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4/10/2013

Distinguished Lecturer Online (DLO)


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Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program


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Effects Of Complex Reservoir Geometries And Completion Practices On Production Analysis In Tight Gas Reservoirs Stuart A. Cox
Marathon Oil Company

Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program


www.spe.org/dl

Outline
Introduce production analysis Reservoir geometries
- Synthetic cases - Field examples

Completion parameters
- Synthetic cases - Field examples

4/10/2013

Purpose
Address the following question: When performing production analysis, can complex reservoir geometries and completion practices cause linear flow, limited fracture half lengths and limited drainage areas to be predicted?

Conditions
Reservoir geometries
Stress dependent permeability Radial composite Two-layer system

Completion parameters
Hydraulic fracture clean-up and damage Liquid loading

Production Analysis
Rate, time, pressure analysis Long term pressure drawdown test Type-curve matching technique Major Assumptions
Single-phase fluid Constant reservoir / completion properties Volumetric production Bottomhole pressure known

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Applications of Production Analysis


Determine effective drainage volume Estimate drainage area Estimate reserves / productive life Identify infill drilling potential Estimate reservoir flow capacity Evaluate completion performance
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Example of Reservoir Flow Geometry on Diagnostic Type Curve


Infinite Conductivity Fracture 100 Kh = 3.27 md-ft Xf = 200 ft Boundary Dominated Uniform Flow

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Infinite Acting Flow Boundary Dominated Linear Flow

PwD 1 0.1 0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1 tDA

10

100

Field Example of Flow Characteristics


East Texas Example FirstBoundary 90 Days at 1,017 Days East Texas Example 2 to 1 Rectangular
100 Kh = 3.3 md-ft Boundary Dominated Flow

Inifite Acting Pseudo Radial Flow 10 PwD or PwD'

Uniform Flux Fracture Xf = 380' 1 Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.1 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

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Field Example of Flow Characteristics


East Texas Example 2 to 1 Rectangular Boundary at 1,017 Days 100 Kh = 3.3 md-ft Boundary Dominated Flow

Inifite Acting Pseudo Radial Flow 10 PwD or PwD'

Uniform Flux Fracture Xf = 380' 1 Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.1 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

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Base Simulation Cases


Uniform 40 acres Model Parameters
Formation top, ft Initial reservoir pressure, psi Net pay, ft Gas specific gravity Effective Gas Perm. md Fracture half -length, ft Fracture Conductivity, md-ft 10,000 5,000 40 0.65 0.05 200 75

Simulation Controls
Flowing tubing pressure 350 psia

Production time 2 years Single layer model


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Base Case Radial Flow


Infinite Conductivity Fracture in 1 to 1 Rectangular Boundary at 2 years 100 Match Kh = 2.0 md-ft, Xf = 165 ft, Area= 40 Acres, 10 Simulation 2.0 md-ft 165 ft 40 Acres

PwD or PwD'

0.1

Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

0.01 0.0001

Pressure, Psia 400 5000

Results match simulation Average pressure 2,630 psi after 2 years


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Stress Dependent Permeability

Matrix

Natural Fracture

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Stress Dependent Permeability


Reduced flow capacity
Permeability Multiplier 10

Reduction in reservoir and completion flow capacity Flowing pressure 450 psi

0.1

0.01

0.001 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Change in Net Stress, psi Net Stress, Psi 5000 6000 7000

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Natural Fracture Parameters


Fracture spacing 30 ft Flow capacity 2.0 md-ft
- Matrix = 0.005 md - Natural fracture = 0.045 md

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Type Curve Match


Infinite Conductivity Fracture in 3 to 1 Rectangular Boundary at 2 years 100 Match Kh = 0.68 md-ft Xf = 165 ft Area= 23 Acres 10

PwD or PwD'

0.1

Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

0.01 0.0001

Reduced flow capacity Linear flow Limited drainage area


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Pressure Profile After Two Years


No Stress dependent Permeability Stress dependent Permeability

Pressure, Psia 400 5000 400

Pressure, Psia 5000

False depletion stem draining ~ 20 Acres Linear flow PA after 16 years resulted in a 40 acre
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Field Example
Stress Dependant Permeability

Carbonate Flow capacity Completion

~ 10,000 ft Natural fractured Horizontal

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Field Example
Production Analysis Results
Log-Log Plot Rate & Pressure History

Depletion stem

Limited Reservoir Flow capacity Effective length


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13.6 md-ft 520 ft

Pressure Build Modeling


Log-Log Plot

100

10

1 1E-3

0.01

0.1

10

100

Log-Log plot: p-p@dt=0 and derivative [psi] vs dt [hr]

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Actual Pressure Build Up Log-Log Plot

100 Hour Test Stimulated well performance No Boundaries


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Actual Pressure Build Up Pressure Match

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Radial Composite

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Radial Composite
Two regions considered
- Inner region 5 acres, 2 md-ft - Outer region 35 acres, 0.02 md-ft

Results
Reduced effective drainage area PA match shows linear flow Long-term complex transient behavior PA after 25 years results show 40 acres

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Type Curve Match


Infinite Conductivity Fracture in 3 to 1 Rectangular Boundary at 2 years 100 Case 3 Kh = 2.0 md-ft Xf = 165 ft Area= 7 Acres 10

PwD or PwD'

0.1

Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

0.01 0.0001

Linear flow with limited drainage area


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Pressure Profile After Two Years

Pressure, Psia 400 5000

Blue area is the 5 acre higher flow capacity area Radial shape reflected in the model
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Hydraulic Fracture Clean-up


Infinite Conductivity Fracture in 1 to 1 Rectangular Boundary at 2 years 100 Match Simulation Kh = 2.0 md-ft, 2.0 md-ft Xf = 37 ft, 165 ft Area= 40 Acres, 40 Acres 10

PwD or PwD '

0.1

Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

0.01 0.0001

Initial fracture conductivity set at 2 md-ft 60 day clean-up to a final fracture conductivity of 75 md-ft Result show short effective length
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Fracture Conductivity Reducing


Infinite Conductivity Fracture in 2.2 to 1 Rectangular Boundary at 2 years 100 Match Simulation Kh = 1.8 md-ft, 2.0 md-ft Xf = 181 ft, 165 ft Area= 17 Acres, 40 Acres 10

PwD or PwD '

0.1

Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

0.01 0.0001

Pressure, Psia 400 5000

Fracture conductivity reduced by 1% each day for the two years False depletion stem and linear flow
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Liquid Loading Whats The Problem?


Additional back pressure on formation? Poor estimate of actual bottomhole pressure from surface data? Imbibition of water into the formation while the well is flowing and static? Will the well improve if unloaded? Do loaded wells result in a false depletion stem and reservoir shape?
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Wyoming Field Example


Wyoming Gas Well
2000 MCFD Unloading Rate, MCFD BOPD BWPD 100

1500

75

MCFD/FTP/CP

1000

50

500

25

0 7/28/2001

0 12/10/2002 4/23/2004 9/5/2005 1/18/2007

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BWPD/BOPD

10

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Imbibition Under Flowing Conditions

8 ft

Gas dP 4 ft 55 gal Drum Water dP

Exit Pressure Metered Gas Rate Water Pump

Laboratory work by Stim-Lab


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Liquid Loading
Late Time SLC
Infinite Conductivity Fracture in 2.8 to 1 Rectangular Boundary at 2 years 1000 Match Simulation Kh = 18 md-ft, 20 md-ft Xf = 45 ft, 120 ft Area = 29 Acres, 40 Acres 100 PwD or PwD'x 0.1

Two Year Pressure Profile

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Actual PwD Actual PwD' Analytical PwD Analytical PwD' 0.001 0.01 0.1 tDA 1 10 100

0.1 0.0001

Pressure, Psia 550 5000

Standing liquid promotes near-well damage through spontaneous imbibition. In field applications it is common to see both linear flow and false depletion stems Pressure profile from the model confirms the false depletion
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East Texas Field Example


East Texas Well
1000 MCFD FTP BWPD Installed Pumping Unit 750 500 Sims Gas Unit No. 1

Gas Rate & Tubing Pressure, (mscf/D, psi)

500

250

250

0 8/1/2004

0 8/1/2005 8/1/2006

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Water Rate, bbl/D

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West Texas Field Example


West Texas Well
1500 MCFD BWPD 1250 125 150

University 7-6S No. 2

1000

100

750

75

500

50

250

25

0 4/20/2004 5/20/2004 6/19/2004 7/19/2004 8/18/2004 9/17/2004 10/17/2004 11/16/2004 12/16/2004 1/15/2005 2/14/2005 3/16/2005 4/15/2005

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Observations
Complex flow conditions can cause PA to incorrectly predict flow geometry and drainage area. Actual reservoir properties can be reproduced through PA when the reservoir and the fracture are producing at a pseudo steady state conditions. When these conditions are not achieved, PA can not be expected to provide unique solutions. The cases presented highlight the need to incorporate all available data into the analysis of the wells performance and recognize the limitations of the technique being used to analyze well performance.
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BOPD/BWPD

MCFD

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