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Training evaluation refers to activities aimed at finding out the effectiveness of training programmes after they are conducted,

against the objectives for which such programmes were organized.

Kirkpatricks learning and training evaluation theory: Kirkpatrick's four levels are designed as a sequence of ways to evaluate training programs. Donald L Kirkpatrick (1959). According to Kirkpatrick behaviour change brought about by the training function can be divided into: 1. Change of skill: Change of skill may be measured by a change in production/output 2. Change of Knowledge: Testing the conceptual clarity on the subject matter can assess change of knowledge. Here trainer deals with concepts or principle 3. Change of Attitude: Attitude change is the most difficult of behavioural change. There are three ways to evaluate attitudinal changes in an individual I) By the subjective evaluation of others about the person; II) By the individual verbalization of his or her family III) By the individuals total productivity The four levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model are as follows: 1.Reaction - what participants thought and felt about the training (satisfaction; "smile sheets") 2. Learning - the resulting increase in knowledge and/or skills, and change in attitudes. This evaluation occurs during the training in the form of either a knowledge demonstration or test. 3. Behaviour - transfer of knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes from classroom to the job (change in job behavior due to training program). This evaluation occurs 36 months post training while the trainee is performing the job. Evaluation usually occurs through observation. 4. Results - the final results that occurred because of attendance and participation in a training program (can be monetary, performance-based, etc.)

The CIRO Model of Evaluation: Warr, Bird and Rackhams four-stage CIRO (context, input, reaction, and output) model, developed in 1970 remains one of the most widely used training evaluation models. The CIRO Framework for the Evaluation of Training 1. Context Evaluation: Obtaining and using information about the current operational context in order to determine training needs and objectives. 2. Input Evaluation: Obtaining and using information about possible training resources in order to choose between alternative inputs to training. 3. Reaction Evaluation: Obtaining and using information about trainees expressed current or subsequent reactions in order to improve training. 4. Outcome Evaluation: Obtaining and using information about the outcomes of training in order to improve subsequent training. Three levels of outcome evaluation are in terms of immediate, intermediate and ultimate outcomes.

The CIPP Model of Evaluation: Published in 1983, the James Galvin model for evaluation is better known by its acronym, CIPP, which stands for the four steps in the process: context, input, process and product evaluation. This model was developed for evaluating the effectiveness of educational methods, but has since found training applications outside the classroom.