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Unit 7 AP Biology Study Guide 40-43

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third stage, animals take up small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose tissue; insulates body and stores fuel as fat hydrolyzes starch into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose finger like extension of the human cecum carry blood away from the heart to organs small vessels that convey blood to the capillaries AV; impulses are delayed for 0.1 second before spreading to the walls of the ventricles; allows atria to empty completely before the ventricles contract; signals from this note are conducted throughout the ventricular fibers by specialized muscle fibers called bundle branches has a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma; red blood cells carry oxygen, white cells function in defense mineralized connective tissue; osteoblasts deposit a matrix of collagen; microscopic structure of hard mammalian bone consists of repeating units called osteons; each osteon has concentric layers of the mineralized matrix which are deposited around a central canal containing blood vessels and nerves. use pinches, tentacles, claws, poisonous fangs, jaws, teeth that kil their prey or tear off pieces of meet or vegetation. microscopic vessels that are thin with porous walls forms contractile wall of the heart; striated like skeletal and has contractile properties similar to those of skeletal muscle; carries unconscious task of the contraction of the heart; fibers branch and interconnect via intercalated disks which relay signals form cell to cell and help synchronize heartbeat abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of a protein carbohydrate complex called chondroitin sulfate; retained in some locations, such as disks that act as cushions between vertebrae important for fermenting ingested material


circulation to large animals closed circulatory system colon connective tissue


adipose tissue

not every part of body can diffuse outwards efficiently and quickly; circulatory system minimizes the distance that substances need to diffuse to enter or leave a cell blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid; one or more hearts pump blood into large vessels that branch into smaller ones coursing thru the organs leads to rectum and anus; recover water bind and support other tissues in the body; consists of sparse population of cells scattered thru an extracellular matrix (jelly, liquid, solid) dice shaped specialized for secretion; makes up epithelium of kidney tubules and many glands like thyroid and salivary glands relaxation phase of the cycle elastic walls of arteries snap back, ventricles relaxed second stage of food processing; food is broken down into molecules small enough for body to absorb; use enzymatic hydrolysis to catalyze the digestion of large molecules in food organisms that gain heat from external sources; consume less food fourth stage; completes process as undigested material passes out of the digestive system organisms that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism; maintain stable body temps even in large temperature fluctuations in the environment covers outside of the body; lines organs and cavities; enables tissue to function as barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens, fluid loss red blood cells; most numerous and bring oxygen to body organs; biconcave and lack nuclei connects to stomach where trachea leads to lungs dense with collagenous fibers; form parallel bundles, which maximize non elastic strength; found in tendons where muscles attach to bones and ligaments which connect bones at joints suck nutrient rich fluid form a living host




17. 18.

4. 5. 6.

appendix arteries arterioles atrioventricular node



cuboidal epithelium diastole diastolic pressure digestion

20. 21.







ectothermic elimination endothermic




bulk feeders



capillaries cardiac muscle

epithelial tissue





esophagus fibrous connective tissue





fluid feeders




function of the circulatory system gallbladder homeostasis

carry out exchange with the environment; transport materials between sites and the rest of the body bile is stored and concentrated animals maintain a relatively constant internal environment even when the external environment changes significantly first stage; act of eating; in liquid or solid forms includes colon, cecum, rectum five major types of white blood cells; function is to fight infection makes bile to act as a detergent to aid in absorption of liquids collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers in this tissue bind epithelia to underlying tissues and hold organs in place metabolic rate is proportional to body mass to the three quarter power



works best in strongly acidic environtment; Parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the canal. enables us to process and digest food while lying down opens to two passage ways: esophagus and trachea liquid matrix; dissolved in the plasma are ions and proteins that function in osmotic regulation; buffers against pH changes fragments of cells involved in clotting pinched off cytoplasmic specialized bone marrow cells triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than diminish the stimulus forms a mucous membrane that lines portions of the respiratory tract of many vertebrates; beating of cilia move the film of mucus along the surface to survive and reproduce, store energy lines intestines; secretes juices and absorbs nutrients thin and leaky; functions in the exchange of material by diffusion; lines blood vessels and air sacs of the longs where diffusion is critical SA; pacemaker that sets rate and timing at which all cardiac muscles contract; generates electrical impulses much like those produced by nerve cells consists of bundles of long cells (muscle fibers), sacromeres give the cells a striped (striated) appearance under microscope enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecules from food; over 6 m long, longest compartment and includes the duodenum where chyme and digestive juices mix. lacks striations; in digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, other internal organs; spindle shaped and controlled by different kinds of nerves than skeletal muscle; responsible for involuntary churning of stomach primarily stores food and continues digestion, it can stretch to accomodate about 2 L of food and liquid



32. 33.


pharynx plasma


ingestion large intestine leukocytes liver loose connective tissue metabolic rate in large mammals metabolic rate in smaller animals muscle tissue negative feedback nervous tissue normal range open circulatory system open circulatory system users pancreas



53. 54.


platelets platelets positive feedback pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium role of digestive system simple columnar epithelium simple squamous epithelium sinoatrial node








demands a greater rate of oxygen delivery; high breathing rate, blood volume relative to size, heart rate and eats more food consists of filaments containing the proteins actin and myosin, which together enable muscles to contract response that damps the stimulus







sense stimuli and transmit signals in the form of nerve impulses upper and lower limit


skeletal muscle


the circulatory fluid bathes the organs directly


small intestine


large crustaceans, lobsters, crabs smooth muscle



aids chemical digestion by producing alkaline solution reach in bicarbonate; neutralizes acidity four chambered heart, left side receives and pumps only oxygen rich blood, right side receives and pumps oxygen poor blood stomach


pathway of blood in humans



stratified squamous epithelium substrate feeders suspension feeders systole systolic pressure thermoregulation

regenerates rapidly near basil lamina; new cells pushed up because old cells are sloughed off; subject to abrasion and found in skin and linings of esophagus, anus, and vagina animals that live in or on their food source sift small particules from water; claims oysters use cilia to sweep food contraction phase of the cycle spikes in blood pressure caused byt he powerful contractions of the ventricles stretch of the arteries process by which animals maintain an internal temp within a tolerable range

66. 67. 68. 69. 70.