Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

1. Rotor Cooling System 2.

Stator Cooling System

Generator Protections
1. Single Phase to earth fault protection 2. Over load protection 3. Negative Sequence Current protection 4. Earth fault protection on the HV side of transformer 5. Generator differential protection 6. Unit differential protection 7. Generator transformer differential protection 8. Gas protection (from Transformer side) 9.Protection against Inter turn faults 10. Rotor Over current protection 11. Rotor Earth fault protection 12. Pole slipping protection 13. Over Voltage & over fluxing protection 14.Backup Impedance protection

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM IN BOKARO B THERMAL POWER POWR STATION


The entire three unit are connected to 220 KV grid through three no. of 250 MVA , 15.75/220 KV star-delta generator transformer. Auxiliary power supply is obtained by two UAT in each unit whose rating is 16 MVA, 15.76/6.6 KV connected with G.T & is to operate various auxiliary loads in plant. This transformer is used when the unit is not in running stage. Through this board two boards called CAB & SEB.

CAB is used to run various 6.6 motors. SEB is used when unit is not running. It is tie up with UAT to give supply to auxiliary equipments.

6.6 KV AUXILIARY POWER SYS.


1) Each unit having two unit auxiliary buses A & B being fed from UAT. 2) There are two common auxiliary boards cab-1 & CAB-2 for station auxiliary supply board for unit startup and emergency case. 3) The boards SEB-1, CAB-1 and SEB-2, CAB-2 are being fed from two station service transformer SST#1 & SST#2 resp. 4) UAB in 1A, 2A and 3A for the three units respectively can be tied with SEB-1 through breakers at unit boards and isolator at SEB. Similarly UAB no 1B, 2B, 3B are all tied with SEB 1. 5) CAB -1 & CAB -2 are interconnected to each other through breakers at one end and isolator at other end. Similarly in the case SEB-1 , SEB-2. 6)Power supply of pump house reserve board-1 and 2 i.e P.H.R.B#1 & P.H.R.B# 2 are fed from CAB#1 and CAB #2 resp.

7) 415 V auxiliary are fed from CAB-1 , CAB-2 through reserve distribution transformer andUAB-1A/2A/3A and UAB-1B/2B/3B. 8)The load in unit auxiliary boards is equally shared.

415 V AUXILIARY SYSTEM:


415 V units bus namely U1a1, U1a2, U1b2 and unit reserve r1a(for unit 1) boards are located at operating floor of inside are fed from distributions transformer 1,2,3,4& 5. The bus coupler can operates automatically by selector switch or also manullay

POWER GENERATION
At first water taken form the river then by various processes . It is demineralised . Then this water is send to boiler through many heating and other processes, The superheated steam of 540 degree C is formed which hits turbines with a pressure of 137 kg / cm . It rotates the turbine to which rotor of 247 MVA generator is coupled. When rotor speed comes to 3000 rpm then e use field use. Due to Faraday law of Electromagnetic Induction the start up voltage will start building up in stator winding & when voltage becomes to 15.75 KV . Which is bus bar & the steam is condensed to water reused again to generator

Power factor kept: 0.85

Power generated: 210 MW Auxiliary transformers which converts 220 KV to 6.6 KV through which most of the high tension motor . After Generator Transfer, 3 Switch yard are placed in B.T.P.S for transmission, distribution & power sharing. All are interconnected to power grid. They are following : a) 132 KV switch yard b) 33 KV switch yard c) 220 KV switch yard

SWITCHYARD

Transfer Bus at the Switch yard

SWITCHYARD
Plays a very important role as a junction between the generation and transmission which carries the generated power to its destination It is a yard or an open area in which different kinds of instruments are located. Responsible for connecting and disconnecting the transmission lines as per requirement. Power transmission is done at a higher voltage. Reduces transmission losses . Facilitate higher utilization of generation capacity

SWITCH YARD

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
They are used for transforming current to be lower value of the purpose of measurement protection and control. The current ratio of C.T generally high .voltage ampere capacity is generally lower compare PT protective relays are connected in the secondary circuit of C.T

C.T.is used for two major functions: Metering which means current measurement Protection such as over current protection, overload earth fault protection ,bus bar protection, bus differential protection C.T. is designed in such a way so that its core material would give high accuracy with low saturation factor . Core material is made up of CRGO silicon steel.

POTENTIAL DRANSFORNER (P.T)

They are used to transform the voltage to lower value for the purpose of measurement , protection and control. The volt-ampere capacity of P.T is low but voltage ratios is high

CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER


Steps down higher voltage to a lower value that can be measured using the measuring instrument Connected between phase and ground in parallel to the circuit. It blocks power frequency of 50 Hz &allows flow of carrier frequency for communication.

The device has 4 terminals High voltage terminal Ground terminal 2 secondary terminals which connect to instrumentation or protective relay CVT secondary voltage,v = k*V*C1/(C1+C2)

V= primary voltage k= secondary transformation ratio

CIRCUIT BREAKER
A circuit breaker is a switching and current interpreting device.

Operating mechanism A circuit breaker essentially consists of fixed and moving contacts which remain closed under the normal operating conditions During fault, the trip coils of the circuit breaker get energized and the moving contacts are pulled apart by some mechanism, thus opening the circuit. An arc is struck between them. The current is thus able to continue until the discharge ceases. The production of the arc not only delays the current interruption process but it also generates enormous heat which may cause damage to the system or to the circuit breaker itself. Therefore, the main problem in the circuit breaker is to extinguish the arc within the shortest possible time so that heat generated by it may not reach a dangerous Types: SF6 CB Air Blast CB Vacuum CB Oil CB

SF6 CB

Advantages of SF6 CB
Inert gas with high dielectric strength. Colorless and odorless. Non-toxic and non- inflammable. It has low maintenance cost, light foundation requirements and minimum auxiliary equipments. Gas pressure in the chamber is at 7.5 bar There are no carbon deposits so that tracking and insulation problems are eliminated. The decomposition products of arcing are not explosive hence no chance of fire.

LIGHTNING ARRESTOR
The equipment connect between the conductor and the ground for the discharge of the excessive voltage to earth

RELAYS
An automatic device , which closes its contact when the acquitting quantity reach a predetermined magnitude or phase. They are operated through D.C source.

ISOLATOR
A switching device, which can be operated and closed only under zero amperes current. It provides isolation of circuit for the purpose of maintains.

Isolator

EARTHING DEVICE

It is a switch which connects conductor to earth so as to discharge the charges on the on the conductor to earth.

TRANSFORMER
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled electrical conductors. A changing current the first circuit (the primary) creates a changing magnetic field; in turn, this magnetic field induces a changing voltage in the second circuit (the secondary). By adding a load to the secondary circuit, one can make current flow in the transformer, thus transferring energy from one circuit to the other. The secondary induced voltage VS, of an ideal transformer, is scaled from the primary VP by a factor equal to the ratio of the number of turns of wire in their respective windings: By appropriate selection of the numbers of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up by making NS more than NP or stepped down, by making it less. Transformers are some of the most efficient electrical machines with some large units able to transfer 99.75% of their input power to their output. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, though a variety of designs exist to perform specialized roles throughout home and industry.

SST Applications
A key application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. Most wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterwards,

transformers enable economic transmission of power over long distances. Consequently, transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand. All but a fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. Transformers are used extensively in consumer electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. In these kind of applications the transformer may also act as a key safety component that electrically isolates the end user from direct contact with the potentially lethal supply voltage. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record player cartridges to the input impedance of amplifiers. Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires. Transformers are also used when it is necessary to couple a differential-mode signal to a ground-referenced signal, and for isolation between external cables and internal circuits.

TRANSFORMERS TYPES
1). RENERATOR TRANSFORMER Rating : 250 MVA Voltage Ratio : 15.75 KV/ 220 KV Cooling : oil forced air forced 2).UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER Rating : 16 MVA Voltage Ratio : 15.75 KV/ 6.6 KV Cooling : oil forced air forced

3). DISTIRIBUTION TRANSFORMER Rating : 1250 MVA Voltage Ratio : 6.6 KV/ 415 KV Cooling : air natural

4). STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER

Rating : 31.5 MVA Voltage Ratio : 220 KV/ 6.6 KV

Cooling

: oil natural air forced

5). AUTO TRANSFORMER Rating : 250 MVA Voltage Ratio : 15.75 KV/ 220 KV

--------: THE END :-