows the flight path of the aircraft from
take off at Newark, NJ to the crash site near Johnstown, PA. Figure 2 shows the aircraft's
altitude profile for the 1 hour and 21 minute duration of the flight.

United flight 93 departed Newark, NJ at 8:42 am (point A in Figures 1 and 2) and reached
its assigned cruising altitude of 35,000 feet at about 9:02 am (B). The flight appears
normal until a brief descent of about 600 feet starting at 9:28 (C). The words "get out of
here" and sounds of a struggle were recorded on the air traffic control radio at FAA's
Cleveland Center facility at this time. The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) onboard the
airplane began providing sounds from the cockpit at approximately 9:32. At 9:34 (D) the
airplane starts to climb from 35,000 feet, and shortly thereafter begins a left turn to the
southeast. The airplane maintained a maximum altitude of 41,000 feet for about 2 minutes
and then started descending at about 9:39 (E). Radar stations stopped receiving
transponder returns fromUAL93 at approximately 9:41.

There was a brief interruption in the descent at 9:46 (F) as the airplane climbed from
19,000 feet to 20,500 feet before resuming its descent. At about 9:57 the airplane started
a left turn to the east. Just before 9:59 (G) the airplane was at 5,000 feet when about 2
minutes of rapid, full left and right control wheel inputs resulted in multiple 30 degree rolls
to the left and right. From approximately 10:00 to 10:02 (H) there were four distinct
control column inputs that caused the airplane to pitch nose-up (climb) and nose-down
(dive) aggressively. During this time the airplane climbed to about 10,000 feet while
turning to the right. The airplane then pitched nose-down and rolled to the right in
response to flight control inputs, and impacted the ground at about 490 knots (563 mph)
in a 40 degree nose-down, inverted attitude. The time of impact was 10:03:11.
Figure 1. UA-93 Radar Ground Track
A - UAL 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EDT.
B - UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.
C - 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude.
D - Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.
E - At max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 min. later.
F - Brief interruption in descent.
G - Evidence of struggle on CVR; aircraft starts climbing.
H - Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent.
I - Aircraft aircraft impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.

Q LI 010:03:11 AM

C
Figure 2. UA-93 Altitude Profile
45000
1 I rI
j-~i _!_.-,
! L.
.L..LJ.

40000

i_
35000

-t-
30000

25000 "11

0)
TJ
20000

15000

- U A L 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EOT.


10000 - UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.
- 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude.
_|Jl_4..._. ..L.
- Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.
- At max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 min. later.
5000 - Brief interruption in descent.
- Evidence of struggle on CVR; aircraft starts climbing.
- Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent.
Aircraft aircraft impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.
I I I

:30:00 08:40: 08:50:00 09:00:00 09:10:00 09:20:00 09:30:00 09:40:00 09:50: 10:00:00 10:10:00
Eastern Daylight Time, HH/ SS (= UTC - 4 Hours)