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THE BHAGAVAD-GITA

With Samskrit
Text, free translation into English,

a word-for-word translation, and an Introduction on

Samskrit Grammar.

BY

ANNIE BESANT
AND

BHAGAVAN

DAS.

THEOSOPHICAL PUBLISHING SOCIETY

LONDON AND BENARES

FEINTED BY FREEMAN

&

Co. LTD.,

AT THE TARA PRINTING WORKS, BENARES.

All Rights Reserved.

Registered under Act

XXV

of 1867.

CONTENTS.
PAO*.
INTRODUCTORY NOTB ON SAMSKRIT GRAMMAR .........
Qita
i

xviii

Mdhatmyam.
described in the

The greatness Varaha-Purana

of
...

the Gita as
...

xxi

Gita-Karadi-Nyasah.
the Gita.
'

The Tantra way


...

of 'practising'
...
...

xxvii

Gita-Dhyanam.

The Thought-Form

of
...

the

Gita
...

for purposes of meditation

xxxi

CHAP:

I.

Arjuna Vishada-Yoga.

Arjuna inspects
1

the rival forces

He

describes the evil consequent


...
...

on the battles

of kinsfolk

22

CHAP

II.

Sankhya- Yoga.

Arjuna refuses to

fight

the

Shrl Krishna counsels Arjuna not to grieve over mere destruction of transient bodies, because
or even because

the inner Self can never be slain


the bodies must die in any case

and so

to per-

form the duty

of the Kahattriya

with untroubled

mind
ness
in

thereby gaining fame in this and happithe


other
world,
incidentally
its

though

duty should be performed for

own sake and

it is performed Arjuna asks for a more Shri Krishna particular description of such complies, laying stress on the attainment of wis-

not for any ulterior reward, as


of steady

by sages

mind

dom and

the absence of desire.

...

...

2356

x*

PAGB.

CHAP:

III.

Karma-Yoga.

Arjuna asks how these

are compatible
of slaughter

with such terrible action as that

Shri Krishna's preliminary reconci-

"perform the action that is duty, a cursory allusion but without attachment"
liation of the two:

to

the system of the


to the

world-wheel,

which gives

rise

various

Uharmas, duties
in

enquires

why men

fail

duty

Shri
...

Arjuna Krishna
...

replies, cursorily as yet.

57

76

CHAP

IV.

Jnana-Vibhaga- Yoga
and
in

Shi i Krishna
of
this

again lays stress on the necessity


right-thought, right- reason,
tion

Wisdom,
connec-

describes

the

many forms
(

of

Yoga

He

adverts to His
to

own
of

previous incarnations, in reply

a question

Arjuna's

and so incidentally
before, to world-

strengthens the allusion,

made

cycles, without an understanding

of
...

which true
...

enlightenment

is

not possible

).

77

95

CHAP

V.

Karma- Sannyasa-Yoga.
'

Arjuna repeats

his question as to the inconsistency between 'renunciation


directly,

and action
'

'

Shri Krishna answers (in-

by describing the happy condition of those who renounce the fruits of action but continue
to perform
it

as duty,

knowing that

all

proceeds
...

from the Supreme Self. CHAP : VI. Adhyatma-Yoga.

96109

Shri Krishna conti-

nues his description of the Yogi

Arjuna asks
Shri Krishna

how

the condition

may be

attained

PAGE.
answers

"by dispassion and perseverent practice." Arjuna asks: "what are the consequences of
:

failure in
birth,

Yoga?"

Shri Krishna replies

"a better
to the

greater opportunity and devotion


Self,

Supreme

and final attainment of Moksha."


Shri Krishna describes

110

130

CHAP

VII.

Jnana- Yoga.
of

the

natures

wisdom

and

unwisdom

the

Glories of the Self (the knowledge of which constitutes the

wisdom whereby

the possessor thereof


...
...

performs his duty unflinchingly).

131

143

CHAP: VIII. Akshara-Brahma- Yoga.


matter of the
previous
is

(The subject
is

chapter

continued.)

Arjuna asks what

the nature of

Brahman,

of

Adhyatma,
Krishna

Adhibhuta,
these

and and

Adhidaiva

Shri

describes

also incidentally

mentions how Brahman

may

be reached by the
...

living as well as the departing Jiva.

144

157

CHAP: IX.

Shri Raja- Vidya-Raja-Guhya- Yoga. Krishna continues his statement of " the Royal Secret, the final wisdom," the possession of which
of

confers Immortality, viz. the recognition

and

devotion

to the

Supreme

Self

also

describes

the results

of devotion to .minor personal

Gods
158
173

(Ishvaraa of systems &c.)

CHAP: X.

Vtbhuti- Yoga.

The

Glories of the Su...

... preme Self CHAP: XI. Vishvarupa-darshana-Yoga.

...

174191

Shri Krishna
all

compresses into one illuminating vision

the

PAGE.
results

of

lengthened

explanations,

and makes
his

Arjuna
are

see directly

that
life

he and

all

fellow -

beings are part of the

of Ishvara

that they

what they are by His


Supreme
that
Self,
it is

gift (in the

personal as-

pect of the

manifesting as an Indivitheir duty to endeavour,

dual Ishvara)
feebly as they

may, to repay this great debt by obeying His will, and that His will, in the present
is

instance

the

destruction of Kshattriyas.

...

192

224

CHAP: XII.

Bhakti-Yoga. Arjuna, perceiving the difference between the Unmanifested Eternal and
is

the manifested Ishvara, incidentally asks which the better method, fixing the the other
'

mind on the one or on


is

Shri Krishna answers: "the former

the

more
to

difficult,

pass

to

and by that method the stage and state


leaves

too, Jivas

have

of (a personal)

Ishvara.
to

"

(He thereby

stimulates deeper enquiry,


the discovery that the two

which

He

systems are really not distinct, that the one system


is

to fix the

mind on

the Eternal, and, in subordifact,

nation to that
will of the

supreme

to

work

by the
...

Ishvara to

whom we

belong.

225

233

CHAP: XQI.

Kshetra-Kshetrajna-vibhaga-Yoga.
the
difference

Shri Krishna expounds

between

Purusha and Prakriti as part of the supreme science, the wisdom which raises the Jiva above
doubt and makes him steady
should
be.
in action jas

Arjuna
..

284248

PAGE.

CHAP

XIV.

Gunotraya-vibhaga-Yoga.
preceding chapter
is

The sub249

ject of the

continued and
...

the three ganas of Prakriti are dealt with.

260

CHAP

XV.

Purushottama- Toga.
of the

Shrj Krighna

carries

on the subject
specially

13th discourse, and

deals
of

with the Purnsha, in the aspect


Self

the

Abstract

as well as the aspect of a


...
...

manifested Ishvara

...

261270

CHAP

Daivasura-Sampad-vibhaga- Yoga. Shri Kf ishna goes on to describe, as another essen:

XVI.

tial

partofthe highest science, and having, further,


issue before

an immediate bearing on the


the dual nature of
all

Arjuna,

the

creatures

of Ishvara,

divine and demoniac, good and evil

He

tells

how

the former class, to which Arjuna belongs, necessarily


.

perform their duty, in accordance with the Shastras (and battle against the latter to prevent them from harming the innocent). ... 271

28l

CHAP: XVII. Shraddha-traya-vibhaga-Yoga.


asks Shii Krishna to describe what
of all true action
is

Arjuna
also

the essence

and what

is

not,

what
the

characterises all untrue actiou, according

as

predominant motive-nature ... ... or tamasa.

is

Sattvika, Rajasa,
...
...

282

294

CHAP

XVII I.
of

8annyasa-Yoga.

Shi i Krishna sums

the combiup, finally, the whole teaching regarding

nation

renunciation
is

of

fruit

of action

with

performance, which

the only

means

of secur-

PAGE.
ultimate
;

ing

happiness

Arjuna's

doubts

are

solved

he

is

convinced and

satisfied,

and ex-

to presses his readiness

do
...

his

duty of battling with

the unrighteous.

295-328
329

APPENDIX.

335

~ 333 ~348

INTRODUCTION.
fjlijt

HIS

edition of the

Bhagavad-Gitd has been prepared for

pl[A
gjj^g

the use of those who, while studying this Hindu scripture mainly for the sake of its priceless teachings, wish,

being little acquainted with Samskrit, to utilise the text, thus gaining a fuller insight into the meaning than can be gained through a translation, and incidentally acquiring a better brief note on the grammar knowledge of that language also.

of

Samskrit, putting before the reader a few of the most


thereof,
is

salient features

therefore added

here, as

likely to

be

help by giving a bird's eye view of the idea of how one part is connected with subject and thus some another. The details must of course be looked up in any large
of use.

It will

grammar,
/.

if

needed.
:

Alphabet

A complete
uses a

dreds, perhaps thousands, of single sounds.

alphabet would comprise hunOut of these each

human
and

race or sub-race

comparatively small number,

selected in accordance with the constitution of its vocal organs

aspects of its physical and superphysical being. a correspondence between all the parts of an organism; and the means and instruments of manifestation possessed by
of other
is

There

in

a race or nation, as by an individual, are, generally speaking, correspondence with the 'ruling passion,' the 'main idea,' which that race or nation embodies and has to express. These
'ideas,' 'passions,' 'emotions,' 'glories,' 'aspects,' 'modifications,'

of the Universal Self, Spirit,

or Consciousness, are

infinite

the world-process which endeavours to express them is infinite. One main idea ( others being subordinate ) is expressed by one
individual,

or one race,
'comfort',

in any one time


'peace,'

and space,

'beauty',

'strength,'

'war',

'science,'

'law',

'duty'

'right,' 'piety,'

'devotion,'

&c. &c.

The various members

of a

race,

which is the embodiment and exponent of any one such main idea, have to use means of communication with each other to
intensify that exposition, to

make

their lives fuller

and deeper.
is

This means,

during the present cycle of evolution,

sound-

language. In other cycles it may be sight-language, or touchlanguage, or smell-language, &c. &c. This sound-language is

made up

of

single

sounds,

which,

as

said

before,

are in

accordance with the 'body,' the

physical constitution, of the

race, which, again, is in accordance with its 'spirit,' its


idea.

ruling

A race

embodying sweetness and gentleness would unand sweet sounds for


its

consciously

select the soft

language;
the harsher

another manifesting martial strength and

spirit,

and more

definite ones.

The Samskrit language, embodying Dharma,


order, the

law

and

instrument of a civilisation whose characteristics are systematisation, rounded comprehensiveness and completeness, an ordered arrangement of life from beginning to end,

and

in all

departments,

is

therefore itself

systematic.

It uses

fourteen vowels and thirty-five consonants, a total of seven sevens.

Some put the


:

nasal and the aspirate sounds


the vowels,

anitsvdra
as sixteen

visarga

amongst

and

so count

them

and and

the consonants thirty-three.

They

are arranged systematically,

according to the regions of the vocal apparatus whence they proceed, as gutturals, linguce-radicals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals,

labials,

and certain combinations of these

beginning from the

As to why we have here two throat and proceeding outwards. septenaries of vowels and five septenaries of consonants is a question which could possibly be answered by one who had sufficient knowledge of world-evolution to be able to say

why

the present

human

race

has two hands and two feet and


of

five

senses of

knowledge and five organs hand and five toes on each


tantalise us.

action,

and

five

fingers on each

foot,

&c.
see

The question can only


that
if

But we can vaguely

these sounds of

the

alphabet were multiplied systematically and permuted and combined, we should obtain a scheme which would cover all the languages of the earth, and bring into line all the

Samskrit

verv various-seeming
alphabets
of these.
?jf,

sounds which
i.,

constitute the

several

F.
is

5r we
.

find that
viz,
ij(,

taking the linguce-radicals, qy, %T, ^ the aspirate of eft, that the guttural of

this

appropriated by the Persian race and language and has disappeared from Samskrit; that T, is only a deepening of 37; and that ^ is the* aspirate of T; that the
?ci,

kh, has been

guttural of ZRI.

e.,

q,

and

of

T,

'.

e.,

h,

again, huve disappe-

ared from Samskrit and been appropriated by the Arabic race

and language; that


present in

fF,

is

the nasal ofT, as


gj,
??r,

now pronounced, and

that the nasals of the other letters,

^
'

&c., &c., are

not

Samskrit, but

may

possibly be present in some of


as
'

the so-called
various kinds.

savage languages,

snorts

and 'grunts'

of

This process of elimination, ot the disappearance of sounds

and letters, may be witnessed as being in progress even to-day. In Samskrit the vowels ^j. ^, r, 5C- have practically disappeared from
use
;

their outer written

form

is

preserved,

but for

all

practical

purposes of pronunciation they have

merged

into

and

5T.

iv

The

distinction between sj

and

is

on the wane

the probability,

judging by the rules of pronunciation given by Pinini, is that q in another form of the Persian kh mentioned above, as the
discarded

SR
1

is

that of the

Arabic
f.

and

the

similarly

abandoned^q
The
all of

of the Persian

ph or

nasal letters again g^, sy, or, *J, have a tendency to run, them, into the single ^, in the mouths of those who are not
careful.

particularly

So

in

English,

sounds

existed

when such words

as 'daughter' (Persian dukhtar,

which originally Samskrit

duhita),

and

'night'

Samskrit nakta

&c. were brought over,

have

now

disappeared except perhaps

in

some

village dialect?,

though the spelling continues as before.

The reason

of this

may

be suggested thus. According to the variety of the aspects of consciousness embodied in a people will be the variety of sounds, or letters employed by them; as the one variety dimini-

shes or expands so will the other if the word laugh were pronounced as lawgh as it probably was in the beginning, and as it is still by 'uneducated' people, it would imply a greater and a
:

somewhat

coarser heartiness

pronounced as laf

it indicates

toning down of the uncontrolled animal spirit, into a much more mild and refined condition of feeling. In America, and in

some English

circles, it is

becoming further shortened into


:

Ian'.

The Samskrit Alphabet


SIMPLE.

COMPOUND.
Short
1

Short

Long
^TT

Long.
q-= (^fo

Vowels:

ST

=(

8? or 3CT

-f

f orf)

Cosonants 37

^
Classified in various

ways with
STOsT,

reference to ??nT and


' '

the

place

in the vocal
special kind

apparatus
of
'

IT

af

and the

effort

'

required to pronounce

it.

There are only a few verses now current, as to the psychophysics of sound and language, in Panini's Shikshd,

and

these are

not very intelligible in

the absence of
:

full

explanations.

They

may
the

be summarised thus
(

Buddhi

Reason
;

Self cognising facts by means of ) inspires the Manas ( intelligence ) with

The

the desire to speak


of the

the

Manas
in

strikes the

Ttdydgni

the

fire

body

and

it

in turn sets in

motion the mdruta, the wind


chest
the

or

breath
;

that

moving
again,

the
to

generates the
(

Mandra

sound
of

that,
)

rising

palate

or the

the head

and rebounding thence passes


classified

to the

crown mouth and

produces articulate sounds,


place, effort, &c., &c.
II.

according to tone, time,

Sandhi

or Coalescence of sounds or letters

In connection Samskrit
one word

with these

letter

sounds,

arises the first difficulty of


of sounds.

Grammar, Sandhi, the coalescence


is

When

natural tendency

followed by another, in quick succession of pronunciation, the is for the tail of the first and the head of the
:

second to get mixed up

This mixture sometimes takes a shape

which, while no doubt always retaining traces of the compo-

nents,

is

not always

analy sable into

these

beginner.
offers

The coalescence takes

place to

in all

components by the languages, and


in

one

of the chief difficulties

the foreigner; but

no attempt is made to express in writing the spoken sound. Thus the Frenchman " In Samskrit le petit. says "le'pti," but he always writes
other languages, for

the most part,

'

writing the spoken sound


this subject,

is

imitated.

The

detailed rules on

which two sounds mixing make up which third

sound, are many.


if

The

generalised rule

may be

stated to be that

student will pronounce the two letters correctly and quickly in succession, the resultant sound, compelled by his own
the
vocal apparatus, will also be in accordance with the
cal rule on the subject.
Briefly,

grammati-

the grammatical rule is only a description of the physiological fact. This appears not only in the case of actual coalescence, but in the influence of one sound
it

on another separated from

by one or more intervening ones.

Thus, according to the ordinary rule the word tfJT declined into its instrumental form, should be *I%T, but after pronouncing the cerebral r in its exact Samskrit shade, the vocal apparatus
of the Indian finds
it diflicult
f

nounce the dental-nasal n


bial nasal

m intervenes
:

it

to adjust iteelf rapidly to proproperly, even when another laturns more readily to the allied

and nearer cerebral-nasal

n,

% and

the result

is

q^oF.

Examples
(a.)

Conjunction of similar rowels

whether both short


is

or both long, or one short and one long, the resultant

the

long vowel. ^%?T ^TZP =?i?Rr*f:


( vi. ( "i. ( iv.

18.

),

5.

), =ET

3rrc

= =ErHTC

27.

^TcH and so with

vii

(xv. 8.),

g
)

3??rar:=?ipra:
:

(x. 4.) etc,

(b) Conjunction of dissimilar vowels

ST or

SH

followed by f
aft, SJijfqr

or

f gives
5

IT,

q^ ^ = ^%^
( vi.

(
;

ii.

41,
q-

by 3 or
q-

g>

gives

3^rT: 38.)

= 5rer%^:
;

37.

by

or

gives ^,
;

<J^

= ^t

(ii.

by SR gives 3T^,t?T 3jffq:=^f^: (ii. 13.) by ^r or gives afr; f followed by any dissimilar vowel gives 2
l ( ( c )
ii.

^Jr

57. ); so
five
5

gives
;

3r

and

%
( (

Visarga

changes in
:

ways
is

it

disappears,

i.

1. )

ifc

dropped before a vowel


^^:

it

and no further change occurs, ^fpr changes into 5T, ^ and ^r, f
it

IT =^R
:

iiv
-

37.
8.

);

^rt = ^^rt
*ff

),

( xvii. 7. )

changes into

afr,

3:

=%

^j

( vi.

30.

),

3T5f

STfT = ar^Tfq' (iv. 6.) these cases being generally marked with s. as 9: ^r*pr = ^tS^?T ( iv 9. ) ] it is changed into ^ qrf^: H?; ,

^^=^[^9^51
(d) Consonants'.

xiv. 3. )

The
in a

details of

the rules causing

these changes must be sought

grammar.
of

The

final

consonant

one word is modified

by the

first

consonant

of the

succeeding one.

These changes

are very

numerous and

intricate,

and

will

only gradually be-

come

familiar; the following cases

show the general principle


follows

above mentioned

that

the

writing

the

sound

m^

?T^r = Z^fr^T

(vii. 2.),

Zl^^rlf%^:mH?l=2I?Tff^mTl

(x. 41.),

=q-

= ^^(.x.

39.

III.

Compounds.

When

all

cases of

simple sandhi have

been eliminated, the student is faced with another difficulty ; words are compounded together, and only the last word of the compound is complete ; the remaining word or words have
their endings clipped
off,

and these have

to

be supplied before

viii

the

compound

becomes

intelligible.

Such

compounds

are

called snrra".

They

are of six chief kinds.


;

f^

compounds
T

tfT: =ETf si:

^tr^nff^T (Hi.
1

34. )j

%5^T:

^ = TW^R^i'TrS^r
^9Rre
f*r

i-

13. )
( xi.

compounds
:

= 3^T

45. )

( xi. 14. )

Compounds;
Compounds
;

qw

STRHT-TOTW

xv-17

Compounds
fiwr

%^:

?I^
;

rT?l

= jBrgr^f^?lV
!

( vi.
I

28.
I

Compounds

^HeHH: R^zj =
it will
;

?P^rciT

To

solve these

compounds
is

be

noticed that a knowthe case-ending

ledge of case-endings

necessaiy

it is

which

is

struck out in a compound, and the meaning of the compound depends on this elimisated case-ending. Hence the next step of the learner is to familiarise himself with the case-endings,
of

which every noun has twenty-one

cases in

3 numbers,

singular, dual

and

plural.

]V. Words.

(a) Declension of nouns.


of things

Words

are

mainly

of

two
ness.

kinds,

names

and names

of

actions, corresponding

respectively to the cognition and action aspects of conscious-

as desire binds cognition

Mediating between the two, binding them together, and action, is the third kind of word,

the preposition ; it forms a separate word in the modern languages, for various evolutionary reasons ; but in the Samskrit,
it is

hidden

in

and and

is a

part of the

noun

itself,
is

in the shape of
in

the declensional termination, even a> desire


son. the actor,
is

hidden

theper-

not something separate from him.

Other

ix

parts of speech are

off-shoots

from these three principal ones.


( i
")

Nouns including pronouns

are

simple,
i.

subdivided
e.

by

gender into 3 classes, or Cii) derivative, from verb-roots. Of course one theory,
right one,
is

to say, derived

and probably the

names or nouns are ultimately connected with and founded on some characteristic action of the object
that
all

but without going into.the detail


practical

of the theory,

it is

enough

for

now
face,

stands, some of

purposes to recognise that as the Samskrit language its nouns may be regarded as, on their

of

relation that exists

simple and some as derivative. To denote the kind between one noun and another, and
give some indication
is

also to

between them,
terminations.

of the kind of action passing the purpose of prepositional, or declensional,

As

pre-positions, distinguishing

and separating

the nouns concerned, showing the position or situation or case in which they are, whether nominative, or

marks

of the kinds of

accusative, or instrumental, &c.,

with reference to

each other,
indicat-

these declensional terminations are called

vibTtaktis', as

ing that some action passes between them,


kdral'as.

they are called

Examples
1st.

of declensions
[v. i.]
[i.

^TTSP
^T
5%or

3>fr

[v. 1]
[xi. 6]

qrenr*
STHfiHi
VI-'

[v. 4]
[xi. [xi.

2nd.
3rd.

21]
3]

srfc^k
srtrani

32]

[i-

53]

5th.

^rfffl

[ii-

30]
14]

Tftvq:

[xviii.

66]
3]

6th.
7th.

<*r***

[v.
[i.

n3r

21]

3%: STOP

[iii.
[i.

34]
21]

$iw*
?pt<*

[i,

[iii-

28]

Atma, crude form Atman, is a typical form, and occurs very frequently in the Gttd in the singular number.
1st.
3rr?*rr
-4|
|

[ v.

21

2nd. O J
ora.

cHT*T?[

[ vi.
r

5 ]
e i & j

^rr^r^r

vi.
|

4th.

5th. 6th.
7th.

irr^:
3Tfc*TPT

[ vi.

[vi.

21]
in those
of

Neuter
the
first

nouns in their case-endings, except

and second

cases, generally follow the masculine.

Thus
1st.

aw
eJ>M

crude form
(xviii. 8)
(
iii.

3t*fe,

has

SRnT F

^FTfTT

( ix. ( vi.

2nd.

8)

30

The feminine

in
t

f may be taken as an example of the

feminine declensions
1st.

if^

( xviii.
( iii.

78)

2nd.
3rd.

$T<g
f^-STT
Jrfr or JTrTO
(

)
)

ii-

39

4th.

5th.
6th.
7th.

f^r:

iii.

43

or

f %&i:

^r
'

( ii,

49
*c.

(6)

Adjectives
'

and adverbs

tive of the

qualities

of nouns, are declined in

Adjectives, words indicathe same way

as the latter,
in "

and when not compounded with these are always


"

apposition

with them.

xi

]
'

Adverbs
adverbs

indeclinables include also


;

Indeclinable in Samsferit. These some words, however, which are not thus conjunctions and interjections are included here.

are mostly

'

Examples ^, 3TR
are of frequent occurrence.

T,

&c., &c.,
(c)

Gender.
:

The marks
to the
in

of

gender are very perplexed in


only, as in

Samskrit

They belong
verb,
as

noun

most languages
French.

and not the

Hindi,

Arabic or

As

general rule, governing frequent cases, when the male base ends
in a short
aqrr
;

3T,

the corresponding female base ends in the long


in ^j.
(

and the neuter


^PTC:

Singular of 3T7*R[.
( i".

xvi-14
(

)
).

8T7JT

STTt

iv- 4
list

(d)

Verbs. After nouns, verbs.

The
is

of roots given

by

Panini numbers 2343; and

eacb

capable of undergoing

hundreds of

inflectional or conjugational terminations, on account of moods and tenses, and causative, desiderative and

repetitive forms of it, and all these again can be conjugated in the active or the passive form, and so on. But by the same processes of selection and elimination that have governed the number of the letters, the verb-roots in actual use in current Samskrit

are not

many more than 500 and

of these a very limited

number

of forms is used.

The tenses and moods are taken together and all called laMras ; and there are ten of such, viz., six tenses and four moods. The tenses are, 1 present; 3 past; and 2 future; and the moods are Imperative, Potential, Benedictive and
ribhaJctts or

xii

Conditional.

In
.,

common and
the

unclassical Samskrit, one

form

of the past, viz

first preterite, is largely used,

the other

two

being very infrequent ; so the first future is seldom met with even Of the moods, the benedictive mood is in cla ssical Samskrit.

very rarely used.


If the whole list of the 2343 roots were; carefully examined, very many more roots would be found to be common between the several Aryan languages than are now noted. But, as said

before in connection with the alphabet, the genius of each later janguage has selected out of the roots what were most suited to
it,

and the older

race, the root-race, ihas

correspondingly dropped

them
of

in its later career.

It is as if

there had been a partition

patrimony between heirs so that what one took the others

could not retain.

These verbs are divided into ten classes


son
is

the external rea-

that the verbs of each class resemble each other

more than

those of the other classes, in the general appearance of their

But this again requires a deeper why; conjugational formp. and that is not traceable. If it could be said that there were ten

main kinds of human


the answer wanted.

action,

we should have approximated


of conjugation, the
self
'.

to

There are two main forms


another
''

q"^-tff "for

and the 3TR JR-7? " for

The

former, generally

speaking, belongs to the active voice, wherein one person does something to another and the latter to the passive voice, where;

to one self '. But while in the passive voice form of any verb only the 3flcH%T? form is used, in the active voice the TWT7? f rm is used only generally, and

in something is

done

'

^sometimes the 3TR*Rf? form

is

used, and in

some cases both.

xiii

The following forms occur frequently


7*&<Tf
Present Tense. 3rA p.

in

the Gttd.

SINGULAR.
(
i.

PLURAL.
(ii.6)

TO^fa
^rfrer

29

*ft?j??f

2nd

p.

(ii.

25)

1st p.

slam*
STsRfrqr

(i.
(
i-

30) fa:
2)

(ii.6)

First Preterite. 3rd

p.

2nd

p.

sr^^frsp
srrgr

(ii-

H)
3)
3)
rr

1st p.

(. 12)
(
i.

Second Preterite. 3rd


Tfetrdl Preterite.

p.

^r^T

2nd

p. 3?iTJT:

(ii.

(in conjunction with

drops

sr,

and acquires
)

imperative meaning
First Future.

3rd

p. *rfror p.
T?tTrr%

(
(

" 20
ii.

)
)

2nd
Second Future.

52
53 33 4
47
3
)

3d. p. tqroinT

( ii.

)
)
)

2nd

p.

37Rn%
8^3
q^q

( ii.
ii-

WWT
yn3Hg
>rnrarr

5R?T(q5^p?f (

i.

34

( iii.

11)

1st p. Jrreafre3lft(

>Tf^rT:

(
(

ii.

12

)
)

Imperative Mood.Srd

p.

( (
(

ii.

H
11
i.

2nd

p.

i.

( Hi.

)
)

Potential Mood. 3rd p. ^ri{


1st p. ^rrcgsir*
(

i.

36

^5:
5T^r

46
6

( ii-

)
')

The dual number

is

omitted, as not occurring in

the Gitd

Present Tense.

3rd p.

5TT^
*fr*T*T

i.

29

S35RT

C iii-

29

2nd

p.

(ii.
(
i.

11)

1st p.

efff%

32

First Preterite.

3rd

p. p.

^<^H:

i.

1 )

Second Future.

3rd

i&%
*r$*%
(ii.

ii.

35

2nd

p.

1st p.

%^z[

(ii.
ii.

37) 9)
14)
)
)

Imperative Mood.
Potential Mood.

2nd
3rd

p. p.

ram$TCf(
5PTT5TW (

ii.

54
5

1st p.

g^sfre

( ii.

the correct use


preterite

In the technical woi-ks on grammar, rules are given of all the ten moods and tenses thus the
;

for
first

should be nsed
;

current day

the 2nd

personal knowledge ; future should be used

speaker's and the 3rd in any case; and so the 1st

when the event is older when it occurred outside the


the event
is

than the

when
also

expected very shortly.


only in
classical

But

these rules,

as said before,
is

are observed

composition.
represent
possible
'

There

some reason
real

to think that they

do not
It
is

accurately
that
'

the

original

distinctions.
to the

the
'

three

pasts
'

corresponded

English

imperfect

and pluperfect

&c.

The addition
of

of prefixes entirely changes the

meaning

the

verb-root,

as

stated in

the classical

shloka on the

subject.

"

The prefex

violently drags
thus, with the
-STT^TC

away elsewhere the meaning


root 5, to take away,

of the verb-root

common

S^n: means a blow,


^ft^pc clearing

food, ?ferc destruction f%frc, play,

and
of

away

".

A careful analysis

shows that the idea

taking away

is

present in some shape or other throughout

all these.

Each verb-root
of these

is

form, a desiderative form and a frequentative form

capable of being modified into a causative and each ;


of

forms

is

capable

independent conjugation in

all

moods and

tenses.
;

Causative
of
?,

The

causative verb

is

formed by the addition


is
;

which
ii.

becomes
)

when

the
kill,

termination

added,

vjiH^fiii (
(iii.

21

he causes to

from

to kill

ftqrsram
f^ff^;

1) thou causest (me)


(iii-

to
to

engage,
do,

from

*r to join;

3iPJ%
qq;

5)
)

he

is

caused

from

to

do

( iii.

29

he
'

STfEff^?! down.

let

may cause to be unsettled, from ^w to move him ) cause to sink down, from ^T^?; to be cast
The
desiderative verb
first

Desiderative;
of the agent
(
:

expresses the wish

^r is

added, and the


to
fight,

letter is

reduplicated
fight;

i.

i)
) (

(ii.
)

( iii.

25

from H\^ to live; sjNj^jSfr: ( of the desiring to do, from f to do


6
to live,
;

wishing we ) wish

from

5^

to

wishing to ascend, from ^Jl^tomount. (e ) Derivative words. Derivative words of various kinds,
e,

a.

some indicating moods not covered by the regular conju-

gations, are formed


(

by means

of affixes.
( xii.

?^S ) ^T ^ = (
1

wis h ) to obtain

).

S = ( art
(

powerless ) to do (
(
).

xii.

11

).

= having
Various
shades
so
like
iof

abandoned
ii.

V. 10

).

having been

20

participles, past,
in

present and future, and

some

tenses, which

Samskrit behave like adjectives and

nouns, are

also thus derived.

They

are

declined
:

which they exactly like the nouns with

may

be

in apposition

= seeing
being seated
(

( v.

).

xiv.

23

).

fsipTPT

5jo^ hearing ( v. 8 ). = being slain ( ii. 20


).

).

%?T^: = to be heard ( ii. 52 gjTO = to be done ( xviii. 5 ).


.= have
:

gjrfozj

= to

be done

(iii

22

).

or hast, or has

said

( iv. 1 ).

= seized

or possessed with

i.

28

).

ffrfl:

- devoted

( ix.

31

).

*TTR: attached ( v.
:

12
i.

).

= going

to fight (

23

).

Many nouns are formed by inflectional modifications other nouns


:

of

q-f^:,

the son of jqT- (

ii.

3. )

e^f*:, the son of

^\.
5

(ii. 14. )

So

*tr*T?

from

|J>TgT

ll^q: from

ffa^t which itself

is

formed from yq-^ &c.

( i. 6. ).

?($W;

W3T,

3T?ifl: &c.
ii.

meaning

'

not capable of |jf :,

or 3T?:, or ^fre: &c., (

24

).
:

good-ness
r

= un-avaricious-ness
).

^rfrFTri^fr

= very-proud

ness;

( xiv.

-possessing

( vii.

18

).

d'

( vii -

82

).

S?T.

from r%) = from which


then, thence,' ( vi.
'

place

),

( ii.

^rf:

from

rfq;,

45

).

Sf( =
:

in accordance with
3TST or

^:

'

( ii.

31
).

eight ways

( vii.

&c., &c.> &c.,

xvii

V.
are
:

Sentences.

( 1 ) ( 1 )

that in

The two main forms of the sentence the active voice, and ( 2 ) that in the passive.
:

Active

HT

3Wfa

feqfa

( iv.

14

)= Actions do not
stain me.
is

Passive

fozfo

^ QTqror

( v.

10

= He

not stained
sin.

by

In construing a shloka the first thing to do is to separate out the words, so as to give to each its complete and independent existence
;

the coalesced tails and heads

^ffvj J

are first

dissolved into their component parts ; then the

compound words

are separated, and any lacking case-endings supplied; then the words are arranged in their prose order. In Samskrit

order matters comparatively


inversion

little,

but

still

there is

more
us

permissible

in

poetry

than

in

prose.

Let

take

i.

2, 3.

Separated into independent words

The
ri^r

prose-order

inn ^ifrw ir^rTT sr^rai g

?fi

Separated into independent words

xviii

=
5

) Trfr:
55 !

gsr

ffM^S'^ = ) ^T^

S^^

<TW

f^I^^ ^HrTF

The English prose-order

of this

would run.

But

in

Samskrit prose-order

THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA

^rfq
II

Ii

qrs^
II

II

xxii

fast

JT

II

II

ll

n
?R:
ll

^1
^^t
qra-fl^eft

^ri%

3*ft
II

ll

nr

cin?r:

m^r^ ^^ q^
II

=^
II

It fft

II

II

\{
:

II

Rlrat

^^
||

TO q^
qs^

ll

qt

q^
n

\o

ftrcrnrr:

q%

*ir

qrs

xxiii

THE BHAGAVAD-G!TA.
THE GREATNESS OF THE
Hail
to

GITA.
the

Shrl

Ganesha

Hail

to

Lover

of

Radhft

Dhara (the Earth) said O Blessed One, Ruler, how may unfaltering devotion arise is constrained by prarabdha karma, O Lord
:

O
in
?

Supreme him who

(i).

Vishnu said
is

dha karma,
is

who, constrained by prarabever assiduously practising the Gfta, he


:

He

liberated, he

is

happy

in this world,

he

is

not stained

by karma.
If he study the Gita, then can no sin stain (2). him, as water stains not the lotus-leaf.
(3).
is

Where

is

the book of the


all

Gltft,

where

its

read-

ng Prayaga and the

performed, there are


rest.

holy places, there indeed

xxiv

All Devas, Rishis, Yogis and Pannagas, also (4). Gopalas and Gopis also, with Narada, Uddhava, and
their train.

(5).

Help comes
it is

swiftly

where the GJti


Gita,

is

recited.

Where
abide.

the discussion

of the
I,

teaching, of

heard, there

the recitation, the Earth, doubtless ever

(6).

dwell in the retreat of the Gita

the Glta

is

My
Glta,

best abode.
I

Having mastered the wisdom of the

protect the three worlds.

(7).

The

Gitel is

My

supreme

science,

it is

verily the

form of Brahman.

It is

the half-syllable

eternal

(the

dot on the 3*), everlasting, the ineffable essence of the


Self,
(8).

Spoken
bliss,

by

Krishna,

the

Omniscient, the
the three Vedas,

Blessed, to Arjuna with His

own mouth,

the

final

the exposition of the knowledge of the

Tattvas.
(9).

The man who

constantly repeats the eighteen


perfect

discourses with unwavering mind, he will obtain

wisdom and reach the supreme


(10).

goal.

If the

may one
(ll).

half be read.

complete recitation be impossible, then Then he doubtless obtains merit,

equal to the gift of a cow.

By

the reading of a third part, he

may

obtain

XXV
Ganga.

the

fruit

of bathing in

By

the repetition of a

sixth part, he
fice.

may

obtain the fruit

of the Soma-sacri-

He who daily reads a single discourse with (12). devotion, he, having become a Gaga, obtains Rudraloka and therein long abides.
(13).

The man who

daily

reads a quarter-shloka,

he,

Earth, remains a

man

during a manvantara.
ten,

(14).

The man who should read

seven,

five,

four, two, three, one, or half a


(15).

shloka of the Glta,

He

securely obtains

Chandraloka
in

for

ten

thousand years.
manity.

Ever engaged
death, he

Glta, passing through

the reading of the would return to hu-

(16). Having again practised the Glta, he obtains the supreme liberation. Engaged in the utterance, " " reaches the the Gita, dying path. (17).

great sinner

Attached to the hearing of the Glta, even the attains to Vaikuntha, and rejoices with

Vishnu.
(18).

He who

meditates on

the

meaning of the

Glta,

having performed actions abundantly, he should

be known as a Jlvanmukta, and at the ending of the

body reaches the supreme


(19).

goal.
in the Glta,

Having taken refuge

many

Kings,

xxvi

Janaka and the rest, praised in the world, being cleansed from sins, have gone to the supreme goal.

Having accomplished the reading of the Gita, (20). he who should not also read this description of its
greatness, his reading
(21).
is in

vain,

and

his labour

is lost.

He who

associated with this discourse on


tains the fruit, he

performs the practice of the Gita, its Greatness, he obreach the path
difficult

may
:

of obtain-

ment.
(22).

Suta said

He who

should read this eternal

Greatness of the Gita, proclaimed by me, at the end of the Gita, should obtain that fruit which has been described.
(23).

Thus

in the blessed
is

Varahapurana the great-

ness of the Gita


Note.

set forth.

or the whole, of the Gftcl,


tic.

The statements made above, as to the value of reading portions, may seem at first sight to be somewhat fantasas of verses, but rather as the mastering

They should not be construed


and the

lip-repetition,

meaning the mere reading, the and assimilation

of the spirit of the GttA,

life-repetition thereof.

The man who

has thus wrought the Gttd into his life is a Jivanmukta, and the assimilation of one shloka, of several, of a quarter of the Gftd, and so on, mark
various
fruit.

stages in

human evolution, each

of which has its

own

appropriate

xxvii

WTO

^RF
:

II

5Tcrcfrs*T

II

||

t
1

II

r:

H
II

xxviii

%KT

THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE HANDS


FOR THE
GfTA.

ETC.

3* The Blessed Veda-Vyasa is the Ri?hi of this Bkagavad-Gitb mantra. The metre is the anushtup. Shri Krishna, the Supreme Self, is its Devata. " Thou
grievest
for

those that should


"
:

not be grieved
is

for,

yet

speakest words of wisdom

such

doning
is

all

duties,
"

come unto me
I

" the Blja. alone for shelter


:

Aban"

such
sins
;

the Shakti.
"
:

will
is

liberate

thee
"
:

from
:

all

sorrow not

such
"
!

the Kilakam.

Weapons
-

cleave

him

not, nor fire burneth


all

him
"

"
;

thus

To

the two

thumbs,
drieth
hail
"
!

hail

"

Nor waters wet him, nor wind


:

him away
"

"
;

thus

To

the two index fingers,

all

Uncleavable he, incombustible he, neither to " " To the two middle be wetted nor dried away thus
;
:

fingers, all hail!" "Perpetual, all-pervasive, " "

stable,

im-

movable, ancient
all

thus

To

the two nameless (fourth)

fingers,

Behold, hundred-fold, a thousand-fold


!

hail

"

"

O
"
;

Partha,

my

thus

"
:

To

Forms,* a the two little

colours

fingers, all "


;

hail

" "
!

Various

in

kind, divine, various in

thus

"
:

To

the two palms and backs of the

xxix
is

hands,

all hail

"
!

Such

the disposition of the hands.

Now

as

to the disposition
"

of the heart and the other

organs.

Weapons

cleave him not,

nor

fire

burneth

him;" thus: "To the heart, all hail !" "Nor waters wet him, nor wind drieth him away;" thus: "To the head,
svaha
i(

"
!

Uncleavable he, incombustible


"
;

he, neither to
"

be
"
!

wetted nor dried away


the encasement, hun
"

thus:

"

To

the shikha, vashat


;" thus:

Perpetual, all-pervasive, stable,


" "
!

immovable

To

Behold,

Partha,
"
:

my
To

Forms,
the
fire-

a hundred-fold, a thousand-fold ;" thus

weapon, phat
reading
Note
.

For the propitiation of Shri Krishna the


who gave it

is

enjoined.
mantra, in the Hindu religion, has a Rishi,
;

A
is

metre, which governs the inflection of the voice.

Devatft

a super*

natural being, higher or lower as its informing power. The Blja, seed, a significant word, or series of words, which gives it a special power

a sound which harmonises with the key-note of the individual using it, and varies with the individual sometimes this word expresses the essence of the mantra, and the result of the mantra

sometimes

this

word

is

is

the flower springing from this seed

this essence of the

Gttd

is

in the

the energy of the form of the mantra, i. e. the vibration-forms set up by its sounds these in the Gftd carry the man The Kilakam, the pillar, is that which supports and makes to the Lord.
is
;

words quoted.

The Shakti

strong the mantra


imperfections.

this is the

ceasing of sorrow,

by the

freeing from

Then
relations

follow

certain

special
in the

between the centres

intended to set up directions, man's body and the corresponding

centres in the body of the Lord the universe. The thumbs, the earthsymbol, are connected with the physical plane and are utilised in conThe index fingers, the water-symbol, are control of its subtle forces.
t

XXX

nected with the astral plane, and are similarly used with astral forces. The middle fingers, the fire-symbol, the apex of the pyramid of the hand,
are similarly used with mental forces.

The fourth The

fingers, the air-symbol,

are similarly used with buddhic forces.

little

fineers, the

most

powerful in the subtle worlds, are the 4kasha-symbol, and are similarly used with atmic forces. The other organs of the body are the other

magnet of the body thumbs and heart; index fingers and middle fingers and the point of juncture of the occipital and the little the fourth fingers and the sukshma sharira parietal sutures
poles of the
; :

head

These are the positive and negative poles of the magnet we call the body ; either may be positive, either negative, according to the object aimed at, but they work together.
fingers

and the creative organ.

From

other stand-points, these dispositions

may

be

regarded

as

having on the one hand, an inhibitory, or, on the other, a stimulative effect on the physical or subtler function of the organs concerned, according to the purpose in view in the subsequent meditation or
practice.

superstitious

To the western world these correspondences may seem fantastic and to the eastern world, in which the faint tradition of the
;

Great Science lingers, they sound as echoes

of a mightier

age,

when

Gods and

Men walked

familiarly together in the Hidden

Ways.

xxxi

\\

n
;

n \

\\

11

fRg^nr
^rr%

^OTTPT

II

II

s^qfSfad

fan ffqr^^:

^
u
U

\\

II

^-

xxxii

II

<

II

SWTT:

.11

THE MEDITATION ON

GiTA.

3% Taught by the Blessed N^rSyana


Arjuna
;

Himself to
the

compiled by Vyasa, the ancient Muni, in


I

midst of the Mahdbhdrata;

meditate on thee,

Mother,

nectar of

Bhagavad-Gita, the blessed, the pourer- forth of the Hail to thee, Advaita, destroyer of rebirth.

Vyasa, large-minded one, with eyes like the petals of the opened lotus by whom the lamp of knowledge, filled with the oil of the Mahdbhdrata, has been lighted. To the Parijata-kalpataru of the suppliant, to the holder of
;

the whip, to Krishna as Teacher, milker of the Gita-necthe Milker tar, all hail All the Upanisjiats are the cows
!

is

the joy of the cowherds Partha is the calf; the man of high intelligence is the enjoyer the milk is the great nectar of the Gita. I worship Vasudeva, the charioteer,
; ;

the God, the destroyer of

Kamsa and Chanura, the supreme

joy of Devaki, Kris,hna, Guru of the world. With Keshava as helmsman, verily was crossed by the Pandavas that

xxxiii

whose banks were Bhishma and Drona, whose water was Jayadratha, whose blue lotus was GandhSra, whose crocodile wasShalya, whose current was Kripa, whose billows were Karna, whose terrible alligators
battle- river,

were Asvatthama and Vikarna, whose whirlpool was Duryodhana. May this Lotus of the Mahdbhamta be
for our

arya, sweet with the fragrance of the

good, born on the lake of the words of P^r^shmeaning of the

Git, pollened with many

stories, unfolding to the sun of the history of Hari, sucked by the bees of good men in the world day by day, cleanser of the stains of Kali.

salute Him, Madhava, the supreme Bliss, whose grace makes the dumb man eloquent, and the cripple a climber
I

of mountains.

Whom Brahma, Varuna, Indra, Rudra, and the Maruts praise with divine songs; whom the SSma-chanters sing with the Vedas and with Ahgas, in the pada and krama methods with the Upanihats;
whom Yogis see by the mind fixed in meditation, to Him going whose end Suras and Asuras know not;
;

to that

God,

all hail

II

3HT

^^^N^HI

SK^ri
is

II

HERE THE BLESSED LORD'S SONG

BEGUN.

? H
Dhritarashtra said
:

On

the holy plain, on the field of Kuril, gathered

together, eager for battle, what did they, people and the Pandavas ?
tjrUrg:
of

Sahjaya,

my
%%

Dhrifcaraahtra

^rr^T said

q4$T% = qifeT

clharma,

in (on) the field;


;

^%% = ^ff:
;

^%

of

Kura, in

(on) the field


fi^lu
:

^JT%^r gathered together


^ no
;

irH^r

Ti^P = Trit
;

5^r

of

gj^*H; wishing to Panda, the sons


;

and

iff also

^rn what

ar^frT did they;

53^

Sanjaya.

Sahjaya said

Having seen arrayed the


the

army of

the Pandavas,
1

Raja Duryodhana approached


:

his teacher,

and
(2)

spake these words


SftaTg:

Sanjaya
irg-cfRT
;

^fr^T said

^^f^
teacher;

=>

3RT37

of

soon indeed <j ^r having the Pandavas, the army;


; :

z%% arrayed
dhana)

rf?f gtfpCT: DmyoJhaiia S7?PT*zi having approached; ^r*ff the

tlien

stTOTO

the

King (Duryo-

^TilH

speech

STVqffc said

n
Behold
this

\\

mighty

teacher, arrayed

host of the sons of Pandu, by the son of Drupada, thy \vfse


(3)

disciple.
*T53

behold;
;

<rm
BTT^ra

this;

Tri^TSTR:=<Trfr: I^TTni. of
*T?cff great,
;

Pania, the sous


53?i

teacher;

=qr^*I.army;

arrayed;
;

g'T?^^ = ?T^^
f^qof (by)

^W
;

of

Drupada, by the

son; rPT thy

disciple

^tTrrr (by) wise.

11

Heroes are these,

mighty bowmen,

to

Bhima and
Dru(4)

Arjuna equal

in battle;
2
:

Yuyudhana,

Virata, and

pada of the great car


I

Drona, the son of Bharadvaja. Technically, one able to fight alone ten thousand bowmen.

5T3T

h-'i-e;

Hiw

heroes;
(are),
)
;

JTfS^P = Tffrf
they
(

great,

bows whose

? s^ra :=^

fg

which, the anow, turo.v.s

$farfjTOTr:

= tfPKH
;

^^

that

?*&W

TP
;

of Bhiuia, of Arjuna, equal


:

Virata
:

=q-

and

gfain battle ggvjR! Yuyudhana ^r and jf<r*: Drupada


;

erreat, chariot,

whose, he.

||

II

Dhrisbtaketu, Chekitana, and the valiant Raja

of
1

Kashi; Purujit and Kuntibhoja, and

Shaibya,

bull

among men
:

(5)
;

Dhrishtakcta
of
;

%RFJ;IPT:

Chckitsina
=Ef

cffnwsn =
valiant;

rF^rr

Kashi,
^T?I>?r5r:

the

King;

Purujit

Kuntibhoja
:

^f

and; and
bull.

^R^T^
;

%sg:

Shaibya

and

JJT=J:

= ^5 5T^ among

men,

11

Yudhamanyu the strong, and Uttamauja the brave; Saubhadra and the Draupadeyas, 2 all of great cars.
-'

YudhAmanyu

^f an

nraFrTiT:
>

the strong;

Utlaiuauji
1

=^ and;

tfftfcftf

Yatiaat

^r>T3

Saubhad;a;
vigour,
is

Tho

bull, as tlie

emblein of manly strength aad

often used as an epithet of honour.


2

Abhimanyu, the son

of SabliaJraL

aul Arjuna, and the sons

ofc

Draupacli.

4
all
;

Draupadeyas
warriors.

and

qq even

*T^R?jr:

great cur-

Know
of the

further

all

those

who

are our chiefs,

best
I

twice-born,

the leaders

of
:

my

army; these

name
those
;

3TW

to thee for thy information rs 3 indeed ftf^TSP


;
;

(7)
the
i-e>t
:

q who
:

flp*

FRff*T

know (thou)
best
;

fj^fTT 1! ff ^3 ^TTff
leaders
;

arnor.g the

twice-born,

JTRT^fl^
3T?f,
;

tne

3*T

my

li^ZI
sake:

^f

army;

g-^ r ^ = ^n^r:

of recognition,

for iho

3^

those tjffrfff (1) speak

of (to) thee.

II

<

II

Thou, lord and Bhishma, and Karna, and Kripa, conquering in battle Ashvatthama, Vikarna, and Saum;

adatti

also

(8)
:

and ^^: Kr.r:;.;i ^T^T^yonr honour vffcJT: Bhishma = and and tTRRTSW ?rmm 5raf% assemblage, *T Kripa and + =ET ST^^Tnir AshvatthAuiA f%^<7[: Vikarna conquers
;
:
;

^:
;

f%: Saumadatti

(pjfthugj

^ even

and.

The son

of Soraadatta.

And many
their
lives,

others, heroes, for

my

sake renouncing
all

with divers weapons and missiles, and


^f and

well-skilled in war.
3T?5[ others
;

(9)
:

my, for sake; ?T^^tf%fir:

whom,

they;

many 3J5T.P heroes Jf^str = Jfq; yffi = ?T?K ^r^% % renounced, life, by sfRra&STgCTr: = ?fRr ^T^rfa JT^WIR ZPTT >T various,
sr^cf :
;
;
;

weapons, means of striking, whose, they


battle, skilled.

all

Yet

insufficient

seems

this

army

of ours, though

marshalled by Bhishma, while that army of theirs seems l sufficient, though marshalled by Bhima; (10)
STTSUCfT insufficient
;

33; that

5*^37
f

our

q?j force

$l*ttf-

W*.l$t3*l='W*W 3TPTTr%rni: by Bhishma, commanded


ted)
;

(or protecof theirs


;

qqfer

sufficient

indeed

this

lf?i^r

Bhima, commanded.

^
Therefore
in

f|
let

m?
all,
this

the

rank and

file

standing

firmly in their respective divisions, guard Bhishma, even


all

ye Generals."
1

(n)
differ

The commentators

in

their interpretation of

verse

" Anandagiri takes it to mean just the reverse of Shridhara Sv&uni apary. " " " Aptam being taken by the one as insufficient." by the other as un-

limited."

6
troops
;

in

the lines of
to
;

'Ef

and

^pftj

in )
j

all

according

division

3T^fl?Trn' :
;

standing

Bhishrua
all
;

^
;

even

arpTCST^ guard

*T^?T:

your honours

(T^

even

f^ indeed (particle to complete metre).

II

3^

||

enhearten him, the Ancient of the Kurus, the Grandsire, the glorious, blew his conch, sounding on

To

high a lion's roar. rK3 of ( in ) him


":

( 12)
;

y*H*11

generating

5$
:

joy

^f^: =
;

among the Kurus. the

ancient; focTTT? the grandfather ;

a lion, the roar;

j%^^ sounding
;

g%: on

high (or loudly);

?^ a

conch

^v^f

blevr

JTrTrT^T^ the glorious.

Then conches and kettledrums, tabors and drums and cowhorns suddenly blared forth, and the sound \vas
tumultuous.
rfrf:

(13)
;

then

^fTSfi:

conches

and
:

Vf^:

kettledrums

^ and

inrrJT3T?f?!jT:

= Tw^r*that
;

^
;

3rr^^r

Tf3<5rr:
;

T
;

tabors,
:

and,

drums, and, cpwhorns, and


were struck
;

3(^1 suddenly

also

3T>^ffZ(H'

g-;

^rf: sound; gg?5: tumultuous

3TVpr?l was.

cfcf:

in

Then, stationed
white horses,
their divine conches,
<nr: then
;

in their great war-chariot,


1

Madhava

yoked to and the son of Pandu 3 blew

(14)
;

%"^ (with) white


:

^q: with horses


;

5% (in) yoked
;

(in)
:

great
;

^|%

iu

war-chariot

&V(31 (two) standing

MaJhava <TT^
;

the son of

Pdndu
;

^ and

also

(two) divine

^[j^j (two) conches

ST^Tg: (two) blew.

in

Mil

Dhanaiijaya.

Panchajanya by Hrishikesha, and Devadatta by 3 4 Vrikodara, of terrible deeds, blew his


;

mighty conch, Paundra

(15)

Panchajanya; ffr%5T:
senses, the

= fqt^T^rrI
;

lord;

5^fTT
;

T^ovadatta

tTJT^ni:

^
;

&

of
~5&(\3

the

ff%

wealth, wins, thus

q'r^
J

Pa-indra

conch

*TtT^Tr

^ *ff T

f^f
fearful,

blew

fr?r?r^ great

HW ^
T:

deerl,

whose, he

a wo'f 's,like, stomach, whose, he.

Shri Kfishria.

Pdnchajanya,

Slirl

2 Arjuna. Krishna's conch, was made from


;

the bones of

tha giant Panc-'hajana, slain


Slirl

by Him the title Hrishikesha is Driven to Krishija, and Dhananjaya to Arjuna. whose conch is the ^God;

given," 4 Bhtraa

the meaning of the

name

of

his

conch

is

doubtful.

The Raja
Anantavijaya
;

Yudhishthira,
1

the son of Kuntf, blew Xakula and Sahadeva, Sughosha and


(16)
;

Manipushpaka.

ST^f^q
Jpp

Anantavijaya
;

tfStf the

King

^fr^r= fl^F
;

of Kunti, the son

gnjfsr:

Yudlushthira

Sai:vL'va

and

ff^ft

Xaku-

Sughosha, and Manipushpaka, and.

And

2 Kashya,' of the great bo\v, and Shikhandi, the

mighty car-warrior, Dhrishtadyumna and Virata and


Satyaki, the unconquered.
efir*3:
excellent,

(17)

Kashva;

and;
;

^5^1^:=^^:
; ;

bow, whose,lie
;

Rr^fr Shikhandi

great car-warrior

\jgg3g; Dlirishtadyumna
;

f%^lT

Virata

and

*TR3I%:

Sityaki

^ and

3TT^rRf?TJ unconquered.

*rfrar?[:

wR^g; T^FI^T^ in <

II

Drupada and the Draupadeyas, O Lord of earth, and Saubhadra, the mighty-armed, on all sides their
several conches blew.
1

(18)
were named respec-

The conches

of the remaining three brothers

tively,
2

" endless victory,"


of

"honey-tone" *md "jewel-blossom."

The King

K4shi, the

modern Benares.

JT3: Drupada
all sides
;

ffc^n Draupadeyas

sf

af*n?rq% =
=q-

bhadra;

and;

sf?jw 1% of = T?l?tr JTfT^fi:


he
;

earth,

and; Lord
?f:

3&W

from

PT?: Saugreat,

*l% STO
;

(two)
blew
;

(two) arms, whose,


sererally
;

ffaar^ conches

^w|:

<jsrg* severally.

of Dhritarashtra,

That tumultuous uproar rent the hearts of the sons filling the earth and sky with sound.
(19)
that;

5T:

%5r
of

uproar;
;

qr{rerv!i = sjrTCTgTO

S^TOTT

of
;

Dhritar&slitra,

the sons

g^ft

tlie

hearts

szf^f^ff rent

sky; tumultuous

5fT:

=q;

and;

^ftT^TI. earth;
filling

q-

and; q^ also;

$J<J5f:

sq^Jn^q^

with sound.

Then, beholding the sons of Dhritarashtra standing


arrayed, and the flight of missiles about to begin, he

whose
bo\v,

crest

is

an ape, the son of Pandu, took up his


(20)

3T*r

now

sq-^f^q-^ni standing (in order)


the

seen;
^jft:

vrwrgrq,
<^5T
3K?l
of)

sons
ape,

of
in
:

^T having Dhritarashtra: ^q^^: =


;

&:

an

flag,

whose,

he;

j^%
'STTTH

in

(the

state

having

begun
Vf^:

SUlsreTTffi
:

= ^PSTrTf*!.

of

weapons, in the falling; the son of

bow ^n*^ having taken up;

And
earth:

spake

this

word

to

Hrishikesha,

Lord of

Arjuna said
"

In the midst, between

the

two armies, stay

my
(21)

chariot,

Achyuta,
Hyishikesha;
*Tfrq%
rf^T

^T to

then
f

^ISRW sentence;
earth,

tin's;

3TT? said;

T^JT:

TfT

Lord;
(of)

Arjuna; ^^r'sr said; %?T^r: of the (two) armies; gfvr^f: both H^ in the middle; ^vf car ttHTO stop; %my;
; ;

Immutable.

R^

II

That
battle,

with

may whom

behold these standing, longing for


I

must

strive

in

this

out-breaking
(22)

war

while;
SFTRlr

IT^
to

these;
fight,

fftfHt see

3T? I

zftMf^T-

wf %

desire,
ff^f

whose, they; 3?^-

standing;
gether;
3ftfiftp

with

whom;
;

by

me;

^r? to-

be fought 3?ff^ in this; war, in the uprising.


ttmsl

II

And
fight,

gaze on those here gathered together, ready to desirous of pleasing in battle the evil-minded son
(23)
to
;

of Dhritarashti-a.

SfT^TRRt

these going
;

fight;

3TW
;

see; 3T? I;

ZJ
;

who

tj% these

3T^T

here

?r*rTrrrTr:

gathered

together
of

>*nforg*l

of

the sou of Dhritarashtra


in
fight;

g^:

(of the) evil-

minded

3^;

f^lf^Rihf?:

f^R2I

N^ff^:

the

pleasure, desirous to do.

IR
Sanjaya said
:

Bharata,

Hrihikesha, O having stayed that best of chariots in the midst, between the two armies, (24]

Thus addressed by Gudakesha,

Srfi:
r:

addressed

f^fr^: Hrisbikeslia
(of)

f^FT of sleep, by the lord

f:

of

the

(two) armies

svrzfr:

mirf both
;

Bhai-ata
Jf^f

in

the

middle;

W?R^f

having stayed;

^fTrrr^=^Rf

?TT*T^ of

chariots, the best.


1

Arjuna,

Over against Bhishma, Drona and " O Partha, behold of the world, said
:

all

the rulers

these

Kurus
(25)

gathered together."
vfrsTjioriT^rr:

= HfSff^q

^ jr^T^ ^ ^^^
;
;

of Bhishina,

and
rrri

of Drona, and, in presence

= T?f

r%3f?T

ff^ Jlfrf^
of

the protector

g^^T of all ^f and; JTCff^f" %^T the earth, sees, such, (is) the earth, of tkem 3^T^ said qr*I
; ;

Partha

<^I
f?f

hehold
thus.

^^l

these

tfT^rrrq.

gathered

urus

Then saw Partha standing


fathers, teachers,

there uncles and grand-

mother's

brothers, cousins, sons

and
(26)

grandsons, comrades,
rf^r

there ;^PT^J- saw; f$cf9R(. standing


3T*r

TRr Partha;

f^^

fathers;

also;

fqrrrrTfR^

grandfathers;
^T'T'l

teachers;

ir^r^

maternal uncles;

hrofchers;

grandsons,

snsfft friends: rf^T too.

Fathers-in-law and

friends

also

in

both armies.

13

Seeing
1

all

these kinsmen, thus standing arrayed,

Kaun(27)

teya,

^U^ fathers-in-law
r:

in

^f^t good-heails (two) armies; 5H^T ( ln ) both STH"


;

^r

and
;

ift also

;.

ftlso

rn3[

these
;

having seen
relatives; ar^f^Trfr

^f: lie;

5Rr*T3

Kannteva; tf^!^

all

standin.

Deeply moved

to pity, this uttered in sadness

Arjuna
Seeing these, eager to fight,
'J'

said:

my

kinsmen,

O
;

Krishna, arrayed

1'iiy

T^r
;

(l>y)

extreme
;

3W%:
paid
;

entered
ST^ff:

(filled)

sorrowing

f^q; this

3^^

Aijuna

of

one's
;

own,

people
1J

fjstir

Krishna

53?^ wishing

to

fiht

^Tlf^?c

standin

toether.

My
quivers,
1

limbs

fail

and

my mouth

is

parched,

my body
(29)

and

my

hair stands

on end,

The son

of Knntf. Arjuna,

14

fail

*W
up
:

1Vl

v .

Tf^rm

limbs
:

5*3 month

=^
in
:

and

dries

^g;

slavering

<*f

and

5tfr*

my:

^fa$ <$: =^r*rni. =$:

-{ the hairs, excitement

body ; =q -nd

*R: iu
Gandiva
over
;

am

my hand, and my skin burns all slips not able to stand, and my mind is whirling,
from
(30)
;

irfefcj
sf

Gandiva
also
able
;
;

&g%

slips

f^ni
all
;

from hand
over
:

c?^ skin
;

and

^
am
H my

<ntfSJ% burns

not

^
f^

and
like

TOFfft (I)

3T^qig
niind.

to stand

^fo

vrandcrs

^ and

Jjfp

And
foresee

see adverse omens,

Keshava. 1

Xor do
in

any advantage from slaying kinsmen


and
not
;

battle.

(30
fanrrnf'r causes (omens)
;

ST f

opposed; %^f^
(the good);

Keshava

q^qrft (I) sc-c j HT^fcTn^ the better 'q and sjzj


: :

Hi^ir^rm

(I) foresee;

^K

having killed;

^sR^

kinsfolk; srrf% in battle.


i

Aa

luxuriant hair.

epithet explained by sonic as meaning: " 5fi?T by others n meaning: he


:

'

he

who

has fine or
5T?T,
iri

who

sleeps.

the waters. 3T'

15

For

desire not victory,


;

Krishna, nor kingdom


to us,

nor pleasures

what

is

kingdom
f^TO

O
;

Govinda, what

enjoyment, or even

life?
victory

^2)
;

^
what
vincla

not

<3ftfa

(I) desire

^sor

Krishna

crnot; *srand; ^[33 kingdom;


;

g^fT^
(or

pleasures;
;

^ and
trf%?
;

f^f

?f:

to us

^r^T
5

by (or with) kingdom


'

Go-

f%
wi.li)

ia *
;

^TT

by

with)

pleasures

by (or

life

^i or.

Those ments and


donin
life

for

whose sake we desire kingdom, enjoyin

pleasures, they stand here and riches

battle,

aban-

whose

^rf sake;

^jtfi^ri (is)
;

desired;

if:

of us;

ingdom; ^T*Tf: enjoyments ?p?rnt pleasures; ^ and-; in battle ; those fH these ^rgr^rrr: are standing; life-hreaths c^ff having abandoned Vf^JJl^ riches;
; ;

and.

Teachers, fathers, sons,

as

wall

as

grandfathers,

16

in-law,

mother's brothers, fathers-in-law, grandsons, and other relatives.


^TT^Rr: teachers
;

brothers-

(^s
<jm thus
;

fTrfr

fathers

jprf

sons

also
;

qr

and;

f^rfTTfT-

grandfathers; JTnpr: maternal un;

cles

*ST3T*r.

fathers-in-law

f'nTF

grandsons

3TCoTn brothers-

in-law; ^Nrtpf: relatives; rT^T too.

These

do not wish

to

kill,

though myself

slain,

Madhusfidana, even
three worlds;

how

sake of the kingship of the then for earth? (35)

for the

these;
slaying
;

sfnot;
;

?*to
e.

kill;

f^rfj? (I)

wish;

?r?r:

BTFT although
;

(i.

although they be slaying uie)

q^^g^
of
;

Madhusudana 37^ even; %f?r?^T^^^t - ifrHi^g


three world?, of

^^^

kingdom

f^r*:

of

cause (for the sake of )

{%

hov;

then

I?r^%

= *IfJT ^%

of earth, for the sake.

Slaying these sons of DhritarrtShtra, what pleasure can be ours, O Janardana ?- killing these desperadoes sin will but take hold of us. (36)
1

2
all

The slayer of Maclhu. a demon. " Destroyer of the people." Sbil Krishna
evil.

as the vrarrior

conquering

forms of

17

having

slain;

>?r^rgr^ sons

of Dhritaraslitra;

to us

what;
sin
;

sftf?T
IJ3"
;

pleasure;
:

^r^ may
;

be;

3T^rfl
;

Janardana ;
to us
;

also

^TTOZirj

would attach

^TWJ.

j$im

having

killed

(frff^ these

STFcTrfrfzi?!:

desperadoes.

Therefore we should not


htra, our relatives
;

kill

the sons of Dhritar-

for

how, killing our kinsmen,


?

may
(37)

we
we

be hapoy,

O
;

Madhava
?r

gf^rrl therefore;
;

(are) not; ar^p deserving, (ought); ^2ji|


of

93
;

to kill

vjr^ugf^ the sons


^r*I

Dbritarashtra
ofitf

??srt^rr^

own

relatives;

^yf^
happy

kinsfolk; (^ indeed;
;

killed

5f(5l^:

may

(we) be

mm

how; jpesj having Madhava.

II

<

II

Although

these, with intelligence

greed, see no guilt in the destruction crime in hostility to friends,


if
;

of a

overpowered by family, no
(38)
see
;

srfqr

even

q% these ^ not <T^tT


;

TI
they;

by greed, carried away, mind, whoso,


of a family,

$?W*3xT
;

= !W^

W& &*

by the destruction,
of
friends,

made; $tf
hostility
er

fault

(evil);

pnrffff

= PnrPfW ft?

in

and

TTtf^H. crime.

18

^
;

il

sin,

Why should not we learn to turn away O Janardana, who see the evils in the
how
;

from such
destruction

of a family?
cjf?j
;

(39)
;f

be known; ST^rf*: by us; from sin T*TT?t (from) this R^f^5l to turn away = (as slil. 28) caused by the destruction of a family; us who see); 3Rr?f evil; JTT^rfln by the seeing (by
not
;

%Wl to

Janardana.

II

1 ly traditions perish

In the destruction of a family the immemorial famiin the perishing of traditions law; ;

lessness overcomes the whole family

(40)
:

c^ST[ = pTC3
perish;

T5 of a family, in the destruction

FJW: ^f^S
:

W' of the family, the duties;


duty
:

immemorial

vj^ in the (state of)

^ being destroyed
;

<&

the family;
;

53TO the whole

ST^H' lawlessness

3TPT*rcft

overcomes
1

3?T indeed.
;

this i a wide word primarily meaning the essential nature of a thing; hence, the laws of its being, its duty; and it

Dharma

includes religious rites


righteousness.

appropriate to those laws

customs, aleo

19

11

il

Owing
the

women

predominance of lawlessness, Krishna, of the family become corrupt; women corto

rupted,

Varhneya,

there

ariseth

caste-confusion;

(40
3TWfaHST?l=
valence
;

STWW STfawl of
;

lawlessness, from pre;

$w*
<JCT?|

of jjfa^? flsTT

women
-arises
;

R^cqft become wicked $Hife(q: in (the state of) women ^TOTT^ (being) wicked Varslmeya;
Krishna
the family,
;

W^

^^^7^: = wfas 5T^:

of caste, confusion.

^ n

This confusion draggeth to hell the slayers of the family and the family for their ancestors fall, deprived of rice-balls and libations. (42)
;

T^rt (is) for hell <rj also ,fT5T%3^: confusion WTPl. of the slayers of the family, wrsftq of the family; *f and T?tm fall ftfT*: tlie ancestors r^ verily ^t of
; ; ;

',

these

^HN^f^^rf^'5I = sJffT KT^I


:

"^

7f

^1 ^ ff>ir ^t %
whom,
they.

Jost, of rice-balls,

and

of water, and, the rite, of

II

II

30
-

By

these caste-confusing

of the family, the everlasting caste customs customs are abolished.


^1%:

misdeeds of the slayers and family


(43)

by

sins;

(fef:

(by) these;

f^RT
'

slayers;

rfg4RlJA& <*^ota ftlffvqnffe


t.he

the family of caste, of the


of
5nf?i>CTr :

eoufusion, by the doers; Sc^rt[?f are destroyed;

HF%* Wft- of
family,

CHste,
q'

customs
;

ff^^f

3TO

W=

of the

custotu.s;

and

^rf^STrTP

everlasting.

The abode
extinguished,

of the

men whose
is

family customs are


in
hell.

O
j

Janardana,

everlastingly

Thus have we

heard.

(44

5?^T^^r frlt = ^^TsT: Ig^^^&lwr ?T destroyed, of the family, customs, of whom, they; ^gsgrarf of men; 3R[|?f O Janardana; ^c% in hell; f?RtW fixed; 313: dwelling: we ^ ave heard. f^T thus
;

^rT

who

Alas! in committing a great sin are we engaged, we are endeavouring to kill our kindred from greed

of the pleasures of kingship.


qSftf
ft

(4^
;

alas

^?T alaa
;

H??l great
;

qjqr

sin

prepared

^^ we

q^

to do

*!5<^l 9^^5TTH5T of kingdom.

21

of

pleasure,
:

by greed;

33

to

kill;

^IR*

(our)

own

relatives

S^ffiT uprisen.

n
If the sons of

Dhritarahtra, \veapon-in-hand, should

slay me, unresisting, for me be the better.


iff
ting);
if
5

unarmed,

in

the battle,

that would

(46)

HT

me;

aTJT^r^n*

without retaliation (unresis-

3T5I^ weaponless; ^TWWTq: =3TWrN Trf5l3 q^T^ weapons, in hands, whose, they q[TUgT: the eons of Dhritarashtra ^ot in the battle 553: may slay that ;
; ;

fl

of

me

sflWrK better

vf^ would

be.

m;
Sanjaya

HHT^TO: n
said
:

Having thus spoken on

the battle-field,

Arjuna

sank down on the seat of the chariot, casting' away his bow and arrow, his mind overborne by grief. (47)
^r5T3: Sarjjaya; 3?TPT said
:

q^ thus
;

^^?^r having said,

3T^T: Arjuna: ^"f in the battle the chariot, in the seat ^rqrf%^
:

cqtTOt-WTO
sank
the

SW

of

down

f%O5?l
;

having cast away

?rerc

= 3fc<Jr ^? with

anow, together

22

w
sorrow,
agitated,

*.

by

mind, whose, he

Thus

in the

the

ETERNAL,

Upanishats of the glorious Bhagavad-GitS, the science of the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between
first

Shri Krishna and Arjuna, the

discourse, entitled

THE YOGA OF THE DESPONDENCY OF ARJUNA.


ift*T.a*Nl*ndr!| in the blessed Bhagavad-Gitas ; ffa thus OTPTO?fi in the Upanishats agJI^Sira^SgW H^jraf of the ETERNAL, in the science; qpTSTrir = JJfnr^ ^11% of Yoga, in
; ;

= ^^or^f ^ ^T^T the scripture 'sfffjsotr ^^^f? of Shri Krishna, and, of Arjuna, and, in the dialogue
;

f^Tf^rnJ
the

= ST^ffZJ R^T?CT ^TT


:

of Arjuna, of despondency,
;

Yoga

sfR name

JfipT: first

^2n"^

discourse.

SECOND DISCOURSE.

11

Sanjaya said

To him
brimming
words
?j
:

thus with pity overcome,

with

smarting
these
(l)

eyes,

despondent, Madhusudana spake

to

him

rftyr

thus

?>T3r

ted

3T^J?fri^I^1=aT^fvT:
tears, filled, and,
;

with pity

STTftei. penetra-

^1^%
;

fB| q?n
;

?T:

with

restless

(smarting), and, (two) eyes,

whose, him
speech
;

ff^T^rf (to
;

the)

despondent

y^ this

T^T^T spake

Ttpgrs Madhusudana.
i

The Blessed Lord

said

Whence hath
perilous
strait,
?

this

dejection

befallen

thee in this

ignoble, heaven-closing, infamous,

O
(2)
;

Arjuna
3?rT:

whence

*fT

thee

<ft

3HH5I. dejection

ff this

in

difficulty:

srg<TRtr?Pr

happened;

3J?* by non-Aryans, rejoiced in unheaveuly (not leading to Svarga)


*f:

(
;

practised

ST^ftnNftil,

un-fame-

inaking

^pf

Arjuna.

^ H
Yield
befit

not to impotence,

Partha

it

doth not
!

thee.

Shake
Parantapa

off
!

this

paltry

faint-heartedness

Stand

up,

(3)
fff
:

5^3[
His

to

go: Tr^"

weakness; O Partha

not; not;

fft
q-?iq[

(pleonastic
this; ^fti

particle,;
in tliee
;

q[

TTTOT is

fitting:
;

g? mean: ffq^M^^S?^^
^f^^f having abandoned
;

heart, weakness

?f%r^ of the 3frT9 stand up


;

T^T^rT^nT others (foes) consumes (he who).

II

II

Arjuna said

attack Bhishma and MadhusQdana, Drona with arrows in battle ? they who are worthy of

How,

shall

reverence,
^fir

O
:

slayer of foes.
>frTq[ Bhisliraa
; ;

(4)

how
=q

3Tf

55f^ ia battle
;

gtzj

Drona
arrows

and

*T*J*J$?T

Madhusudana
I

5^fvr:

with

nrlran^rm

shall

attack

of worship,

the deserving (two)


slayer.

^rf^?T = ^f'ITTl 'S^T

of

enemies,

f|

||

II

Better in this world to eat even

than

to

slay these

most noble
1

the beggars crust, Gurus. Slaying these


taste

'

Gurus,

our

well-wishers,

should

of blood(5)

besprinkled feasts.
e

Gurus

3T?5^r not

having slain
t,

f?

indeed

splendour, whose,
:

them

HRP better
in

^1^5
;

to eat

^f^*I alms

^rfqr

even

5^
in;

here: r5T% deed

world

??^f having slain;

3T^RP3L= *& *&*them


with
;

ZJr^fRT ?Tn^ wealth (or g-ood),(t.liey) desire, thus,


:

sj^^ Gurus
foods:

ff liere;(T^ also

g^ffl I should eat


Jiff^rq:

mrr^

^nirr'^n? = ^wr

blood,

stained.

who
wealth; or 3^?f (jpr 3T?|

covet
i.e.

= ff ^) SRR^RT

they
:

who

desire

(my) artha
:

good or welfare; another reading ie ^f?^Ffr' irft= (^nfo ^r*T rTWT?l) from greed of wealth. More often translated, " greedy of wealth ." but the word is used elsewhere for well-wisher, and this term is more in accordance with the
tone of Arjuna's remarks.

26

jf^TT

sw sTRmgr:
against us, the sons of Dhritarashtra.
5T

n *ui

Nor know I which for us be the better, that weconquer them or they conquer us these, whom having slain we should not care to live, even these arrayed
(6)

not
;

^r

and
;

^^
; ;

this

f%?T:

(we)
;

know
;

which
3TapT

that r(ta: more important Ztff should conquer qff if ?j or ^: us even ?c^r having (they) should conquer qfij whom alain ^ not nrifrf^^r*?: (we) wish to live % those ;?p for us

(we)

3T^R?Tfrr

(are) standing

J?gi|r

in

face

t?r*rgT:

sons of

Dhritai'ashtra.

My
faintness
;

heart

is

weighed down
is

with the vice


I

or
I

my

mind

confused as to duty.
that
tell

ask thee

which may be the better

me

decisively.

am

thy disciple, suppliant to Thee

teach me.

(7)

of commiseration,

by the

fault, attacked,
;

nature, whose, he

^STR
in
(as
:

( I )

ask

^f thee
be
;

Wnrjr^n =
whose,

to)

duty,

confused,
;

he

W ^5 % ^ which
;

better

^q; may
rne
;

ffffr?f
:

decisively
;

aff speak
thee
;

that

^f of (to)
;

f$Il disciple
to thee
;

% of

3Tf I

teach

Hfl.

me

^\

sn^Pi suppliant.

ir<^
For
I

it would drive away this anguish up my senses, if I should attain unrivalled monarchy on earth, or even the sovereignty of the

see not that

that withers

Shining Ones.
srff

(8)

not

away;
of

jrregrr'S ( T )
;

see

**

mY

STTI^F^
drier-up
; ;

that
;

tftqm grief;

^^I^^l
;

my
;

senses

IT^r1
;

having obtained

^V

in the earth
;

feT5Ti unrivalled rr^f kingdom gUl!IPt of the Suras even *a( and STTl'tfrttra. lordship.
;

STft

28

Sarijaya said

dressed
fight
!"

Gudakesha, conqueror of his foes, having thus ad" I will not Hrishikesha, and said to Govinda,

became

silent.

(9)

^ thus;
3TT%?T
: ;

3^cff having spoken


7CrI<j:

Gudakesha;

|^t%^r destroyer of

to

Hrishikesha
T

foes;

not

qrrTO (I) will fight; ff% thus; Ttrrf^ to Govinda; having said -rjsjjff silent *(?$$ became; ? (particle).
;

3 o

Then Hrishikesha,
him, despondent.
31^ to him;

smiling, as

it

were

Bharata,

spake these words, in the midst

of the two

armies, to
(10)

^n*
it

said
;

>

*W^
^^

Hrishikesha:
;

Iff^
of

smiling

f^

as

were
(of)
;

rn;?T

Bhai'ata
hi the

%^5Etr:

the

(two) armies;

SW:

despondent

|f this

both; 3^T: word.

middle;

ID

The

Blessed Lord said

Thou
for,

grievest for those that should not


1

be grieved
wise
grieve

yet speakest words of wisdom. neither for the living nor for the dead.
^^fr^ni. unbewailable
;

The
hast

(n)
bewailed
'Of
;

ar^^ff ^:

5%

thou; Jfi?PW*.= JT5Trar


VTTq%

*Cr?T1

of wisdora,

words;

and;

speakest; *TcTn33^ *T?Tn 3T3p=r: 2WT rIPiJ. gone, lifebreaths, whose, those arirlf^l. not, gone, life-breaths, whose, nofe and those ?f sf^fNnw grieve qitrrn the wise.
;
;

^R
Nor
at

it

any time

verily

was

not, nor thou, nor these

princes of men, nor verily


hereafter.
?T

shall

we ever cease
Sffg at
;

to

be,

(12)

not

indeed

lj^ also
*l

sr'f I

any time
;

!
;

not

arrST 1*.

was

not

&p^ thou

f
;

not
?f

*Rrft<Tr:

=:3RRr
ff

Srfaqrr: of

the people, lords


sna11 be
t

5% these not ^r and


;
5

q^

also

not

Tft3R:
;

*8

a11

'>

*&& we

3T3 :

from

this (time)

T^l, after.

As

the dweller in the

childhood, youth
i

body experienceth, in the body, and old age, so passeth he on to

Words

that sound wise but miss the deeper sense of wisdom;

30

another body

the

steadfast

one grieveth not thereat.


(13)

ff?f

of the

embodied
;

3TTCT3.

>

n
;

tllis

**H

as

^
:

in

body
so
;

&Wi
;

childhood

taining

^r??rcim%: =1?!^^^ the firm ?nr there vjfa:


;

qnfT youth 5HT old age rTOf *rw: of another body, the ob;

not

gflfff grieves.

119

su

The

contacts of matter,

son of Kunti, giving cold

and heat, pleasure and manent endure them


;

pain, they

come and
Bharata.
matter,

go,

imper(14)

bravely,

Tt^rcTSlT^iTnrraT: wft:

of the
:

the touches;
=*

3
^

^
4

indeed

^T%at

Kaunteya

^T 5:13

^ ^ff?T 5T*^ co^f

^TRTr^l^^S^fr: *M3 ^ and lieat and pleasure, and,


.

^l

>

pain,

and, give;

thus ^rTTTnTrraT:

=TrW ^
;

STTfH:

ZT^T%, coming, and, going, and, whose, they; 3TR??ir: transiBharata. tory ; rTPl these ranTSTC^ bear (thou) HK?T
;

f|

The man whom


immortality.
if

these torment not,

chief of
is

men,
for

balanced in pain and pleasure, steadfast, he

fitted

(15)
f|
;

whom
;

indeed

?f

not

s?ttJHfTf

torment

q%
;

these

3^

man

J^f* SWIT

HW

of

men,

best

31

equal, pain

and pleasure,

and whose

(to
;

whom), him
cfic^^T

*ftt
fit.

firm

he

spj^ra

for

immortality

becomes

*ntt JTOlit T%fct

The
be
;

unreal hath no being

the real never ceaseth to

the truth about both hath been perceived by the seers of the Essence of things. (16)

^
"being
;

not

3T*T?P
;

of

the

non-existent
;

fa^Uf
is
;

is

*m'.

^
;

not

3T*rn" :

non-being
;

f^f?%
;

*j?p

of

the
;

existent

^^f:

of the

two

STR" also
;

^\
;

(has been) seen

3TrT the end (the final truth)

indeed

%H3P

of these

bj the truth-seeing.

Know THAT
is pervaded.

to be indestructible

by

whom

all

this

Nor can any work


indestructible
;

the destruction of that


(i)

imperishable One.

BT^RnlT

5
;

indeed
all
;

know

(thou)

3R by whom
itir^TO.
;

been) spread
rishable
is
;

^ e destruction
sf

That
;

nffor

ft this

?f?r

(has

3Tqqfq of the impeanj-one


;

3T*H of this

not

^rfiTfJ

ZR&l

to do

able.

<

\\

indestructible

These bodies of the embodied One, who and boundless, are kno\vn
fight,

is

eternal,.
finite.

as

Therefore
9TrT^cT:

Bharata.
;

(18)
;

having end
of

fT these
:

\QI bodies

R3K3
of
;

of
:

the everlasting; 3?Rf: (aie> said


apj-^rfqqf:

^rffRor: of the
;

embodied

the
rT^TTft

iiidest.ructible

3T^?T^
figlit

the

immeasurable;
Bharata.

therefore

33^

(thou)

n i

%n
who

He who
thinketh he

is

regardeth this as a slayer, and he slain, both of them are ignorant.


is

He
(19)
;

slayeth not, nor


q:

he
q^t

slain.
tin's
;

he who
;

"%n?T

knows

^TIT slayer
^?f^ slain
;

q:

he who
the two 8Tq this

*qr

and

|pr
;

this

*li% thinks
fa^rsftrp
f?*frT is killed.

^HT
not
;

<ff

those

^
?f

not not
;

(two)

know

?Rr kills

33

nor having been, he any more to be unborn, perpetual, eternal and ancient, he is not slain when the body is slaughis
:

He

not born, nor doth he die


;

ceaseth

tered.
ff

not
;

5fra%
;

is

born
;

f5R%

dies

^r or

(20) *fffffl at any


*rf%?rr

time
31 or

^
?T
:

not
not
;

ar<^ this

>jc^r

y$$: (any)
;

more
;

having been ?T5T unborn


:

will be

Rt^: perpetual;

Sfr^rT
killed
;

eternal

3TJ[

this

*[tfu\
;

ancient

not

??3%

is

^HJTffi (in) being killed

srftc in

body.

**&

MR 3 ii

Who

undiminishing, how can that cause to be slain?

knovveth him indestructible, perpetual, unborn, man slay, O Partha, or


(21)
;

^ knows
who how
;

arf^TrfaFT indestructible
;

fsf^j

perpetual
;

3:

Ipf
*f:

this

?T3T
;

unborn

T5W
;

undiminishing

ZfW
;

he ( that ) <j^: causes to be slain


;

man

<m?
;

Partha

ZR

whom

^f?r kills

3TO

whom.

^TTTTIFT

As

a man, casting off worn-out garments, taketh


3

new

34

ones, so the dweller in the body, casting off worn-out


bodies, entereth into others that are new.
^ratf*T

(22)

cast

away
;

garments ^^rf%
;
>

sftofrPr
;

worn-out

qtrr as; ftfra


;

having

new

n^TRT takes
bodies
;

^: a man
goes

3TT*n%

others
^farff^f

rT?n so

^TCftfPI
;

f^fTI having
;

cast
;

away

worn-out

ar^nf^

to others

gw?T

?Tf FT? (to)

new

^fr the embodied (one).

Weapons
not
;

cleave

him

not, nor fire burneth him,

nor
(23)

waters wet him, nor wind drieth him away.


sf
;

ijqf

this

fejfrf cleave
;

^TWfftl
?T

this

fff% burns
;

TT^5F: fire
;

not

weapons "of and


;

not

q^T this

wet

^rn?:

waters

not

AU^ld

dries

in^rf: wind.

IK ^11

Uncleavable

he, incombustible he, and indeed neither

to be wetted nor dried


stable,

away

perpetual, all-pervasive,-

immovable, ancient,
uncleavable
;

(24)
;

ST^SSP
3T^ this
;

s^f this
:

T?rW:

incombustible
:

3T^ir unwettable
;

3T^If^: undryable

ir^ also

and
:

stable

R5^: perpetual ^fop =^^*T3[ Trf: into all, gone ST^oT: immovable s^^ this ^rrrT 1!: ancient.
;

35

therefore
grieve.

Unmanifest, unthinkable, immutable, he is called knowing him as such, thou shouldst not

(25)
3T33RJ5 unmanifest
this
;
;

srg this
;

3Tf%?3
;

inconceivable
is

3TZJ

3Tft^ra: immutable
;

grq this

&eifo
;

called
this
;

therefore

q^ thus

f%rt^ having known

qr?f

?rwq[ 5f not

to grieve ;3Tf[% (thou) oughtest.

Or if thou thinkest of him as being constantly born and constantly dying, even then, O mighty-armed, thou
shouldst not grieve.
3T*T

(26)
qjj this
;

now

and

R^^rer = R^(

5THT constantly,
;

born; fosQ perpetually; ^r or; nyvRf (thou) thinkest; sgrT^dead <$ thou *T?rwrfT = H?r?Hr arr^ arfa also rftfT so (?t) great
; ;
;

(two)

arms, whose, (0 thou)


:

not;

^^

this; ^frF^^I,

to

grieve

3Tff% (thou) oughtost.

T|

36

For
for the

certain

dead

death for the born, and certain is birth therefore over the inevitable thou shouldst
is

not grieve.
STCrf^ of the

(27)

born

f| indeed
;

a^: certain

^3:
and
; ;

death

V?

certain
:

t5fI birth
(

^^j
;

of tbe
;

dead

*W\<1
T

therefore
?t thou
;

3TTf*f I**

inevitable

BT^f in

matter

not

sflf^gij to grieve

3T?i% (thou) otightest.

^TcTTH
cT^T

^T

'r^fT

|R<

II

Beings are unmanifest


their

in

their origin, manifest in

midmost

state,

Bharata, unmanifest likewise are

they

in dissolution.

What room

then

for

lamentation

(28)

^Tf
whose, they;
manifest,

unmanifest,

beginning,

^rR
5

beings

53rriRJT^f
;

R = *vifi ^q
Bharata

^qr rTFR
;

middle, whose,
!

they

*T|T?I

ST^^Fwhose,

R^fR = 3T5ZITK R^T


they
;

3jqr ?TrR unmanifest, destruction,

also

rT^r

there

^r what

TPf^Rr

lamentation.

37

As marvellous one regardeth him as marvellous another speaketh thereof; as marvellous another heareth
;

thereof; yet
eth.

having

heard,

none indeed

understand(29)

3Tr^5^
this
;

as wonderful

cr^rW
;

sees

5fii%<l
;

some one

^vf
;

also speaks ?r?jT so ; ^T and 3T?2T. another arr^si^ 8LS wonderful ^f and this srfST 3T?q: another sjofffW hears ;f?^T having heard
^ff?T
; ; ;
;

3TI^zfa<l as woriderf al

^
;

even

ipr this

"%?

knows

not

and

also

anyone.

This dweller in the body of everyone is ever invulnerable, O Bharata; therefore thou shouldst not grieve
for

any

creature.
;

(30)
frcJi
;

%^T the embodied


this
;

always

3Tf c?j: invulnerable


;

aril

f? in the body
;

g^?i
;

of all

v^rT
;

Bharata

rl^rfl

therefore

^^ff^T (for) all


;

^Jfrrfa'

creatures

not

cf thou;

to grieve

3T?r^ (thoa) shouldst.

Further, looking to

thine
is

own

duty, thou

shouldst

not tremble

for there

nothing more welcome to a


(31)

Kshattriya than righteous war.

38

duty; arfr also .*** and

sr^l having
oughtest
;

seen;

rf

not;

f^PT^*

to tremble; 3T?f
;

(thou)

>?Tfq; (than) righteous

f|

indeed

3^{i?l

than war
;

%^:
not
;

better;
is.

ST^fl other;

$Tnf3*3 of

the Kshattriya

Jf

Happy
a

the Kshattriyrs,

Partha,

who

obtain such

fight, offered

unsought as an open door to heaven.


(32)

by

chance

^ and
;

of heaven,

door

^qar happened ^TfnCW = 5f??r^! happy STTrf ^ opened


;

kshattriyas
battle
;

^4

Partha

f5*T%

obtain

f^H

like this.

TT% But
if

thou wilt not carry on this righteous warfare,

then, casting

away
sin.

thine

own duty and

thine honour,
(33)

thou wilt incur


3Ttr

now;
;

%fj[

if;
;

cfw thou;

fifff

this; Vft% righteous;


:

^qpT battle ^ not gn?S3l[ (thou) wilt do rfrf then ^qJ| own duty gRTfrT** fame 5f and ; ^cfr having thrown away ;
; ;

my sin

?rfrc^ff^ (thou) wilt obtain.

39

II

^ 8

II

thy perpetual dishonor, and, to one highly esteemed, dishonor exceedeth death. (34)
will

Men

recount

dishonor
relate

=^r

and
;

STFT

also

^JnTrfr

creatures

% thy
and

3T53RTW undiminishing; *T*m?tTTO


^T^ffr*?:

of the

honored

'qr

dishonor

J^urr^ than

death

3TJ%rc=53f% exceeds.

The

battle from fear,

great car-warriors will think thee fled from the and thou that wast highly thought of
wilt be lightly held.
;

by them,

(35)
battle
;

from fear
will think
zrej of
;

mtfH from the


;

ar^ withdrawn

c^T thee
;

whom

^ and
;

&(

HSK^T the great car-warriors much JTrj: thought (of); thou


;
;

^
;

having been

?U^r%

wilt go

PJT^TW^ to lightness.

Many unseemly words

will

be
;

enemies, slandering thy strength than that?

spoken by thine what more painful

40

to be spoken, words;
=s(

and

many
:

^rf^Rr
;

will say

re thy

grffrTr non;

friends

slandering

<ff

that;

more painful

thy indeed
;

power
;

?ra

than

fgfjJT

what.

Slain, thou wilt obtain

heaven

victorious, thou wilt

enjoy the earth


resolute to fight

therefore stand up,

O
wilt
:

son of Kunti,
(37)

frp

slain;
;

3T or;

SiiC^Tra'

(thou)
;

obtain;

^if

heaven
enjoy
;

nn^r having conquered


*T?fl tne earth
:

^f or

*Tr$3WT (thou) wilt


;

rf^*TTfj[

therefore
;

^frTW stand up

T:

Kaunteya; >^\l\ for battle made, decision, by whom, he.

Taking as equal pleasure and

pain, gain
;

and

loss,

victory and defeat, gird thee for the battle shalt not incur sin.
?psr^
fjc^r
loss,
:

thus thou
(38)
;

% = 5^ ^ I ^ ^T pleasure, and,
:

pain,

and

^fjj

equal

having made; 5rPTraTOT = r*nT:

*T 3T^P?:

^ gain,

and,

and; 3Tzrriftr=
;

ra=

^T a7^r?[5

%
;

victory, and, defeat,


;

and
sf

rfrf
;

then

not

^ thus

^^[^
;

for
;

the

battle

frt sin

^^IH^I%

555^ join (thou) (thou) shalt obtain.

This teaching set forth to thee


the
;

is

in

accordance with

hear it now according to the Yoga, Sahkhya imbued with which teaching, O Partha, thou shalt cast

away

the bonds of action.


;

(39)
3TPTf|?Tr (is) declared
;

irqr this

of (to) thee

3TC3
;

in

f i^f: knowledge qm in the Yoga g indeed fHT this ^TT with knowledge ^rff: joined z&n with *joj hear Partha ^sr^ = 3R*fa: tW of karma, the bond; which <TT*T
SAnkhya
;

(thou) shalt cast away.

In this there
gression.

is

no

loss of effort, nor

is

there transl

Even a
fear.

little

of

this

knowledge

protects
(40)

from great
ifnot;
destraction
;

ff

here:
;

3Tn=T3IT?Tr*r:

=3Tf*n*JT*g ^TO: of effort,


;

3Trf>T is

!?c^f R: transgression

^ not

^?T;

very
;

little

3?f^

even
;

3TTO of this

vpr^l duty

protects

if^f:

(from)

orreat

VTTT^ from fear.

Dharma.

42
is

The determinate reason


the
;

but one-pointed,

O joy

of

Kurus many-branched and endless are the thoughts


(41) 3TKTr v&W-

of the irresolute.

m determination, soul,
f 5 here
;
:

whose, she
?T?^ of the

gfe: thought

ir^r
;

one

Kurus,

rejoicer

^f ?imr - ^f^
;

many, branches, whose, those

ff

indeed

3T^?fr

endless

and; g^q: thoughts; ais^^gTR^r^ of the irresolute.

Flowery speech
naught but
this."

is

uttered

by the

the letter of the Vedas,

Partha, saying:

foolish, rejoicing in "

There

is

(42)

2tt* which; fJTT this;

^^\
;

flowery; ft^ speech;


%fqfr^:! Tr:
.
:

ntter; 3TT^TfRT: the un-wise;

= tf^
;

^f?

the Veda, in the word, rejoicing PArtha other 3T|?iFr is fRT thus ^rf?^: saying.
;

mq

not

With

desire for

self,

with heaven for goal, they

offer birth as the fruit of action,


l

and prescribe many and

Those whose very self is desire, Raima, and who therefore act with a view to win heaven and also rebirth to wealth and rank.

43

various ceremonies
lordship.

[for

the attainment of pleasure and


s,^\
T

desire, son], whose, they

heaven,

highest,
(f^) n^rf?f

whose,
?ff
;

they;

(re) birth,

alone, of action,

fruit, (asj gives, that


Sfg^r:

(which)

^r*T =
in

f^j?rrori

f^TTn

1*31

?Tf

of actions, varieties,

many,
TI%
of

which,

that;

%Tp^Tr% =

*frT? 3

^J^
;

^
jrrrt

enjoyment, and, of sovereignty, and, the gaining (for the sake of).

towards

For them who cling

to pleasure

and

lordship,

whose

minds are captivated by such teaching, is not designed 1 this determinate Reason, on contemplation steadily bent.
(44)
*Tf*T3fter?Ef 'TT

= *TPt ^
offered as

?^ ^ Wt -fKM
;

in

enjoyment, and,

in lordship, and, of the attached


1

rT^by

that; 3TTfrT%rT?rrw

The following

is

an alternative translation

of shlokas 42,

43,44.

" The flowery speech that the unwise word


of

utter,

the Veda, saying there

is

nothing

else,

P&rtha, clinging to the ensouled by selfish

desire and longing after heaven (the flowery speech) that offereth only rebirth as the (ultimate) fruit of action, and is full of (recommendations to ) various rites for the sake of (gaining) enjoyments and sovereignty, the thought of those who are misled by that (speech) and cling to

pleasures and lordship, not being inspired with resolution, in concentration."

is

not engaged

44

dragged away, mind, whose, of them

Samadhi

sf

determinate (see 41) not ; f%vjra% is fixed.

Rf: thought; ^Jjr^T in

The Vedas
above
these

deal with the three attributes; 1

be thou

three attributes,

Arjuna;

beyond the
2

pairs of opposites, ever steadfast in purity,

careless of

possessions,

full

of the SELF.
:

(45)

%?Jl7 atf%<T2tP

=%5=^ fra

^TT

the

three
;

attributes,

subject-matter, whose, they;

"%^T:

(the)

Vedas

fMilpzi: with-

out the three attributes; *T? be;


in

3T%T
:

Arjuna;

without the pairs (of opposites); frcTO?rer


ff%
constantly,

= R3*
;

*=T?>

sattva, (who; dwells, thus

T STflrT %T: %W- *** *(. not, is, earning, maintaining, and, whose, he: 3TR*TWR^ f nil of the Self.

HW

and,

All the

Vedas are
is

as useful to an enlightened Brahin

mana, as
water.
1

a tank

place

covered

all

over with
(46)

Gu$as =
;

or purity

forms of energy. They are Sattva, rhythm Rajas, activity or passion Tamas, inertia or darkness.
attributes, or
;

2 Sattva.

45

much;

asrtf:

everywhere; %<-g^|^% = %c^ being) flooded, (in, i. e., with) water


all;

use; Sf<TFT in a small pool; fllrT^f% (in the state of a place


;

rJTCT^ so

much

(in)

>%5

in the

Vedas

aTgTTTO of the Brahmana;

(of) learned.

TT
*v
*

"^

IT

Thy
fruits
;

business

is

so

let

not the

with the action only, never with its fruit of action be thy motive, nor
(47)
;

be thou to inaction attached.


^fiff&T in

the action
in

^
;
;

only

3Tf^FTrc : right

%
;

thee

m
;

not
<

JT^
;

the fruits
T:

^pf ?Wfg'-=^

^
;

^TfTSR at any time

W
;

not

l3-'

whose, he

>J:
;

be

Jtf

^zi *T of action, fruit, motive, not % thy ; ^fT: attachment 3T?g let

(there) be

ar^for

in inaction.

Perform action,
in

Dhananjaya,
failure:

with the divine, renouncing attachments,

dwelling in union and balanced


is

evenly
yoga.

success

and

equilibrium

called

(4 8 )
*P5,

3nT*TT yoga-seated

perform

wfif&t

actions

^Tt

attachment;
]aya
;

r?R^T having abandoned; *reiT3

Dbanaii-

^jRRRT: = f?T^t

^ WTWT T

iu success, and, in non-

46
success,

and
;

^pf:

the same
;

v^\

having become

equality

%*r: yoga

3^1%

is called.

Dhananjay.i.

Far lower than the Yoga of Discrimination is action, Take thou refuge in the Pure Reason
;

pitiable are they

who work

for fruit.

(49)

^C<JT by far; ff indeed; 3T?rC inferior; faction; ff^fqfim; = 5^: qrirn^of discrimination, than the yoga; VRH^ O

Dhananjaya ^^f
;

in (the)

Pure Reason;

seek; ^Ttui: pitiable; <w|?Hr:

fftvf

refuge

3Tr^^^,
motive,

?g:

^t ^

fruit,

whose, they.

II

United to the Pure Reason, one abandoneth here both good and evil deeds, therefore cleave thou to
yoga; yoga
is skill

in action.

(50)

I[^3^;:=f3ir5^j: with knowledge, endowed; 5f?rm (he) throws away ff here 3H both SJfirT^!;^ = g^rf ^
;

^
for

good deed, and,


(to) yoga;
;

evil deed,

55^^

?l?Rrl therefore; be united, (prepare); 3UT: yoga;


;

and

in actions

^RHTW

skill.

f|
:

ql[

?T5?fT^q

It

II

47

The
fruit

Sages, united to the Pure Reason, renounce the which action yieldeth, and, liberated from the bonds
seat.

of birth, they go to the blissful

(51)
;

3ff^ action-born
f|

f fa^-rhl
;

united to Buddhi (see 50)


;

indeed

the wise; from the bondage, freed


painless.

<W the fruit c^c^f ^FWfrRl^T: =


;

HW

having abandoned
3J

JRn^Jp

1T<1

f%R&?CT: of birth,
;

<rf

the abode

T^|<t go

*RTTT%
thy mind shall escape from this tangle of delusion, then thou shalt rise to indifference as to what has been heard and shall be heard.
z^T (52)
tffa&!

When

when;

thy;

^f^fifsm
;

= *u?^

of
;

delusion,
rTff

the confusion
*Trirr%

mind ; fTf: (thou) shalt go ;


;

sgnfaK'wif^ will cross

*^ en

f5|^ to indifference

>?r^E?l^l
;

of *r

(what) should be heard and.

^rR?l of (what) has been heard

II

H^

II

When

thy mind, bewildered


fixed
in

by

the Shruti,

shall

stand immovable,

contemplation, then shalt


(53)

thou attain unto yoga.


'

KJTr%T5n by scripture-texts, distract-

48

ed

^
;

able
rf^T

thy ^pn^r in Samadhi


;
;

s^r

when

*qrlf?r shall staud


;

RVJT immovPure Reason


;

sr^FJr

unmoved

jrf^f:

then

^Tnt to

yoga

ST^n^f^T (thou) shalt attain.

T%
v

Arjuna

said:

What

is

the

steadfast in contemplation,

mark of him who is O Keshava

stable of mind,
?

stable-minded

talk,

how doth he
s^TF

sit,

how doth the how walk ? (54)


whose,

fWrTT^TTO = R^TrTF
his;
^Fir

IW

rTTO steady, intelligence,

what;

TW
;

definition; ^nTrf^???^

= of

the Saraadhi-

seated;

%?r^

mind, whose, he

Keshava; fl^rf^r: = R^rff *ff: ^^ 5f: fixed, r% what !T>TT^Rr may (he) speak f%
; ;

what (how); what (how).

STTSfhT

may

(he) sit

5T%?r

may

(he)

walk; f%

The

Blessed Lord said

When

man abandoneth, O

Partha,

all

the desires

of the heart, and is satisfied in the then is he called stable in mind.

SELF by

the SELF,
(55)

49
;

e)
all;

throws away
;

3[fr
:

when

^ftti; desires
to

7PT

Parfcha

*T%TrTR;='?^ Trff^

3Tf?*TfH in
tied
is
;

the Self
:

^ only

the mind, gone;


Self
;

3Trc*mr

by the
;

5^: satis3=53^ (he)

f*qrTW

steadfast, in

mind (see 54)

<ffr

then

called.

He whose mind
different

is

free

from anxiety arnid pains,


fear

in-

amid pleasures, loosed from passion,


is

and
(56)

anger, he

called a sage of stable mind.


;

<*:%* in pains

3T3ffJT*Rr:
;

= T Sff?t

*R: 3**!

ff:
:

not agitated,

niiud, whose,

z&Q
*T5[

he in pleasures; f%Trf^? =f%T?ir ?<J?r gone, desire, whose, he 3t?T*rTvrasfiN: = ^Irf: ^T ***

5^5
?T :

^ ^TW

^f

^^
;

n oue

>

desire,

and,

fear, and,

anger,
s

and whose, he
(he)
is

f??jfivfr :

steady-minded

(s^ee

54):

0^:

^g e

'

called.

He who on every side is without attachments, whatever hap of fair and foul, who neither likes nor dislikes, of such a one the understanding is well-poised. (57)
q:

he who;
?ffj

gf^

everywhere; a^WSTf: mi-attached


;

rTff

that

that (whatever)

U*T ^f 3TU*t ^T

having obtained sf not pleasant, and, unpleasant, and


sip^t
;

so
;

rejoices;

ff

not;
is

ffij

hates

^3

of

him

jf^t the intel-

ligence

qr%rir

established.

When,
then
is

again, as a tortoise draws in

on

all

sides

its

limbs, he withdraws his senses from the objects of sense,


his

understanding well-poised.
Sf%1jj

(58)
aril this

35T when:
tortoise;
arjfTffi
;

draws
;

in

q-

and;

one;

^:

limbs

$^like;3r?3P everywhere;

fffjsirnjr

the senses

f f^tU^^S = f fy^fTr^ aT^f^: of the senses, from the objects ; ri^f of him ; sn^T the intelligence established.
;

NH^Idcf
I

H^

(I

l objects of sense, but not the relish for them, turn away from an abstemious dweller in the body; and

The

even relish turneth away from him after the Supreme


is

seen.
:

(59)
the objects of sense
^f$sr: of
; ;

RrR^t
;

turn
;

away
of

(of the) f oodless


relish,

the embodied
;

^r^3T = ^^

excepting
;

^:

relish

arn" even
ffff

?R^

him

qt the

Supreme
l

^[

having seen
turn

^%

turns away.
desire for

The
;

objects

remains

even desire

is lost

away when rejected, but still when the Supreme is seen.

them

O
mind.

son of Kunti, the excited senses of even a wise


striving,

man, though he be

impetuously carry away his


(60)
;

ZfrT^: of the endeavouring

ff indeed

arfqr

eveu
;

5H33

Kannteya
;

g^TOl

of

man

f^qffcgr: (of the)


;

wise

the senses

impetuously;

STHrq?R (the) uptearing T^: the mind.

f ffi carry away

f|
Having
I

restrained
;

them
for
is

all,

he should

sit

harmonised,

his

supreme goal
them
9Tr*f[rT

whose senses are mastered, of


well-poised.
;

him the understanding


rrrfa
;

(61)
restrained
;

3^far
should
;

all

4^wj having
*re<T*:
;

g*ff:

joined;
goal,

sit;

whose, he
;

q^T in control
of

=9Tt'TC ff indeed
:

1^ ^
;

I, supreme ZRH of whom


:

ff?B[rPT senses
(is)

?f^

him

5?^ the intelligence

established.

Man, musing on the objects of

sense, conceireth

an

52

attachment to these

from attachment ariseth desire


;

from desire anger cometh forth


EZHItT'
(of the)
a^f:
is

(62)

sensesj
3<T5fR*T

of
;

the

meditating; fifing. (on) objects (of the man <HT: attachment tjsr in them ;
;

korn

*=fTTfl

from attachment
;

^fstrZKf arises

^\Jj:

desire

3Ffr*n?|[

from desire

sfirsr:

anger

3T[>T3ira% is

produced.

fused

From anger proceedeth delusion from memory from confused memory the
;
; ;

delusion condestruction of
(63,
;

Reason

from destruction of Reason he perishes.


from,

anger

HfHT
'

becomes

?T'*?fi? :

delusion

from delusion; ?ir^f^*n =??^:


confusion
;

f%^*f:

of

memory,
;

?^[f?T^?iTrfI

= f*&
;

^f?Tr?r:=l^':

TF5T: of

^TT?J of memory, from confusion Reason, destruch'nu ^ ng^[5Tffl fron.


;

destruction of Reason

sr<irofsr (

he

perishes.

But the disciplined


\vith

self,

moving among sense-objects


(64)

senses

free

from attraction and repulsion mas-

tered

by the SELF, goeth to Peace.

CfTfsrRs^: = T*TT ^Tf ^"1 ^T^S^: with ( from ) attraction, and. ( from ) i-uiml.-iim, and, (from) disjoined; ^J indeed
;

objects

of sense

f fg^j: with senses

^^ moving

53

< after
led
;

3lT?fT*res[:'=3lT?*rT:

^&:

of the Self.
*T:

by

the control-

n>raT5JTr

= T^fa:

3TR*Tr

2TC?1

subdued,

self,

whose,

to peace,-

3TfaT^lW

attains.

|T: <TR!f
In that Peace the extinction of

II

^H

II

him

for

of him whose heart

is

all pains arisetli for peaceful the Reason soon

attaineth equilibrium.
SRTT>
(

(65)

in

(the state of) peace;


;

B^QTRT = *rfqr 5:*9PH


;

of)

all.
;

of pni'is

fff^:

-"fsfcrnciion
^"rT:

-lj^

nf

him

^qfsiras

arises
hi*
;

q'gyT^'rr^'-

=JTq?f
BTF5J

^?j
;

?Tf2(

peaceful, mind,

whose,

f|

in.leed

qaickly

^Rjf:

the Reason

T^

settles

down.

There
for the

is

no pure Reason
is

for the

non-harmonised, nor
;

non-harmonised

there concentration
is

for for

him
the
(66)

without concentration there unpeaceful

no peace, and
?

how can
^rf^gr is
; :

there be happiness
:

T
led
;

not
ff

^f\rf
:

Reason

not
?T

*%

;i.nd
=5T

^TjTRfZlof the uucbtlt colled


:

^T^rR^l of the uncontrolHFRF medi;

tation;

not;

and

3T*TR*l?T

of the non-meditating; ?(fl%:


;

peace
n ess.

3T5u"rT^I of

the nnpeaceful

553:

whence

?jiq

happi-

54

f|
irqjafU

Such of the roving senses


that
hurries

as the

mind

yieldeth

to,

hurries

away

understanding, just as the gale a ship upon the waters. (67)

away

the

ff?2U aTT

which
3TC3 of

of the senses; ff indeed; ^KHTI moving Zftj q^' the mind STgTShfraa' is conformed to rffj that
; ;

him ftfH
; ;

carries
:

away

si^rf
;

the wind

^1^ the ship

f=? like

the intelligence 3tvrr% in the water.

ff3

TfT^lff
II

^<^

II

Therefore, O mighty-armed, whose senses are all completely restrained from the objects of sense, of him

the understanding

is

well-poised.
of

(68)
*^raT?r

rTRTt therefore

q&l

whom

mighty-armed

(see 26);
3([foT

RTrfrarHT restrained; everywhere; $\ythe senses; fff^r^f^: (see 58) from the objects of
;

^^:

the senses

?T*a[

of

him

jfgr the intelligence

STKTfgrTr

( is )

established.

R^TT

That which

is

the night of

all

beings,

for the

dis-

55

ciplined man is the time of waking ; when other beings are waking, then is night for the Muni who seeth. 1 (69)
SIT

which;
;

f?ror

night;
;

^fo ^TrTPff = *nfqf


1

^rTRi

(of) all,

of beings
(

^^

in that
;

one

)
;

q&tt in which
frf^ri

UTUT^ wakes tjfrem wake


;

?f^jfr

*Tfrrnt
;

the disciplined creatures


;

that

night; <T?g?r.

( of

the

seeing

5^: of the muni.

II

VSo

||

He

attaineth

Peace,

into

whom

all

desires flow as

rivers flow into the ocean,

which

is filled

with water but


(70)
ITfrfSr
;

remaineth unmoved
SrrrcfaFTI (ever)
3TC?I

not he
being

who
;

desireth desires.
3T=5n7JfR5 = 3T=^5Tr
;

filled

^ unmoving,
waters
;

status, whose,
;

him

^55^ (in)
;

to the ocean

?rpr.

Jrf^?ir% enter

zjf ?j as
;

?ff^ so

qRRT:
;

objects
all
;

of

)
;

desires

( in )
;

to

whom

qf^df?r enter
;

g%

5ET

he

^rfr^H peace
of
(

afTrffrr%

obtains

^ not

objects of

desires, the desirer.

1 The Sage is awake to things over which the ordinary man sleeps, and the eyes of the Sage are open to truths shut out from the common vision, while rife rersS, that which is real for the masses is illusion for

the Sage.

56

Who
to Peace.

so forsaketh

all

desires

and goeth onwards

free

from yearnings,

selfless

and without egoism

he goeth
(71)

having thrown away


-.

^friT^ desires

5^:

IIH

who;
;

JHPJ.

man; ^tfo goes; R:^f:


)

without-desire
;

\vithoiu-miue (ness

PKf^fK:

wicaout-egoibm

^p

be

^ifnt to

peace

3TP^I-=<$'frT attains.

This

is

the Eternal state,


is

son of Pritha.

Having
at

attained thereto none

bewildered.

Who, even

the

death-hour,

is

established therein, he goeth to the Nirvana


(72)

of the Eternal.

qm
*t

this

sTfgfr of
;

Brahman

f^q'R': sfarus
;

qr?f
is

Purtlia

not; if^t this

JfT^ having obtained


(

f%3fTfa

confused
;

having sat
of

been establmhed

3T^f
;

in this
;

3T?rI^fr%
tJ

the end, iu the time

%rf7 even
;

3glR^r

T*I

Bi-ahman, to Xirvdna
o

a?;$[% attains.

gt^q^nl

*m

fl^iqts^r^: u
entitled:

s iu the glorious

BHACrAVAD-GlTA the second discourse

YOGA BY THE SANKHYA.

57

THIRD DISCOURSE.

II

II

Arjuna
If
it

said:
is

be thought by thee that knowledge

superior

to

action,

Janardana,

why

dost thou,

Keshava,
(

enjoin on
SSSttZRTf

me

this terrible action ?


if

superior; %f{

37*1 JJJ:

than action
;

tliee
rf?j

q<fT
:

thought
f%*

;
:

^g: knowledge 3RIFT


gfJifor

% ( by ) Janardana
of

then

why

in act
;

on

q[t

in )

terrible

HT

engagest

%^ O Keshava.
^ u
my
(

II

With these perplexing words Thou only confusest


understanding way by which
^rf^^'T
speech
as
it
: ;

therefore

tell

me
?

with

certainty the one


2
)

may
)

reach bliss
;

with

intermixed
;

f^ as
(

it

were
)

3I5ZR with
;

Sj-fs?
;

understand ing
T
:

^r?3f%
;

thou
;

confusest
;

%q

were

my

rT?l

so

q5^
;

one

^f speak
\'

hnvinc: docided

ZR by which
obtain.

$(q: better

the

good)

58

The

Blessed Lord said


is

In this world there

a twofold path, as

before said,

sinless
;

one

Sahkhyas
belief

yoga by knowledge, of the and that of yoga by action, of the Yogis. ( 3 )


: ;

that of

r% in world
;

( in )
;

tni 's
;

ffft^T twofold
;

ROT

jjcr

formerly

said

ijqj

by me

3H^
;

sinless

one
of

^rr^ih
;

knowledge, by yoga

^rns^Rni
yoga
;

the Sankhyas the yogis.

action, by

Man
from

activity,

winneth not freedom from action by abstaining nor by mere renunciation doth he rise
(

to perfection.
T

not

^r^fJTTR
;

of

action?

3T5Trt*n^
;

from

by

non-

commencement
obtains
(T^
:

inactivity
;

3^: man
(

not

and

from

by

renunciation

only

%f%

perfection

attains.

59

Nor can anyone, even


actionless
;

for
is

an instant, remain really

for

helplessly

everyone driven to action


(

by the
Jfff

qualities

born of nature.
;
;

5 )
;

arfa even ^faff anyone ^m. a moment f^gf?T stands 3T^f4^ un-action-perform3Trg in reality 3T^5T: helpless gpf ing gjrl[% is made to do f| indeed

not

action
ties.

*&

all

CTf5f%fr:

by

the nature-born

501:

quali-

Who sitteth, controlling the organs of action, but dwelling in his mind on the objects of the senses, that bewildered man is called a hypocrite. ( 6 )
^RFqrfor = 3ifrni ff^rPT of actions, the organs $Wf who controlled zj: STF^T sits HT^rr by the mind f fj^F^lf^ the objects of the ?*re^ remembering
;

having
;

senses (see

ii.

58.)
;

frT5re*Tr

f%f?:

srr?n 3*3*1. confused,

mind, whose, he
duct, whose, he
;

R^r^TC: =
^f:

mt^IT STr^nC-'
is called.

3W ^-

false, con-

he

^^H

II

II

But who, controlling the senses by the mind,

60

Arjuna, with the organs of action, without attachment,

performeth yoga by action


2j:

l
,

he

is

worthy.
senses
;

mind

fff?^rf^r g R^TT having controlled Arpna ^f?5%: by the organ*


;

who

indeed

the

*R*rr
;

by

the

^Tr^T^"

commences
:

3T3pT

of action

37^*1*1.

karma -

yoga

ST^Ffi.

unattached

^: he

f%f?TO% excels.

inaction,

Perform thou right action, for action is superior to and, inactive, even the maintenance of thy
possible.
:

body would not be


t
:

prescribed: 3pJ do.- ^rT action thou; better; f^ indeed; IT^iH'T! than inaction;
;

^m
:

action:

^itr^I^T^
;

and % thy TT^T of the body, pilgrimage 3TR even ; not sn?Tx?il?J[ ma .T succeed STSfRon from ( by ) inaction.
; :

The world
ment,

is

bound by
;

action,

unless

the sake of sacrifice

for

that sake,

free

performed for from attach(9)


;

son of Kunti, perform thou action.


of sacrifice,
(

from

for the sake of

Karma- Yoga
z. e..

is

the consecration of physical energy

ou the Divine

Altar,

the using of one's organs of action simply in service, in

obedience to

Law

and Dnty.

6i
action ( tliaii ) otherwise ?p*r3r &fa: the 3T3 this; graahTT: =*fi$ anCT 3*3 3P action, bond, whose, it; rT?*T = 3*3 3T5>f of that, for the sake; 5ft action
;

from

world;

4r^3 O Kaunteya; gff?*fT: = g^: ^ifr 3f *' abandoned, attachment, by whom, he *T*TP^C perform.
:

Having
with

in

ancient times emanated

sacrifice, the

Lord

of

emanation

said:

mankind together "By this shall


desires 1
;

ye propagate; be
?T?3Sctt:

this to
5T?

you the giver of


sacrifice,
;

10)
the

= 3*R
?j^r

with

together;

Sf5Tp
;

peoples
said;

having

emanated
;

Off

formerly

^r^f
shall

ran ft:

Prajapati
;

ar%1 by
^: of

this;

a^f%KZp^
;

propagate (ye)

sr?g let be desired, objecte, milks.


tiq this
;

you

ye the shining ones and may the nourish shining'ones you; thus nourishing one another, ye
this nourish

"With

shall reap the


f^ff^ the

supremest good.
;

( (

!I
;

Gods

*rp^3?T

nourish

ye

^HRf by
3:

this

those; "OT'.Gods; >Tr?35


i

may

nourish;

you

The cow
;

of ludra,

from which each could milk what he wished

for

hence the giver of desired objects.

62

each other; qrrrap nourishing; %*: good;


(

<ft

the highest

ye

shall

obtain.

t "

*T%
the Shining

For, nourished

by

sacrifice,

Ones

shall

bestow
verily
is

on you the enjoyments you desire." A thief he who enjoyeth what is given by Them with-

out returning

Them
;

aught,

(12)
ff

f^Pl. desired

^TfTPSL

enjoyments;
give
;

indeed; ^: to you

^T: the Gods


sacrifice,

^KT
;

will

2ntTHrr?rTr:
;

= 3fFT
;

HlT^fr'-

by

nourished

%:

by them
5r:

^rTRt given
to

STJTfnt not

having
enjoys
;

given

^q

(returned); thief l3 only


;
;

qr*i:

these; ?j:who;

ijr^

he.

ii

\\

ii

The righteous, who eat the remains of the sacrifice, are freed from all sins but the impious, who dress food
;

for their

own

sakes, they verily eat sin.

(13)
sacrifice,

s^Tf^rerfa'T:

= 21^21
;

f%5:

3^Rm^
;

of

the

remains,

(who)

eat,

they

^?f: the

good
all,
;

^% are

freed

^rfferi^rq-:
;

= g%
those
:

f%ff?^%: by ( from)

by (from)
qrqr:

sins;
:

gsra enjoy
I

indeed

srq

evil

sinners

\vho

TeffW
(for

cook; 8TrW^rrcaTr<t=TrcH ;I5 SFR^fl of the


the) cause (sake).

self,

from

From

food creatures become; from rain


;

is

the produc;

tion of food

rain proceedeth from sacrifice

sacrifice

ariseth out of action;

(14)

from food
from rain
Zf^lTf^
;

*Tsrffi

become

^rTFR creatures
of food,
;

3T5n=T*rf: =3T5TC*l SPT^T:

the production;
rain
;

from
;

sacrifice

VT^rra.

becomes

75^3:

sacrifice

^FT?^: ==5R^tjr: ^^-. qw.

^ from

Zffi:

action, the

arising, whose, that.

U?HII
Brahman from
Brahma action groweth, and the Imperishable cometh. Therefore the Eternal, the all-permeating, is ever present in sacrifice.
thou that from

Know

(IS)
3J| action;

BgHS? = sB(igv\

^^'
;

^?J

rT?l
;

from
srgl

Brahma
Brahma;

(the Vedas), arising, whose, that

f^f^f

know

SWC^S^^ 3 3^Crrl ^35^:


arising, whose,

^2JrT<l,

from the Imperishable,


;

that

rTCHT^ therefore
;

^rgr
;

everywherein
sacrifice
;

going

551
( is )

Brahman

fHr2J

constantly

Zffi

established.

mi
re(

He who

on earth doth not follow the wheel thus


life

volving, sinful of

and rejoicing
^
;

in

the senses, he,

son of Pritha, liveth in vain.

16)

13
life,

thus

srefrTrT sec

turniug

wlieel

not

2jm follows: f?
whose, he
;

Iteiv; q: wl,

3*3
3TTCR:
;

ST- evil,

sfysKnT:
;

= trg-qg

P in the sens-

es,

he rejoicing, whose,
;

^r^ uselessly

Partha

^r:

he

SELF

But the man who rejoiceth in the SELF, with the and is content in the SELF, for him is satisfied,
is

verily there
q:

nothing to do.
indeed
:

(i/ ;

who

STR'TCft:
;

u the
:

Self, pleasure,

whose, he by the Self,


Self
;

man
ted;
is.

iu the

^ ouiy ^
to

may be
:

satisfied

nnr\

the

only

g'g
?r

coufcen-

(work)

V- flonn

ot:

For him there

is

no

interest in things

done

in this

world,

nor any in things not done, nor doth any object


(

of his depend on any being.


?T

18)

not
;

q^f

concern

even; 3&( of him; fj%;f with action; ?nf: not STfi^T with inaction qR^H $f here
; ; ;

any

?r

not

^
in

and

acr^ of
;

this

one
;

%$

in )
;

all,

creatures

^ff*Tq[

any

^t*[^j = ^ftj 3T?fo of (an)

interest

s^qr^ST^:

dependence.

Therefore,
action which

without attachment,
is

constantly perform

duty,

for

by performing action without


Supreme.
;

attachment,
tTFTTri;

man

verily reacheth the


;

(19)
;

therefore

ST^rff:
;

(necessary) to be done

unattached
action
;

^?T?f

always

gT

^JTp^T perform
;

unattached

ft
;

indeed

srr^T^ performing
;

BT^TF:
action
;

1^ the Supreme

3TTJfn% obtains

g^^":

man.

f|

Janaka and others indeed attained


also,

to perfection

by

action; then having an eye to the welfare of

the world

thou shouldst perform action.


by action

(20)
;

3)fcrr

^ only
;
;

ft indeed

^f%Rrn
srrft: zfti

to perfec-

tion

srrre?t?rf : attained

*H*|^: = 3Rgp;:
?Tr^?l'?T?l

Janaka,

the beginning, whose, they


5

= sfr^I

q'tf&l of the

66

world, welfare
to

do;

rfrer

even; 9TR" also; Sfa^FS looking tbou shouldst.


;

to

II

R3

||

do

Whatsoever & great man doeth, that other men the standard he setteth up, by that the people
what
?iq;
;

also
go.

(21)
3jqr
;

3tfJ
;

what; STT^Rt does;


only
frTC;
:

*!R?:
;

the

that

that
JnTrrir

best;
;

?f^r

the other
:

^rff:

people
;

^p he

what

measure
;

(
;

authority)

^g- makes

^r^T: the

world (people)

?rq;

that

3T5^^%

follow?.

There is nothing in the three worlds, O Partha, that should be done by Me, nor anything unattained that
might be attained; yet
5T

mingle

in action.
srflrT is
;

(22
;

not

of

me

<rr?f
:

Partha

^^
;

to be
:

done;
not
(I)
;

f%rrj

(in the) three

ST^rFR. unobtained l3 also ^ and ^q;f &i


; ;

ffr%^ worlds fifi^T anything ^ 33 exist Bq^ifloq to be obtained


in action.

67

all

mingled not ever in action, unwearied, men around would follow My path, O son of Pritha. (23)

For

if I

qf?

if

f|

indeed

3Tf I
;

not
:

^^
ir*T

should exist
;

^fg
;

(always)

^fHf^I in action

3T^f?rT

unwearied

ipr

my
;

^c4

path; 3Tfgi?t follow;


everywhere.

^H\: men;

Partha

These worlds would

fall

into ruin, if

did not per-

form action; I should be the author of confusion of castes, and should destroy these creatures. ( 2 4)
3^ff??J
:

would be destroyed
perform
;

5%
;

these

not

gfzfr if (I)
;

qrf action

confusion

?tr^P worlds
^r? 1
I
)
5

sf

if

^f^fn^ of
be
;

and

^f?f r
;

author

?qr*l. (
;

would

(I)

^vould slay

f *TT: these

inff: peoples.

As

Bharata,

the ignorant act from attachment to action, O so should the wise act without attachment,

desiring the welfare of the world.


^T?fjr:

(25)
;

attached

gffipJT
;

in (to) action

?ff%fi'Er the

unwise
;

*&n
to

as

^f%
man
;

act

VK3
;

the wise

?fqj so

^zfnT should act R$R[ ar^TJ: unattached f%r^|%: desiring


; ;

Bharata

make

^37^3*1.

(see 20) the welfare of the world.

68

Let no wise

man
all

unsettle the

ple attached to action; but acting in


let

mind of ignorant peoharmony with Me


(26")
;

him render

action attractive.

not; 5f^f^t=l%:
shoul^ produce
nff
;

^t

of
f

the reason, the breaking-tip


the

3T*TRT
action,

^^f

^^TT

^WrnT^Tr^z attachment, \vhose, of them


; ;

unknowing

all,

should cause (others) to like ^tf^prfror = *rfrfr ?K*frfoi actions f%5f1, the wise man grfj: united, ( balanced )
;
;

^THr^^ performing.

All actions are wrought


only.

by the

qualities of

nature
:

The

self,

deluded by egoism,

thinketh

"I
(

am
27
)

the doer."
:

of

nature

fafT^JTr^rFT

being performed;

aj^f:

by the qua-

lities

^THffoT

actionsSTrcJTT
;

^51:

everywhere;

art^Trif^gTr^Tr
self,

ST^RT f^S:
he
;

^?H ^: by egoism, deluded,


;

whose,

^rff the doer

3Tf I

f f% thus

Hf^%

thinks.

But

he,

mighty-armed, who knovveth the essence

of the divisions of the qualities and functions, holding that "the qualities move amid the qualities," 1 is not
attached.
the essence-knower
;

(28)

5 indeed

Hf rerff

mightywrSocn*.

armed

ii.

26

?J'wfft<Trnir:

= SJ^TRri.

^f

HnTCT^r:
divisions
2

of the qualities, and, of the actions, and, of the


;

(two)
;

Jjorr:

the
H5fr

qualities;

3jotj in

the qualities
ff

^fa
is

exist; ff^r thus;

having tliought;

not;

qTSnt

attached.

^
Those deluded by the
to

1 1

qualities of nature are attached

the

functions

of the qualities.

The man
foolish

of perfect

knowledge should not unsettle the


ledge
is

whose know(29)

imperfect.
of

nature;

3JOKTJ5T: =3J<^: %*[5T:

by the qualities,

deluded; 3-5^% are attached; <Jnfi% = ST^RT the qualities, in the actions; rff^ those 3T?5?5rfaf :
;

^3

of

not-all-

The
"

qualities

objects.
ties.

suggested reading

as sense-organs " is
:

move amid the qualities as senseThe functions dwell in the propensi-

O) Shaukara
karma-vibh&ga "=>of the
class of

says; "of guna-vibh&ga and gunas and the class of karmas or ( 6)


; ,

vibh&ga=apportionment, arrangement of karmas. or the relations of them.

the arrangements of gunas and

70
;

knowing
not
;

the

slow

the

all-knowing

should unsettle.

n::

ii

ii

Surrendering
resting on the
freed,
iriq

all actions to Me, with thy thoughts supreme SELF, from hope and egoism

and of mental fever cured, engage


in

in battle.
;

(30)

me

?T3Trot

all

^prrfal

actions

^r?g^ having
the Self, with
;

abandoned; 3Tirc*T%rr*rr = ^

in

mind; f^T?ifp nnhoping f%^rr: become ^^^ fight (thou);


;

witliout

mine'

^Jjr^r

having

gone, fever, whose, he.

\\\

11

Who
and
actions.
21

abide ever in this teaching of Mine, full of faith free from cavilling, they too are released from
(31)

(they)

who;

?r

my

Trre.

opinion

f^

this

pfHJ con-

stantly;
r!

3T5rasr% follow; JTR^T: men not cavilling; igeqtf are freed;


;

s^nm: faith-filled; % they; 3?f^ also;

by

from

actions.

Who
senseless,

carp

at

My

deluded

in all

teaching and act not thereon, knowledge, know thou these


(32)
;

mindless ones as fated to be destroyed.


at

who

5
>

indeed;
;

qa^
;

this

3T>-^^SfrT:
;

carping at

?r

not

3T3nraf*T follow

% my

Jfrf 1.

opinion

?rf jjfRf^J5R
;

5H%

f% JJ^rJ (in) all, in knowledge, deluded

rfrq[

these

know

(thou)

^T^rqr.

destroyed

aT%<Tgf: mind-less.

with his

Even the man of knowledge behaves in conformity own nature beings follow nature what shall
;
;

restraint avail

(33)
;

of

behaves ^r^T. ( of ) his own conformably nature ^rr^T^r^. the wise man 3Tfo even
;
;
;

%^

to

nature: qf[% go; 5j3rR creatures;


;

f^f^f: restraint

what

^fR52?r% will do.

in the senses; let

Affection and aversion for the objects of sense abide none come under the dominion of these
;

two

they are obstructors of the path.


;

(34)
;

t?f 3*3 of the sense


object; *nr|;^r =

tfesra of the sense


these (two)

srq-

in the

W: "^f^:
;

^T attraction, and, repulsion, and;


;

seated

rT^f:

of

not

^rl

(under

72

the) control

srrir^girf let

(him) come

^f these (two)

indeed

qr?<Tf*nfr

(two) obstructors of the way.

Better one's own duty, though destitute of merit, than the duty of another well-discharged. Better death in the discharge of one's own duty the duty of another is full
;

of danger.
Hfari better; ffq^:
'

(35)

own-duty;

RrJJif:

without

(good)

quality; qrqwr?! = T^T ^*fni of another, than the duty; f*^ in own duty f^q?T death *=T3fl?rTr?l (than) well done d|: better; TW?: another's duty nir^f: fear-bringing.
; ;

II

Arjuna said

But dragged on by what does a man commit sin, reluctantly indeed, O Varhneya, as it were by force constrained
3T?T
?
(

36

now; %?T by what


does
;

JT^^: impelled
:

3T3*
;

this; qpf

sin

^nt

J^T:

man

3TR=^^ undesiring
;

srrT even

31&W

Vdrslmeya; ^^Ti^ by force

f*f as it

were;

compelled.

73

The Blessed Lord


It is desire,
it

said

is

wrath, begotten by the quality of

mobility

all-consuming, all-polluting,

know thou

this as

our foe here on earth.


sSFfPT:

(37)
;

q^: this ?~5fr?JOT^-. of mobility, from the quality, *rSW* = nKP SFffil tr5V? JT^r^T: =H3fl 3T^ H&l ^: great, devouring, birth, whose, it
desire
;

qrer:

this
:

VRVf:

wrath

SW

whose,
this
;

it;

JTfrqTwir
;

ff here

very ^[RoT^ the

hurtful
foe.

f%f^ know (thou)

As
dust, as
is

flame

is

an embryo
it.

is

enveloped by smoke, as a mirror by l wrapped by the amnion, so This


(38)

enveloped by

^I^ by smoke
?rr[?(r:

3Tff^^%

a mirror;
;

Wff

enwrapped ^r% by dust -^ and zmr as;


;
:

is

fire

q?rr as

3?gr?r

by the

amnion
it
;

STf^rT:
;

f^
1

this

TH: embryo enwrapped arrf^TI enwrapped.


;
:

?nn

so

^r by

The universe

"This"

as

opposed to

"THAT,"

the

ETERNAL.

Some say

" This " stands for " knowledge."

74

Enveloped

is

wisdom by

this constant
is

enemy of

the

wise in the form of desire, which

insatiable as a flame.

(39)
STffrT

enveloped

he wise
3?R:

man
by
)

wisdom q-%^ (by) this ffT^nftTr by the constant enemy


;
;

^[1%^: of

^TT^TT =
Kaunteya
;

^<t ^re^t *T : desire,


(

body, whose, he
;

^ff%3
;

grojCT

the .unfillable

31^?^ by flame

-BT

and.

The
its

senses, the
;

mind and the Reason


wisdom,
it

are said to be

seat

by

these, enveloping

bewilders the
(40)

dweller in the body.


the senses
3T*3 of
these
;

T^:

the

mind

^5:
is

the
;

reason

this;

srfagRi*.

the seat;
.

3^21%
;

called

q%: by
;

fwf Z(f%

bewilders
;

having enveloped

jftWl wisdom ^-. this %"f ?fi the embodied one.

3Tff

FRRR^
Therefore,

II

II

best of the Bharatas, mastering

first

75

the senses, do thou slay this thing of

sin,

destructive of
(41)

wisdom and knowledge.


rTCTrfl

therefore
;

^^
;

thou

f fg-qrfot the senses


;

arrfr in

the beginning

|%^y^ having controlled


best

^?TI>T= *KrTRf
slay
;

3|t^T
;

of the Bharatas,
<tf
this
;

Tr^frT sin

Sfsfff

ff indeed

*rmf%*tt?Rr?R*= ^TR^*

^ R*TR^ ^ ?rr?[R*,

of

knowledge, and, of special knowledge, destroyer.

TO
It is said that

gfe^rf fi::
the senses are great greater than the greater than the mind is the Reason
; ;
;

senses

is

the
is

mind

but what

greater than the Reason,


the senses
;

is

HE.
srrg:

(42)
(they)
;

ffS^rrJr
ifsfz^zi:

T^lT^r

superior

say

than the senses


;

rt

superior;

ffrf:

mind
:

H'T^T:

than
;

the

mind 5 w ho; 5^: than

indeed

q-^r

superior

^fe

the Reason
indeed
;

?j:

the Reason; f^f: greater;

^f:

he.

restraining the self

Thus understanding Him as greater than the Reason, by the SELF, slay thou, O mightyarmed, the enemy in the form of desire, difficult to overcome.
l?fr

(43)
thus
;

^f: than

the Reason

jt the greater;

^r having

The Supreme.

76

known

%*rP-ai
;

having steadied
;

the Self

srf| slay (thou)


;

3Tr?TR*l. the self


;

arr**Rr
( ii.
;

by
;

the enemy

*T5r*r?t

26)

mighty-armed
difficult to

3fnH3<t

39

) (of)

the form of desire

approach.

Thus in the glorious BHAaAVAD.GiTJL...the third discourse, entitled

THE YOGA OF ACTION.

77

FOURTH DISCOURSE.

inn
The Blessed Lord
This
imperishable
it

said

yoga
;

declared
to

to

Vivasvan

Vivasvan taught
f*t this

to

Manu

Manu

Ikshvaku told

it.

(0
;

f%3?^

to

Vivasvan
;

?T? I
q-[^

ST^ZHI. imperishable
;

^rt yoga; f^^rpi Vivasvan


; ;

JTfTfi^T^
;

spoke

qtfe to

Manu

said

^5:

Manu

f ^i^r% to Ikshvaku

3TS%?1 spake.

IRII
This, handed on down the line, the King-Sages knew, This yoga by great efflux of time decayed in the

world,

O
;

Parantapa.
;

(2)
JIFff**.

^ thus
f H this

T^RrHl= TtTWr
the king-sa^es
;

by succession, obtained

unfo-

f%g:
;

know

%'.
;

this
srg-;

^jr?FT

by
;

time

f^ here

q^TT (by) great

?frT:

yoga

destroyed

Parantapa.

78

This same ancient yoga hath been to-day declared to thee by Me, for thou art My devotee and My friend
it is

the

supreme
;

Secret.
; ;

(3)
; ;

q-;

this

^ even
zfri:
(

3TfI to-day

devotee

3TRT

% to thee Jf^r by me STZPZ. this yoga JiFFr declared ^nTT'- ancient HTR: thou ) art % my ST^f friend isf and ff?T
; ;

thus; *fro secret; f| indeed;

q^ this;
\

ST^TH

best.

II

8U

Arjuna

said

Later was thy birth, earlier the birth of Vivas van how then am I to understand that Thou declaredst it in
;

the beginning
?T<Tt

(4)
of

later

VT^rT?
:

thee
of

5fT

the
;

birth

q^ earlier
;

51WI

the birth

f%3rr^rp
( I )

Vivasvan
;

f^pftani.
beginning
;

may

understand
;

^nt how q^fq; this in the *% thoa STrff


;
;

q'lTff^r^ declaredst

f ft thus.
I

T^
said
:

IIHII

The Blessed Lord

Many

births

have been

left

behind

by

Me

and by

79

thee,

thine,

O Arjuna. I know O Farantapa.


many
and
; ; ;

them

all,

but thou knowest not


(5)
; ;

arff%

^ my
;

thy

^T%?T

oqanTfR* past 5F*TfR births rT*T Arjuna rttR these ?r| I %f know
; ;
; ;

5f

not

&

thou

%^

knowest

^^

Parantapa

Though unborn,
Lord of
own, yet
^T5f:

the imperishable SELF, and also the


is

all
I

beings, brooding over nature, which

Mine
(6)

am
;

born through
3TFT also
self,
; ;

My
;

own Power. 1
;

unborn

5T3[.

being

^o^qr^TF = 37szj?j
;

9rrr*Tr

ZITO g-

undecaying,
;

whose, he
being
;

Jj^RrH of beings
;

f ^R

the

Lord

3TPT also
;

^^
the

SI^Rf nature

^T^my

own

errors

resting on
the Self,

5ET*T^rm (I)

become

by

maya.

Whenever
and there
is

there

is

decay of righteousness,
of

Bharata,

exaltation
;

unrighteousness,

then

Myself come forth

(7)

l Mayft, the power of thought that produces form, which is transient and therefore unreal compared with the eternal Eeality hence M&yft comes to be taken.' as the power of producing illusion.
:

^fT

when

Zf^r

when;

f|

indeed;
;

>?ift3

of

daty

decay;

WWRT
of sin
;

is;

mtrT <T^T then

Bharata
;

3T3**TFrai
;

rising

up

arrcTPPI. myself

^TSTrpT

send forth

*J*T

H ^ n

For the protection of the good, for the destruction of evil-doers, for the sake of firmly establishing righteousness,
I

am

born from age to age.


^rg7rf of the good ?f;r|T! of evil-doers
;

(8)
;

for the protection


for the destruction
;

and

$TTO

= >OTtq HWTTTW
the
sake:

^TTT^

of

duty,

of

the
in

establishing,

for

g-vf^TR

(I)

am born;

511

age:

arr

in

age.

He who
its

thus knoweth

My

divine birth and action, in

abandoned the body, cometh not to birth again, but cometh unto Me, O Arjuna. (9)
essence, having
5F*r

birth

^
%%
;

action

and
:

% my

ffssj divine
;

tpf

thus;

q: who;

knows;

rTT^5T

from

(in) reality

cZfoFr^T

?T

having abandoned not comes


;

ff the body; 5^: again; 5T?T to birth; Hrt to me ^% comes ^f: lie
;

Arjuna.

8i

Freed from passion, fear and anger,


taking refuge in Me, purified in the have entered into My being.
fire

rilled

with Me,

of wisdom,

many
(10)
gone,

^Un*T*Iir>TP = sftfT:
desire, and,
fear, and,

*TT:

=^T

VT3[

^ 3>W- ^
;

ZfTT

anger, and, whose, they

tfvTOr full of

me;

7JTPL.

to

me; ^Trfsmr
of

resorting

3ff^:

many;

5TM?TWr =
purified;

rTTHf

wisdom,
(to)

by the austerity;

grTT:

^^T

^^H,

my

being; ?lTT?(r

have) come.

However men approach Me, even so do I welcome them, for the path men take from every side is Mine,

Partha.

Cn)
3iqr as
;

q who
?JIT so
;

rr^ to

me

JTT^W approach
;

rfrqt.

them

<r^

even

vnTTR welcome

3T? I

^T

mJ
;

^^? P a * n

>

3^5^^
where.

follow;

^55^: men; TPT

PAr-tha

^^r:

every-

Wit
They who long
6

q^cT

after success in action

on earth

sacri-

82

for in brief space fice to the Shining Ones world of men, success is born of action.
;

verily, in this

(12)
;

^ri^T- desiring sacrifice to f 5 here


; ;

^f*foTT of
;

^TH

f%fe success zr^% (they) the Shining Ones %sj quickly ft


actions;
;

indeed;
success
;

m^p
*rer%

in
is
;

the

human;

%%

(in the) world;

^4rr

karma-born.

mi
The
rent
four castes were

emanated by Me, by the


;

diffe-

of qualities and actions know Me to be the author of them, though the actionless and
distribution

inexhaustible.

(13)
;

^rg^^
r%*TrT?P
tions, and,

the four cashes

*TOf

by

me

fTgf

emanated

fpr^JTac-

= fjaTRrt ^t ^*r^I
by division
;

^
;

i%*n*TO: of qualities
it;

and of

rT^f of

qR^Wi the author;


;

%rfq~

also

m*

me

ffilf

know

ST^rTKI unacting

srsn^qi inex-

haustible.

Nor do
desired

actions affect Me, nor

is

the fruit of action

by Me.

He
:

\vho thus

knoweth

Me
stain

is

not bound
(14)

by

actions.
?T

not

iTHl.

me

^jfrf^T actions
<?T%

feqR

5f

not

% of

of action,

in the fruit; yjfi desire;

ff% thus; HP*.


actions';
?i

me; q who; arp^Rffit knows


:

eR*rft:

by

not; ^:

he-;

g;u%

is

bound.

II

Having thus known, our


liberation,
;

forefathers,

ever seeking

therefore do thou also performed action perform action, as did our forefathers in the olden time.
(15)
ij^

thus;
;

jffn^r

having known; |fr (was) done;

3$
;

action
of

qlf:
;

by ancients; STR also;


;

moksha c3 do
thou
;

3|fH: (by) desirous


even
(
;

action
;

rTC*Tr?l

therefore
;

5%

<j?f

by ancients

^cft

in

the

past

done,

f%

"

What

is

action,

what inaction
Therefore
I

"
?

Even the wise

are herein perplexed.

will declare to thee

the action by
evil.

knowing which thou


^j4 action;

shalt be loosed from

(16)

f% what;
thus;
cfrra:
;

f% what;
3T5T

ST^f4 inaction; ff%

confused

cf^[

poets ; srfr also; that (therefore);


(I) declare
;

here;

%ffrir:
;

(are)
action
;

^f of (to)

thee

5Rjf

will
(

qq[ which
;

^r^r having known


from
sin.

thou

shalt be freed

8T!5pTr?l

84

UN 3\&
*rm: n
It is

needful to discriminate action, to discriminate


;

unlawful action, and to discriminate inaction

mysteri(17)

ous

is

the path of action.


of

gr*pJT:

action

f? indeed

grfq*qr

also

afpjf^ should be
;

known

3fr^5^ should be

known
;

and

f%^>JT^T: of

action; 3T3Fffr of inaction

^ and ?f?M
;

should be

wrong known;

deep

^<*T

of action

Tr%:

the path.

He who
tion,

seeth inaction in action, and action in inac-

he

is

wise

among men, he
all

is

harmonious, even
(18)

while performing
in action
;

action.
; :
;

in

3T34 inaction q who T^q; may inaction ^ and gfH action q who ^f: he
;

see

wise; JT^S^J in

men
f:

^
all,

he

grf?

balanced

action, does,

who, he.

pi:
Whose works
are
all

II

^11

from the moulding of desire, whose actions are burned up by the fire of wisfree

85

dom, him the wise have


q*g
of

called a Sage.
!
;

(19)

whom;
:

^
:
;

^?rrt*Tr
:

beginnings;

^TRH^T-

tions,

3RKTP = 3?R *T sr3T?% ^ ^f%rTT by desire, and, by imaginaand, untouched jTFTTf^T^WTT3! = 5TRTO srf*^r ?T*TTFT
rT

^THff^T 2RZI

of

knowledge, by the
call
;

fire,

consumed, actions,

whose, him

<fihim; 3Tff

qr%rT learned; ^-fl: wise.

Having abandoned attachment


anything, although doing actions.
?HF^r having abandoned;
of
action,
;

to the fruit of action,


is

always content, nowhere seeking refuge, he

not

doing
(20)

3rfaorRf>t

= ^pfT-

<*% 3Tra*t

in

to

)
:

the fruit, attachment,

fff^HCrT: always-

contented
3TnriTfTr:

Prcr j9'3
;

without dependence
srr7 also;
f

=5fin$far

in

action

engaged

not;

even

f%f%q[ any-

thing

3fuf?T does

^: he.

Hoping

for

naught, his mind and self controlled,

having abandoned all greed, performing action by the (21) body alone he doth not commit sin.
"Ot hoping, ( wishing ) qrTr%TTf^i[ = 3rT f*T^ ?T:--= con trolled, mind, and, self, and, whose, he
;

T
;

5T-

abandoned,

all,

taking,

86
;

by whom, he doing
;

sirfft

bodily

%35T only
;

35$ action

?f

not

3TT c;frf?r

obtains

f%ff4(<i

sin.

Content with whatsoever he obtaineth without


free

effort,

from the pairs of opposites, without envy, balanced in success and failure, though acting he is not bound.
(22)
zir^r^PTSirg?: = sr^ir
5rrH5T

SrgS: by chance, with gain,

contented
f^TcSft:

ffrfTr^:
;

= ft
gif:
;

^Tcfnr

the
;

un-envious
;

equal

pairs, gone beyond ; RT^T in success 3T-f%>gr


;

in non-success
is

-q-

and

^r^T having done

acrfqr

even

not

bound.

Of one

with attachment dead, harmonious, with his


all

thoughts established in wisdom, his works sacrifices,


action melts away.

(23)
:

TrT

*fT *K*l rTTO


;

gone, attachment, whose,

of

him;
:

grfRZl of

the liberated

^TFn^fWcT^"^: = JfTT%
-whose, his
;
;

%H 9^

rT*3 in ivisdoui, established, rrn'nd,


;

for sacrifice

8*1^^:

of

acting

^4

action

^Wlj entirely

dissolved.

II

R3

II

ETERNAL the clarified butter, are offered in the ETERNAL the fire by the ETERNAL unto the ETERNAL verily shall he go who in
the oblation, the
;

The ETERNAL

upon the ETERNAL. ( 24 ) agl Brahman a^rr^r = 35TT 3**^ ( the thing offered ) of Brahman, in the fire SHUTF by Brahman f^rPl. (is) offered ggT Brahman only ;%^ by him ffrl^ (is) to be attained OT rff%T^ ^Trf^s 5W %T Brahman, afl^TOTrm^r = s*5I
his action meditateth wholly
;

a^I Brahman $f%: the offering

srqoi

the act) of offering


;

'

only, action, in that, meditation, whose,

by him

n R
Some Yogis
of the
offer

u
;

up

sacrifice to the

Shining Ones

others sacrifice only

by pouring
some

sacrifice

into the fire (25)

ETERNAL
:

^^^ divine
yogis
in the
;

only
;

3TT^

q^f sacrifice

ih?*nr

<Tl<TrSrT practise
fire
;

STql;

others

S5fTfr = &%W- 3T^T of Brahman, sacrifice q|pT by sacrifice

^ even

ST^rW

o ffer U P-

88

Some pour
into the
fires

as sacrifice hearing of restraint


;

and the other senses


of the senses as
(26)

some pour sound and the


fires

other objects of sense into the


sacrifice
;

WSTTfTR = *xr% srrf?: 3<*r*l rm% hearing, the beginning, 3TRT others ffj^TnT the senses whose, them ^*Trf5T5
; ;

= ?fa*re3T
ning,

3TI5nj

of

restraint
SIS?'-

^ffli sacrifice;

5T^^=
;

(concentration), in the fires ^TfTf rTR. sound, the begin;


'

^r^

whose, them

f^q^r^.

sense-objects

ar^f
:

others

f nr^fiJIl
sacrifice
;

= f fffOTnr*. 3Tf5T5

of the senses, in

the fires

II

RVS

II

Others again into the wisdom-kindled


attained by seif-control, pour as sacrifice
tions of the senses
*nrffor

fire
all
;

of union
the func(27)

and the functions of

life

actions
=5T

and

t??^Trfa = f fy^orni. ^rfa of the senses, JTr'T^Trf^T = Jff^zt 3\*fnv\ of the breath, actions W*t 3T^ others WlWTCnWWTnft = 3Tr5T^5 ^T
all;
;
;

?T^
the

3Tjfr
fire
;

of

the

self,

the
;

restraint,
jjTRfirrfif

even,

yoga, of that, in

3jf ffi sacrifice

= JcTrH^ Cff^ by wisdom,

lighted.

89

the sacrifice of wealth, the sacrifice of the sacrifice of yoga, the sacrifice of silent reading and wisdom, men concentrated and of effectual
austerity,

Yet others

vows
they
they

(28)
:

$?533iTt
;

= SfoZfor

3ST

Sfai

by substances,

sacrifice,

whose, whose,
;

OTT35K:
qriq^n';

= 37=
= 3rT'

aig:

a^T
tftT

%
%

austerity,

sacrifice,

*&$'
;

yoga,

sacrifice,

whose, rhey

?rer so
^toi

aiqc others

^iun^9T!!?^[T:

= prraw

^ *IR ^ 3*r
;

%, study, and, knowledge, and, sacrifice, whose, they and; 333: the restrained (anchorites); 3ftrer3<rr: =
5frf

*3f

^W.%

sharp (difficult), vows, whose, they.

II

R!

II

Yet others pour as sacrifice the outgoing breath in the incoming, and the incoming in the outgoing, restraining the flow of the outgoing and incoming breaths,
solely absorbed in the control of breathing
;

(29)

Sff^ outgoing STq-R in incoming breath 3J}| [*t sacrifice breath jnoj in outgoing breath STTPi incoming breath ?ftff
; ; ;

thus

sm

others

JTrorrTRTrT?

STF^TO

^T

^TTI^^

Trfr, of

pr^na, and, of apana, (the two) courses; ^^f having restrain-

ed

^rTWr^ra'JTr: = STrorraR: TCr^^qr ^

pranayama,

final

refuge, whose, they.

II

^o

II

90

Others, regular in food, pour as sacrifice their lifebreaths in life-breaths. All these are knowers of sacrifice,

and by

sacrifice

have destroyed their

sins.

(30)

3T<K others;
food,

JTOTr^rcn

= ftq<T

^TTfR:

ZWI % restrained,
in

whose, they; JTTTT^ life-breaths;


sacrifice
:

sjfbnj
;

life-breaths;

^f f%
fice,

g-f all

arft also

jpr these

z^rftf: sacrifice-

knowers

^STrqWFTSTP = ait^T STR*:


sins,

tf&W'-

^1^% by

sacri-

thrown away,

whose, they.

\\\ 3

\\

The

eaters of the life-giving remains of sacrifice go to

the changeless
sacrificer,

ETERNAL. This world is not for thenonmuch less the other. O best of the Kurus. (31)
of the sacrifice,

5frf^TCT^55r:=igw Rig ST^T ^f?r ^ ^


remains, immortal (ambrosia) eat, who, they
;

qfr% go
;

Brahman
STftrf

^fTR^T'iL eternal

not

ST^Pl this
;

SfT to ^RT: world


;

is;

8T-^fT^I.of the non-sacrificer

^:
O

whence; ^f^'
best.

other

eh^TH =

i^miI

^rW

of the

Kurus,

Many
forp

and various
1

sacrifices are thus

spread out bethese are born


free.

the

ETERNAL.

Know
is

thou that

all

of action, and thus knowing thou shaltbe


l

(32)

" In the Vedas

''

another interpretation.

91

.]

^
\:
;

thus
of

7gf%qr manifold;
:

Zf^TP sacrifices

f%rRf:
;

spread

Brahman (or Veda); % in the f ace born frr% know (thou) 3^ them ^fa all having known f3W$3% thou shalt be freed,
; ;
;

^ffhffri.

action;

thus

M
of wisdom, OParantapa.

^
;

ii

Better than the sacrifice of any objects is the sacrifice All actions in their entirety, O
(33)

Partha, culminate in wisdom.

^ir^
than

better

y53RSir<l (than)

made up
1

of

objects

3^1
;

sacrifice; 5n?rq5T:

TtHT

Parantapa; Partha der; Titf

= s-TPT^ ^f
all

of

wisdom, the

sacrifice

SRH action; 3rnsT% without remain-

^jr% in

wisdom

qR^THr

is finished.

II

\*

II

Learn thou
and by
3r
service.

this

by

discipleship,

by

investigation,

The

wise, the

seers

of the

Essence of
(34)

things, will instruct thee in


that;
;

wisdom.

ftfe know; srfdTTr^ bJ obeisance;

<mJWT by
;

questioning
thee
;

^3f by
;

service

5T?^i%

shall teach
tlie

of (to)

5-fR

wisdom ?TR?T: the

wise; rlT^ff^R:

truth-seeing.

92

And
beings

this confusion,

having known this, thou shalt not again fall into O r'andava for by this thou wilt see all without exception in the SELF, and thus in
;

Me.
?jq[

(35)
that
;

5fr?3T
.

having known

not

JJ^:

again

*fr^.
;

delusion;
at?T

qi thus
?frr%

qreqflr (thou) shalt go

TT?^

Pandava

by this;
(thou)

creatures
;

3T-trTT (by) without-remainder


;

shalt see

3Trc*TR in the self

%nJr that

is

TR

^^

II

Even

if

thou art the most


all sin

sinful

of all sinners,
raft

yet shalt thou cross over

by the
art; TfT1
;

of wisdom.
(36)

STfreven; ^?J
:

if;

37RT

(thou)

than sinners;

(than) all:
C5T^ ;T

of

TR^TfT: most-sin-doing S=ptall; wisdom, by the raft ; only ; ^ fspT

sin

(thou) shalt cross over.

CT*TT

the burning fire reduces fuel to ashes, Arjuna, so doth the fire of wisdom reduce all actions to ashes.

As

qqras;

qvjff-%

fuels; g- r

(37)
:

kindled; 3TT^: fire;

93

(to)

ashes; fi^f makes; ^%?T


of

Arjuna
gftfT so.

gTf"T:

wisdom,
ashes

fire
;

^^4rr5t = 5T4[f^T
makes
;

Sfffrfa

all

actions

vrcTmil

(to)

fr<j%

Verily there

is

no

purifier in this
it

world
the

like

he that
season.
?ff?

is

perfected in yoga finds

in

SELF

wisdom; in due
(38)

not;

5TRT

by (to) wisdom; tf^r similar; VV&fH.


:

purifier;
3U?T

f?here; f%?j^ is ?T?J that; ^f itself ; ^riRfri^ = ^f^^J in yoga, perfected; gtt5R by (in) time; 3Tf?HR in
;

the self

r%m

finds.

The man who is full of faith obtaineth wisdom, and who hath mastery over his senses and having obtained wisdom he goeth swiftly to the Supreme
he also
;

Peace.
the faithful;
intent;
benses,

rWT

obt.ains

%\j wisdom;

^mf^n = ?rarm^
-whose he
;

frffzufa

^^

%.

controlled,

jffrt

wisdom; ^se^r having obtained;

"TO
;

(to) the highest; srfmq:


goes

to peace; 3T-f^oi without-delay

94

But the ignorant,


destruction
ness,
is
;

faithless, doubting self goeth to nor this world, nor that beyond, nor happiself.

there for the doubting


;

(40)
non-believing
self,
: ;

?T-5T:

and

un-knowing ^ ?raicTr = 3ET5I3I 9TIW ^^f


;
:

^
ff

and

ST-'STPTT'T:
*T
%f?q
; :

^
;

doubt,
this
;

whose, be

fsR^flr
is
;

is
;

destroyed;
T^
:

not

beyond

not; not ?T

^r^f

world
;

fj^ happiness

of (for) the doubting-self.

He who hath renounced action by yoga, who hath cloven asunder doubt by wisdom, who is ruled by the SELF 1 actions do not bind him, O Dhanaftjaya. (41)
,

$nra-S<Err3?Hf or

ced, action, by

= %Jt^ O?q^[ 3*3 *H^ by Yoga, renounwhom, him; gnrcrf^sRJsrai 1 i^R^ ^fs'sr

^
?T

g-

by knowledge, cut away, doubt, whose, him,


;

possessing the Self

?r

not

^J-tfpiT

actions

bind

*R*Rl

Dhananjaya.

Madhusudana explains dtmavanta/u

as ''always watchful."

95

Therefore,

with the sword of the wisdom of the


doubt,

this ignorance-born dwelling in thy heart, be established in yoga. up, O Bharata.


rP3Trr!j[

SELF

cleaving asunder

Stand
(42)

aT5I^W?r = 3igRr<jr gvr?R from igno heart-seated ; ^RiriRr = ftt^zi 3TRRr of ranee, born |^*r wisdom, by the sword; STf^^s of the Self; fgj^r having
therefore;
;

cloven;

this; tfsre doubt;


;

qirr. yoga; arrf%5

practice;

stand up

*TRtT

Bharata.

SIFT

Thus in the glorious BHAGAVAD.GrrA ...the fourth

discourse, entitled

THE YOGA OF WISDOM.

96

FIFTH DISCOURSE.

srf|

n i n

Arjuna

said:

Renunciation of actions, thou praisest,

and then also yoga. Of the two which one better? That tell me conclusively.
^T^gr* renunciation
jpr:
;

Krishna, is the

(0
;

^uii

of

actions

fjsor

Krishna
(tbou);
;

<BT and ; ^j?ri% again; 3RT yoga which ; $&: better ^rT^f: of these two
; ;

praisest
;

(<J
;

one

rfif

that

of ( to )

me

srf?

speak

5Rr%rT1

well-determined.

The

Blessed Lord said

Renunciation and yoga by action both lead to the


highest bliss of the two, yoga by action than renunciation of action.
;

is

verily better
(2}
;

renunciation
ftvvo)

^T^rT'.

action-yoga
;

=5f

and
;?T5[r

of

these

two

hig'iesb-happine^s-makers 5 indeed
;

s^rf both

97
;

of action,
excels.

than

renunciation

^f^FT' action-yoga;

f|

*npnfr

^ ^T^R^
as
;

11

He
neither
posites,

should be known
hateth

nor desireth

free
is

perpetual ascetic, who from the pairs of opeasily


set
free

mighty-armed, he

from
(3)

bondage.
5P^:

should be

known
*f

^f:

he

f^-^STrcft constant-re;

nouncer; q: who without the

not

g^ff
( of

hates

not
)
;

cf[Tjjf?f

desires
;

pairs
;

opposites
easily
;

ff

indeed

lfr;

mighty-armed
freed.

5^

^rq; from bondage

Children, not Sages, speak of the


as different
;

Sahkhya and Yoga


in

lie

who

is

duly established

one obtaineth
(4)

the fruits of both.

tft^afrnr- *ms3:
separate
wise
;
;

^ zU*r
;

*T Sdnkhya, and,

Yoga, and;
not
:

^|^
the

arr^Tf:

childmn
arfq-

sj^r% *nv
;

jf%TrP
(

IJ5R

one
;

even

aTTTCTrP
;

established
;

in

together with

^H^TS

of both

f%^% obtains

tff^r

the fruit,

98

That place which

is

-gained

by

the-

Sahkhyas

is

He seeth reached by the Yogas also. the Sankhya and the Yoga are one.
3q; that
;

who

seeth that
(5)

sm^j: by the

Sankhyas

STRtft
;

is

obtained
;

PTFT place
gone
to
;

that
;

qfit:

by the Yogas
the

ajfqr also

r*q%
zjnr

is

Ijejj

oue
3j:

44M<|

3&nkhya
sees
;

and

the

and;

who; q"^RT

g".

he;

q^?^f?r sees.

But without yoga,


hard to attain to
;

mighty-armed, renunciation

is

the yoga-harmonised

Muni

swiftly
(6)

goeth to the ETERNAL.


^rrer: renunciation
g:?sn
;

indeed; ^fr^rff
;

hard

?T(cjfH to

obtain

^[JHT:

mighty-armed; from non-yoga ;

(without yoga);
f%:

muni

ggi to
goes.

qfTS^: = qrnr 3^j: with yoga, joined; Brahman 5f not f^T by a long time
;

ii

vs

He who is harmonised by yoga, the self purified, SELF-ruled, the senses subdued, whose SELF is the SELF ot all beings, although acting he is not affected. (7)

99

yoga-united;
pure,
self,

whom, he

quered, senses,
STfcHr
rf :

by whom, he
5^.5T
;

?H?*TT

uf

all,

(
;

of ) beings, the Self,

become,

the Self, whose, he

^q^

acting

srPr even

ff

not

f^l^

is

affined.

IK
"
I

||

do not anything, " should think the harmonised one, who knoweth the Essence of things seeing, hear;

ing, touching, smelling, eating,

moving, sleeping, breath(8)

ing-

srnot
thus
;

even

r%f%rl anything
;

cfi^fo
;

I )

do

%ft

?pK: the joined (one)


;

H*M thinks
hearing;
:

rtr^f^fl the essence-

knowei

T^^L

.-eoing;

3^o^

^^

touching

smelling:
breathing.

sr^f^ eating;

*re^gi n

^Tl sleeping

eyes,

Speaking, giving, grasping, opening and closing the " The senses move among the he holdeth
:

objects of the senses."


sreqj^ speaking
;

(9)

ftq**
;

giving

ir%^ grasping
(

sf?*^
also
;

opening

the eyes

niR^

closing

the eyes

snt

100

the senses; ?F?3lRf3 = fff?pn 0^3*^5 of the senses,


in the

objects

^^

exist

(move)

^fgf

thus

W^

main-

taining.

He who
leaf

acteth, placing all actions in the


is

ETERNAL^
(10)

abandoning attachment,
by the waters.
in

unaffected by sin as a lotus

sTftfoT

Brahman; BTP*R having


^rF^r
affected;
of
is ?T

placed;

qfjfiffaT

actions;
a[:

5fit

attachment;
feczKT

having abandoned;
not; q: he;
the

^fCfrlt

acts;
sin;

\\-ho;

cfrq"^T

bj

q^H=T?i^
water.

q^rn

the

lotus,

leaf; f?f

like;

^m

q?T-

by

3 3

II

Yogis, having abandoned attachment, perform action only by the body, by the mind, by the Reason, and even by the senses, for the purification of the self.
(II)
cfifzisT

by the body

H^F
;

by the mind

reason

$?&:

by

only

f r??f%:

ggfr by the srffi also ; by the senses


:

H yogis;

qj*f

action; ff^rT
;

perform; ^rT attachment;

having abandoned
for the purification.

3Trrq^^r^ = 3TrcT?T:

^3&

of the self,

II

||

The harmonised man, having abandoned


of action, attaineth to the eternal

the fruit

monised, bound.
j:

impelled

by

desire,

Peace; the non-harattached to fruit, are


(12)

the united one; ^Jjfaof

= 3fl<*T:

fft of action, the fruit;

having
final;
of

abandoned;
ST^rff:

^rrr^TO. peace; STfc^rf^- oH tains; the non-united one; effpTOfta

desire,
;

attached

RSfSI^

is

by the impulsion; ir% bound.

in ( to ) fruit

Mentally renouncing
ler

all actions,

the sovereign

dwell

in the

body

resteth serenely in the nine-gated city,

neither acting nor causing to act.

(13)
)
;

H actions

as

befoie

Hrf^rr

by the mind;
;

having abandoned; acrf^


ruler
city
;

sits;

^?^ happy
;

^ft

the

( of

himself

?f^ ft ( in )
;

the nine-gated

"^$ the embodied

?T

not

^
;

in the
?f

even

^k^ acting

not

^ffWi causing action.

The body, often

called the city of

Brahman.

102

The Lord of the world produceth not the idea of agency, nor actions, nor the union together of action
and
its fruit;

nature, however, manifesteth.


ff

(14)
ft[5fftg of

not; ^rj?t agency; the world; ?5rrlt emanates


zfr*t=
!

not; eff^RT

actions;

SR^T:

?&&t

=5f

; 1^5: the Lord; *{ not; ^2Jrt of action, and, of fruit, and, the
1

^H^^forth

union;
(

^vn^: own-nature; g indeed;


).

JT^rffi

exists

manifests

5111%

II

Hu

The Lord accepteth neither the evil-doing nor yet the well-doing of any. Wisdom is enveloped by unwisdom therewith mortals are deluded. (15)
;

q not
ef

3TF?^

takes;

gft^f^rj of anyone;
f^lj:

q-pT

sin; ?rnot;
STsrTFnT

and; q^ even; g^?f virtue;


enveloped;
;

the

Lord;

by

ignorance; 3Tff?r
are deceived

5rR

wisdom;

%q

by

this;

3T?T^: beings.

113
Verily,
in

II

whom unwisdom
SELF,
in

wisdom of

the

is destroyed by the them wisdom, shining as the

sun, reveals the Supreme.

(16)

103

by wisdom;
of of

indeed;
( is )

rT?j

that;
;

STJTT'T
:

ignorance;
;

whom

JTrftTrTI.
;

destroyed
;

3TT?*R

of the Self
;

them
;

3TTf^zJ3'f

suiilike

j3T?i

wisdom

shines forth

<r?qT that

highest.

Thinking on THAT, merged

THAT,
is

solely devoted

to

in THAT, stablhhed in THAT, they go whence there

no return, their sins dispelled by wisdom.


f%'- Vrf
?T

(17)

in

That, mind, whose, they;

^r
?T

in

3 That, only. Self, whose, they; That, establishment, whose, they ;


goal, whose, they;

qx\ $ That, supreme,


er;

^^rfRTI.

(to) not.again-returning;
ZTsrri%
hy

5^?^^dispelled,

r^rrr: ^f?H^T:
sin,

wisdom,

whose, they.

r:

II

\<

II

Sages look equally on a Brahmana adorned with nrning and humility, a cow, an elephant, and even a doe. and an outcaste. (18)
and, with modesty,

and,
(

(in) endowed; JTTgj^


)

in
)

(on a)
elephant
;

Brahmana

irfsf

in

on a

cow

f flflPT

in

(on an

104
3JPT in
(

on a
1

dog

and

even

*J7f%

in

on an

outcasts;

*f

and;

<rfe?Tr:

pandits; eifffcr: equal-seeing.

Even here on earth everything


whose mind remains balanced
ruptible
in the
.and
;

is

overcome by those

the

ETERNAL

is

incor-

balanced; therefore they are established


(19)
;

ETERNAL.
,

f? here

ij^even

%: by those

f^fff:

conquered

^fif:

rebirth

or creation;

~3WH

of

whom; ^1*3
1

in

equality; fly?T establi-

shed;

Jffi:

uiind;

R^tq

spotless;

f|

indeed; ?jt equal


in

agj

Brahman;

rTWl

therefore;

aglfor

Brahman;

they;

established.

With Reason

firm,

unperplexed, the knower of the

ETERNAL,
what
?T

established in the
is

ETERNAL,' neither

rejoiceth

on obtaining what
is

pleasant, nor sorroweth on obtaining

unpleasant.
;

(20)
him
;

not

jf=

jq[
;

let (
^r

) rejoice

having obtained
having

not

fq^H the pleasant ; qpc^ 3ff^HI let ( him ) be agitated ; qr<3i


;

obtained;

q-

and;

STfJT2Il

the unpleasant; fl^^f^f:


;

firm, reason, whose, he


f?T

3T*pjy: unbewild-

he

who

cooks,

eats a dog.

105
;

ered

35ff%fJ[

Brahman-knower

a'^TTT in

Brahman

established.

He whose
and findeth joy
with the

self is

unattached

to external contacts,
self

in the

SELF, having the

harmonised

ETERNAL by
= arrtTS W*f
^rr?Tr
i

yoga, enjoys happiness exempt


(21)

from decay.
srffTCTsfg
i"

TKFcTr
fij'ds;

= S^TTR:
%Tf^f%

HW *

(in) contacts; 3?ST unattached, self, whose, he ; f^fm


external,
(

the self;

ztfj

that) which
3=??;:

he;

agiqrT3Tfnr^r = 5r5rroT

^r^
self,

sTr^rr

g?^ jdeasure; g in urn *


:

Brahman,
i

by yoga, joined,

whose,

he;

|j?g

pleasure;

imperishable; 3T^3?r enjoys.

f|

The wombs

delights that are contact-born, they are verily

of pain, for they have beginning and ending, Kaunteya not in them may rejoice the wise. (22)
;

q
only;

those) which

ff indeed; ^req^STT: contact-born

enjoyments; g:Qra*Rq:= 3*3*3

WW;

of sorrow,

nvombs;
Sfitar*

q^

those;

STPSlrHrar:

having beginning and end;

Kaunteya; Jfnot;

%^

in those

^H%

rejoices; gq-: the wise.

io6

IT

^R: n

R^

ii

He who
passion, he
?T?FtnT

is

able to endure here on earth, ere he be

liberated from the body, the force born from desire


is
is

and
(23)

harmonised, he
able
jn37
(

is

happy man.
q^
even;
q:

to;

f^

here;

who;

OT3

to

bear;

before;
)

Q
;

from the
SFP=?T?^ ^T

body,
:

from
tf

liberation
defiire,

?5^ T?1
;

from

and, from anger, and, birth,


^rff:

whoie,

it
;

%t
man.

force;

q-;

he;

united;

gf:

he;

happy

*j^'

R$

11

He who
is

is

happy

within,

who

rejoiceth within,

illuminated within, that Yogi, becoming the

who ETERNAL,
(24)
inward,

goeth to the Peace of the ETERNAL.


^:
(iii

who;
3^1
**'

^m:^^:

=3Trf:

3TR*TFT

5^T

3W

9'-

the self), pleasure, whose, he;

BRRfIIif*s*T&: (^TrcHC^r)

STITFT:

inward, (in the

self),
(

*m
yogi

so (too);
),

^3^1^:
light,

=3T?r:
;

3TRTR
even
of

pnjovment. whose, he; ^= inward, ) 5^7rt:

SW
;

(in the self


;

whose, he

q^[

2j:

who
to

3ff:

that

?infr

ZErgTR^T'T =a^r"T5

f%^Pt
;

Brahman,

the nirvana:

f-?r

Brahman-become

3TfqrsgF% goes

over.

Ri?his,
their selves

their sins

controlled, intent

destroyed, their duality removed, upon the welfare of all

beings, obtain the Peace of the

ETERNAL.
;

(25) SRqq;
the

5PT% obtain
Bishis;

STSTR^QT the Brahma-Nirvana

sftorSFIe'reP

whose,
whose,

they

they;
they;
in the

= qfroTP 3r**TOT: 3srri.% worn away, sins, fsSTI^r: = fStsT Vt *WR % cut off, dualities, qm?TR: = ztrT= VK*m QWl % controlled, self,

whose,
beings,

?=r!r?rr??f

= *ra%ni w?IRI^
^rff:

f|%

of

all,

(of)

welfare

pleased.

K^
passion, subdued in nature, of subdued thoughts.

II

The Peace of the ETERNAL lies near to those who know themselves, who are disjoined from desire and
(26)
desire,

^TTsfRfagTTjRi = ZKWIH *
ascetics;

^rvrr?i ** r%3Tfrr^ri

from

and, iron; i.nger and, (of) the disjoined;

ZRT%?l^rH
these;

^RPC.of
%<?r3t.

the controlled

%rl-

q^r^

controlled,

mind,
;

whose,

of

3TPTrT:

near;

grgnlr^f CTT Brahma-nirvfina

*%

exists;

r>Rrrf?^R=f%r?rr: STRHF

^r^

?Rri known,

of selves, whose, of those.

\\

io8

Having external contacts excluded, and with gaze


fixed between

the eye-brows; having

made

equal
within

the the
(27)

outgoing
nostrils,

and

incoming breaths moving

*75lfa. contacts

fj^r having made; ^f?

'

outside; 3T$TRt

and; qq even, sr^ in the external; **g: eye (gaze); the (two) f eyebrows; sjrTr Tr ;Tr = STRT: a^f:
t

middle;

STTR:

incoming breath, and,

outgoing breath,

and

SRf

(two) equal; f??3T having made;

STr^T^S

the nostrils, within, moving.

H: IR<^
With away
senses,

ii

mind

and

Reason ever
is

controlled,

solely pursuing liberation, the Sage, having for ever cast


desire, fear

and passion,

verily

liberated.

(28)

controlled, senses, and,

mind, and, reason,

and, whose, he;


:

gfa: the

muni
he;

^rSfTTRrr:

=m^:

T*R*r

whose,

r^ngf^grvrat^T^:

= f%iTrrr
q^f

HW 5T f=ESf ^

liberation, goal,

TO

^T

^FW:
;

^
q:

3KH ^' gone,

desire, and, fear, and, anger, and,

whose, he

who;

g-^f

always; grR: freed;

even; %: he.

Having known Me,

as the

Enjoyer of

sacrifice

and o

109

austerity, the

mighty Ruler of

all

the worlds, and the


(29)

Lover of
^trFTt
sacrifices

all

beings, he goeth to Peace.


enjoyer;
of

the
and,

S^qsrf = 3T*rPtt
and;
the

rJWf

of

austerities,
(

^^ranOpKl^^fani.
great lord
;

rTf^FRr^

Tl^J^ of

all,

of ) worlds,

|jf*f

the
ilf

lover; ^TWWrTRri. of

all
;

creatures; jj[?^r

having known;

me

^fRni

to peace

sj^ufsr obtains.

Thusiu the glorious Bhagavad-Gttd... the fifth

discourse, entitled

THE YOGA OF THE RENUNCIATION OF ACTION.

HO

];

SIXTH DISCOURSE.

FKTCR ^sfrsr:
The Blessed Lord
said:

performeth such action as is duty, independently of the fruit of action, he is an ascetic, he is a Yogi, not he that is without fire and without
that
rites.
1 ( i )

He

STTTf^TrT not-relying (on ); qfffor^

= ^f^T

*f\$>

of action,
3ftif?T

the fruit;

^fTZf

that ought to be done; 3PT action;

and ; qpfr Yogi; does; q: who; ?T:he; ^T^Tr^T Sannyasi; and; and; ^not; ^RI: without fire ; ^ not;

without

action.

That which
as yoga,

is

called renunciation
;

know thou

that

nor doth any one become a Yogi with the formative will 2 unrenounced. ( 2 )

Pandava

1 The Saauy&si lights no sacrificial fire, and performs no sacrifices nor ceremonies but merely to omit these, without true renunciation, is not to be a real Sannyasi.
;

The imaginative

faculty, that

makes plans

for the future.

III

gpl.

which

^^Trari

renunciation

ffa thus

jjr|T:

they

)
;

call; ?frf yoga;


;f
'

that;

f%j% know;

qfe^ O' Pandava

not; f| indeed;

ST^S^cT^?^: = ^ ^Z&ft:
by whom, he;

^?T:
yogi-

*T:

not,

renounced,
;

wishing,

Zfnff

becomes

^93^T anyone.

the
in

For a Sage who is seeking yoga, action is called means for the same Sage, when he is enthroned
,

yoga, serenity
3TT^3?r:

is

called the means.

(of the)

muni;
called
;

zir*t

yoga;

wishing
action;

to

ascend;

5%: of

(a)

g?r^TW the
(

zf[*T[^*31

= 2if*t arr^3^[
even;
si*?:

to )

cause; 3=53% is yoga, of the ascended ;

3TO

of

him;

ipr

peacefulness, ^fR^TH the cause;

called.

ii

When

man

feeleth

no attachment either

for the

or for actions, renouncing the formaobjects of sense tive will, then he is said to be enthroned in yoga. ( 4 )
3(^T

when;

f| indeed;

?T

not; ff?^r^[ of the sense-objects


is

actions;

313*^1%
of

attached; *Hhfai?<rcn?rrof

m^r
called.

all,

wishings,

renouncer;

to yoga, attained; HfT

then;

5^%

is

Let him
self

raise the self


;

by the SELF, and not

let

the

become depressed
self,
lef

for verily is the


self's

SELF

the friend
;

of the

and also the SELF the


(him)
raise; 3Tr?HTr

enemy
self;

(5)

3*Wf
self;
?f

by the
let

arr^Trsf

the
to
of

not;

^7?^
the

the

self;

3T^n;ftft

(him)

cause
3rr?^5f:

sink down; ?rn*n


the
the
self;

the

self;

^ only
3TR*TT

ff

indeed;
self;

3T^:
;

relative;

the

only

RJj:

enemy

srr^T^: of the self.

II

II

The SELF is the friend of the self of him in whom the but to the unsubdued self by the SELF is vanquished self, the SELF verily becometh hostile as an enemy. (6)
;

srvj:

the relative; srr^TT the self; 3TR*T'T : of the self ; ?f^j


;

of

him

*t?T

by \vhom

STf?^ the
;

self

even
;

^rrcRr by

the self; nra: conquered

3T5THT*:

not (conquered^,
hostility;

self,

whose,

=T his; ^

HTrf:

3TRHr q&i

*W

indeed;

^?%

in

(for)

g^?T

even

^T?

may (would) become; aTFTT the Hke an enemy.

self;

H3

The higher Self of him who is SELF-controlled and peaceful is uniform in cold and heat, pleasure and pain, as well as in honour and dishonour. ( 7 )
nFffTrc^T'T:

=f5T^:

BTT^r 1?S[ ?TTO conquered,

self,

whose,

of

him

JT5Tm*9 of the peaceful;

baiamed;
so;

tfnfrwT^%S = 3TT?T
cold,

qWcTf highest self; * 3^T ^ ^t "*


in

^T

tfmfrf:
in

heat, and, in

and,

in

pleasure, and, in pain,


respect, and,

and;

?r*JT

JTRFTHRSfn^R

T ST^TR ^T

in disres-

pact, and.

II

II

The Yogi who

is

satisfied

with

wisdom and know-

ledge, unwavering, whose senses are subdued, to whom a lump of earth, a stone and gold are the same, is said to

be harmonised.

with wisdom, and, with knowledge, and,

satisfied,

self,

whose,

he;
H'.

^ZW
conquered,

rock-seated;
senses,
;

ffisftfeq: =f%fSTHri^
grff:

tf^rfoT
jf?f

^^
thus
;

whose, he;
yogi
;

balanced;

is

called 3FiN*T

afrit

^
he.

^^rsr^^T^T: - SPUR W[?


clod,

***

equal,

and, rock, and, gold,

and, for

whom,

II

II

H4

He who

regards impartially lovers, friends, and foes,


also
(

strangers, neutrals,

foreigners and relatives, righteous and unrighteous, he excelleth.

the

3hj!J>

^T

in

lovers,

and,

in
in
in

friends,

and,
and,

in

enemies,
and,

and,
in

in

apathetics,

and,
;

neutrals,

in haters,

relatives,

and

?JTVJ*|

the good;' ^fq also; <rr>S iu the bad;

W^fe: =**[

^f^:

n equal, mind, whose, he; f^Rl^^ excels.

Let the Yogi constantly engage himself

in

yoga,

remaining in a secret place by himself, with thought and self subdued, free from hope and greed. ( 10 )
J^fTfr
'i

the yogi
(

^m )

self

g^ffa let his inind

(him) balance;
)
;

?r?TrT

always
seated

^Rf
f^TJ

in secret

RtHP
^T

alone; ^rn^rTr?^
controlled,

= JRT

3TI?*Tr
:

IW

5T :

mind, and,
:

self,

and, whose, he

ffTCT^fr:

without-

wish

3TTft^'f

without-taking.

3 3

II

In a pure place, established on a fixed seat of his own, neither very much raised nor very low, made of a cloth, a black antelope skin, and kusha grass, one over the other,
( 1 1 )

in a

pure

l^f. in

a place

JTf^rcjj having

estab-

lished
vf

ffcR firm;

^1^
^

seat;
;

3Tr?*R: of self (his

own);
;

not

3T*f f%3rf very-hiVh

not

3?!^?^

very-low

4for-

nrm^WTTCH =

=1^

sir^r

^ ^rn ^ ?TTC

^RTH

rr^ cloth,

and, skin, and, orass, and, in succession, in which, that.

n
There,

R n

having made

the

mind one-pointed, with

thought and the functions of the senses subdued, steady on his scat, he should practise yoga for the purification
of the
fT^T

self.

12

there

ir^rq one-pointed
;

concentrated

ipT mind

^jr?r

having made
5

zrar^%fg'3raTO:

= ZTrTr:

f^Trf^ ^T ffj^RPl.

^T f^F'qr
tions,

HW

*r controlled, of mind, and. of senses, the aclie


:

whose,
let

TTf^^

iieing
2Jf*T

seated

3TFH% on

a seat

him

practise;

yoga;

of the self, for the purification.

\\\

Holding the body, head and neck erect, immovably steady, looking fixedly at the point of the nose, with
unseeing gaze,
(

13

^H

straight

^Rr%frq?4 = WJ:
neck,

%^:

^
;

fi^I

^ body,

and, head,

and,

and

\^r^^1.

holding

8T^5T immova-

ble; for*: steady;

*j^ looking

at;

of the nose, forepart;

(his) own; f^p the quarter

and

SFWTfcFZII. ""I seeing.

*TM=3T JJrE STtfm


The
achari,
self serene, fearless, firm in the

H^R: in 8 II

the

nised, let

vow of the Brahmmind controlled, thinking on Me, harmohim sit aspiring after Me. ( 14 ,
^
*('

calmed,

self,
;

whose, he;

RTrTr HP
:

^^

?r:

gone, fear, whose, he


the

grgmribnr
ff?J7T:

=
;

5T?r

of the
;

Bi-ahmachari, in

vow

tixed

the
i

mind
me,
i?T^:

?i^^?T

liaving controlled ;'>n'VTT:

= IPSf
IIP.

I^TTT
let

niind, whose, he; ^rR:

balanced;

aTF^frl

him

sit

=3Tf

T^:

^^

?T: I,

supreme, whose,

nsn
The Yo^l, ever united thus with the SELF, with the mind controlled, goeth to Peace, to the supreme Bliss
that abideth in Me.
balanciii'.'j
(

15

^
f

Mius

^[ff

alwys

STr^PT these]:.

Yogi; R^rT^rT^r: = f%^ HRH ^^T & controlled. mind, whose, he; ?[rn% o peace; PT^OTTWf = PT^T'F T'^'T WW^fift

the

?ft

nirA'ana,

the

end.

of which, to that

"7

rft

me,

foundation, of

which, to that;

attains.

Verily yoga

is

not for him

who

abstaiiieth to excess, nor

who who

is

eateth too much, nor too much addicted

to sleep,
?T

nor even

to

wakefulness,

Arjuna.
<J

16

not;
;

3Tc3>5Tri: of
i*
;

the much-eating;
;

indeed;
(

3frTS
;

yoga

3T?rT
:

not

and
?r

q^fftf

solely

entirely)

of

tlie
rST

""-eating;

not; ^- and; ^TR^JTtftaTO^

q?af rl^f

too ranch, to sleep, tendency, whose,


?f

his

^fT?lrr:

of the

waking;

not

^T even

*sf

aud; ?T5?r

Arjuna.

in

all pain for him who is regulated and amusement, regulated in performing actions, regulated in sleeping and waking. ( 17 )

Yoga

killeth out

eating

3rfiT?rU%?reTO
trolled, food,
5^Df

= 3=rfJ:

BTFfK:

^T

f%?K:

Z[^I

and,

amusement, and, whose,

of

rf^ conhim *j=?jj^r;

= 5^r %5T
in actions

n^q
;

^^ controlled,

behaviour, whose, of
:

him

grF^ffrf ^r^TW

= 3?K

^ff:

?f^tr^:

^ ^W
him
;

controlled, sleeping,
:

and, waking, and, whose, of


;

yoga; vr^fa becomes

g:*?f?r

the pain-killer.

\\

When his subdued thought is fixed on the SELF, free from longing after all desirable things, then it is said " he is harmonised." 18
(

3l^r

when
r

f%R3<T subdued

[%% mind

^rr^TR in the

self;

^ only;
I:

ST^ffl^

sits

do\vn; f%*$?: not-desiring;


all,
is

^rs=t

^>I>^: (for)

for (objects of) desires


rf?T

balanced; f[% fhns:

^5^

said;

tben.

As
is

lamp

in a

likened the

Yogi of subdued thought, absorbed


a lamp
;

windless place flickereth not, to such in the


(

yoga of the SELF.


ZI?JT

19

as;
;

fi<r:

standing
is

not
;

f nW

R^lcTCtp (a) windless (-place)flickers ; ^T that ; ^qifr simile ^nr


;

in

Yogi; zirfr^Tl^ = ^rT f^rf 5^ the ) 5^1 controlled, mind, -whose, of him gaffi: ( of
remembered
tftfiR: of the
;

practising

znTTO.the

Jg a

>

^fT^T^: of

th.e

selt.

That

in

which the mind finds

rest,

quieted by the

practice of yoga the SELF, in the


vft

that in

which
satisfied

he, seeing the


;

SELF by
(

SELF

is

20

where

3qTT% comes

to rest

f^r^f the

mind

f%^

curbed;

SHWRr = SHT^ %^f


er

of yoga,

by the service;
self
is
;

v&
;

where

and
;

even

STHHTr by the
;

3TTc?TR the self

seeing

STf^TR

in the self

3*3f*r

content.

IR

3 n

That in which he findeth the supreme delight which the Reason can grasp beyond the senses, wherein estab21 ) lised, he moveth not from the Reality (
;

^5cj

pleasure
r

gn^KRT
by

most

final

^ which
;

?rqr

that

JTFfi

the

reason,

graspable;

8Tmr^l=
"%frT

the senses, more ihan ( beyond ) where; ^ not; qr and ; iff even 3T4 this moves rfr^T: from the Reality.
;
;

knows

^q?f: fixed;

Which, having obtained, he thinketh there


greater gain beyond

is is
(

no
not
22
)

wherein established, he shaken even by heavy sorrow


it
;

q which sre^r having obtained ; ^T and srqt another r^pT 33: than that H^T% thinks ^ not SfrRl^r greater gain which ffcnf: established ^ not; ^:^ by sorrow;
;

120
;

by

haavy

3TPT even

f%^T?<^

is

moved.

\\\\\\
That should be known by the name of yoga,
disconnection -from
the
this

union with pain. This yoga must be clung to with a firm conviction and with undes( 23 ) ponding mind.
3T

that;

RCTTi*

let

(him) know;
with
(

5:^qrrf%^rT = ^:%:
(

*Erart ;T f%3f*T

with

paiiis,

from

conjunction,

the

dis-

junction ; 2U!T^f^?T*i yoga-namen ; f%^ZR surely should he practised; %IT: yoga: aTRl^ar^^^f = n t despondent, mind, whose, by him;

Abandoning without

reserve

all

desires born of the

imagination, by the mind the senses on every side,


^T^c^TJT^T^r^.

curbing in the aggregate of


(

24

imagination-produced
^T^T^ all;

3TRl^

desires

tfrf^f

having abandoned;
jR^rr
senses,
side.

by the mind;
collection
;

U%^?TS without remainder; even: f f?q?nt = f f?2?rTrl 1TT of the


having curbed
;

RfR^T*^

ST'TrTrT:

on every

IK H n
Little

by

little let

him gain
let

tranquillity
;

of Reason

controlled by
in the

steadiness

by means having made the


'

mind abide

SELF,

him not think of anything. (25)


;

5T%: gradually; ^r%:

activity

^gjr
(

firmness,

by

gradually 3q*^? let him cease ( from by the reason vjrj%jr faarr = vf?Tr *T3Trnstr by seized STRT^rW self-seated ; ipf: the mind
:

having
let

made; ^ him think.

not;

flfff^rj

anything;

^rfcf

also;

II

3A

As

often as

the wavering and unsteady


it in,

mind goeth
it

forth, so often reining control of the SELF.


^rf:

let

him bring
i'uns
r{^:

under the
(

26

whence

q?f:
;

whence; nfK^r%
;

out; JR: mind;


thence
self;
;

^r^?5^ unstable

3rrctTO unsteady

having restrained; q?frjthis; 3Trc*TR in the ( in ) to control ; ^(^ let ( him ) lead.
T

[TI?R

Supreme joy

is

for this
is

Yogi whose mind

is

peaceful,

whose passion-nature

calmed,

who

is

sinless

and of

122

the nature of the


JT5rirT*R?T

ETERNAL.
*R:
;

(
gr

27

= sr^rirT
this

z^zf

peaceful, mind, whose,


;

him

f|

indeed
;

<r;f

zmT?[JJ:
;

yogi

fj^

pleasure

^TTTO.

highest

3%rT comes
(to) sinless.

?im?:3T^^= qfa f^: g?3(


to

subsided,

passion-nature, whose,

him;

351^^= Brahman-become ;

\\

^C

[\

The YocjT who thus, ever harmonising the self, hath put away sin, he easily enjoyeth the infinite bliss of contact with the ETERNAL. ( 28 )
gsnj practising yoga;
self;
sin,

thus; ^fr always;

3TRTR

the

2irfr

yogi

f^Trr^?*T'?:

= f%TrT=

^?JTq:

^Zf ^: gone,

whose,

Z(^3I rfrf

he; g^sTT with ease; ag!?T?q?Il.= STgJ'Jir ^CT& with Brahman, touch, whose, that ; 3TcZ?rT ultimate;
;

pleasure

3?^%

enjoys.

\\

^
;

(I

The self, harmonised by yoga, seeth the SELF abiding in all beings, all beings in the SELF everywhere he seeth the same. ( 29 )

^iaW^^^S^rS
him ; smHHT the
self
;

msrw ^ in all, (in) = ^rfiT ^rTrfH ^4^?rrf?r


self;

beings, abides,
all,

creatures

q and;
1

aT[c*ir%

in

the

fg^

sees;

123

*P by yoga, balanced,

self,

whose, he

everywhere; ?R^TT: equal-seeing.

He who
in

seeth

Me
I

Me, of him will lose hold of Me.


ZT:

everywhere, and seeth everything never lose hold, and he shall never

who; Ht me;
qfa in
1

qs^f^ sees; Sf^r everywhere;


;

and

me
(

T^j[%
)
:

sees
1

^Z[
;

of

him
;

^
of

^
f

all

I
(

not

OT^Tf% perish
not; qofTOffi

get lost

g he
:

=5T

and

to )

me ;

perishes (gets lost

).

He
abiding
his

who, established
in all

in

unity,

beings, that

Yogi

liveth in

worshippeth Me, Me, whatever


(

mode
-who

of living.
f

31

in

all,
;

(in) beings, sitting;


to
(

3:

Jfj

me

VTSJfo
;

worships

fj^r^l.
;

in

unity

BTff^TrT:
STfqr also
;

established
tf
:

^tfT every way


;

^Tlf:
is.

existing

that

q[ff yogi

Hfa

in

me ; 333

He
na,
painful,

seeth

who, through the likeness of the SELF, O Arjuequality in everything, whether pleasant or he
is

considered a perfect Yogi.

32

3TR^T7*ZR = 3Trr*R: 3Tf<TFT of the self, by the likeness; ^^f every where ; *R equality; q^ifa sees; q: who; ST^T

Arjuna
-?T:

5*3 pleasure
yogi;

^r or; qf|

if; ^r
is

'V

5:^ sorrow;

he;

qrffr

1W

highest;

Jfrf:

thought.

11

^u

Arjuna
This yoga which
equanimity,
tion for
q:
it,

said

Thou

hast
I

declared

to

be by
33

Madhusudana,

see not a stable founda;

owing

to restlessness
this;
3frT:
;

which;
;

3^

yoga;

^tf by

thee;

jffT?;:
;

declared
tr^?i

g;p^f by equality
3jf I
:

T^^H
firm.

slayer of

Madhu

of this;

?r

not; .<T^Tf*T
;

see; =qr^^c^rft from

restlessness: f??!^ stability

ff tjTPI.

f| T^f:
113

8 11
it

For the mind

is

verily

restless,

O
;

Krishna
I

is

impetuous, strong and difficult to bend hard to curb as the wind.

deem

it

as
)

34

restless

f?

indeed

H:

the

mind

$OTT

Krishna
of
it
;

JWrfiT
I
;

impetuous;

^ftSfrf

strong;

5^

bard;

rTf^f

3T?

ftf? gripping; *WT think; haid to be done.

^rztn of the wind;.

The

Blessed Lord said

Without doubt, O mighty-armed, the mind is hard to curb and restless but ir may be curbed by constant practice and by dispassion. ( 35 )
;

rzi

doubtless
to

^fr^Tfr
%,-..',

great-armed

w.
>>y

the

mind;

hai-rl

grip;

q^
;

moviiig; 3T-zr^T?f
*^^r T 2l'JT

practice:
;

^
;

indeed

^r%?l
held.

O Kauuteya

by dispassion

and

wt
Ycga
is

uncontrolled

hard to attain, methinks, by a but by the SELF-controlled it


;

self that is
is

attainable
(

by properly directed energy.


STS3rnWTr = 3T*T!lrp
by him
;

36

3Tr^TT3TC3?nT uncontrolled, self, whose,

?UT: yog:

Tr<T:
:

hard-gained

ffrf thus

% my
self,

jfftf :

opinion;

3Wc*^r = ^ra

aTHHr

HW WT

controlled,

whose,

126
(
;

by him
possible
;

jj

indeed

2TrT?Tr

by

the

endeavouring

ST^rcjjJt.

to

obtain

STTOcf: through means.

Arjuna

said

unsubdued but who possesseth faith, with the mind wandering away from yoga, failing to attain what path doth he tread, O in yoga, perfection
is

He who

Kri?hna

37

3T-^lf?T :

un-Rubdued

V^aff by (with) faith


:

^qrT:

endowed
1

from yoga; ^^rTTf'T^r = ^"f^sf JTF'T^' H&X $T- strayed, mind, whose, he ; ^T-JTr ^ not having attained ; ^r^T^f^rf^ = 2MTff ^f^rng of yoga, perfection ; ^fj to what ; rf?f path ; ^OTT
%<nTff
1

Krishna ;

iT'eS'f^'

goes

he

).

Fallen from both,


unsteadfast,

O
?
if,

is he destroyed like a rent cloud, mighty-armed, deluded in the path of


(

the

ETERNAL
^fgq;
is

38

that;

?r

not

both,
is

fallen; l%smif

= l%5r

^
;

S>TZfmre: =?VT3Rf: f%*5"torn,

from

cloud; $3 like; JRZifa

destroyed;

QTSfRfg:

unstable;

JTfrarff

mighty-armed;

127
;

f?pji?:

deluded

agW

of

Brahman

<ff*f in

the path.

(I

Ml
doubt

Deign,
of mine
;

Krishna, to completely

dispel

this

for there is

none
.

to be found save Thyself able


(

to destroy this doubt.


this (TrT?f
;

39

*T

my
:

tfroj
;

doubt;
?f^l*RF
:

fjCTf

Krishna

^TH

to

resolve;

sr|ff%
;

oughtest

without
of
;

remainder;
;

c^q[

than thou

3T3 another;
;

g"3?m^!T

doubt

3^5 (of)

this;

the solver

q not

fjj

indeed

5TT?J%

is

to be found.

\\

The

Blessed Lord said


neither
in
this

O
life

son

of PrithA,
is

world nor

in the

to

come

there

destruction for

him

never doth

any who worketh righteousness,


path of woe.
qr?|

O
;

beloved, tread the


(

40

Partha

?T

not

^ even

ff here
;

ff

not

in the next world; f^RTSP destruction


5ff|

?f^

of

him;
;

surely

3??ZIPT$<1
( fate );

righteous-doer

gTr%q[ any one resf?T g es


-

to an evil path

rfr?f

beloved

128

Having attained to the worlds of the pure-doing, and having dwelt there for immemorial years, he who fell from yoga is reborn in a pure and blessed
house.
jrrcJl
(

41

iiaviug obtained; <p3^?rPlL of the right-doers

FJr^jT^

worlds;
T
f

^fqw

having dwelt
JflfacTt of
:

5n*Jcff: everlasting;
;

tne pure;

the prosperous
fallen
;

g^p years; *f| in the house ;


is

from yoga,

3Tf*T5fR%

born.

Or he may even
but such a birth as
this world.

be born into a family of wise Yogis that is most difficult to obtain in


(

42

)
;

r; 3frT<FTriL of

yogis;

^ even
q^q;
?sr%

^?y in the family


this;

becomes;
c

tfrftTPl o? to

wise;

ff

indeed;
5^*f

very
af?jr

difficult
;

obtain;
this.

in

the

world;

hirth

which

ff?r like

There he recovereth the characteristics belonging*

to his former body,


for perfection, 35f there;
?j.

and with these he again laboureth


(

joy of the Kurus.


;

43

that

n?4%T-f^f:
;

^jr*T of Buddhi, the

conjnncHon

fWff obtains

qnf%ff3ni belonging to the previous


;

body;

*TCRT strives;
;

T and

in perfection

^f^??T

= ^tfpCTf *I T?^T

WrT thence; *$: again; ^fa^ff of the Kurus. rejoicer.

ff^ fl^RTTSft

S:
II

^^11

By that former practice he is irresistibly swept away. Only wishing to know yoga, even the seeker after yoga
goeth beyond the Brahmic word.
'grf'-SrSR
(
(

44
;

= "jt^T
q^ even
of

3T*2n%5T
;

by former,
is

(
;

by
ff

practice

?pr

by

that

fij3%

swept away
f%n3T5:

mdeei

3T^?r:
;.

helpless; arfq"
also;
2fr*T^|

also; ?T

he;

wishing to

know

acrfq-

yoga;

^TC^STfJ

sound-Brahman;

goes beyond.

^FTT

But the Yogi, labouring with


sin,

assiduity, purified from

fully perfected through manifold births, he reacheth


(
)

the supreme goal.


STZl^r?l

45
;

from

with

perseverance

3rPTR: striving

indeed;

^fifi

the yogi; ^3J[lf!f?*<T


sin,

completely purified,

whose,

he

130

by many, (by)

births,
;

perfected

33-. thence;

goes; T^r^to the highest

?rm*I.

path

*foft

The Yogi is greater than the ascetics the to be greater than even the wise
;

he

is

thought

than the

men

of action

Yogi is greater therefore become thou a Yogi,

Arjuna.
rTTf^ro:

(46)
than
the
ascetics;
;

arRRT:
also
;
;

higher;

2tf*ft
;

the

yogi

STIR^T* than the wise


;

arR

JTcf:

thought
;

srf^p
the

greater

efififei:

than the actors


;

arfacff:
;

greater
;

sfrtfr

yogi

*($mfl therefore

^fiff

a yogi

>?^

be

3T^f

Arjuna.

And among
inner

all

SELF abiding
to be the

Yogis, he who, full of faith, with the in Me, adoreth Me, he is considered
(

by

Me

most completely harmonised.

47

ztfRRPl of yogis;

^n

of

all;

^^ =

jif

jf^pr

in

me,
*r5KT

gone; itrrn^TTr with inner

self;

HRfPNH

faith-filled;

worships; q: who; *H me ; ?f: he; harmonised ; TO: is thought.

by me; gTRrFT: most-

Thus in the glorious BHAGA.V AD-GIT A... the siith discourse, entitled

THE YOGA OF SELF-SUBDUAL.

SEVENTH DISCOURSE.
I

II

The
With the mind
yoga, refuged
in

Blessed Lord said

clinging to Me,

Partha, performing

Me, how thou

shalt

without doubt
(
I

know Me
Tfzt

to the uttermost, that hear thou.

in

me; STRTTfiTTr: = 9TRTrR


:

*{^:

3TO *P attached,
;

mind, whose, he

qr?f

Partha

3U*T

yoga
as

gH^

practising

*F?PSRs=3Tt
doubtless
shalt
;

WTO'
?f fj

3*3 *T
;

I,

refuge, whose,
;

he;
(

^^
thou
)

^f^ir
;

whole
that
;

Tf

me

3*rr

5TT*3Rr

know

J^

listen.

will declare to

thee this

knowledge and wisdom

in

completeness, which, having known, there is ( 2 ) nothing more here needeth to be known.
its

% of ( to ) thee %T? I knowledge with knowledge, together ff this declare remainder ; Sflj which ST^qTrf: without
5U?T
; ;

f%5TRf

?H?
;

having known
(

not

f^ here

vnf:
;

more

what ought)

to be

known

SHTO5

sr^^fj

other

remains.

132

Among
perfection
;

thousands of men

scarce

one striveth

for

of the successful strivers scarce one knoweth


(3)

Me
one

in essence.

men
;

among thousand
for

some
of

Slcrr?
;

strves
also

perfection

the

striving

arfqr
;

(of) successful
;

some

one

*TT

me %f% knows

essentially.

"

u
Earth, water,
fire, air,

11

ether,

Mind and Reason


division

also

and Egoism
nature.
*frr: earth
J^H: Titiud
:

these

are

the eightfold

of

My
(4)

BTfT:

tgfifr
y?a[

water; STT^: rea?on JT^ e\en


; ;
:

fire;

^T^: air
:

and

egosm
nature

ff?T

thus;

this

of

me

fasTf

divided;

eightfold.

u
This the
inferior.

u
the

Know My

other

nature,

higher, the life-element,

mighty-armed, by which the


(5)

universe

is

"pheld.

133

lower
T

faf this;

frT from (than)


;

this
;

indeed

other

SffHlft.

nature

f^r^ know

% my

qiri.

higher

life-element:

Hfr^ffr

great-armed;
;

*m\ by

which

ff

this

^nfo

is

Supported

afiTJt

world.

SI*T<T:

spra:

R^q^IT
of
all

II

^
am

II

Know

this

to be the

womb

beings.

the

source of the forthgoing of the whole universe and likewise the place of its dissolving. (6 )
>

q ?rdr5frf*r =<r?r SJTR:


^JrirR

^rf rnPT
;

this,
;

womb, whose, they

beings
;

^fpT
(

all

fj%
;

thus
of

37W3
world
;
;

understand
(

3Tf I
of
)

^cT?a[
;

of

whole

3T*T?T:
)

%*%'

source

becoming
:

sn*i3: (

place of

dissolution

rfVjf

also.

TOR
^r
ii

vs

ii

There

is

nanjaya. All this on a string.


JTTT:

naught whatsoever higher than I, O Dhais threaded on Ale, as rows of pearls


(7)
;

than
;

any one
a ll
5

^rftcf
is
;

q-^ higher is v^^^


;

?f

not

9Tr?t
;

otlier

i'hanafijaya
;

^f^l in
;

me

^^ tn

JTT^r ( is )

threaded
;

f:

of pearls,

rows

^f in

a string

like.

134

the sapidity in waters,

son of Kunti,

the

radiall

ance in

moon and sun


I

the

Word
waters

of Power in

the
(8)

Vedas, sound in ether, and

virility in
in
I
)
;
;

men

W.
!T*Tr

the taste

3?f
;

STCfJ
(

4n%3f

Kaunteya
the

the radiance

STR* am
of

^rRlCTzrar:

= *IR: ^ *&?
pranava
;

^f of the moori,

and,

the
all,

sun,

and

ST*?^:

^rafS=*raf3 "%*3 (in)


in ether
;

in the

Vedas;

?[S?:

sound;

^f^T

virility

^^

in

men.

II

()

The pure
fire

fragrance of earth and the brilliance in


life in all

am

the

beings

am

I,

and the austerity


(9)

in ascetics.

5<^:
light
;

pure "^ and

*T^T:

smell

"jfzTo^rn in
I
in
)
;

earth

^ and
;
;

^5f:
life
;

STf^r

am
all

f^vrr^^V in
;

fire

fr^?Tl
=q"

( in )

beings

^q":

austerity

and

am

I )

rfqr?f*J in ascetics.

TT ^T^^fRTFlt T%%:

Know Me, O Partha, as the eternal seed of all beings. am the Reason of the Reason-endowed, the splendour of splendid things am I. (10)
I

135

3T5T

seed;

*rf

me
?

^rtHprn^= ^fqm W3RP*.

(of) all, of

beings; H73T know


reason
;

TPT
the

Purtha;
;

^^m^
srftT
:
'

eternal;
(

gf^:

g^tftTni
;

of

reasonable

am

^lf

splendour

^STfl^nC. of the 8plendid

3Tf

I.

And

the

strength of the strong, devoid of desire

and passion. In beings, I am desire not contrary to (il) duty, O Lord of the Bharatas.
3T7 strength
;

3n*m[*
U*TT!I

of

the strong; srf^Tam

(I)

efffJTCHT-

f^P*fcrI.=

^jr^^
;

^ fW^f%rre. by desire,
^im
desire; srf^T

and,

by passion,

and, abandoned

wnr^ = qfa **fe^g'>


iu beings;

with (to) duty, not


ft

opposed

>^j

ni

(I)

Lord

of the

Bharatas.

mil
these

The natures know as from Me


which
:

that are harmonious,


;

active,

slothful,

not

in

them, but they in Me.

Zf

^
;

and

^ even
;
;

*m%37f pure;
;

m^:
;

natures;

active
;

rTRSTT: inert
;

^ and
irfq in

even
I
:

f [% thus H^ i" them

?fp^ these

f^PST

^ which know ^
;

JTrf:
;

from

me

not

indeed

they

me.

136

All

this

world, deluded by these natures

made by
(13)

the three qualities, knoweth not Me, above these, imperishable.


f%pr:

(by) three;
qfvr:

JJOITO:

(by)

the
:

guna-mde
;

*n%: by

natures;

(bj)
;

these;

deceived
:

rot

H ft T his 3TT?t world; m*l me arfv^RITW knows well


; ; ;

^t

than these

^l higher

3TS3?^l inexhaustible.

ii^r

^nfr TO
n
3

is

Mine, caused by the qualities, hard to pierce; they who come to Me. they cross over

This divine

illusion of

this illusion.

(14)

^7
my
5

divine; if indeed;
;

^r

tliis;

^isft guna-made
;

Jfir
'

^rar illusion
JTT'Jm
;

^KC?^T bard to go beyond


JTr^HI.

m*f.

t()

mfl

21

who;
cross

approach;

illusion

ijrTPl.

this;

51

they

The evil-doing, the deluded, the vilest men, they come not to Me, they whose wisdom is destroyed by illusion, who.
?T

have embraced the nature of demons.

(15)
deluded
;

not

rn* to

me

5*$^:
= T^

evil-doers

5?r:

approach; STCr^HF:

3T*4Tr:

among men,

lowest;

137

JTr?ror

by mdya
( in )

3TTI?T*TPTr:
;

= 3T153T
asui-ic

3U*f
;

^1%

torn away, wis;

dom, whose,
refuged
.

they

'?THjt

>TT^^

nature

*TT

Fourfold
ship Me,
ledge,

in division are

the righteous ones

who worknow-

Arjuna: the

suffering, the seeker for

the self-interested, and the wise,

O
;

Lord of the
(16)

Bharatas.
:

fourfold

Vf^% worship

^f

me

3Hf

people

well-doing;

^r^T O Arjuna; Wtf: wisdom-desiriner; W$[$ = Vlfi whw\


;

the unhappy;

?R
Lord

wealth,
of the

seeks,

thus

gjrft

the wise

"BT

and

VRTT^T

Bharatas.
-s
rx

rv

rv

WT^IT

Of
wise,

these, the wise, constantly harmonised, worship;

ping the

One, is the best and he is dear to Me.


;

am supremely

dear to the
(17)
grfi:

%urrq: of these

^rpft the wise; Pt^grfi: =f?r?T

always

balanced

irsRHf^

= tigpf?^
;

^TFfj:

3*3?

g":

in one, devotion,
;

whose he
wise;
I^2i:

R|1(|<>a$ excels

fifa:

dear;
q":

^ indeed
lie; *^

jjJifHI: of the

ilcM^jJi.

excessively: ^r^ I;

and;

ipT of

me;

dear.

138

f|
Noble are
all

these,

but
is

hold the wise as verily

Myself; he, SELF-united,


path.
vJ<K|:

fixed

on Me, the highest


(18)

noble; q^all; q^T even


4||cHI self;

TJ% these;
*Trn

^pft the wise


;

indeed;
^T:

q^ even
:

^my;
:

opinion
^(1^*11
;

4<lR'iJd:
5T:

fixed;
lanced,

self,

he; f% indeed: ^rfn^n^^rff: even iff me whose, he

?R^

ba-

^r^rTiif
:

=^

^rf^rf

sJ-HHF 3RSTT:

rff

not,

is,

better,

than which,

that-.

irfrPI.

path.

At

the close of
"

many

births the
1

man

full

of wisdom

cometh unto Me:


hatma, very
T

Vasudeva

is all,"

saith he, the

Ma(19)

difficult to find.

(of)

many

-^f^q|J^ of births
;

^p%
;

iu
<

at

the end

knowledge-possessor

^f to

me

XJ' 1

Urt

approaches;

Vasudeva;
3*5
obtained.
^T:

^[^

all

f^

thus: ^: he: JT^T?Tr = T^RT


;

great,

self,

whose, he

Sjjjshr:

very-hardly-

A name

for Shri

Kpishna, as the son of Vasudeva.

139

ct

FfWTRSJFT

IR<>||

They whose wisdom hath been rent away by desires


go
forth to other

ternal observances, according to their


:

Shining Ones, resorting to various exown natures. ( 20 )


;

by desires; %: (by) them


T

(by) them

^ri^H(:

torn away,

proach

3TO^RTT:

wisdom, whose, they; ST7SJ% ap^T^r *NrlP other gods; ?f that ^ that;
:

rule
:

(vow)
;

-H\WW having

taken up

ij^| by nature

led

Any
such

devotee otee
,

aspect

at with faith to worsp any worship wt faith of the bestow unswerving verily
(21)

who seeet wo seeketh

that man.
3:

who:

2f:

who;

2|f

which;
;

which;

rTrJ

shape;

HrR:
;

devotee;
rf^I of

j^^f with faith -^f^^jj^to worship; |-c^fri wishes him ^^oTT steady ; ?|^f of him JSTfft faith
; ; ;

m even

f%^|f*T make

I.

He, endowed with that faith, seeketh the worship of such a one, and from him he obtaineth his desires, I
verily decreeing the benefits
;

(22)

140

g: he; <rar(with) that; *J^3T with faith;


rf^I

-cpfi:
;

united,
(lie)

of

it
;

^TRTSR'T
rfrp

worship
thence;

f^f

wishes

5HTW

obtains;

^ indeed;

and;

4iHI<i desires;
benefits.

jf^jf

by me;

RQrilH decreed: f^FT

Finite indeed the fruit

that belongeth to those

who

are of small intelligence. To the Shining Ones go the devotees come worshippers of the Shining Ones, but

My

unto Me.
^jcT^rj;

23)
of

with
that
;

an end

indeed

Tfffi

the
%>TT

fruit,

"^-qf

them

?Tq[

^1%

is

4|c-qHMyi'*(
;

= ^PTT

^T ^TT
;

small,

intelligence,
q*(<^\

whose, of (to) them

^TT
me

to the

gods

fnt ?ods,
;

worship, thus; nff^r go;

my, devotees

^rtf^

eo

?TT'Iv t o

'sqfq-

also.

II

^?

Those devoid of Reason think of Me, the Unmanifest, as having manifestation, knowing not My supreme nature, imperishable, most excellent. (24)
^S^TK unmanifest;
*|v4H
ozrfrFra to
;

manifestation
irrational:

-%W?\ arrived

think;

m^

me

^f^xjSj:

tft

highest

^r^*r

nature;

^r^TntrT:

unknowing;

tffi

my; ^^^f^

imperishable;

best.

Nor am
illusion. 1

I of all discovered, enveloped in My creative This deluded world knoweth Me not, the un-

born, the imperishable.


T not
;

(25)
;

Hcfcur:

known

3T$TO of

ali
;

r:

by

this;

^
;

nut,; ^!f*T5!FTn%

yo^a-maya, covered; ^: deluded; knows; ^^;: world qj^ me


;

unborn

^fojf^^ imperishable.

know

the beings that are past, that are present, that

are to come,

Arjuna, but no one knoweth Me.

(26)

"^ know; =srf[ I; g-JTrffrTTf^ past; ^JnTrf^T present; =ET and; ^r^T O Arjnna; vrf^szirfoT future; ^ and knows ^ not; ^8^ any one. beings ^f me 3 indeed
;
;

By
1

the delusion of the pairs of opposites, sprung from


is

Yoga-ni4y&

the

creative

power of yoga,

all

things being but

thought-form?..

attraction and repulsion,

universe wholly deluded,

O Bharata, all O Parantapa.


arises,
this,

beings walk this


(27)

ffrf
desire,

%T

from

and,
r^'T of

from bate, and,


the
pair,
all

by

it

by the delusion;
beings;

>flT<T

Bharata;
:

Trffr

1?rrf%

ST^

to delusion

*n?

in creation

zjff?f

>

Tt^T

Parantapa.

f
But those men of pure deeds,
worship Me, steadfast
afar*!

in

whom

sin

is

come
(28)

to an end, they, freed from the delusive pairs of opposites,


in

vows.
3T??riT?t

of
sin

whom; 5
;

indeed;
of

= 3Trf
:

TrT gone,

to

end

qTO

SRHT*
P

men

gu^^oTrq
;

pure, action, whose, of them


of pairs,

they

from delusion, freed

VT5!^ worship

%& 5nt^T*t ^

firm, vow, whose, they.

^TcffrT

^f

birth

refuged in Me strive for liberation from and death, they know the ETERNAL, the whole SELF-knowledge and all Action. (29)

They who

from old age,


and, from death, and, for liberation
;

*rr

me

^rrRT' ^
1

having

143
;

taken refuge in

zicff^T

strive

if

who

they

jrgl

Brahman

^TfWlJ^^t
the Self
)
;

to tne Atmji,

g,4 action

^ and

having referred, made, (concerning


;

3Tr%oT whole.

They who know Me

as the

knowledge of the Elements,


verily even in the

as that of the Shining Ones, and as that of the Sacrifice,


they, harmonised in mind,

know Me

time of forthgoing.

(30)

^^rftf^Tr =<T*rfwith theadhibhuta (concerning the elements), and, with the adhidaiva
(concerning
the

S^TWfqt4 = 3Tfp3?R
gods),

together;

erf^T^ = 3TT%U^T
;

^
;

with the adhiyajfia (concerning the sacrifice), together

Jjf

me

and;

3[

who;
in

f^:
the

know;
1

sroroicfiTST

W*W
Jjf

3tfX of

going-forth,

time; ^rfq
:

they; f%^: know; ^rtr^riy


whose, they.

=JTK

also; ^ and; me; % ^5 ^R^ balanced, mind,

Thus

in the glorious

BHAGAVAD-GiTA...the seventh

discourse, entitled

THE YOGA OF DISCRIMINATIVE KNOWLEDGE.


l

Death

going forth from the body.

144

EIGHTH DISCOURSE.

f% jftrCT^t^ fe^TrT
Arjuna
said
:

II

What
Action,

is

that ETERNAL, what SELF-knowledge, what Purushottama? And what is declared to be


is

the knowledge of the Elements, what ledge of the Shining Ones ?

called the

know( I )

f% what; AdhvAtma fw
;

rTT

thafc
;

^5T Brahman;

f% what; ^p^f^

what,

^pr

karma

^^sTrrr^
;

= 5^^ ^TTH
f^jij,

among men,
declared
;

best; ^rf?TgrT

adhibhuta
;

*sf

and;
;

v.hat;

3TRl%gI adhidaiva

fgjq^hat

5T^q%

is called.

IRII

What
how,

is

knowledge

of Sacrifice in

this

body, and

Madhusudana ? And how at the time of forth( 2 ) going art Thou known by the SELF-controlled ?
STpitag:
in

adhiyajfia
this
:

Zfpi

how

^f:

who

ai^ here
;

%=

Lody
(at)
;

in

BTreT^ T^fT^T the time of departure "Sf and


;
;

O Madhusudana
;

JT^r^^TI^'

spj bow

^q:

to be

k&own

^rf% art (thouj


i-elf,

controlled,

whose, by them.

145

The
The

Blessed Lord said

His essential

indestructible, the supreme, is the ETERNAL nature is called SELF-knowledge ; the


;

emanation that causes the birth of beings


Action;
3T^jt undecaying
;

is

named

(3)
5J
;

Brahman

q^4 supreme
;

??>Tnr:

own being (His nature) Wrfvn^f^^: = VTrTRr*


of the

3^|c-H Adhyatma

veqft
*T=
:

is

called

TnW
":

*??*

cfifrffi
;

ffW

of beings,

nature the birth, makes, thus, that


action,

f^ff

emanation

name, whose,

that.

Knowledge of the Elements concerns


;

My

perish-

able nature, and knowledge of the Shining Ones concerns the life-giving energy * the knowledge of sacrifice
tells

of Me, as

wearing the body,

best

of living
(

beings.

^rn^W Adhibhuta; ^: mnn ^f and ^|{V^tT*I


: ;

perishable; vfR: nature; 5^: Adhidaiva ^fv|^: Adhiyajna ;

The male

creative energy.

The supreme Purusha

is

the Divine

man. the manifested God.

10

146
;

3Tf I;

If?

only; ^[^ here

3%

in

the
;

body;
^;
best.

body, wear, thus, of them

And he who, casting off the body, goeth forth thinking upon Me only at the time of the end, he entereth into My being there is no doubt of that. ( 5 )
:

faTO
only;

3i[T%

*be end, in the time

^ and
cast

iTji^.

^T^
q:

ody;
:

remembering; *$&&n having who; ron% goes forth; ^: he;


;

off;

my, to nature
doubt.

^TTfrT

^oes

?r

not;

Whosoever at the end abandoneth the body, thinking upon any being, to that being only he goeth, O Kaunteya, ever to that conformed in nature. (6)
2f

which
;

which

^r or

3jfqf
;

also

Il4

natnire
;

*3T5n%

abandons

9^

in

CTO(. remeuibering ; the end cjf^ff?. the


;
;

body
that,

3
by

to
;

that

to
;

that

only

<?fr goes
Vfft^r

^f%^
(

Kaunteya
(

^RT always

^^1%: =%^
).

Vlfat:

by

nature, natured ( inspired

147

It

II

Therefore at
fight.

all

times

think upon
set

With mind and Reason thou shalt come to Me.


rTCTrfl

Me only, and on Me, without doubt


(7)
(
;

therefore

^f$

in

all
;

c&r%

in )

times

jrf

me

HI^Hi remember ; %eq

fight
?T:

<*%

and

*TS55[rfcR%if^ =
and,

Tfo 3rft% IT-

ff^';

^T 3TC3
JJTO.

in

Me,

placed, mind,
;

reason, and, whose, he


shalt

to

me

only

lj^f%

thou

go

'^T^RRll doubtless.

With the mind not wandering after aught else, harmonised by continual practice, constantly meditating, O Partha, one goeth to the Spirit, supreme, divine. (8)
with practice,
and, with
ST

yoga, and,

(with) united; ^?T?rr with the mind;


ffrr

not;

^^iirr^qrr = ^Pr fS^frT


it; *&?{ the

to
f^saf

another,
divine;

goes,
^rfrf

thus,

by
;

highest;
;

5^- man;

goes

TI^

Partha

3T3f%?T*Fl. thinking

oil.

148

I!

II

He who

thinketh upon the Ancient, the Omniscient,

the All-Ruler, minuter than the minute, the Supporter of all, of form unimaginable, refulgent as the sun beyond
the darkness,
gjft the poet
;

(9)

^<|mH ancient
the

STfSrrfarTRTl. the

ruler of

the world

^rjjff:
;

than

small; IRlfr^T^ smaller;


of all
;

may

think

who

^^S(

mttwn
3*3 X

supporter

inconceivable, form, whose,


?H!Tf

him ;

of
;

the sun, colour,

like, color,

whose, hiui

rTT^T : fi'om dai-kuess

H<^dl<t beyond.

9o

(I

forthgoing, with unshaken mind, fixed in devotion, by the power of yoga drawing together his life-breath in the cencre of the two eye-brows,

In the time of

he goeth to
JRTI

this Spirit,

supreme, divine.
of
;

(10)
;

:fH^( in

the time
;

with

unshaken
of

forthgoing fR^TI with mind HrFSCT with devotion ; ^rR: joined ;

yoga, by

strength

>sr

and
;

only

<*%: of the

two

eyebrows

ij^

in the

middle

149
;

breath
Tt

^fTO

having placed

SfTZRE together

g-:

he

that

highest;

S^SR man

^f%

goes

f^szpi divine.

That which

is

declared indestructible by the

Veda-

knowers, that which the controlled and passion-free enter, that desiring which Brahmacharya is performed,
that path
I

will
;

declare to thee with brevity.


;

(ll)
;

^ whom
^f?T declare:
they;

^rgt indestructible

R^T
pprform

enter;
:

^<^:
(into)

the

Veda-knowers

whom;

a^:

the

controlled; ^trUHU:

= ^t?T

'HT:

^
with

Zl^ni.% ^one, passion, whose,

whom,
(as)

f=5g[rf!
;

(they)

desiring; MgT^Jj Brahmacharya; of (to) thee; ft path; ?T^ that:

summary

JJ^^

(i)

will declare.

All the gates

closed,

the

mind confined

in

the

heart, the life-breath fixed in his

own

head, concentrated
(12)

by yoga,
&KlfiLI
1

all

gates; g^r?i

having

con-

The

gates of the body,

i. e.,

tlie

sense organs.

trolled

jpf:

mind

in the
;

heart; fq^?T having confined;

^T and
self
;

*$&[

in the
;

head

-411^(3

having placed ;
(in)
;

HJIr*{H : of the

jfToi

breath
.

^ifi^rf:

established

of yoga, concentration.

1 \\\

"

Aum

"
!

ing upon Me, he

the one-syllabled Brahman, reciting, thinkwho goeth forth, abandoning the body,
'13)
;

he goeth on the highest path.


TO

Aum

ff% thus
;

q^rr^t one syllabled


;

a^j Brahman
;

3: aT^^Ti^ remembering the body; g goes forth; nrsr^ abandoninor; ^


reciting
iffn

me

who
:

he;
).

goes; tpTTT (to the) highest

lift to the

path

goal

He who

constantly thinketh upon Me,

not thinking

ever of another, of him I am easily reached, of this ever harmonised Yogi.


not,

O
iu

Partha,
(14)
another,
;

thoughts, whose,

he

3(33 always
;

?j:

who
;

JfTO.

me
5PT:

^H<|^
easily
;

remember
obtained
:

f%^ren ever rf^f of him 9T? Partha frz? O PTc^^-rt,^ (0


;

ever-balanced

of yogi.

113

HH

Having come

to

Me,

these

MahAtmas come not


;

again to birth, the place of pain, non-eternal gone to the highest biiss.
JTTi

they have
(15)
birth

to

me
Jf

sTt^r having
-yidil
j

come

Jjvf:

again

f?JT

^^sIN^RL

3 ^^RR,
not
;

of

sorrows, the

place; ^i^ii^n*!.
:

non-eternal;

3Tr c f^f?t
<T^ft (to)

gain;
;

*f^|':HH
iTcir'

Mah&tmAs

to perfection

highest

gone.

The worlds, beginning with the world of Brahma, they come and go, O Arjuna; hut he who cometh unto Me, O Kaunteya, he knoweth birth no more. (16)
^T up
the world
;

10;

again-returning Arjuna ; qjn to me ^"^ having gone 5 indeed , Kaunteya 5^^FT again-birth ?f not
qfjcftp
;

BT3njsRni worlds
;

= grfrJr- E^Tf?l
^JT^r^f^T''

of

Brahma,
;

fmm

The people who know the day of Brahma, a thousand a^es in duration, and the night, a thousand ages
in ending, they

know day and

night.

(17)

152

thousand, yugas, boundary,


of

whico,

that

st-j:

day

ZRJ

whicti

tigjirj:

of

Brahma;
q^flOT
3T5=?f:

ffg:

know; *rf% the night; giiq^Ml =g *K*n. VRW- rTPI of yugas, by (a) thousand, end, of which,
;

that

they

Sfffrnrft^:

=
;

^T *TI%
people.

f^f^r

day,

and, nig^ht, and, know, thus

"Sf^j:

II

3^

II

From

the

unmanifested

all
;

the manifested stream


the

forth at the

coming of day they dissolve, even in That

at

coming of night
the unmanifested.

called

(18)

^ZFKTt from
^r:

the unmanifested

sq-rft^:

the manifested
^rnf*T
in

all; jpr^lt flow forth;

the coming; ^rszir 1!^ =


dissolve
ZI
;

TT
;

^i|*IH=3T%:

of

day, in

?TlT% of night,

the coming;

^f

there

q^ even

^o^TfJ^Tj

^fr^I^ unmanifested, name, whose, Its, in that.

M\
dissolved
at

II

This multitude of beings, going torth repeatedly,


Partha,
it

is

the coming of night; by ordination, streams forth at the coming of day. ( 19


of beings, the
;

O
)

IWTnn = grTnTR. Tnr


even
;

^pj

this

aggregate ^; that; Wc^T having been ; ^jr^r having been


;

153
in

dissolves helpless;

?j2jfTT*T

the

coming

of night
;

n^

Partha

STWlt

flows

forth

3T^ni%

in

the

coining of day.

Therefore verily

there

existeth, higher

than that

unmanifested, another unmanifested, eternal, which, in the destroying of all beings, is not destroyed. (20)
7^: higher; rT?Tr^ than
^fVH\

that

indeed;

>TR' :

nature;
the
all;

another;

^rsg^fj:

unmanifested;
zj:

^r5^^!^
^f:
tlia* ;

(than)

unmanifested;
(in)
is

CCTrrT'T:

ancient;
(in)

who;

^^\i\
?T

beings;

T^ZI?5

the

being destroyed;

not;

destroyed.

That
called
It
;

unmanifested,
is

"the

Indestructible,"

It

is

It

named

return not.
^roqTfi:

the highest Path. They That is My supreme abode.

who

reach
(21)

unmanifested;
;

^^<:

Indestructible;

f|% thus;

^rfi:

called; spi that

arrf:

(they) call;

TOT
;

the highest;

nf?T

path (goal);
return
;

which; j^c^

having

obtained,

not;

g^

that; VfTT abode;

qw highest

*pr ray.

154

He, the highest

Spirit,

Partha,

may

be reached by
all

unswerving devotion to abide, by whom all This


^f:

Him
1 is

alone, in

whom

beings
(22)

pervaded.
;

5^-: spirit; by devotion 5J>2|: obtainable;


:

He; ^:
of

highest
<J

qpf

Partha;

^^fT
fcT^f^

indeed;

^^-W
beings;

without

another
ff%

(object);

TS&q

whom;
they;
rfrfq.

3tf:?mft = 3(r{-

TTf% inside,

stand,

thus,

^nf^

by

whom; q^all; f^nthis;

spread out.

That time wherein goin^


and
also

that wherein
I

forth, Yogis return not, going forth they return, that

time shall

declare to thee,

prince of the Bharatas.


(23)

Vff where; qfT^


3TT? f^TO. return
;

in

time;
;

and

^ indeed;
even
;

^MI^frmL non-return
^rfnT:
yogis
will
;

JrarrTT:

gone forth;

qffi go;

?T

that;

^affFT'

(I)

declare;

prince of the Bharatas.

|)

*(%

\\

Fire, light, day-time, the bright


l

fortnight, the six


of
all.

This, the universe, in opposition to

THAT, the source

155

months of the northern path

then, going forth, the


to the
3T^:

men
(

who know
srfjr:

the

ETERNAL go
;

ETERNAL.
bright,

24

night- )
(

sqn%: light; T^f^rr six months


fire;
)
;

day; |r$:
the
;

(fort-

^KRPTI
;

northern-going
iresf^T go
;

of the sun

r^T

there

jntfrTT

gone forth

a^T

to

Brahman

STlf%^: Brahma-knowing

5f?

RH

II

Smoke, night-time, the dark fortnight also, the six months of the southern path then the Yogi, obtaining
the moonlight,
^R-:
7

returneth.
*ff^: ni^ht
;

(25)
rf^r so
;

smoke; p^r*TF six months


sun
)
;

dark (fortnight) ^f^wriT'l the southern going ( of the


;

^5<*T:

<ct?T

there

qryirg'

light

^fTfr

the yogi;

Jflxai

qysrep ?^ of the moon, this 5ifrfa: having obtained f?R^ returns.


;
;

n
to

^^

ii

Light and darkness, these are thought everlasting paths by the one he goeth who returneth not, by the other he who returreth again. (26)
world's
;

be the

ir$l*OT = SJ$r two) paths ff indeed


;

*Jff
;

-q-

light,
;

and,

dark,

and;
;

nft

|j% these

3|<13: of the
is

world

The

lunar,

or

astral,

body.

Until this

slain the soul returns

to birth.

156
(

eternal

two

JT%

are

thought

two

q^^f by one
arrq^r

(he)

goes; '?T;Tr^r%*l to non-return; ( he ) returns <j;p again.


;

by another;

Knowing
perplexed.

these paths,

Therefore

in

all

Partha, the Yogi times be firm

is

nowise
yoga,
(27}

in

Arjuna.
?T

not

ji?f
;

these
^fift

Ffrft

two
;

paths
is
;

qr?}

Partha
;

Iff^ knowing
any one
%Trg^j:
Arjuna.
;

the yogi
;

gsfnr
in
all

perplexed
(

^JT
times
;

tT^Trrj;

therefore
3=?T>:

5^5

^rr^5

in )

= 4rtT

with yoga,

balanced;

Hf

be; 3T^T

n
The
Vedas
ing, the
fruit

^^
in

ii

of

meritorious

deeds,

attached

the

to sacrifices,

to austerities,

and also

to almsgivthis,

Yogi passeth all these by having known and goeth to the supreme and ancient Seat.
in

(28)

the

Vedas

qg^

in sacrifices

rTqng in austeri-

157
'"
;

ties;

^
the
1

and; l%
of

even

fT^!J
fruit

g'fts;

2f^[

what;
;

5"ZIf2j qjof

merit,

the

STTf^l. assigned

aTStf^r

goes

beyond;
ijrrfr

?|(j

that;
;

^^

till;
;

yog!

qt highest

ff tins; f%f^c^r having known; 3%f% goes ^ and ^TT't place


; ;
;

first.

Thus

in the glorious

BH.\GAVAD-GirA...the eighth discourse

entitled.

THE YOGA OF THE INDESTRUCTIBLE SUPREME ETERNAL.

153

NINTH DISCOURSE.
I

II

The

Blessed Lord said


verily

To

thee, the uncarping,

shall

declare this

profoundest Secret, wisdom with knowledge combined, which, having known, thou shalt be freed from evil.

(0
ff
this
( I
;

indeed

% of
.

to )

thee
( to )

?T?Tj most secret

U^rR
3flJ[

will declare

srog^

the

uncarping

g-pj

wisdom; f^TPranjrj
which;
HT?3T

= f%i?f %T gr?W

with knowledge,

together;
shalt be

having freed; 3Tfprr?l from sin.

known; ^f%q%

(thou)

II

II

Kingly Science, kingly Secret, supreme


intuitional, according

Purifier, this,

to

righteousness,

very easy
(

to
2
)

perform, imperishable.
trSfrW'm

= f^srrfTR.
;

T^rr of

sciences,
=

the king

or = ^rgt

f^TT of kings, the wisdon)


king; yft^n. purifier 5^

Urg?j
;

^JfH^t

ttW
;

of secrets, the

this

^TlH^ highest

JT^T^T^'nT

= J?cq%!
;

1W ?f?l by direct

( intuition ),

knowledge,

whose, that

159

sp$

righteous;

gg^f very happy;

^n

to

do

imperishable.

*TT

Men
of death.

without faith

H^ffi fcjjtwKr in this knowledge, O

n ^ n
this

not reaching

Me, return to the paths of

Parantapa, world
(3)

sUST^JTr: unbelieving; g^qf: men; spfej of duty ; 3TW of ) thia q^TT O Parantapa STSTTO not having obtained
; ; ;

TTme;

RF^
( of )

return;

^^n<R$P|4|

of death,

world, and, in the path.

craft?

By Me
ed aspect in them.
;

all this
all

world

is

pervaded

in

My
I

unmanifestnot rooted
(4)

beings have root in Me,

am
;

Hir by

me

331^ pervaded

this

^[^

all

^r^
in

world;

STSSTf^jWHr^^wr
by

ltf%:

^^ %^

nnmainifested,

aspect, whose,

him; ?Tc?qTR = *Tra f%tf%


:

fR

tlfR
;

me,
not;

stand, thus,

^ and

they; tfTOTrft = ^Ntfor *g(lfo all being i n them I ^T^Rq'rf placed. ; %rt
>

?f

*RT<?TT

^TrT^FR:

II

II

i6o

Nor have beings root in Me behold My sovereign yoga The support of beings, yet not rooted in beings,
;
!

My SELF
?T nof,
:

their efficient cause.


"Sf

(5)
^Irf in
;

an 1

Jlc^JTR
see
;

= ifa fHS?f^
;

me, stand, thus

beings
=

rra

*T

my

qnni.yoga
upholds,
in beings,

q^T^
thus
.

sovereign
?r

'*!5n^ fa *f% fT% beings,


ftgra

not

-q-

and;
STRIf
thns.

?jjf^r:=^^
self;

^zpTHR:

?m =^[1^

sits,

thus;

TO my;

*rr^^n%

ffrl,

beings, nourishes,

^TcTTR
CT*

As
thou.
zjqT
f^REJ

the

mighty
all

air

everywhere moving

is

rooted in

the Akasha, so

beings rest rooted in

Me

thus

know
(6)

as

3TT^TT?rf^TrT
qfrS-

=aTT^n%

f^T?T

in

the ether, placed;

ever;

^he
;

air;

g^ftr: =^T^'T
;

Sf^'

?frf
all

every

where, goes,

thns

RST^ great
in

?TqT

so

^rf%

bemgs

H<TO(R existing

me

ff% thus

grT^T^ know.

the end

All beings, O Kaunteya, enter My lower nature at of a world-age at the beginning of a world;

age again

emanate them.
beings;

(7
Kaunteya
;

^^

jffj[% to

nature;

161
zjTKt

go; *TrR^re.
$?T:
;

ra y

cfi?<T$ra

= 3f?T*3

^1

of a kalpa,

in the

decay:

Hgain;

^?7f^ = ^?T^
;

beginning

f^^TTR^ emanate

<%lfl

of a

kalpa, in the

I.

IK
Hidden
forth again
less,

II

in

Nature, which
all this

and again

is Mine own, I emanate multitude of beings, help-

by the

force of Nature.

(8)

nature;

^TH. own;

3T^?*-5
xj?f:
;

having
a,ll

embraced;

emanate;
of beings,
of

^:

again;
;

again;
f5*6ni

?pT'm7n.= >J!jTPn i{.


I

assemblage
;

^Jf this

^^SQ" helpless

nature

^TOTfJ

by

force.

cIIFI

M %

II

Nor do these works bind me, O Dhanailjaya, enthroned on high, unattached to actions. (9)
?T

not;

^
;

and;

JTTO.

me:

rtfffi
;

these;

gfpnfoT

works;
indiffe-

pT^fft bind
rent
;

^ira

Dhananjaya

^f^Tr^^

like

3T[g??T seated;

^^TK unattached;"^

in those;

action.

II

II

ii

162

Me, moving and unmoving


the universe revolves.
?rar

Under

as supervisor, Nature sends


;

forth the

because of

this,

Kaunteya,
(10)

nature; with the moving,

by me ^rCTt%or (by, as) supervisor 33% sends out; *ra*raTC=*ftor ^


;

(lord)

^^ ^

5ET

and,

with the unmoving, and,

together

%5^r by cause; ^pfa (by) this; RRfa the world; Rnrf^m% revolves.

Kaunteya;

II

3 3
in

II

The
Lord
of

foolish

disregard

Me,

when

clad

human
(n)

semblance, ignorant of
beings;
despise
;

My
me
;

supreme nature, the great

^H^IH'^
<?rsrnTrr

?rf

JJST: the foolish

m^fl human

?T5I form; ^TTP$Trni refuged (in); qi highest; vff^l. nature;

unknowing;

?T?r

my

*j?ni%*TO= >j?rFrri it^t

of

beings, the great Lord.

in R

II

Empty

of hope,

empty

of deeds,

empty

of wisdom,

senseless, partaking

of the deceitful, brutal, and demo(12)


vain,

niacal nature.

hopes, whose, they

163
vain, deeds, whose, they

%
: ; ;

vain,

knowledge, whose, they


;

mindless; *r$T*fri rakshasic ; STT^fpT asuric -ST and; even JT^nT nature Hrffqf deceitful frar: refuged ( in ).
:

Verily the Mahatmas, O Partha, partaking of My with unwavering mind, having known Me, the imperishable source of beings. (13)
divine nature, worship
HfrcJTr?r

mahatmas

indeed

HT

me

qr^

Partha

%CR.

divine;
;

z^fi

nature; STrpsref:
?T

refuged

(in;)
.

>T5fr^

worship

ST^^iT^^: =
;

^^[1^
;

*IT:

qlf
;

not

irl

another,

mind, whose, they

gT5Wr having known

5jrfif|q

of beings, the beginning

^f&W*l imperishable.

TT ?&F3\

H^TWT STRKT in *

Always magnifying Me, strenuous, firm in vows, prostrating themselves before Me, they worship Me with
devotion, ever harmonised.
SKffi
er

(14)

always; qft&3: praising;

and;

^y{^\'=^S
saluting;
:

5HT

^Tr* ^
JTr*

firm,

me; ^?r: striving vow, whose, they;


with devotion;

and;
;

me;

vrff^r

ever-balanced

^Tf^

worship.

64

in
Others also sacrificing with the
sacrifice

of wisdom,

worship
present.

Me

as the

One and

the Manifold everywhere


(15)
with
the
;

'rf

5TR3ltR = JcTRTO 3|nT f wisdom, and ; arft also ; 3TRT other.* ; 2T5KT:
ticfi?%;T

sacrifice;
rf

sacrificing

me

^7ra?T worship;
rnanifoldness
;

by

the

oneness;

"J^rPR

by

the

the ^fVfr by

many;

nP9rfrg?cnj;=

all sides, face,

whose, him.

*
I

^
I

II

the oblation
;

the

sacrifice
;

the ancestral
;

offering

the

the fire-giving herb the mantra butter; I the fire; the burnt-offering I
I
;

also (16)
;

3Tt I

f?3:

the oblation
pitris
;

art I
I
;

3?P the
butter

sacrifice
;

^q-f

the

offering
;

to
?

srt

3Tfqv^ the herb


;

fa: the
I
5

mantra
the
fire

art 1
sr? I

*t
^rT
1

x
!.

3? even

**T5q
;

3?t

STfR:

the burnt-offering

TTcTT ^TcTT

NcM

the

Father of this universe, the Mother, the Sup-

165

porter, the Grandsire, the

Holy One

to

Word

of Power, and also the Rik,

be known, the Sama, and Yajur,

(17)
forfr father
*Tf?jT
;

sr?

I;

3TTO of

this; 3TT?r:

(of)

world;
fco

mother;

Vfr-TF

supporter; ftrTr^: grandfather: 5RJ


;

be

known;
S4m;i
;

qf^
3J3J:

pai-ifier

sti^TR:

the

ornkara
;

^ja^ Rik

SfR

Yajuh;

<r^

even

^f

and

The

Path, Husband, Lord, Witness, Abode, Shelter,

Lover, Origin, Dissolution, Foundation, Treasure-house,

Seed imperishable.
T[%: the

(18)
vr?tt

path
:

the

husband;

q-^:

the lord; ?rr^f? the

witness; fff^r^
JPT^: the origin

the abode;
;

^OT

the shelter;

^f^ the
tlie

lover

JT^3[:

the dissolution;
;

^rt
^rsqq

foundation;

the treasure-house

^T5f the seed

inexhaustible'

1^
I

II

give

heat

hold

back and send forth the rain

immortality and
Arjuna.
rPTfft

also death, being

and non-being
ra "'
;

am
(

I,

19)
;

burn

<?rt
"5T

I
;

^lt

*$

3cHnfir

let

go

and

^T5^ immortality

q-

Rl^fTFT hold and iff even


;

166
being;

death;
I
i

and;
Arjnna.

srq;

^rq-^ non-being; T* and;

^rf

^o

II

The knowers
purified

of the three, the Soma-dr inkers, the

from

sin,

Me

the

way

to

worshipping Me with sacrifice, pray of heaven they, ascending to the holy


;

world of the Ruler of the Shining Ones, eat the divine feasts of the Shining Ones.
^ft^r: =f?T^r: fan'- 5wf
they; nf

in

heaven
(20)

three, sciences (

Vedas), whose,

me;
t

^R<rr:

= ^ft

R^rar ?r% the soma, drink, thus;

c 'jrTqrr rr:--= I?r

^7^^%
;

purified, sin, whose, they;


;

q%: with;

sacrifices

f |fr having sacrificed

^nr%

heaven;

ask

they

5^^
;

pure

?^ ^^ ot
divine

tlie

^WRJ having reached Gods, (of) Indra, the world


;
;

^rlr

eat

f^ft in heaven

"^^irrsj:

=^r?Tr^ %*TT^

of the

Gods, the enjoyments,

-\

vd

i6 7

their

They, having enjoyed the spacious heaven-world, holiness withered, come back to this world of
Following the virtues enjoined by the
three,'

death.

desiring desires, they obtain the transitory.

(21)

%
world

they
;

?f

that;
;

ij^r
1

f%^TT^ vast

^ff^

in

having enjoyed; ^ij^t^ svargathe state of being) withered ;

5^

= l^rVf W3T of mortals, the world f%5J[5T (in)merit; Jf?Z[5fr37 enter q^r thus sjifn-rif = ?p:zn *R of the three (Vedas), the duty; ^TfiTTSrr: devoted (to); 1^11?^= 1^ going, and, coming, and; cffR^PTT: = ^Hr?rr?L ^TnP
;
>

of (objects of) desire, desire, whose, they

5nr*t obtain.

*i\

II

To

those

men who worship Me

alone, thinking of
I

no

other, to those, ever harmonious,

bring

full

security.

(22)
ST^^TP without-others; f%?TO?T5 thinking
;

tR

me ; q who
bring;
?fij

3RP men; TJTF^


of

worship;
ziprng-J?

%qri

of

them; f^mrfT3TKRrq[
I.

the

ever-balanced;

security; ^frf*T

The three Vedas.

168

Even the devotees of other Shining Ones who worship full of faith, they also worship Me, O son of Kunti,
though contrary
to the ancient rule.

(23)

of

) other,

of gods, devotee
;

;2T5T?r
;

worship
also
:

sy^qr with faith

^JT^RTP

endowed

^
;

they

3Tf7

*rf

me

q-^

even

^33 O Kaunteya arsfrrT worship; arr^f%^^r*l = ^f^fq: WH ^Fff ?T?Tr non-rule, preceding ( guide as, may be, so.
),

*$

*t't
I

am
fall.

Lord, but they

indeed the enjoyer of all sacrifices, and also the know Me not in Essence, and hence
,"24)
;

they

9t

i| indeed

*nfo^Tr*=
^f
;

^qrn ^r^ri of
if^:

all,

(of)

sacrifices; Vffvtf

the enjoyer;

and;
;

lord; q-^ even;

and

q[

not

indeed
;

ijf

me
;

3TPT5fr^R
they.

kno

by essence

^gf: hence

=e^f^r

fall

*ITT%

They who worship

the Shining

Ones go

to the

Shin;

ing Ones; to the ancestors go the ancestor-worshippers to the Elementals go those who sacrifice to Elementals

but

My

worshippers come unto Me.

(25)

169
spr
;

smr go
whose, they
;

5?T5rar:

=>^5

3tt* %

in

the

gods,
:

vow,
;

3^R[

to

the gods

farF^ to the pitris

qff% go
;

fcfsrar: faf3 SW to the BhvUas; qiflf go

^Pl^ in
;

the pitris, vow, -whose they

*j?m%

>j^3^f:

= *&**'
qfnr
;

fW

^TT %> for the

Bhutas, sacrifice,

whose, they;
thus;
?jf<t

g<>

ff% me,

sacrifice,

also

*it

to rue.

5R3RIH:
He who
a
as
fruit,
it is

11

R^
leaf,
self,

II

ofifereth to
I

Me

with devotion a

a flower,
offered

accept from the striving with devotion.


water, that
a
leaf;
jsq-

(26)
3:
;

q-^-

a flower;
VTrFZir

Tjj5f

fruit;
;

^pj[ water;

who
rfq;

Jf

of ( to )

me
I;

w i*h
=

devotion

we&fo
with

offers

that;

iTrfSTErtl^

^r?W

^TitT

devotion,
striving,

offered; awirft eat; irqrirf*T^:


self,

H^rf: ^TT^r

IJ ?T^

whose, of him.

II

Whatsoever thou
whatsoever thou

doest,

whatsoever thou

eatest,

whatsoever thou givest, whatsoever thou doest of austerity, O Kaunteya, do thou


offerest,

that as an offering unto Me.


Z(^ what
1

(27)
;

^JTJiq
;

thou
(

doest

q<
;

what

3T3Trm"

thou

)
;

eatest

;^ what

^frf^T

thou

) offerest

f^ir% (thon) givest

170
thou
(

?KJ what

3KJ
;

what ;
rTfy

cT<T*2rf% (
;

doest of
)
;

austerity

Kaunteya
)

that

^^ do

thou

in ( to

me, offering.

Thus

shalt thou be liberated from the


;

bonds of action,

yielding good and evil fruits thyself harmonised the yoga of renunciation, thou shalt come unto

by

Me
(28)

when

set free.
I

!PTT!PT

W =^jw
: :

**r

?npt
;

^"
q^f

W^T1 %
thus
:

good, and, evil,


shall be freed
:

and, fruit, of which, by these


of

ifr^%

karma,
^f*
:

by the

bonds; ^Tqi^RtnTof

^T 5rn" f?T ^P

renunciation,

by

yogra,

balanced,

self,

whose, he; f%gTfj: liberated; HT to

me

shalt come.

The same am
to

to all beings; there


verily
I

is

none hateful
with
(2cf]
all >
i

Me
ST*r:

nor dear.

They
l
',

who worship Me
in

devotion, they are in Me, and


equal;
of

also in them.

^
;

^H?5 = ^3 ^3
;

bein gs
:

rf

not;
;

me; %sq:
;

hateful

?rfl?r
;

is
',

not

ftf

dear;
;

^ who
Hra in

?T5Tm worstiip
;

5
in

indeed

iff

me
;

ypf&tt with faith


;

me % they %^

them

=^

and

3lfT also

i.

f|

(\

Even
heart,

if the most sinful worship Me, with undivided he too must be accounted righteous, for he hath
;

rightly resolved

STfralso;
ships;
iff

^
; ;

(30)
if;

gcjTT^n;

very-evil-acting
3T ? 2J

vrsnr

wor-

me

3T?f52PTr^R
:

= T

T^rrW ff% not

another
Tf
;

righteous; irf even; worships, thus; qr^ resolved to be thought ^x^gs well ; s^RWrT
:

^: he;
;

ft indeed

he.

peace.

Speedily he becometh dutiful and goeth to eternal O Kaunteya, know thou for certain that My
(31)
;

devotee perisheth never.


f^jj quickly
in
;

*ncm becomes
self,

vprr*Tr

qft

3TF?*ir

5^
;

?T

righteousness,
;

whose, he; ^pg'ff eternal: inTf^ peace

RTeg'R goes ^R?I ^ my *TTR devotee ;


; :

Kaunteya
ironraf^
is

JT^Ufffr^ know

not

destroyed.

f|

They who take

refuge with Me,

Partha, though of

172

the

womb
*Tf

of sin,

women, Vaishyas, even Shudras, they


(32)

also tread the highest Path.

me

f% indeed; qrsr
if

Partha; safTff^T^ having taken

refuge

(in);

THTr ^lir^: ^f^ft.% sinful,

= who; ^f^ even; ^j: may be; <jrTff womb, whose, they f^ij: women;
: :

%^f:
also
r^?
:

vaishyas;
ltf%

rf^Tf

also;

35T

shudras;

they;

^fyq

gJ
^

T^f highest;

TT% goal.
r^

v3

*<

How
royal

much rather then holy Brahmanas and devoted


;

saints

having

obtained

this

transient

joyless

world, worship thou Me.

(33)

f% how
VTrW:
lasting;

tj;j:

acrain; STT^nrrf:

Brahmanas;
;

"prqr:

devoted;

U'Sf^:

rajarshis
;

?J^JT

also:
fij

^T-f^zi

pure; not

^T-^f^ pleasureless

5Tr?f*I,
;

world:

this:

m^

having obtained; Vfsi^ worship

fff

^ne.

to
in

On Me fix thy mind Me prostrate thyself


;

be devoted
before

to

Me

sacrifice

Me

harmonised thus

the

SELF, thou shalt come unto Me, having


in

Me

as

thy supreme goal. *TR IT- 3TO


*T=^:

(34)
*T
:

me, mind, whose, he; >r^ be;


JRTTSft

my

devotee;

= HT 15KT f f?T

to

me,

173

sacrifices,

thus;

*fT
:

me; ?R*<pj
:

salute;

*n to

me;

even;

trs^fgf

shalt
:

corne

g^r^r having balanced;

^
I,

thus;

sir^R

the

self

tTcquzw

= 3T? TUI^

^^

'

5T

supreme goaL

whose, he.

Thus

in the glorious

BHAGAVAD-GirA

the ...... ninth discourse, entitled

THE YOGA OF THE KINGLY SCIENCE AND THE KINGLY SECRET.

174

TENTH DISCOURSE.
I

The Blessed Lord


Again,

said

mighty-armed, hear thou


I

My

supreme
I )

word, that, desiring thy welfare, who art beloved.


3JZT.

will

declare to thee
(

again

KTf

even; Jfin^rff

great-armed

% my;

<TC4

highest;
the

^:

word;
;

$gj

hear;

which;
(

%
)

of (to) thee;
will

to

being loved

^^fR

declare;

of wellbeing,

by the desire.

f^j:

J8,ihis,

The multitude of the Shining Ones, or the great know not My forthcoming, for I am the beginall

ning of

the Shining
f%^:

Ones and the great

Rishis.
i

^not;%my;
gods,

know;

3p;rJrn =?pT'='Tr l TOTT:

of the

hosts; spr^ origin; rf not; J^sf^: =1^1?^: great rishis; ^rt I ^rrf^: the beginning; nt indeed; of the gods ; *I?sffcrini of the great rishis ; and ;
;

the

everywhere.

175

Me, unborn, beginningless, the of the Lord world, he, among mortals without great
delusion,
3?
=q:

He who knoweth
is

liberated from
:

all sin.

who
the

HTO.

me

^r^ni.

unborn

3TTri^ beginningless
of

and; ti%
mortals
is

knows;

Rf^H%^^=^r'U^ Tf^TCH
1

the

world,

great
;

Lord;

sryjjg
:

among

^TH"

undeluded;
TfV
:

^f

he;

Hcif*J
;

by

all,

by sins

quitted.

n
Reason, wisdom, non-illusion, forgiveness,
self-restraint,

n
truth,

calmness, pleasure, pain, existence, non-

existence, fear, and also courage,


gflf
:

(4)
J

reason; 5jTRl
;

wisdom; ar^f?
:

non- illusion
;

9ftm
;

forgiveness

^5T truth
;

^Jj
vj^f:

self-restraint

jfpi

calmness

5^

pleasure
;

5:^
;

pain

existence; ^T-^TT^: non-existence;

*T^ fear

and

^T*T^i

fearlessness;

q^ even

if

and

CN

II

Harmlessness, equanimity, content, austerity, alms-

176

giving,

fame and obloquy, are the various characteristics of beings issuing from Me. ( 5 )
^ftST hannlessness
;

^RcTF equanimity; ^fg- content; 3^:


:

austerity; fpT
vniT:

gift;

2|^:

fame;

^nrep
Tfrf:

natures: ^Tr^ri of beings;


:

obloquy; *r4f% are; from me; even;

= T?T5Fi

f%qr:

2^1%

-separate, kinds, whose, they.

The seven
this race

1 great Rishis, the ancient Four, and also

the Manus, were born of

My
;

nature and mind

of

them
(

was generated.
the great
rishis
^rc?j

jfijsfo:

seven

,-

tjt ancient

^'r^r?::

four; *nre:
being,

mauus

?itn also; ^VTT^T:


;

= Tr^*rrr ^TT ^
ITTrTF:

i"

me,

whose,
;

they

JTR^Tf!

mental

born

sfari of

whom

?5t% in world;

fHT^ these; s^TP races.


:

He who knows

in

essence that sovereignty and


;

yoga of Mine, he is harmonised by unfaltering yoga there is no doubt thereof. (7)


<j?rr

this;

f%?!r sovereignty; %TT yoga;


"%f%

rne;3T.
l

who

"Ef and; HI knows; rT^R: b y essence; *p he;

of

The four Kutn&ras, or Virgin Youths, the highest

in the occult

Hierarchy of this earth.

177

?T

f%cR*T% fT^

^T
f

not, shakes,

thus, by it;

^ifa yoga;

?r is

balanced

not; ^pf here;

%^^: doubt.

am

the Generator of

all

all

evolves

from

Me
(

understanding thus, the wise adore


tion.

Me
;

in rapt

emo8
)

8T?
all;

^^

of all

JHT^: the generator

HT

from me

JT^^

evolves;
;

fr% thus;
:

Jfc^T

having thought;

worship; ^r me f^T the wise; with emotion, endowed.

n
Mindful of Me, their
life

% n

hidden

in

Me, illumining

each other, ever conversing about Me, they are content

and

joyful.

(9)
T?rr:

*TT

JfPrn

mind, whose, they; wr^L% to me, gone, breath whose,


.

me

they; %T^rT: illumining (making wise);

<ftCTtq[

^tphr: talking (of ) *f and; iff me; and ; ^f% rejoice ; ^T and. content
;

ftnjf

always

mutually; 3^f% are

a
12

\\

To
give the

these, ever

yoga of discrimination

harmonious, worshipping in love, I by which they come


(

unto Me.
%qrfH of these;

10)

^HrTf ^RRI*= STcR


(

g=f?;PTT
;

always, (of

the) balanced; *r3RT


<J

of the

wui.-l.ippiug

iftR<75|!l=ifti%:
;

ar*n fSTFrl

fWI

love, before, as, raay be, so


of reason, the

^ff%
;

give

yoga

?j

that

ipj by

which

to

me

^rqnW come; %

they.

*TR3cTT 113 ^

II

their

them, dwelling wiihin destroy the ignorance-b^rn darkness by the shining lamp of wisdom. ( 1 1 )

Out of pure compassion


SELF,
I

for

^qriof them
dom, horn
^rfrJT^r:

q?f
;

eveu
sr?
1
'

ST^qru = 3T5^fir^r:
^T^TrJTl!'

?nf

of

com-

the sake passion, for


;

= ?T5Tr^r?I
)

"SfPT i'<*m
;

unwis-

w.
f

darkness

?rn[ran'^ ( I

destrov

srr?*T>Tr^f?T:
;

>Tr% ff?HT: of the self, in the nature, seated

fpT*3l

fi^l

wisdom, with the

light;

vn^rfr

ghiuing.

II

Arjuna said

Thou

art

the supreme

ETERNAL,

the

supreme

179
eternal, divine

Abode, the supreme Purity, Deity, unborn, the Lord


!

Man, primeval
(

12

q^ highest.;

pure

( >r

eternal;

Brahman; ft highest; >*R abode man punfie ); t^jj highest.; ^^T !. Thou fe*q divine; 3T[f?|^ first God; 3JI unborn;
5
;

aJ

5^

Lord.

ii

i \\\

All t'K Ri^his have thus acclaimed

Thee, as also

the divine Ri?hi. Narada

so Asita, Devala, and

VyAsa
(

and now Thou Thyself


3IIf: declare;

tellest it

me.
;

13)

W*l

tliee

3^^^: the E'shis

^all;
Asita
ijf
;

|^:
3^:
even;

divin

llshi; 5f[^:
s^fg-;
*T

Narada;
?^4

srqr also; 3Tf?I?r:


(thjr-)

DevaU;
JT^7

Vjasa;
me.

self;

and;

tellest

All this

believe true that

Thou

Keshava.

Thy

manifestation,

sayest to me, O Blessed Lord, neither


( ( I )

Shining Ones nor Danavas comprehend.


Sff^ all; ijffq- this; s^ true; ip^r which HI to me; ^f% <l>ou sayest; %S[r^
not
;

14

think;

33
?f

Keshava;
;

f| indeed

thy
;

^nq^
Gods;

blessed
*{

Lord

ogfo mani-

festation; rtf-

know

^ff:

not

^r^Tr; Danavas.

80

Cs

Thyself indeed knowest Thyself by Thyself, O Puru?hottama Source of beings, Lord of beings, Shining
!

One
(thy)

of Shining Ones, Ruler of the world

15

PTO

thy

self

^
;

only

irrSTTf by

thy

) self

arr?^

self;

%Wf knowest; m*i thou; ^^qtTFT

Punishot-

tama; JgrvriCT = *j?nfa


causest to become, thus

m^f%
igfTJ

?f?T

beings,

thou (that)

= VTHRni. f 5T

of beings,

Lord

^^=^Rfl
the world,

33

of

gods,

O God;

3fiT?T^

= ^m: T%

of

Haler.

Deign
glories,

to

tell

without reserve of Thine


glories

own

divine

by which
to
;

Thou

remainest, pervading these


(

worlds.

16)

^3*
remainder
f^pr^j: of
ofrefPl.

tell
fts^n"'-

3T?I% shouldst
;

^T^iT by withoutf%tmfH5 by
glories

divine
;

!^

indeed; WIcTf^rTZf: =31^^^:

self, glories
;

auft:
;

( b y)

which
;

worlds

f Jfr^t. these

<^I. thou

o^rc *l having pervaded

How may
ditation?
In

know Thee,

what, in

O Yogi, by constant mewhat aspects art Thou to be


Lord
;

thought of by me,
3I*f

blessed

17

how
;

ffSfrat

may know
; ;

igfe

zffftr^
;

yogi

Hl^ thee
what
;

^ffr
(

always

TRf^rf^l. meditating

%$

( in )

%TJ
;

in )

what
;

"of

and

VTF%5 in

moods
;

f%?g: to be

thought

srref art

VflT^

blessed

Lord

J^f by me.

n
In detail
tell

\\

Janardana

for

me again of Thy yoga and glory, O me there is never satiety in hearing Thy
(

life-giving words.

18)
qrt

f^cflW by
yoga
;

in )

detail

su*W>

of

(
;

thy
wjq:
(

own
again
;

fT>i^T

g^ij

^T^r^T

Janardana
;

<3fwq
?f

tell; ^fc?f:

contentment;
;

ff indeed

y$*r(:

of )

hearing;

not;

3Tft?T is

of

me

fcT
I1

II

The
Blessed be thou
its
!

Blessed Lord said


I

will declare

to thee

My

divine

glory by there is no end to details of Me.

chief characteristics,

best of the

Kurus

(19)

182-

T well;
divine
in
;

$ (to)
f| indeed

thee
;

grofawirf'T

(I)
T

will declare;
;

STpcTR^rri:
of
"^

mj

glories

SfPTT3rT
%rff?T
i

the

main;
;

^^STg

best
;

theKurus;

not.5

end

f^^rf^zi of detail

of me.

^^

II

R*

II

I,

Gudakesha,
;

am

the SELF, seated in the heart


also
(

of

I am the beginning, the middle, and beings the end of all beings.

all

20)
the
;

3Tf I

3UrTr. the

-self

3J37%S[r

Gudakesha
all, of
:

tf%w?f[*R-

f^I?p

g^<srrH.
?

heart, seated

3Tf

and

VTrTPTri.

gcTRfl STf^ RT?|: (of) I ^rff the beginning ^ BT^rT'- the end beings
J
; ;

being*,
t,h

jp;^

middle
^T and.

=r

^ even

Of
glorious

the

Adityas

Sun

terisms the

am Moon am
;

am Vishnu of radiances the Marichi of the Maruts, of tlie as;

I.

21

3TffflRl
q-fH of lights;

of the

Adityas;

f?5^:
r
;

Vyuni;
.01

yWffi;

cf^: the

Sun

9fTU*Tr^
(

radian

?Tf,f^T: ]\lnu-hi

Jl^ririof the Maruts; %rf^T

I )

am; T^Trani

asteriims

3T?

5T?fr

the moon.

R^ n
Of
I

the Vedas

am
;

the

Sama-Veda

of the Seining Ones

and of the senses

am Vasava am the mind


I (

am

of living beings the intelligence.


of the
of
f

22
(

)
)
;

Veds

frrH%?: the
;

Samaveda

qfrw

the

gods

SUW
)

( I )

am

qm?. Vasava

the

senses; jf^:

mind;

^r

and; 8Tft*T(I) am;


intelligence.

beings; *rl>T (I

am;

m^f

II

R^
I

II

And

of the Rudras Shahi-aia


;

am

Vittesha of the

and of the Vasus Yakshas and Rftk?liasas Pavaka Meru of high mountains am I.
;

am
(

23

^yfonqof the

Riiflrns;

^ft: Shtmkara;
and; 33*Tri.
;

-^

and

<wilT (I)

am;

ftrdl'- Vittesha. or

Kubera;

[^^^rrl = ^WOTT
of

ofYakslias, and of Rak-li!s;i8,

Vasus

Pavaka;

^ and ^T^ (I) ara ;%^: Mru


;

fa*m|oin

fieaks of which, ( there) are, thus, of

them

^Sfij

I.

Ami know Me, O


chi^f,

Parthn,
I

of household priests the

Bphaspati

of generals

am Skanda

of lakes
(

am

the ocean.

24)

'

84

of house-priests

"^ and

3153 the chief

iff

Hie

know; qpf
^t^ri

Partha;
the army,

f^nt*
leads,

Brihaspati; CRpftHr
thus,
of

them; ?Tf

Skanda

^gri.of

lakes; ^rfl*T(I

am

?UTC: the

oceaii.

Of
tions

syllable
;

the great Rihis, Bhrigu of speech I am the one of sacrifices I am the sacrifice of silent repeti; of immovable things the Himalaya. ( 25 )
;

I; firrf of Tf^f ojf of the great Rishis ^5: Rhrigu; the one; 3T$uqr syllable ZJ^Ri of 8TfCT (I) am speech
; ;

sacrifices;

ITT^- =:5nTHl

q^C- of reper.inon, the sacrifice

ar^f

(I) am;

WTWH^of immovable (Things);

ffRr5r^: Himalaya.

Ashvattha of

all trees

and of divine Rishis Narada


;

of Gandharvas Chitraratha
Kapila.
*T^??i:

of the perfected the

Muni
(26)

Ashvattha; q^ranrri =*T5faf*l f^r<JTrl (of jail, of trees; ^rtfr<Jrrl. of divine R 8'iis and ^r^: Na-ada
;

't>?^f alri.of

Gaadharvas;

f^^TW

Ghitraratha

fg-^ff^f of the

perfect; ^rf^5f: Kapila; 5?%: muni.

u
UchchaishravA of horses
Airavata of lordly elephants
;

^
f%f^T

know Me, nectar-born; and of men the monarch.


(27)
know

3^: s$TWl. Uclichhaishrava


>TT

^p<3TfT of horses

me

3retr^1 = 3T??Tr?i;
;

33&'-

*&H

*('

from amrita,

birtb,
;

whose, he

^r^rf Aij avata

T^gTuri of the lords of elephants

W*T*l

of

men;

-BT

and; ^rmfr=fRrarr

TI^t of men, the

monarch.

I!

Re
I
1

II

Of weapons

KAmadhuk
pents

of cows I am the thunderbolt am Kandarpa of the progenitors Vasuki am I.


;
;

am
(28)-

of ser

STrgtrpWlL of

^TfJI
desires,

of

weapons cows; 3TPR (1)

?ff

fSI

the

thunderbolt
trf^T $ft
;

am;

KWJ3 = ejiRr^
Tf*(^:

milks, thus

(Kauiadhuk);
5fj^f:

the progenitoiof

and;

^rf^i
( I )

(I)
;

am;

Kandarpa;

serpents;

am

3T!jf%s Visuki.

1)

And

am Ananta

of

Nagas

Varuna of

sea-dwell-

86

ers

I
I.

and of ancestors Aryama


Ananta
;

Yama
am
I
;

of governors
(

am

29

BTfTJtT:

-ef

and

^ffci
;

I )

HRTT^r of Nagas

%%<J\:

Varuna

^r?^rf
f
;

sea-beings
;

BT?

fqHori of anceKt.ors;
vft:

arzfar

Aryarna
;

5f

and

SErf^T

( I )

am

Yama

of governors

8Tjj I.

n ^

<>

And am
I
;

am

Prahlada of Daityas
I

of calculators

Time
3

and of wild beasts

the imperial beast; and Vaina(

teya of birds.
XT^5ff^:

Prahlstla

and

^[^f[

( I )
;

am
3T?
<>f
f

^?^r?li of
I;

Daitvas; qff&:
of

Time;
%JT?fa:
)
;

g^JJirir

of

c.l:nlMt..i s

im^f
tkiings,

wild things.; -^ and;


:

^'^' =
and;

^Tr"tr

ruler; 8Tf I

= f%^nra[r
q-

^T?^

f^ 3^^

w 'l'l

Viuata, child,

male

Vainateya

qi%<JIR "f birds.

TFT:

and

Of purifiers I am the wind Rama of warriors I am Makara of fishes of streams the Gan^a am I.
; ;

(30
q^-^:

the

wind

q"^flt

pui-ifiers

STifT

( I )

am
?ff^

cri'

Rama
them
;

5T^f[^r slOWrrT
ffqrirf
f

f^FT
;

ff% ^^rt

w ^=>,nons,
;

bears, thus, of
;

fishes

JT^T

makara

"ff

and

( I )

',

87

am

ffrrraf of streams

srftir ( f )
(

am
.

^Tff'r

= "STf P

of Jalinu, child, female

Ganga)

^TR:

SF^cOTII

^
(
;

(|

Of creations
the

middle

am

the beginning and the ending and also I, O Arjuna. Of sciences the science
;

concerning the SELF


?rnroTT of
=5T

the sptech of orators


beginning;

I.

32

and

creations; ^Trf^s the

the

middle;

-q-

and

Arjana; ^T^^^'f ^TT ---^f^^^^


the
science
;

* even; f%^r of con.-.r-rning the


;

^ ^^
;

3T5?T:

the end;

self,

f%^Rf

of

sciences

n^: the

speech

JTW^tfT

of

Of
whose

letters the letter


T
;

am, and the dual of

all

the

compounds
fac'e

also everlasting

Time
letter

the Supporter,
(

turns everywhere.
letters; ^f*MT: the
;

33

^reworf of
ff: the dvandva

A;
&%$'>
I;

3Tff*T

trr>Tlf%3FV
tliai
;

= ^rur^Tf Ws

pounds,

the group, of
gfrc*:

>ui(i;

^ ^
3T^
used
iu

(T) am; ?T^. of comeve


I
1

everlasting;

time;

^frTf tne .supporter;

having fares
1

in every direction.
f (.:oinj)ounds

Amonsj the various kinds

Sanskrit,

that

called the dvaDJvn. the copulative.

188

$mr
And
to

come

all-devouring Death am I, and the origin of all and of feminine qualities, fame, prosperity,
intelligence, firmness, forgiveness.
(

speech,

memory,
;

34

i&%: death *rtf{: = *Hf ?CI% ff% all, seizes, thus; ?T? I; 33T^: the birth; and; *rf%s^rTJ of future

^ and
ttiings

;
;

3fmT: fame; ijf: prosperity; qr^ speech; and; ?Iffrairl. of feminine things; ?S|%: memory; intelligence; ffa: firm-

^f

ness

g"*ir

forgiveness.

Of hymns
1;

also

Brihatsaman

G^yatri of metres

am

of months

am

M irgashirsha
;

of seasons the flowery.

(35)
Brihatsaman
Gayatri;
r&ft

also

qraf of Sinaa hymns


I; HT^r^t
of seasons
;
(

S?^T^

metres;

3T^

>f

monhha;

ma'-gashi! sha
:

^ft

*
',

^^

of flowers, the mine.

am

the gambling of the cheat, and the splendour

i8 9

of splendid things

am

victory,
I.

am

determination,
(

and the truth of the


;

truthful

36

*3H the gambling 55r*rai of the cheating; ^f$q ( J) am Spaf: the splendour ^Sffi^RT of splendours ?T?1; 3fZ(: victory;
;
;

Kftii

(l)am; s^n^r^:
;

truth

determination; 3rfar(I) ?{T^rlt of the truthful ; ^rf I.

am;

^^ the

Of the Vrihnis Vasudeva am


Dhananjaya of the Sages Ushana the Bard.
;

of the Pandavas
;

also

am Vyasa

of poets
(

37

Pandavas;
%rfq

>=HR:

also;

ST^

I;

^ST

Dhananjaya; g^f of munis VjAsa; ^^FTrl of poets;

Ushana;

^fRf:

the poet.

Of rulers

am the

sceptre

of those that seek victoI

ry I am statesmanship; and of secrets the knowledge of knowers am I.

am

also silence
(

38

policy; vfTw

trs the sceptre; %*ZRtt of rulers; srfFT (I) am; sfh%: (I) am; f^ffarTT of the victory-seekers ; $R
;

silence; ^- and

^f even;

<?n*JT

(I) am; JjfTRf


I.

of secrets;

|TR

the

knowledge;

JcTR^fTT of

knowers; *rt

190

\\\

M\
I,

And

whatsoever
;

is

the seed of

all

beings, that

am
(

Arjuna

nor

is

there

aught,

moving or unmoving,
39
)

that

may
see.l
;

exist bereft of Me.


;

^^[ which

^
r.hnt

^[^
by

that; ^rR?T

me

^ ^
is

and; g^TT also;


;

^f^iTrTnTT

of

all
qr

being*

3Tf

1;
;

f%?rr
;

without

3T3JT

O
;

Arjnna,
f^r?l

not;
be
;

ff.^

whi (! h

may

*nir

beiug

^Tj^fq^^K

^ 3T^

^f

moving, aud,

unmoviner, and.

ii

There

is

no end of

My
is

What
glory.
5f

has been declared

divine powers, O Parantapa. only illustrative of My infinite


(

40

not
T

STrT.

end

3TRfT

is

J^T

my

f^irTt
this;
;

( of ) divine;

glories;

TtrTT
of )

Paranr.apa; ^q-

indeed;
of glory
;

by, (way
:

illustration; ^TT|J: said

R^T:

extent; J^r by me.

m
Whatsoever
is

glorious, good, beautiful,

and mighty,

understand thou that to go forth from a fragment of


splendour.
3jf|

My
)
;

(41
;

what.

3f^

what

f%wf?PT?^ glorious

ftiq[ that
;

p.ospe.oiis;
fjf[
;

t.liMi.

^rta*. ""*'"? ! q* even ^n*1^5 recognise; uvtin;


;

g^ being ^ aud;aq[
?3*

thou;

*W

ni\

5^ra^Vftpi*TOq: inn<l
lion, origin, of

*t*W- *KH

rT<l

of splendour,

from po

which,

tliat.

1%

W^T

^T^

^^f^T'STOE
thee, C)
is the knowledge of all these Arjuna? Having peivaded this whole with one fragment of Myself, 1 remain.

II

II

But what

details to

universe

(4 2
this;
;

^rsr

now

^for;

^frfF

of (l>\) thee what; 9[%?T l-\ (with ben.j.) ^r^f O Aijnna; ftBH[ havmg established; 3T^ I; ^f this;

many; known; 3^
'}

!J%^ (hy)

f%

^^

all;

q^t^i^ by

one portiou;

ftq-fp

(aui)

seated; ^nq[ the

world.

Thus

iu the glorious

BHAGAVAD-Gfl/l

...the

tenth discourse, entitled

.-

THE YOQA OF SOVEREIGNTY.

92

ELEVENTH DISCOURSE.

rc
Arjuna
said:

in

II

This word of the Supreme Secret concerning the

SELF, Thou hast spoken out of compassion delusion is taken away.


*T5T*Tf

by

this

my
( I )
;

R = HT ^T^frS of me,
;

for

favour

<T*T
;

the highest

3SJ
?^zrr

secret

'VsqreTCTtfrl.
;

Adhyatma-named
;

which
;

by Thee
;

3rfi
;

spoken

^ST:
;

word

^f

bj

that

%$:

delusion

^q

this

f^Trp gone

PT my.

f|
II

(I

The production and


heard by
also

destruction of beings have been

me

in detail

from Thee,

Lotus-eyed, and
(

Thy
TgTc

imperishable greatness.
^rc^jj;

5r = T^: ^
indeed
;
;

^- the becoming,

and, dissolution,
the
;

and

ft
T:

gmTT
JT^r

of

beings
;

^f

two

heard

in detail

by

me
:

?nf: of

from Thee

^Rtwm^ =
eyes, whose,

lotus, leaf, like,


;

O he
able.

*Tr9I**2ni greatness

fTPT also

*r and

ars^RI inperish-

193

i)

ii

O
O

supreme Lord, even


I

as

Thou

describest Thyself,

best of beings,

desire to see

Thy Form
4||cUJ

omnipotent.

(3)
q^
thus;

iprt this; ^iff as;

VTOR (thy) self; ipS*** f*IR (I ) desire % thy


;
;

highest

l^thou; Lord; ff* to see;


sayest
; ;

form

^^t sovereign

best of beings.

II

II

thou thinkest that by Lord, Lord of Yoga, then" show


If

me It can be seen, O me Thine imperishable


(

SELF.
q&lft tbiukest; ?jft if;

to see; fr? thus; me; 5^; of yoga, O Lord rlrf: show ; SHSTPf ( thy ) self
;

y^

?r^ possible; Jjqr by jpTT O Lord; ?trn^ = ^f TW fthen % of ( to ) me; *fn thou ;
KH
that;
;

^^

4|44
I

imperishable

^
Behold,
13

11

II

Partha, forms of Me, a hundredfold, a

'94

thousandfold, various in kind, divine, various in colours

and shapes.
<TW behold
hundredfold
; ;

5 )

% my
and

qpf
;

P&rtha

^TTPf forms
;

jRW
^fr:

3T*T

3W5T
divine-

thousandfold

HRrpt>*n% of

many

modes;

fttSBHR;

?TRr^ftfjrT?f^

= STPTT

^ Zl^f ?Trf%

many,

colors, forms,

and, whose, them.

Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the two Ashvins and also the Maruts; behold many marvels
never seen ere
<TTO
this,

Bharata.
;

(6)

behold:
;

^yrH the Rudras

the Vasus; STlfcflK the Adityas ST^g^l' the ( two ) Ashvins ; jj^ the
:

^^

Maruts;
Bhirata.

rHTT

also;
;

*|fa many;
behold
;

ST??

^^=1^
marvels
;

?CTf%

before, not,

seen

*fSR

^^^1^

vfHRT

Here, to-day, behold the whole universe, movable and

immovable, standing

in

one

in

My

body,

Gud.akesha,
(7)

with aught else thou desirest to see.

ftqr4, in one, standing; 1PTJ| the 55 here; ^*f 4 = worM fj*ir all q^| behold ggrH to-day ; ^^il^c = <JTJJ ^^:

33

with

moving,

with

unmoving, and, together;

195

my 5^
;

in

body

?j3T%?r
;

Gud&kesha
desirest.

q^ what ;

^ and

other;

g^H

to see

^fjRf

n <
But
verily thou art not able to behold
;

\\

Me
thee.

with these

thine eyes

the divine eye

give unto

Behold

My

sovereign Yoga.
sf

not
;

indeed
this

qf uie

ST^UJ canst
:

thou

to see

ST^f with
f^rf% give
;

y%
;

even
of

^=qr^qr with own-eyes


thee; ^3.- the eye

divine

( I )

%
;

( to )

behold

"%

my

%tf yoga

"^^t

sovereign.

Sahjaya said

Having thus spoken,


Voga> Hari, showed
Lord,
ipT

to

King> the great Lord of Partha His supreme form as


(

thus; 3<R3T having spoken


*n?I1 zjrn^T:

?TH

then

ws(^ O King
;

the great

Yoga-Lord

fft:
5:<t

Hari
form

showed
sovereign.

<u*lfa to

Pii-tha

qw

highest

With many mouths and


marvel, with

many
;

eyes, with many visions of divine ornaments, with many uprais-

ed divine weapons

vari-

ous, mouths, and, eyes, and, in which, that;


various, marvellous, sights, in

which, that;
^f^ various, divine, ornaments, in which, that
;

H.

divine, vari-

ons. uplifted, weapons, in which, that.

Wearing divine necklaces and

vestures, anointed

with divine unguents, the God all-marvellous, boundless, with face turned everywhere.

(n)

divine, necklaces, and, garments, and, wears, which, that;

^15^7^1= FF3
God
;

TW: ^T ^rgoTT^^

^ 2Ra( ^ divine,
full

scent, and,

unguents, of which, that;

^rVfozi

of

all
all

marvels;

^q;

%R5?r endless

f%^n^

with faces

round.

197

If the splendour of a thousand suns were to blaze out together in the sky, that might resemble the glory of that Mahatma.
ftf% in the sky;

(12)

3(%3&l of suns,
simultaneously
like
;
;

of a thous;

and
*TP
1

*T%?J[

were
;

^f^TrlT arisen

?jff if

splendour

*Tf

^f that
t

?3Tq[

may

be

vrRf: of a glo-

5TW (of) that;

of

mahitma.

II

II

There Pandava beheld the whole


into manifold

universe, divided in in one the body of the parts, standing

God

of Gods.
gfSj"

(13)
;

there
;

the whole

the world fj?W ; IfefJ^tr standing-in-one ; ^TTTff ^f^^Tf^l. divided ; ^r%3TOT in vai-ious ways ; 4(<l!(4<f
;

sawj

^[^?^=^r Tr ia[^'E'5
i

of
;

fc

h e Gods, of the Grod


then.

?jOt in

the body; <TT^: the

Pandava

?ffr

in
Then
he,

ment, his hair upstanding, bowed God, and with joined palms spake.
rHf:

Dhananjaya, overwhelmed with astonishdown his head to the


(

14)

then;

3:

he

f^rarf^ = f^TOJT

STrit?:

with as-

198

excited tonishment, penetrated ; whose, he tftfSW- Dhananjaja; qor*^ having prostrated th head; f^ the God; $<THlfrs = $?T ^"STfST: ffTCSF
hairs,

%gfim = gsrrW twfa

3& W

iEf:

made, hand-folding, by whom,

he, (saluting);

^HTT^f

said.

II? H
Arjuna
said
:

II

Within Thy form,

God, the Gods

see,
;

All grades of beings with distinctive

marks

Brahma, the Lord, upon His lotus throne, The Rihis all and Serpents, the Divine.
TOirft
in the
( 1 )

15
;

see

Stfi^the Gods

^ Thy ^
.

God

body; ^nfr^aU; HTT

also; ^rff%5I5r^^r^

= ^?Tr?nt f%?T-

^
^

TPTR ^^T^ of beings, of (various) species, groups; 5njJT<ir Brahm4 f ?i the lord ^T5Tr^^^ = ^RT^l ^TT^% R^TrT of lotus, in
; ;

seat,

seated
f^s^n

^^[^

Risliis

*&\n

all

^r\\^ serpents

and

divine.

199

in *
I

With mouths, eyes, arms, breasts, multitudinous, see Thee everywhere, unbounded Form.
Form,
I

Beginning, middle, end, nor source of Thee,


Infinite Lord, infinite

find

16)

rf

many,

arras,

and stomachs, and, mouths, and, eyes, and, whose,


see
;

him; TOirnT(I)
end;
origin

^f
rt

thee

5=HNr:

everywhere;
whose,

^HH^^H
?f

^riGl

Iff

endless, forms,
JT

him;

not
thy
;

^
;

not; ipsq middle;

not

^.

again;

T^TR

( I )

see

Lord

f%$35T = f%^T

^"T

f%%*n>f^rei f^c of universe, 'WI ^ universe, form, whose, him.


;

^
Shining,

a mass of splendour everywhere,


I

With

discus, mace, tiara,


fire,

behold

Blazing as

as sun, dazzling the gaze


(

From
with

all

sides in the sky, immeasurable.


3TC3
3rf*rT

17

f^fOf^t = RFtfte

H diadem,
and

of him,

is,

him ;

mace

^T%tJi with

discus'; sf

200

of splendour, mass;

(I) see;
seen
;

iSjf

thee

5nWM=3 W
him ;

g^:

everywhere

??i^Tf^r shining; ftfr** with difficulty, to be


;

*r*RTT<l

from everywhere; feHHd|eh4jfc = 3frrei 3H<ritq *


3|f%: 21PI ?r of

4jfo?l

^ f?f

(the) shining, of

fire,

and, of sun,

and, like, glory, whose,

*JJ?Hq immeasurable.

II

II

Lofty beyond

Thou

all thought, unperishing, treasure-house supreme all-immanent,


;

Eternal Dharma's changeless Guardian, As immemorial Man I think of Thee.


13 Thou
;

Thou

18)
be

^retf imperishable
;

<T^. highest

^KrM

to

known;
est
;

r^

Thou

%r^5 (of

)
;

this

f%T^?i of universe; Tt high;

frf^T^ treasure-house

r^

Thou

^SI^W inexhaustible
eternal, of

dharma,

the

Protector;

^rTnT*T:

aucieut

?t thou

5^: man

thought;

of

me.

201

fcafa?

<rtfrR
;

ii

ii

Nor source, nor midst, nor end infinite force, Unnumbered arms, the sun and moon Thine eyes
I

see

Thy

face, as sacrificial fire

Blazing,

its

splendour burneth up the worlds.

Wend, whose, him;

^
$t

(19)
middle,

HW 3 not origin,

him

3^*3373 = ^PT3[^t$ ^RT ?T endless, force, whose, = ^HrWrt ^'Tfr: *r^T: 3<E3 % endless, arms, whose, him;
*t
;

Wf^iMhr - raft
eyes,

*J& ^T ?t% q&l


I ) see
;

moon, and, sun, and,


Thee
;

two

whose, him

wqrft (
?T

c^t

^jcag?^^^ = 3fa'>
and, face,

frTWT!

?f ^1R

1W

light,

and,

.sacrificial, tire,
;

and,
;

whose, he; ^%5T3T by own brightness

f^j

the universe

ff

37?T1 warming.

Tft^V

f|

By Thee alone are filled the earth, the heavens, And all the regions that are stretched between The triple worlds sink down, O mighty One,
Before Thine awful manifested
^IWjfM" 5^:

Form.

(20)

^ Sjre
ftlie)

^ 'jfa5
; ;

*!!':

T of heaven, and, of earth, and;


;

5$

this

3T5?ft

interspace

r| indeed

5?fn?
;

pervaded

mm by
all;

Thee;

q^T by

One

ft$: quarters

and

qrf:

f^T

202
;

having seen

thy; Sethis;
(is) oppressed

3T^ marvellous ^<f form WRT^ = ^f^Rf ** of worlds


;

terrible
;

triplet

<m4K
f|

mahatmfi.

IR1
:

II

To Thee the troops of Suras enter in, Some with joined palms in awe invoking Thee
Banded Maharhis, Siddhas,"
?rifr

Svasti

!"

cry,

Chanting Thy praises with resounding songs.


these
;

(21)
of

f| indeed
;

^f Thee

^W.
; ;

^rUTPI ^^f:

Gods,' the hosts

f%^f^ enter; ^r%?f ^orae

vfrrTT:

frightened;

MM(H^
(be
it)

with-joiued-palms ; *pri% utter ^f^T !J + ^TRrf well is T?f^rr%^r^r ^l^^ff^ni ff% thus ^^?^r having said
:

(%-gfqp^ ^T ^JT: of Maharshis, and, of Siddhas, and, hosts; ^f Thee ?ffrTf*r: with songs ^^chSflfr: re^ff??T hymn
;

sounding.

II

Rudras, Vasus, SSdhyas and Adityas, Vishvas, the Ashvins, Maruts, Ushmapas,

Gandharvas, Yakshas, Siddhas, Asuras, In wondering multitudes beholding Thee.


^sffff^JF
1

22

=55T:

^
;

Vasus
devas
;

these

srrT^rr and

"^
;

Rudras and Adityas, and;


Sadhyas f%S[% VishveBf and ; j^?y Maruts
;
:

srfsur:
;

^rf^T^T

(the two)

Ashvins
;

Ushmapas:
Yakshas, and,
behold
all.
;

ard

>t
f

Gandharvas, and, of
;

of

Asaras,
:

and of

Siddhas, and, hosts

*5ff

Thee

f^ftJlrTr:

astonished

and

q^r

even

II

^^

II

might)- Form, with many mouths and eyes, Long-armed, with thighs and feet innumerate, Vast-bosomed, set with many fearful teeth,

Thy

The worlds

see terror-struck, as also


great
:

I.

23

form

iff fj

^ Thy
;

^f^^K = ^gR ^\fb(


and,
:

many, mouths, and, eyes,


that; >T3T3Tfr

in

which.

mighty-armed

^ f^Tg^TRPl.= ^"?^

>

1T?^: ^F
feet.

many, arms, and, thighs, and,

204

'and, in

which, that

*%& = f jr^T
; ;

terror

*|faflt rffl

many

sto-

machs, in which, that

many, with teeth,


:

*i?grWT?5 5T^fvr seen terrible f ^r having


;

fgrffi: SFftrar
;

(with)

'^ftZRT-

the worlds

( are )

distressed

?ror also

9Efij I.

Radiant Thou touchest heaven

rainbow-hued,
eyes.

With opened mouths and shining vast-orbed

My My

inmost

self
is

is

quaking, having seen,


Visuinu,

strength

withered,

and

my -peace.
(24)
^ffw

5nT:?I5r

*1SrfrT ?frr

heaven,

touches, thus;

shining; ?pr ^qfof =

3ReR ^if:

T^

?T1 various, colours, whose,

him; GqTvTFR = szjf TTIR %Tr^?Jrm 2(?2T ?T^ opened, mouths, whose, him ^tai^rST^I = ffffTT? ft^FOTR ^^rfor W& rfqi seen ; ff indeed shining, large, eyes, him ^r having
;
;

r^f

Thee

JT5lf^?rf ?nT5*Tr
;

= srsgnfa
;

^^T<:r?*ir

2J^

trembling,
find
;

mind, whose, he
control
;

\jf^r

strength

not

ff^rR

( I )

sji?

^ and-;

f^soft

Vishnu.

20 5

I!

RH
see

II

Like Time's destroying flames

Thy

teeth,
;

Upstanding, spread within expanded jaws

Nought know
Mercy,

I
!

O God
;

anywhere, no shelter find, refuge of all the worlds


!

(
;

25
;

= tgrnT<gl4>il<rill5
tfaj
;

^RTSTrft with teeth, terrible

^ and %

H?m^
;

mouths

^r
;

having seen

ig*

even

3P5TR?raR
and, resem-

*TTf^

= cfi'|iW!l
f^?r:

'iHd**!

bling

quarters

^ ^R^TH^ of time, of the not T not ^j know


;

fire,
;

5f

51% obtain

^ and; ^protection;
the Gods,

u?f[^ be pleased

%t^T = ^HTt^r

of

Lord, n?rf^rra = IHTrr:

r%fT^T of the world,

dwelling.

3T*ft

^ ^

II

R^

II

The sons of Dhritarashtra, and with them The multitude of all these kings of earth,
Bhlshma, and Drona, Suta's royal son,

And
r>

all

the noblest warriors of our hosts,


;

26

9T^t these; *r and

^r Tliee
with;

sons;

eft all;

*&

^ even;

of Dhyitarashtra; <ftTi|^^l
T?rf% 1|<H^ :
t

206
(

f:

the earth,
;

who

protect, thus, of them, with


;

the hosts

^ti: Bhishma
;

$1*1:

Drona
;

Suta, the son

?f*n also
:

^Rff this

^5

l-&%?: =^FT^ $9f: of with ; STCJ^jq: with

(those)
chiefs.

of ours

jfrtrgoli:

= zir>TRT

3*3^: of warriors, with the

II

II

Into Thy gaping mouths they hurrying rush, Tremendous-toothed and terrible to see
;

Some caught
Are
ground.
mouths
;

within the gaps between Thy teeth to powder crushed and seen, their heads
(

27

)
;

they

<^WTT: hurrying f^ffW


vr^r^Rirf'T

enter

terrible- toothed

fear-bringing

%r%q[

some

nT5T5ir: sticking;
;

^RrJ?ft
;

= ^^JTrira
(

^Tnf^l of teeth, in
;

the gaps

^^i% are seen


(

^nSl%:

with

pulverised

with highest limbs

heads

).

20 7

As river-floods impetuously rush, Hurling their waters into ocean's lap, So fling themselves into Thy flaming mouths,
In haste, these mighty men, these lords of earth.
(28)
3*jr as
of
:

ff^tare. of

rivers; ^ff:
;

many

3T*f%TT:
;

= 'iT^TT
even
;

waters, 'the currents

^j

to the ocean
;

^
of

facing
;

towards

J^fa

run

<Wl

so

33

Thee
in

3T*ft

these

fK^jfttfhr:
;

world, heroes
blazing.

= wnr* ^t^T *ftn of men, fa?U% enter ^fRifbi mouths ;


;

the

As moths

with quickened speed will headlong

fly

Into a flaming light, to fall destroyed, So also these, in haste precipitate,

Enter within
2Hn
as
; ;

Thy mouths
blazing
;

destroyed
flame
1

to- fall.

(29)

xrfrc?T

535R
;

R1TP moths

enter

srrfTT^ to

destruction

^ftn = S1W %T
:

increased, velocity, whose, they;

Htnso;

^ even

208
;

to destruction

f%^fr% enter

^t^r: the people

5TT of

Thee

?nft also;

Wfffrf&T

mouths

CTZ^qtrn (with) increased

velocity.

On

every

side, all-swallowing, fiery-tongued,

Thou

lickest

up mankind, devouring
:

all

Thy

space the universe Is burning, Vi?hnu, with Thy blazing rays.


glory
filleth

(30)
^: with

ttnrrsra" (

thou

Hckest

fR^TR. grasping
fJ^ Cav;

every side
faces
;

5^5T?^: (with) fiery


;

sfr^HL the worlds; ^rqurq; the whole; with splendours ; ^wf*r:


;

ing filled

^fTfl the world


:

Cfimq whole
:

vm:

glory

3 thy

TOT

fierce

Jnrtm burning

f^sofr

Vishnu.

f|
Reveal
I

Thy SELF

What

awful

worship Thee! Have mercy,

Form art Thou ? God supreme!

209

Thine inner being I am fain to know This Thy forthstreaming Life bewilders me,
;

31

declare
znf^ glet
:

to

me

3>:

who

v^r^ Thou
;

3*r;

terrible, form, whose,

he

W.
of
;

salutation

there be
to

%
;

to

Thee
( (

^^ =1WRT W*
) )

Gods,

best
first

know
;

?=E^TR
irSTRTft

I I

wish

*trlJ Thee
;

srra

not

ft indeed

know

q* Thy

3ff%

desire.

11

^^

11

The
Time am
I,

Blessed Lord said:

laying desolate the world,


!

Made
Not

manifest on earth to slay mankind one of all these warriors ranged for strife
;

Escapeth death
^F5T:

thou shalt alone survive.


(I)

32

time;
of

srfrr

am;

^Rr^jit = ^fcfrRT*
makes, thus
; ;

tfq

the worlds,
;

destruction,

vast

5TfafTJ the worlds


forth

s*rrf

to annihilate
;

f? here ;
*r
;

come
shall

be

s%% without; arfq


all
; ;

also

*^i

thee

not

af

these

*Tffw?fT5

arranged

ff?2pft%5 in

the rival-armies

Eff^T: warriors.

12

210

B^
Therefore stand up
!

win

for thyself

renown,

Conquer thy

foes,

enjoy the spacious realm.


cause, left-handed one.
;

By Me

they are already overcome,


(33)

Be thou the outward


n^ffl therefore
obtain
;
;

^ ihou
:

3f%5 stand up; q^r fame;


:

f^T^T

having conquered

?1f ^ enemies
;

enjoj

U"52T

the kingdom
;

&&
;

^^
;

wealthy
before;

HZIT

by
even:

rue

nr^

even:
JTF^ a

q-% these

RfrTf:
;

slain

q;^
;

mere instrument
:

VfW be

^s?(mf^= *T5

with the left hand, to aim, habit, whose, he.

Drona and Bhishtna and Jayadratha,


Kf.rna,

and

all

the other warriors here

Are

slain

by me.

Destroy then fearlessly

Fight

thou shall crush thy rivals

jffatDronftv^andKama yadratha =q- and


:
:

in

the

field.

(34)

lihistuna
:

*r

and;

myq:

Ja.
3Tft

also;
11111
:

*Mhlft = $farjrt
(lil^ uiaiu
j

$w also ST?^ otliers


;

q?<T*
!

of

warriors,

heroes;

^q r by
be
dis-

i thou

*rf$

lay;*fr

not
;

szinren

tressed:

ggj^sr fight;

iirm^

shalt conquer

iu

the battle;

rivals.

I!

Sahjaya said

Having heard these words of Keshava, he who weareth a diadem, with joined palms, quaking, and prostrating:

himself, spake

again

to

Krishna, stammering
(35)
;

with

fear,

casting
tliis;

down

his face.

tfrfq;

*y?3\

having heard

g^q- word;
5f:

%?T^ of

Kc-sluiva
liy

t>rU3Ti5T:*=f;cr:

STSSH^: ^*T

u^ide,

folded-liaiids

whom, he; ^TOffi' trembling; l%ltfT


;

ihe

diademed one:
;

?TH^c^t having prostrated

*$$:

again

oven

8TT^ said

= ^soj to Krishna; STT?^:


:

*TJ[f

?ff with stammoring, together

frightene, frightened; qOT>( having prostrated.

212

K3TT
II

II

Arjuna said
!

Hrishikesha in Thy magnificence Rightly the world rejoiceth, hymning Thee

The Rakshasas
In tear
;

to every quarter fly


fall.

the hosts of Siddhas prostrate


;

(36)
;

**TFT in (the right) place (rightly)

Thy

Hriahikesha gift^) i&Sfaft by (singing) thy fame spt^ the world


,-

rejoices

gj^S^
terrified
;
;

is

pleased

and

3[^rr%
;

the

Sakshasas

*T?rTTi%

^f:

to the
;

quarters

all

;TH*3nT

prostrate

and

of Siddhas, the hosts,

II

213

lidw should they otherwise, O loftiest SELF First Cause Brahma Himself less great than Thou.
! !

Infinite,

God

of Gods,

home
^

of

all

worlds,
!

Unperishing, Sat Asat,


3tfHTq; wherefore
trate
; ;

THAT supreme
;

(37)
pros-

^r and
;

they

?f

not

q%q; may
;

T^nTq[
;

Mahitma
;

Tfrzrer to the greater teacher

&U<JT:

of

Brahma
one
;
;

srf7 also

3Trf3[3fW to the first

maker

^nfrf
of

endthe

less

ft^T &( thou


that
;

Lord
;

of

Gods

Sfnf^rrS
;

dwelling

worlds
being
?

?rgt imperishable
qrt

gr?j[

Being

?ffj

highest

3fij

which.

%TTT$T% TO-

^R

^
n ^* n
Man Thou

t"irst

of the Gods, most ancient

art,

Supreme receptacle of all that lives ; Knower and known, the dwelling-place on high
In

Thy
?ft3

vast

Form

the universe

is

spread.
;

(38)
:

&
?^ thou

Thou; SfrRJ^:
;

first

God;

tj$^:
;

Man

j^for: ancient
;

(of) this
;

f^f??t of world
;

&
;

highest

fsf^RH

treasure-house
=sr

%TTf knower
S

^rf?T (thou) art; "%^j to be

known
;

and

qi highest

BT

and

>^T*T

dwelling

zmj

by

Thee

?f?t

spread

f^Hj^ the universe

^5^7

endless- Formed.

Thou

arf

Vayu and Yama, Agni, moon,


all
: !
!

Varuna, Father, Grandsire of


Hail, hail to

Thee a thousand times all hail Hail unto Thee again, again, all hail (39; Yama ^TfrJT: Agni ^if: Varuna Zffi: ^f^: Vayu
!
!

moon
grand-father
;

snrrqrm:

Prajftpati
:

&
^

Thou
;

Jlf^TTJT?:

great!'
;

^ and
:

*m
;

hail

^if: hail
:

to

thee

^F^
:

FT^^f^cf: thousand times


also
;

jqr: again
?T

and;

^:

again

^rff

iw

na il

'TT

^a^

to tnee

Prostrate in front of Thee, prostrate behind, Prostrate on every side to Thee, All.

In power boundless, measureless in strength, Thou holdest all: then Thou Thyself art

All.

(40)

215

sfTp

bail

gc*?rr?j[
;

from before
hail
;

srT
;

also

<jg?f:
;

from

behind

%
;

to

Thee
even

sfif:
:

every side

^g
;

be

to

Thee

^:

ou

*jf
;

all;

udless, strength, whose, he

boundless, strength, whose, he


cludest
;

<$ thou
;

3$
gf:

all

?frf:

thence

3?RT (thou) art

all.

If,

thinking Thee but friend, importunate,

Krishna
1

cried,

or O Yadava O friend unknowing of Thy majesty,


! !

And
3K3T
tnnatoly
;

careless in the fondness of


t'riend

my

love

(41)
inipor-

f |% thus
:

Jfc^r
;

having thought
fjOTf
;

jf^f^j:

gq[ which

^?jj said
;

Krishna

"f

^pa-^

Yadava

1 g^
;

friend

?f% thus
;

^TSTRrTT (by)

unknowing;

JTft*TR greatness
carelessness
;

thv

55

this
;

r&n by me
;

!ftn^ with

affection

qr or

ff?r thus.

216

rffiftraw}
Jf jesting,
1

11

%\

\\

irreverence

showed

to Thee,

At

play, reposing, sitting or at meals,

Alone,

sinless

Forgive

my

error,

One, or with my friends, O Thou boundless One.

9f[ which;
for

and;

ar^OT^ = Sft^fHW
unhonoured
;

^
;

(45)
of

jesting,

the .sake

3rcr?f>?p

^t3T^ = nr?rc
bed, and. in
also
;

^ w<*i
and

=^r

srr%
feast,

^
;

ri3i%

3?% *
5Tr5
ttee

art
in
;

f^r^^TC^n'HH'play,

and,
:

in

--eat,

in

and
?f^[
;

JJ^: alone
:

3J2T^T or

^TTT
;

3T^rf
^rnrif (I)

unt'allen

one

so
r^f

in
;

company
I

that

pray to pai-don

?r^

boundless,

Father of worlds, of

all

that

moves and

stands,
self,
?

Worthier of reverence than the Guru's

There

is

none

like to

Thee.

Who
;

passeth Thee

Pre-eminent
TrTr

Thy power
?r%
:

in all the worlds.

(43)

father
of

(thou) art

^T^ZJ
:

of
;

the

world
of

moving and tmmoving

*% thou
;

^TW

this

to
:

be reverenced

^ and;

aj^:

the guru
the,

T^2|R; weighSlftrT

not;

?^EUT:

= ?Tf W-

of

equal;

is;

2I 7

in the
":

surpassing; egf: whence; world triplet; ^ftq- also


;

sf;^:

other

unrivalled, might, whose, he,

Therefore
I

fall
is

before
fitting
;

Thee
bless

with

my body

worship as

Thou me.
(44)
;

As

father with the son, as friend with friend,


as lover, bear with me.
ST<JtWJ

With the beloved


therefore
;

having

prostrated
f[t

having bent; 3Rq body; ST^f5^ propitiate;


1
:

Thee;

?f

f^f the

Lord; t^SR praiseworthy


:

fc^Tf
:

father;

f^f like

of the son
:

G*Sf friend

f^

like

JET^: of the friend

beloved;
to bear.

f^rztT??

to the loved; 3TfI%

shouldst;^?

O God

II

218

have seen That which none hath seen before,


heart
is

My

glad, yet faileth

me

for fear

Show me,
Mercy,

God, Thine other Form again,


of Gods,

O God

home

of

all

worlds.

(45)

(I)

am

^f
: ;

$ T ZZ before, uot, seeu; having seen vjiir with fear


: ;

^ftfcf:

glad

and
; ;

distressed
S3ET3T

even % to me that JJ^: mind Tf rny rtfl show '^ O God ^Tt form Jf^fe be pleased g"ra Lord of Gods 'StiTrfrera world-dwelling.
; ;
;

n a

ll

Diademed, mace and discus in Thy hand, Again I fain would see Thee as before:
Put on again Thy four-armed shape,

Lord,
(46)

thousand-armed, of forms innumerate.


crowned
;

rff?t

mace-bearing

discus, in hand, whose,


to ^ee
;

him

^-fe^Kq

wish
;

?^f

Thee
t

rf^TT

as (before)
:

^ even

%qf (by)
:

hat

by form
?1
f^:
^f:

=^^%^

(by) four-armed

ST^jT^rff
]>e
;

thousand,
^T:

arms,

whose,

he; v^

q^f

the universe, form, whose, he.

The

Blessed Lord said

Arjuna, by My favour thou hast seen This loftiest form by Yoga's self revealed
Radiant, all-penetrating, endless, first, That none except thyself hath ever seen.
JTStf

(47)

by me

ITST^T (by) pleased

?re of (to)

ihee; =5"%^

Atjnna; f^ tins; ^q" form;


.-

tft

highest

5fa*l (been)
; :

,-hown
?T^[^?qf

made

3TT^ramr?t=^n^rT-' ^RTri: of Self, from the yfira ^T[ of light ^iq- the universe ^R?T endless
;
;
;

which; % of roe; ?^fj[ from (thou) thee by another ?f not ?S^*I. seen before.
first:
zjfj
;

it

**

Nor

sacrifice

nor Vedas, alms nor works,

220

Nor sharp austerity, nor study deep, Can win the vision of this Form for man.
Foremost of Kurus, thou alone hast
?T

seen.
=ar

(48)

not

%f j^fffc-^%:
:

=lf|

=q-

q|f: ^ ^33%:
;

by Vedas,
:

and, by sacrifices, and, by studies, and Jf not g[r%: by gifts not ; and fapairPT: by deeds ST not fntr^ by aus;

^
:
;

terities

3%: (by) dire


?rt
I
;

tr^RT:

thus-formed
in

fftq:

(am)

possible
to see
;

^f% = Jfuirii ^t% of men,


;

the world

yt

^^

from (than) thee


of (or

%T^H by another

^IT

among) the Kurus, foremost.

ii

Be not

Because thou hast beheld


Cast fear away, and
let

bewildered, be thou not afraid, this awful Form

thy heart rejoice

Behold again Mine own familiar shape.


*Tf

(49)

not

sjpn pain; *n not; ^r and ;% ^r^ of the confused, the condition; f^T having
thee
;
; ;

form

?n?;
>fr:
:

terrible

f^ such
;

iR my

5?

this

5^mr

fW

*('

departed, fear, whose, he;

= sffa
thou
;

TT:
?r?i

^5 ?T
that
:

satisfied,

mind, whose, he

q^r

even

% my

^T

form

f?T: again f^ this


;

behold.

221

Saiijaya said

manifested His
one, the

Vasudeva, having thus spoken to Arjuna, again own Form, and consoled the terrified

Mahatma
3ET^t

3gain assuming a gentle form.


to

(50)

ff% thus;

Arjuna;
;

qifn?:
;

thus

^T?r having spoken


;

^e^ own

^
;

Vasudeva; <w\ form ^sfanfra


;

showed

>jiq:
;

again

STF'Wr^'BfFira'
;

consoled

*r

and
;

irt'rt

the
;

terrified

q%

this (one)

Jjrff

having hecome

jsf:
;

again

^^^3-. = ^T^ 33:3ro*r mahatmd.

gentle, form,

whose, he

Arjuna said
Beholding again
dana,
I

Thy

gentle

human Form, O

Janar-

am now

collected,

and

am

restored

to

my own

222

nature.
?|r

(51)
:

thy
(I)

having seen gffi gentle


;

this; HT^sf

human;
:

*<j form

rT^f

.Tanardana
vrith

f^fl
;

now
to

^ffffj
;

am

5ETf rT'

become

miud

STf>r%

nature

n?f: gone*

The Blessed Lord


This
to see.

said

Mine beholden by thee is very hard Verily the Gods ever long to behold this Form.
of
(52)
to

Form

5^t^ivery hard
(one who) has seen
^FTP
;

see;

5? this;
art
; :

^;q-

3TTO (thou)
;

a[ff

form; ??^r^ which *m my


:

Gods

arfir

also
:

3T^

Cof) this

^q?[

of

form

f%rij

ahvnys: f?r?I^Tf%'T =f4^T.^rW% ff^- vision, (they) desire,

Nor can

be seen

as

thou hast seen

Me

by the
;

Vedas, nor by

austerities,

nor by alms, nor by offerings

(53)
?f

not

8?%

V|: by the

Vedas

not

?fWf by aus.

terity

*f
:

not
$T3RT

?n%?T

by

gift
;

T not
f^f^:
;

'Er

and

f 33f?tf by
kiud
;

offering
to see
;

(am) possible

(of) this

?g*I

C5^F^ (one who) has seen

^ffa (thon) art

*rr

me

H8
ceived, Arjuna,
tered,

But by devotion to Me alone I may thus be perand known and seen in essence, and en

Parantapa.

(54)
:

HTiotlu-r;

hy deTof.ioi) ; g indeed I ?[^: (am) possible


;

5R5q^T (by) without


*T^f%eT:
;

of

this
:

kind

?I^T O
essence
;

Arjuna,

grg

to
:

know

5^

to see

and

fTT^T by

!^?

to enter

T and; T^fq"

Parantapa.

es

II

HH

He who
I

am,

My

doeth actions for Me, whose supreme good devotee, freed from attachment, without

hatred

of any being, he cometh unto

Me,

Pandava.

"(55)
my. work, does,
this;

^
my

q^if: qf5[

^:

I.

the supreme, whose,


:

he;

JT^rf?:

=TT

HrR:

dfvrtee;
;
:

^frr^T5frT

=?f^ ;T ^nfcr by attachment, aban;

doned

iW?k without enmity

?l4^5 among

all

creatures

who

*T he

*\\

to

me q^

goes

qf^fW

Pandava.

Thus

in the glorious

BHAGAVAD-GlTA....the eleventh

discourse, entitled.

THE YOGA OF THE VISION OF THE UNIVERSAL FpRM.

22 5

TWELFTH DISCOURSE,

^IT
Arjuna said
:

Those devotees who ever harmonised worship Thee, and those also who worship the Indestructible, the
Unmanifested, whether of these
is

the

more learned

in (i)

yoga?

^ thus
tees
;
!

331

Thee

UtMgThP ever-balanced \ who >TrKT: devof57f^% worship ; ^ who ^ and ; ^rfr also
; ;
; ;

?r^t

the
;

undecaying;

^rsq^

the unmanifested

of these

% who

^rf%TfTT: yoga- learned-most.

The
They who

Blessed Lord said

with mind fixed on Me, ever harmonised


in

worship Me, with faith supreme endowed, these


opinion, are best in yoga.
jffa in

My
(2)
;

me

-tiffgqr

having fixed

*&

the

mind

zj

who

if

me;

f^I^Tfjr:

ever-balanced;

3qKR)

worship;

snjf^JT

with

15

[
faith

226
^Pffff:

qtafr (with)
r:

supreme
:

endowed

these

?f of

me

harmonised-best

J^f: thought.

qW
They who worship
the

the Indestructible, the Ineffable,

Omnipresent and Unthinkable, the Eternal, Immutable, (3) Unchanging,


2f

Un manifested,
who
; ;

defmable

5 indeed ^&F& the


;

3TSTC the

undecaying
;

3TR?TO
;

the un-

unmanifested

TgqrRT^ worship
^f

*&^*i
rock-

eve iy- where-going


seated
;

^Tpsr^qf
;

unthinkable;
Sjf
firm.

and;

^?^

^r^5I immovable

11

subduing Restraining everything equally, in the welfare of also come unto Me.

and

the senses,
all

regarding

rejoicing, these

(4)
of

^f;mI
senses,
jrjqf ?f

having restrained
;

f rf zwtf = f f^Pn"^. JTR

the

the aggregate

^fsT everywhere:
;

Smfv^ = WK

%&
ob-

equal, understanding, whose, they

they

Jfrcjf^ffT

tain
all.

me; 1& even;


;

^1^%% = *3RWl
^f:
rejoicers.

*J?rFrri ff^

()

of lyings, in welfare

22?

The
fested
is

difficulty of those
is

whose minds are


for the

set

oil

the

Unmanifested
hard

greater

path of the Unrriani(5)


of those
j

for the

embodied

to reach.
;

the trouble; sjRf^rft: greater Pitf:

%rri
in

%n>^rf|
j

5fTK%rT^T't=^rs^%f
attached,

^m^J
-.13

^nr:
;

^W, %
^n^T^Rr

the

imrnanifested,
;

mind*

whose;

they

the

nnmauifested

indeed;

irfrT.

path;

(with) pain;

ff=rf*T:

by the embodied

is

reached.

Those
intent

verily who, renouncing all actions in Me and on Me, worship meditating on Me, with whole(6) indeed
;

hearted yoga,
?j
fia6
;

who

ifarf^T
;

all ;

Zfrfffffi

actions

qfa
;

in

having renounced another (object) without (by)

q*H&

JT?T?t5
;

intent

on

me

^ even

SR^T
jj\

^frTT by yoga

me

'

T:

meditating

gnTrSHT worship.

These
existence,

speedily

lift

up from the ocean of death and

Partha, their minds being fixed on Me.

of

those

ar? I

Sf*?rf
oi

lifter
)

up
>

^eath

aud

of

procession,

nd,

228
;

from the ocean

^T^TR become
in

not

f^THt from long

PSrtha; *n^
qf*
fixed,

me

mind, whose, of them.

Place thy mind in Me, into

Me

let

thy Reason enter

then without doubt thou shalt abide in

Me

hereafter.
(8)

*R
in

in

me

^even
reason
;

R:
;

the

mind- ^rnref^ place; qfy


;

me

^r%

the

f%%?ra cause to enter

f%^f^r%
;

(thou)

shalt dwell

ff^f

in

me

even

9^: hence

^j

above (afterwards);

not

^[Zi: doubt.

But if thou art not able firmly to fix thy mind on Me, then by the yoga of practice seek to reach Me, Q
Dhanahjaya.
3HJ now
canst
;
;

(9)

f^rt the mind

^JTF^TJ to
;

fix

not

^j^rf^

JTR

in

me ff^^r
; ;

firmly

^^W^T-aT*^^^ ^Pf
;

of practice,

by the yoga

33: then

n me

|^g

wish

incg

to

obtain

VJH5T^

Dhananjaya.

II

1 o

||

229

if also

thou art not equal to constant practice, be


service
;

ifl-

tent

on

My

performing actions

for

My
;

sake,

thou shalt attain perfection^


in practice
;

(10)
;

^rfq-

also

sm*rzf

not-capable

-srflr

(thou) art

^q[ff^*T = IT 3\% 7*4


:

KW *T
;

my, work, supreme,

whose>
actions
obtain.
;

hej

r*

be
;

*r?tf

for

my

sake; sffr also; 5R*Tfr%

&j^ doing

f%f\R perfection

%T?r^Q%

(thou)

shalt

in
If

ii

even to do

refuge in the self controlled.

thou hast not strength, then taking union with Me, renounce all fruit of action, with
this

(n)
this
;

9TT now
(thou)
art;

^^
to

sift

also

asTflTf:

not able

?rRr

do; Jroft

= T1 ^TT my
;

yoga;
act

'STffarT:

refuged
all,

(in);

ff^fifooT^m = Sr^rr* ^J^t


rfSf.

V&W

9TTT
;

(of)

of actions, of fruit, renunciation


3Tr*IT

then

= 1^:

*&Q

^f: controlled, self,

whose, he.

f|
II

^ I)
;

Better indeed

is

wisdom than constant


is

practice

than wisdom meditation


renunciation of the
follows peace.
fruit

better

than

meditation
renunciation
(12)

of action; on

4fa: better
tice
;

f| indeed
;

^TRlrl than wisdom IRr?I than meditation;

^q- wisdom ^p^r^Ffj than pracf%Ri^% excels EZJR meditation


:

^HtRoTc^ri:
;

= 5rW

W*3

^TT:
;

ot

action, of fruit,

renunciation

3Trrr^ from renunciation

JOTfrT

peace

^R?T^

immediately.

HT+TcTRT *Nf:

^W ^
to

II

II

He who
in pleasure

beareth no

ill-will

any being, friendly and

compassionate, without attachment and egoism, balanced


sjfST not hating
gpf^ijr:
;

and pain, and forgiving, (13) *T^J5RPI of all creatures fhr: friendly merciful even ^ and f^RT' without-mine
;
;

(ness)

Rl^^n'?::

without egoism
and,

^T^:??r^^:
joy,

<

^ ^ ^'S
^fff for-

H$q ^: equal, sorrow,

and, whose, he

giveness-full.

resolute, with

Ever content, harmonious, with the self controlled, mind and Reason dedicated to Me, he, My
is

devotee,
<JS".

dear to Me,
;

(14)
always
;

contented
;

333
?S':

afriff

yogi

qrff^r

self-

controlled

??f^^^: =

ft^q: 2RT

?f:

firm,

resolve,
*****

whose,
in

he

JTcqFfajRrifa

~*

*^* ^
of ( to )

**

^''
;

me

'

offered up, mind, and, reason, and, whose, he

3:

who

my

i&$ devotee;
;

be

me i

ft?l?

dear -

q:

=3 *r

*r:

inn

II

the world doth not shrink away, who doth not shrink away from the world, freed from the

He

from

whom

anxieties

of joy,

anger and

fear,

he

is

dear to Me.
(15)

STCTTfi;

from

whom

?T

not
;

3ff*nT
q-

is

agitated
is

5fp?j:

the
;

world

^rWl
who
;

from

the world
:

not

sff 3t?f

agitated

=^

and; q.
of joy,

^?fT<*Wf^
freed
;

=?4w ^ SmTO ^
of

*RTO
to

^
;

5frr:

and, of impatience, and,


;

fear, and,
;

by (from) the

agitations

grj*:

q:

who

?T:

he

'q'

and

me

ftqi

dear.

He who
tee, is

wants nothing,

is

pure,

expert,

passionless,

untroubled, renouncing every undertaking, he,

My

devo(16)
skilful
;

dear to Me.

^TfTT^r not looking to (anything) |jr^: pure; f^:


SSrgTJT: unconcerned;
JTrTsgtT

= iTrTF z*mi VRQ

*f-

gave, pain,

whose,
(of)
q-:

he;

*rqfTCTTReqrft

undertakings, renouncer he % to me ; fifo: dear.


;

= *folH ?[TTnofrw 7R?irft all, ^: who ; Jf^my; VTrffJ ]pvtee;


;

232

He who
dear to Me.
q:

neither loveth nor hateth, nor grieveth, nor

desireth, renouncing

good and

evil, full

of devotion, he

is

(17)
5f

who

not

fs^ft rejoiceth
5f

not
;

ff
evil,

hates

not; sfNfa grieves

not

3TR?T%

desires

U>Tf^Tq-F?^mT
and,
the:
fff^l

= 1PT*3T
dear.

T ST^prra ^T <TKlffT of good,


;

and, of
;

renouncer

vrirfnni devout

H:

who

q: he

to

me

Alike to foe and friend, and also

in

fame and igno-

miny, alike in cold and heat, pleasures and pains, destitute of attachment, (18)
SPT: equal
;

^nfr (to) in the


rf^r

enemy

^ and
=
TT%

f*i% (to) in the

friend

^ and
:

also

TnTn*Tnrai

aTT*?T% ^T in

^ S^ ^
in
pain,

fame, and, in ignominy, and ; ^Tr^r^^^:^ = tff% ^TOT in cold, and, in heat, and, in pleasure, and, 5 ^T

^
;

and

w.

equal

cfirR^IH: = *PTT<t M^l^d: from

attachment,

freed.

R:
Taking equally praise and reproach,

II

1^

II

silent,

wholly

233

content with what cometh, homeless, firm in mind, full of devotion, that man is dear to Me. (19)
*3

3*3
;

tf :

equal,

blame, and, praise, and, whose, he

ifrsfr

silent

^fg?: content;

ed

^T Ffr^rl
*n%:
j

with anything

9TH%?T: homeless

f^TTl^:
;

si

faW
(to)

3*3 *P

firm, mind, whose, he


;

vfRf;fRt derout

^f of

me

ffas dear

5ft:

the man,

They
as

verily

who

partake of this life-giving wisdom


faith,
I

taught

herein,

endued with

their

Supreme
(20)

Object, devotees, they are surpassingly dear to Me.

^*3?SrT^- tf*5 *T 5ftl T^ ^f righteous, and, that (same), nectar, and aftfT as ; 3^FI said T^TT^% wor-

3 who 3
;

indeed

ship

Hnf^prr-'

faith-endowed;
;

^Tt^r: (believing
;

in)
;

me
as

(as) the
if
;

Supreme

TrUf: devotees
fqtir: dear.

they

arf^ very

\$

>

of (to)

me

Thus

in the glorious

BHAGAVAD-GlTA....the twelfth discourse

entitled;

THE YOQA OF DEVOTION.

234

THIRTEENTH DISCOURSE.

\\

Arjuna said
Matter and
the Field,
these
I

Spirit, also the Field

and the Knovver of


known,
field

Wisdom and
would
;

that which ought to be

fain

learn,

O
;

Keshava.
=^
;

matter

<j^q- spirit

and

q-f even
;

%^
;
;

the

knower of the field q^r even ^f and to know f =5^rm (I) wish jjir't knowledge Keshava. hould be kuowu ^f and 'zfiim
the
;

qrfjj this

gq what

The

Blessed Lord said

that This body, son of Kunti, is called the Field which knoweth it is called the Knovver of the Field by
;

the Sages.
f f this
fr"%
;

?rttt

body
is

^f%zc
;

Kaanteya

^r
;

the
~^\r[

field

thus
;

srnr^tqt
jfrf
:

called
;

^q;

this

g: who

knows

g^r that

(they) call

^^:
many

the

knower

of the field

fm

thus
1

?ff??: tn e
is

knowers
omitted in

of that.
editions,

This verse

235

tff

(I

||

Understand
Fields,

Me

as the

Knower

of the Field in

all

Bharata.

Wisdom

as to the Field

and the

Knower

of the Field, that in

My
field

opinion

is

the

Wisdom,

(2)
^?T3T
;

the knower

of

the

^
(in)

and
all,

g?fqr

also
;

*TT

Me r%% know tfi^f = ^3 %%$


Bh&rata
of
;

in fields

VTRrf

f^^^r: = %^ST =^ ffrfTO ^ of the


field,
;

field,

and,
;

the knower of the


;

and

3<l that

^TFT knowledge

^r^T knowledge
;

qq[

which

(thought)

jpi

My.

and of what nature, how and what He is and what His ( 3 ) powers, hear that now briefly from Me.
that Field
is

What

fied,

and whence

it is,

Hfl[

that

^=r

field;
fo^li';

^
; ;

and;
that
;

2?lt^|R = 2T:
^ffi:

q^

which; sf and; qi^a; what like *t rfl. which, modification, whose,


;

whence

'q'and

zjfj;

which

ff:

He

and;
;

3:

what
;

ZRJTWTFr.

= W*F*'- 1^1 ^T
y
Jfor

which, power, whose, he


(

^ and
)
;

^
o|

that
(

*Rr%T
)

aggregations
listen.

compression, brevity

from

me

chants^

Rishis have sung in manifold ways, in many various and in decisive Brahma-sutra words, full of rea(4)

sonings.
3Rfrf*f :

by
;

Rishis
(

*gvfT in
)

many ways
:

*ffa

sUng
;

by metres
of

ftfiq:

by

various

by Brahma-sfitra- words;
reason
;

^ and
)

^ even

^*

severally
j

^JTRP

by

) full

ftRfi^fi

by

ascertained.

The
five

great Elements, Individuality, Reason and also

the Unmanifested, the ten senses, and the one, and the
pastures of the senses
J?nf*f
5

(5) great elements


*

^e

4f^ii:
;

indivi;

duality

greji reason

^afrff the Unmanifested


*

and

ff|ft(rft the senses

ten

and;

ffsfqifr^cr-

= ffjfapJtPl. ^ff^Cf:

q^f
;

even
five

one

H and

^
H

^f

of the senses, the pastures;

II

Desire, aversion, pleasure, pain, combination, intelligence, firmness, these, briefly described, constitute the

Field and
1

its

modifications.

(6)

The body.

237

desire;"^: hate; g<^ pleasure;


aggregation
field
;

5:^
;

pain
tpfifc

%rRT

intelligence

^: firmness

this

*RTT

with brevity; qRcfrKH. with modification;

f rf*.

is said.

II

V9

||

Humility, unpretentiousness, harmlessness, rectitude,


service of the teacher, purity, steadfastness, self-control,

(7)

iHlfa^ nnhaughtiness
harmlessness
;

3RT>T?W unpretentiousness
;

sff?T:

forgiveness

atrr^ rectitude
service;

^4^^MIJfjj 3TTCR
jf%j|

of the teacher,

ifa

purity;

steadfastness

^I^MRT?:

self-control ;

Indifference to the objects of

the senses, and also


evil of birth,

absence of egoism, insight into the pain and


death, old age and sickness,
fY5Nl u U*l 4$fy
dispassion
;

(8)
the senses,
;

of

in the

objects

;
;

^MH^K: non-egoism

even

and

birth, and, death, and, old

age f

and, sicknesses, and, of them,


seeing.

of

the

pain, of the evil, the

238

Unattachment,
son, wife or home,

absence of self-identification with

and constant balance of mind

in
)

wished-for and unwished-far events,


a-rgfrf?:

(^9

unafctachment

?Rnjsff:
^f *f|5

non-self -identisons,

fication

J^f'^Tf rf^
wives,

<J^!J

^ ?f*
5

^ am ong
ffftq-

and

among
and;
8TR?rTt

and,

among
of

houses,

aud

constant; *%
**

OT^fTTfV equal-mindedness

f ffrR^rTTfTrS = f ERT
of

^TTT%3

desiredj

andj

undesired,

in

the

befallings.

II

1 o

II

Unflinching
other

devotion

to

Me

by

yoga, without

sequestered places, absence of enjoyment in the company of men. ( to )


Tfr*^

object^ resort to

in
(

Me
)

^f

and

3T*TRf
;

QtiTf^

= by
!

another

object

^fj: devotion

^5^'fvT ^TR

fr

yoga^ =

without
;

unstraying
of

^ff^W^TOllW-PWRW
resort
;

^W
,

^fff4 (if)
;

lovely,

places,
\

snf^f

absence of pleasure ^rifrf: non-pleasure in the crowd,

Sf-

II

1 9

II

239

Constancy
of the

in the

Wisdom

object of essential

wisdom
it

of the Self, understanding that is declared to


;

be

the

Wisdom;
(

all

against

is

ignorance.
of

Sn^r^lTHRSnt = 3Iqp*FP ?r^ m^T^


the Self
see vii.

the concerning
;

29

), in

the knowledge, constancy

rTTg^TRnf

t&rtl- STt^l 9TTO


ff^ thus
jftrjj

*T*fal S^fal of the essence,


;

of the

know;

ledge, of the object, the realisation


;

iirffj
;

this

^TJJ;
;

knowledge
^r?T then

said

^t^T^r ignorance

3$ which

otherwise.

R H

will

which

being:

declare that which ought to be known, that known immortality is enjoyed the begincalled neither being
(
ffi{
;

ningless

supreme ETERNAL,

nor
12
)

non-being. irt to be known; qq[ which;


declare;
lity )

that;

ir^irm (I)

will

which
(

^ffc^r

being

known
;

^Tfrfl

nectr ; immortaqt

4lVlri

the Jiva) enjoyed

highest; afi

Brahman

ff

?T^rr?H^ beginuingless; not; ^being; *l not; fffj; that


;

non-being; TSZ(?r

is called.

^ u
Everywhere THAT hath hands and and mouths all-hearing,
;

feet,

everywhere
dwelleth
(

eyes, heads,

He

.in

the world, enveloping

all

13

240

reV. <nora:
hands, and,
?TffT:
feet,

^ TOP
;

*T

*** *H everywhere

and, whose, that

^fjthat; ?reflrsf^jf5rcrg'3*J.=

3T^lf% ^T

fWT%
;

^T S*srrf% -^ a?** 3<l everywhere, eyes,


;

and, heads, and, mouths, and, whose, that

^PRI: everywhere
all;

^fa*Kl possessing ears


enveloped
;

fjr^j in

the world;

st

?TTf?T haying

^r^fcj sits.

Shining with all sense-faculties without any senses unattached supporting everything ; and free from qualities

enjoying qualities.
the qualities, the splendour, whose, that ( b 7 ) senses, ab&n-

of ) all, of senses, in

f
thus
;

f ij&: f%ff$Wl by

unattached;
q-

and;

^=^^n^
;

?RT

all,

supports,

even; f%^o| without qualities; ?pnTfo


Kf and.

of qualities, the enjoying

all beings, immovable and also by reason of His subtlety imperceptible at hand and far away is THAT. ( 15 )

Without and within


;

movable

qft: outside

ifa: inside
;

*?

and

movable

^t

movable

HHMJ
;

of beings

?r^t imsubin

even;

*r and

^T^T7( from

^ety;^

that;

rntl.< unknowable,

f?^=^t ^itff^

24 I
if

(all)
cff

distance,

stands, this;

and; 3rf^ft

ear

^r and;

that.

n ?

Not divided amid


ly
;

beings, and yet seated distributiveas the supporter of beings


(
; ;

THAT

is

to be

known

He

devours and

He

generates.
;

16

^TnnT^K undivided
divided
;

^
;

and

^33
;

in

beings
=>

f%>TrK
*T^
of
;

f^

like

^ and
;

Rqr|l
;

seated
^ffj

5j?fvr|
;

beings, the

supporter

sy and

that
;

^nrf

to be

known

absorbing

JT>TI%'5'3

prevailing

^r and.

I!

V9M

THAT, the Light of all lights, is said to be beyond darkness; Wisdom, the object of Wisdom, by Wisdom
to be reached, seated in the hearts of
;

all.

17

53ff%^rl of lights. Sfft also 5fll That; 5^%: light; &&& is called ; %tf knowift beyond rfim: from darkness = ScTRT *\*q f(RflVj| ledge ^q[ that which is to be known
;

by knowledge, to be reached

5^

in

the heart

^$m

of all

in *
16

Thus the
have been
enters into

Field,

Wisdom and
told.

the Object of

Wisdom,
(18)

briefly

My

devotee,

thus knowing,

My
to

Being.
the Field;
;

ffrTthus;
that which
is

q&
my
(

?nn
;

also;

gpT wisdom;
;

fjsi
;

be known

xf
;

and

g^fi said

^TRfrf: briefly

= JJT

*Trf:

devotee

^^l

this

RftTO having known


approaches.

to) my, to being,

TH^RT

Know
beginning
;

thou that Matter and Spirit are both without and know thou also that modifications and

qualities are all Matter-born. TT^I^ matter


;

(19)
^f and
:

5^ spirit
;

^ even
;

f%r% know

*m^t
tions
;

beginnin^les

^>TT both
;

^fqf al^o
<5f

f^4iKI*i modificaf%f^T

and

*J"nl qualities

and

qq even

know
whose,

MrH^H^f<- R^: ^W 5^t


them.

?fRt.

from matter,

origin,

II

Ro

i)

Matter
causes and

is

called
;

effects

Spirit

the cause of the generation of is called the cause of the


pain.

enjoyment of pleasure and


of cases,

(20)
53
s

aim,

the creativenesa

the cause

243
spirit

matter

^eSRtis called

5^:
;

of pleasures, and, of

pains,
is

and; ^TT^T

in the

enjoyingness

55: the cause

^-^H

called.

U R3
Spirit

II

Matter useth the qualities born of Matter; attachment to the qualities is the cause
seated in
of his births in

good and
JT^frR^:

evil

wombs.
ftgfo
fffc,

21

g^:
thus
;

spirit;

= !T?tr
;

in matter, sits,

f| indeed;
;

enjoys; n$f?hff3 =
^Jf^oir

^%:
;

3TmT* from

matter, born

3J"U^ qualities

the cause
;

^oi^T: = 3^;

%i\:

in

the qualities, attachment

3FJT5

= ^r^

3T^rft^

^fPT5
births, in

^f^ of his ^R^^fn^ Rni^ WI (in) good,


them.

and, (in) evil, and, in

wombs,

II

Supervisor and permitter, supporter, enjoyer, great Lord and also the supreme SELF thus is styled in
:

this

body the supreme

Spirit.
^f

22

TTJST supervisor ; ar^HrfT permitter j


porter
,

and
;

T?ff

sup-

^RT
;

en joyp.r

Supreme Self; $ffi thus b the body sifcni. ( in )

nf^t: the ^f and


; ;

gt-eat

Lord
;

q<HI^I the
calle,!;"^

srfir also

^RS
;

this

3^7: the

spirit

q^: highest.

IR^
He who
qualities, in

u
its

thus knoweth Spirit and Matter with

whatsoever condition he

may

be,

he
(

shall

not be born again.


3J:

23

who
;

thus

^PFT knows

and

5^: with
existing
is
;

qualities;
^rft
also
;

^
^

5^ spirit
with;
not
;

STif% matter
in
;

SphrT

all

ways
again

q:

he

3J3[:

born.

Some by meditation behold the SELF in the self by the SELF others by the Saiikhya Yoga, and others ( 24 ) by the Yoga of Action
;
;

v-^f^H

by meditation;

?rr?Jn^

in

the self;

qT5fT% see;

some; ^TrJfR the Self; aTf^r by the Self; ypj others; 3753^ (by) the Sankhya; by Yoga; 01 action, by the Yoga; ^ and ST ^ others.
frf^q[

^^

t:

IRH

Others

also,

ignorant of
;

from others,

worship

death, adhering to

this, having heard of it and these also cross beyond what they had heard. ( 25 )
;

STO

others;

iu.'eed

q4

this; 3T5TT*Trr

not knowing

245
having heard
they;
irfT also;
;

s^g:
and;

from others

=?f

^FRcr'TOT cross

1*3 death; ^HrTaanrr: = ^f?P


highest, refuge, whose, they.

7*

^T^

3<rm% worship > over; qq> even; *qT* % scriptnre,


;

i)

R^
it is

u
from the

Whatsoever creature

is

born, immobile or mobile,

know

thou,

best of the Bharatas, that

union between the Field and the Knower of the Field.

(26)
jgrwr q^fl whatsoever g~3(Rm is born r%fVfJ any wr^iTT'iri = Wl?i ^ ^TTI ^T immovincr, m>d, moving, being and r^%rfr9^tTPl = %^T^ ^T %^3W ^ e^TTI^ of the field,
: ;

and, of the

field

-knower, and, from the onion;


best of the Bharatas.

that

know

H'Crl^'T

II

II

Seated equally in all beings, the supreme Lord, unperishing within the perishing he who thus seeth, he seeth. ( 27 )
^pf equal
;

in ) ^fftj (

all
;

^
who

in beings

frfSTrf

seated

the highest

Lord

RRSH?U among
if:
;

the perishing
;

the

unperishing

q$3TW sees

5f:

he

Seeing indeed everywhere the same Lord equally dwelling, he doth not destroy the SELF by the self,

and thus treadeth the highest Path.


SPJ equal
;

28

qszrq^

seeing

if Indeed

?jf

everywhere

SPHfcreqL equally dwelling; fj^ lord; f not; f|^f|rT slays; *TTenn by the sp]f; ?rr*rpt the Self; 33: then; ^tnt goes

RT

the highest

irf% path.

II

^%

II

He who
actions,

and

tliat

seeth that Prakriti verily performeth all the SELF is actionless, he seeth. (29)
;

by matter

^ even

^- and
;

Sfprlfor

actions
;

fom-

(the) being performed


ees;
:

3^3:

every w Uei e

q:

who;
;

?fqT

so;

^IT^nt the Self;

?Ri?lH actiouless

he

tprarlr sees.

II

II

When he perceiveth the diversified existence of beings as rooted in One, and spreading forth from it, then he reaclieth the ETERNAL. (30)

247

3RT
discerns

when;

iJ?T$*r*Trt

= ^JyTRT
ferf
1

several, existence;

qgj^ = q^ rHT thence ^even


;

f^

*Tnr*

of

beings,

in one, seated;
f^ftrirc

^M^V^N
;

q and;
SfST then.

the spreading

W&

Brahman

%<?!% becomes

Being beginningless and without qualities, the imperishable supreme SELF, though seated in the body,

Kaunteya, worketh not nor


f rom

is

affected.
;

(31

**Hrfi^nt butelesne8s ^JIT^T the supreme


;

beginninglessness

Pr^or?^ from
;

attri-

Self

^pj
:

this

BTsqg: im-

perishable

^lO^^T'- body-seated; ^rfa alno


;

^fifa

Kauuteya;

not

^prjr^ acts

not

f^c^^

is

affected.

n ^^ u
As
of
ifs

the omnipresent ether


not affected.
;

is

subtlety, so seated everywhere in the


is

not affected, by reason body the


(

SELF

32 )

*rfT<t

the omnipresent; &$*qTr|- fiom subtlety;

ether;
:

not; ^Tf^eq% is affected; *fa everywhere; the Self; seated; ^j| in the body; H*TT so; <%t&tt

not

TTIH^

is affected.

248

*UIMI%
As

*nr<r

it

^^ n
Bharata.

the one sun illumineth the whole earth, so the


Field,

Lord of the Field illumineth the whole

u
;

(33)

qm
whole;
the
field-..
;

as
ofpsF

JT^rrarqnr

illuminates
this; ift:
1

1&;:

one

$c*4 the
;
>

world;

f*T

snn

wner; HOT so: ^rg


Bhzlrata.

the

%4f the fi^ld ; %^ft whole: JTgjr!0'?lf% illurai-

iRfCrT

T^ftfcT
They who by
difference
Field,

TO^[

II

^8

||

the eve of

Wisdom

perceive

this

between the Field and the Knower of the

and the liberation of beings from Matter, they (34) go to the Supreme.

^wnRTOP = ^STRI
of

?r

w^nr^T

sr

of

the

field,

and, of

the fiHld-knower, and; fr^Mius;

^k.

distinction;

knowledge,
f

bj the

beings, from matter,


;

eye; the liberation


they
;

^
the

and

q who ; Rj: know

(ff%

go

q^

to

highest.

Thus
entitled
:

in the glorious

BHAGAVAD-GirA...the thirteenth discourse,

THE YOGA OF THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE FIELD AND THE KNOWER OF THE FIELD.

249

FOURTEENTH DISCOURSE.

The Blessed Lord


I

said

will

again

proclaim that supreme

all

wisdom the

best,

which

all

the Sages having

Wisdom, of known
( i

have gone hence to the supreme Perfection.


tft

highest

ygl: again

Jf?r$3irR (
;

) will declare

of wisdoms;

5fifj
:

the wisdom
:

having known

5^1: innuis
j

^
;

3rtH*I best;
nil
;

^
(

which

q?T

tn

the) highest

to perfection

f ?f: Ueuce

Trlf : goue.

Having taken refuge


assimilated to
in

in

this

Wisdom and

being

My own

nature, they are not re-born even

the emanation of a universe, nor are disquieted in


(

the dissolution.

ft
^rif in

this

TO my;

^W^
;
;

^R

wisdom; ^^ffiR5r having

taken refuge in;


'illHtil:

(to)
^rfif

similarity
;

of
;

nature;

come;
;

emanation

also

not

sUTiUZirf are

born

JJr?^

in dissolution

5f

not

5^yf?f suffer

^f and.

250

My womb
the

is

the great

ETERNAL

in that
all

place

germ
PT

thence

cometh the

birth of

beings,
(

O
3
)

Bharata.

my

;ftfa :

womb
;

H^srgj the great Brahman ;


;

?ff^
;

in this; *T*f

the
of all

germ

beings

5^nr^ place 3T? I; JftHST: the birth; nr% becomes 33'. thence ;
;

Bl.a.ata.

11

11

In

whatsoever

Kaunteya, the

wombs ETERNAL is

mortals
their

are produced.
I

mighty womb,
wombs

their

generating father.

(4)
in
;

TOWlS = srcfe 5nfr ( in ) all. teva; ijfo: forms; ^4nf H e horn


.

eR^j
>f

Kaunthese;

jfl-:

which; ?rrm

fTgl

Brahman

J^jfrfr:

- J^rfr ^TR:
the
,

the great
;

wmnh

^t

I ;

seed, gives, thus

fTrTT father.

Mobility, Inertia, such are the qualities, great- armed they bind fast in the body, one, the indestructible dweller in the bo^y. ( 5 )

Harmony
;

Matter-born

^jc3

rhythm (or haimonj ); ^u: mobility

?PT:

inertia;

251
;

ff% thus

qoti:

the qualities

JJ$f?te>reT:

= JTfj%:
;

from Prakriti, birth, whose, they ; fs^tfra bind great-armed one 3% in the body ; ^f^f the embodied
;

indestructible.

T3?nf^f

^THflTR =3Rsr

II

i)

Harmony, from its stainlessness, luminous and healthy, bindeth by the attachment to bliss and the attachment to wisdom, O sinless one. (6)
these
?pr there
sniT51?K
;

Of

3[*e(

harmony

f^^oTc?rr[

from staiuleesness
^?TW

illuminating;

^HPTO healthy;

^^y<H =

'ST'^f

pleasure, by the attachment;


of

VXifa binds;

^RBn^=5RW
sinless

wisdom, by the attachment; "q-and; SPi^

Mobility, the passion-nature, know thou, is the source of attachment and thirst for life, Kaunteya, that

bindeth the dweller


action.

in the

body by the attachment


(

to

= t5j: mobility; tfmreJ *Tn *%lF*U 3I 3*1 desire, self, whose, it fofe know; fOTrrcrTS3?R=3OTn' ^ ^I^T: *t and attachment, and, fiom them *{ift- ?T5^ ZlWHl rlfl thirst,
;
:

two), the source, fiom which, that

?iq[that

f^WWrTrT binds

252

Kaunteya
attachment
;

^fr^ = 5FWn: fl*R

of

action,

by the

^n^

the embodied.

But

Inertia,
all

know

thou, born of

unwisdom,

is

the

deluder of

dwellers in the

body

that bindeth
(

by
8
)

heedlessness, indolence and sloth,


?PT:

Bharata.

inertia;

5
f%f^f

indeed;

3T5rR^ = ^RfrTTrl
of

*IH from
;

ignorance,

born

know
(of)
1

*t(5f the causer, of delusion


all,

^iflPls^M
jlfr =5r*!rtT
Bharata.
=^r

SftTT

embodied;

ipii^rsrWIFr-

^rr^l ^Pfffir^by
?rfj[

heedlessness and, by

indolence, and, by sloth, and;

that;

f>HUIM binds;

n^

II

II

Harmony
Bharata.

attacheth to
verily

Inertia,

bliss, Mobility to action, having shrouded wisdom,


(

O
at-

tacheth on the contrary to heedlessness.


5fc^

9)
*if;

harmony; g^f
;

in
;

mobility

3pfi% in action
:

yn^j

pleasure ; Bliarata

%3f2iffr
;

attacheth;

^R
;

wisdom

3TTf5T

having enveloped

indeed
;

j ^fiy:

inertia

Sf*n^ in heedless-

ness ; %lTqi% attaches

3rf but.

253

ility

Now Harmony prevaileth, having over powered Moband Inertia, O Bharata. Now Mobility, having overInertia
;

powered Harmony and

and now

Inertia,

having
(

overpowered Harmony and Mobility.


*5j:

10)

mobility

fl*{:

inertia
;

and

3jf*nj?l
;

wered

mobility
inertia
;

5T^ harmony CT? harmony


.

vrei% becomes
;

STHCrT

O
;

having overpoBh&rata ^sp


;

31?:
?[af:

inertia

=^

and

q* even

W.

g ?^ harmony

mobility; ?ftrr also.

cT^T

N^nf

^^FR^T

II

1 3

II

When
Harmony
is

the gates of the

the wisdom- light streameth forth from all body, then it may be known that
increasing.
1 ( 1 )

g%K5 = ^>5
in tbis
;

fft$

( in ) all,
;

in

gates
1S

^|

in

the

q^^p
;

light

3T5T(^?I
(

born

^r^T

body wisdom

when

?RT then
;

Rram;
;

let

him

know

fttpg increased

harmony

5r% thus

S3

indeed.

5
Greed, outgoing
restlessness, desire

II

energy, undertaking these are born of the increase of

of actions,

Mobility,

best of the Bharatas.

(12)

5TT*: greed

SfffrT:

forthgoing;

arTW beginning;
;

of actions; ar^TT:
state of
)

unpeacefulness; ^[ST desire i-affq in (the are born mobility IJWTR these ; f%f$ ( in
;

n^

having become) increased; HCcT^T

best of the Bharatas.

delusion

Darkness, stagnation and heedlessness and also these are born of the increase of Inertia, O
(

joy of the Kurus.


3TPfiT?r:

13

darkness
;

^rqrffcf:
;

heedlessness

^^:
;

delusion

uon-forthgoing ; q^ even ; ^f and ;


;

^
;

and

SPTR:

r?HI^T in (

the
( in

state of ) inertia

^ft
;

these

3Tra[% are

born

ftf^j

having become) increased

*^^<?H

rejoicer of the

Kurus.

II

II

If

Harmony

verily prevaileth

when

the embodied

goeth to dissolution, then he goeth forth to the spotless worlds of the great Sages. ( 14 )
2RF when
;

sr^f in ( the state of )


:

harmony jf^f (
;

in

having

become

increased

5
(

indeed

jf^

to dissolution

;sn<t

ges

'he supporter of a

?rf

%qTR
;

tl'e

body; g^r thea; 5Tf *ff^ra.= r?l4 they ) know, thus, of them ; ftfcTO to
;

the worlds

STtffiFi.

of the spotless

H
Having gone

II

to dissolution in Mobility, he
;

is

bora

among
he
is

those attached to action


in the

if

dissolved in Inertia,
(

bom

wombs
;

of the senseless.
to dissolution
;

15 )
;

*n%

in mobility

jy^
is

ir?^T

having gone
dissolved

q&f fSlg = sirffr


amongst them
<prf% in inertia
;
;

%*!' *$ti\

"35
born

in
;

action,

attachment,
;

whose,
;

*\\*&

?^T

so

JJcJhT:

qpqtftg =
is

^WL Crft^

of the senseless, in

the

wombs ;

5(133

born.

It is said

the

fruit

of a good action

is

harmonious
is

and spotless

verily the fruit of

Mobility

pain,
(

and
16)

the fruit of Inertia unwisdom.


^fpi[
,,f

action

g^TFg
;

of

well-done
;

srrf

(
;

they )

say

grf??^ harmonious
;

RH5T

spotless
;

Tjfqfr

the
;

fruit.

f^f:
igno-

of mobility

indeed

*%i%

the fruit
t,he fruit.

5-^ pain

^^H

rance;

WQ.

of inertia; qj^

II

1*

II

From Harmony wisdom


from Mobility
;

is

born,

and

also greed

heedlessness and delusion are of Inertia,


(

and also unwisdom.

17

2 56

rom harmony
;

35(143 i born
;

jfpt
;

wisdom

from mobility

^t*r greed

qr^

even

^
;

and

lTn^f|t =

^ *TT?

'srheedlessness, and, delusion,

aud; rR^T: from inertia


<$?

Vf^ff: (

two

become

?T?nt ignorance

even

^ and.

fcflfrT

They

rise

the Active dwell in

upwards who are settled in Harmony the midmost place the Inert
;

go downwards, enveloped

in the vilest qualities.

18

3^
active
;

upwards;
;

ir^R
in

?o

gr^?n = 5Jf%
;

f^TfTT:
;

in har-

mony, seated
lowest, of the

jpj^

the midst

frTSfif

stand

^Taf^f:

the

^m*q^frfTH||: = ^Fq^i g^T^T f^T


go
;

fcttl'. ( of the )

guna, in the mode, seated; ?nrar5 the inert.

5Erq-:

downwards;

When
qualities,
qualities,
T

the Seer perceiveth no agent other than the

and knoweth

THAT

which
nature.

is

higher than the


(

he entereth into
3f?^T

My

19

not;

other; 3jof>^: than the qualities; gjrjft the


the Seer; 31^*1^ sees; aj^ap the highest; %TT knows ;
;

doer; qtf

when; JCT
j

than

the qualities
sitf

^ and
;

^ft

my, to being

^: he

257

When
these

the dweller in the body hath crossed over


all

three qualities, whence

bodies have been

produced, liberated from birth, death, old age and sorrow, he drinketh the nectar of immortality. ( 20 )
the
qualities
; ;

qrTf^ these

3nft*3 having crossed

beyond

sft^ three

f^ the embodied <^&*


;

^ITT ?TR,

from

the body, the origin, of


55

whom, them

^RT^.&^SRFT:

* S?^t:

^ WPW ^
(

death, and, of old age, and* by

from

$&'- of birth, and, of sorrows R^Tft: freed


; ;

immortality

^v^tf enjoys.

Arjuna said

What

are the

marks of him who hath crossed over

the three qualities,

Lord

How

acteth he,
(

and
21
)

how doth he go beyond


%: (by
ties
;

these three qualities?

what
;

f^:
:

by marks

flft^

three
;

goTRt qualiipft

rfcf eroes#d ; H>'HT^K what-conduct g^f how

f?n^
;

tbese

fqr% becomee
;

lord
;

and

^rTr*^ these

flffa

three

gofR. qualities

*?^^^^

goes bejond.

17

tfe
The
Blessed Lord said
:

ii

^
and
not
(
;

II

He, O Pandava, who hateth not radiance, nor outgoing energy, nor even delusion, when present, nor ( 22 ) longeth after them, absent
;

H3nr
delusion
;

light

^
;

and

Sfr%
;

forthgoing

even

tr and

q[^q
;

O
^

Pdndava
not
;

hates; ^STfrnf% ( when ) gone forth returned SRmr% desires.


;

II

^^

II

He
qualities

who, seated as a neutral,


;

is

unshaken by the
23

who

"

saying:

The

qualities revolve," standeth


( )

apart,

immovable,
the neutral
;

^r^5T^ like
lities

sntffa: seated

ajtfr:

by the qua;

q: who q$% move ; JRT


;
;

not

R^l^^f is

shaken

<QV[r.

the qualities

thus

even

q: -who

?ni%9Rr stands

away

*t

not

fir% moves.

IR 3

1|

259

and pain, self-reliant, to whom Balanced a lump. of earth, a rock and gold are alike the same to loved and unloved, firm, the same in censure and in
in pleasure
;

praise,

*PT:'5npar:=sr'T

5^ ^r H*r T

( 24 ) ar& H: the same, sorrow,

and, pleasure, and, for


self,

standing

whom, he ; ^^r: =*3r?flf% foTrT: in own ST^rereTSRTfP = STT: Ste ^ STPTf **t ^TT ^T
;

H^JT

H: equal, clod, and, atone, and, gold, and, for whom, he


ffa:

gesftzunra:^^

T ^rfiro: ^ S& W
;

equal, loved,

and

unloved, and, for whom, he; ^h[: firm

gc^n^^nT^f^gl^:

^
praise, and, for

?R%

*T:

equal, blame, aud, of self,

whom,

he.

IRS
The same
friend
in

and

foe,

honour and ignominy, the same to abandoning all undertakings he is


(

said to have crossed over the qualities.


HRTTHTlsir: = *TPT ^f

25

TT*%
;

n honour, and, in
;

dis-

honour,

aud

3?3: equal
r:

g?q: equal

prarRT^t! = ft^H
enemy, in the sides
all,
;

of

the

fi

ieud, and, of the

(of)

of

undertakings,
;

the

abandoner
;

^oif^: =3*TR. V&*'-

the qualities, crossed

^: he

=53*T is called.

260

And he who serveth Me exclusively by the yoga of devotion, he, crossing beyond the qualities, he is fit
to

become the ETERNAL.


ITT

26

me

^T and;

?f:

who
of

3TZ||'3TOTC a r

without- stray ing;


the

>TfTF3l*R - VTTRN:

Sim?!

devotion,
;

by

yoga

%^
for

serves

^:

he

?prr^ the qualities

OTrffcr having crossed


JJ3JRT of

over,- ^?rn* these; the

Vtfq&m - H8PT
is fit.

Brahman,

becoming

^I?q%

ff

P"or

am

the abode of the

ETERNAL, and

of the

indestructible

nectar

of

immortality,
bliss.

of immemorial
(

righteousness, and of unending


of of

27

Brahman;
;

|%

indeed;
(

Rflf^T

abode;
;

8Tf

I
;

nectar

^o^^^
;

of )

inexhaustible
;

^
;

and

(of)
of pleasure
;

everlasting

and

qrfer of duty
;

^jffw^fCT of the uttermost

^r and.

Thus

in
:

the glorious

RHAGAvAD-Girl.^the

fourteenth

discourse.

entitled

THE YOGA OF SEPARATION FROM THE THREE QUALITIES.

FIFTEENTH DISCOURSE.

ii

i!

The
With

Blessed Lord said

roots above, branches below, the Ashvattha


;

is
;

said to be indestructible

the leaves

of

it

ar"S

hymns
it it

he who knoweth

it is

a Veda-knower.
above, the
root,

( I )

whose, whose,

"^:
tible
;

5TN3T:

*KQ

rll.

below,

branches,
;

the ashvattha;

S?T% hymns
rn^that
;

who

^ff

call ^5^^^ indestrucjjf^: (they) ZR^ of which ; <TOff(% the leaves q: knows g he ; ^Tfl^fJ Veda-knower.
;
1

II

ii

Downwards and upwards spread


nourished by the qualities
its
;

the branches of

it,

the objects of the senses

buds

and

its

roots

grow downwards, the bonds of


(

action in the world of men.

262

3P*:

below

sr

aud

g^f above

Jl^Tf: spread

?rej of

by the qua= f%q^T: J^TST!'. qrat rTf objects lities, nourished; ffTO!pn5TT: of the senses, sprouts, whose, they srq below ; ^C and
that;
*TT*^T:
1

the branches; ylM^\rfj: =?J^j'5

W^M

the roots;
fTTf%

JlgUcHrfi
the world.

ramified

action,
in

the bond, whose, they;

of

men,

Nor here may be acquired knowledge of


nor
its

its
;

form,

this rooting-place strongly-rooted Ashvattha having been cut down by the unswerving weapon of non-attachment,
(

end,

nor

its origin,

nor

its

sf

not;

^T

form; ST^of
:
;

this

33 here;
:

?RJT so

^TSP^
;

^r?f: end ^ not; q-and; STTff: beginning; ^nmgr foundation ^v^c'^ii. ashvattha irf this; ^i^^<S^oi = 51^3'ff'f ^TTR 3R2| rfl well-grown, roots whose, this ar^T^%or - 8T?iT^ ?T^r of non-attachment,

is
f

obtained; ?fnot

not

^ and
;

by

the weapon

?|^r

by

strong

\&r^\ having cut

26 3

That path beyond may be sought, treading which is no return. I go indeed to that Primal Man whence the ancient energy forthstreamed. ( 4 )
there
Off:

tne "

<T* foot ( stepping-plaee )


;

flj that
sf

should be sought

qfFPj
?fi^

in

which

T3n gone;

not

return; spf: again;


original
;

to I

that;
)

^
zjrf:

even;

^
;

and;

^pg

5^ Man

jj<rtl (
;

go

whence

J?fl%: forth-

going

JfH?n issued

$wt(i ancient.

II

II

Without pride and delusion, victorious over the vice of attachment, dwelling constantly in the SELF, desire pacified, liberated from the pairs of opposites

known

as pleasure and

pain,

they

tread,

undeluded,
(

that indestructible path.

5 )

f*WR$T?r:=TPr
delusion,

ffa:

ftf?ft

q^:

pride,
:

and,

and,

gone,

q<l^
they
;

$fqr:

%:

from whom, they; Rlrrei<1<{tn =nWT : conquered, of attachment, the faults, by whom,

y*qr**lfldr:

= ^g^n^Pf

PtcETT:

in

the inner

self,

perma-

264

nently established
ted,
desires,

= ftftf TpfiRP
;

f^^
(

r:

5RPTT:

*<n%
;

depar-

whose, they

f^: by

from ) the pairs


them

Rg-rM:

freed;

U^^HS^ =*!i*?f ^ 5:^ T ^*TT m%:


name, whose, by
;

pleasure, and,

pain, and,

(
,

from

M^fa
;

un-deluded

<ff to

the goal

BTo39[ indestructible

go

that.

Nor doth
fire
;

the

sun lighten

there,

nor moon,
;

nor

having gone thither they return not


that;

that

is
(

My
6
;

supreme abode. 1 not; 3{j


not;
*T5ff

?flWR
Sf

illuminates;

^:
;

the sun

if

TCrfcp the

moon;
;

not;
;

Tr^f:

foe; SNj to which;


?I^ that
;

having gone
;

^
*rT

not

f^ft'^ return

^pr

abode

q^ highest

my.

II

II

A
world

portion of Mine own Self, transformed in the of life into an immortal Spirit, draweth round

itself the senses of

which the mind

is

the sixth, veiled

in Matter.
JPT

(7
;

my

q^ even;

^far:

portion;
;

5fH<HI<
;

of living things, in the

world

ancient;

n:^grm = TT!
;

ffaJjan jiva-become
^TTT^

5^f

mind,

sixth, of
in

whom,
nature,

them

shjfrrr^ senses
;

JT^f?fftlT7?T

= s^^r

fararfa

placed

3f$m

dj

aws.

<

\\

When
abandoneth
as the

the
it,

He

Lord acquireth a body and when He seizeth these and goeth with them,
their retreats.
(

wind takes fragrances from


a

$[fft

body

3jq[
;

which

3T3nf)fvf

obtains
;

afij(

which

=q

and

^fqf also

?csfjrTf% passes
;

beyond
;

f^:
;

the "Lord

jfT?^T

fragrances

having seized f^
;

if^TR' these
:

^qrRr goes

^rg:

wind

like

^Efl^^r^ from retreat.

M % u
enjoyeth the
(

Enshrined

in the ear, the eye, the touch, the taste

and the

smell,

and

in the

mind

also,

He

objects of the senses.


aft^r

the ear

^T|j:

the eye

fTSR the organ


organ
;

of touch
;

^f and

^^
and

the* organ
;

of taste; ETF'r the

of smell

^
;

even

^
i|^

9fTf>T5rl
;

and

this

|%q?n^t

the mind JT*T: presiding over the senses objects of

njoys.

in o
when

The deluded

do

not perceive

Him

He

266

qualities

or enjoyeth, departeth or stayeth, the wisdom-eyed perceive.


;

swayed
^r or

by the
(

IO

**H?T

departing
;

fcrS

staying

^rit

also

g^PT enjoying
accompanied
;

^T or

Igorri3**ni=gdh 3Tf^?T by the qualities,


;

f%ij<8T:

the deluded

?T i>ot

3T|irar7T perceive

q^flT see;
they.

5?^^:=^

^|J:

WT%

wisdom,

eyes,

whose,

Yogis
in the

also,
;

struggling, perceive

Him, established
(
1 1 )

SELF

but,

though struggling, the unintelligent


and
|jt thus
;

perceive
ZRTrl:

Him

not, their selves untrained.


;

striving

qifTR:

yogis

^r

TWf%

Self;

3TW?m^ established
^rf: a7T?*Tr zi:% not,
;

?jw?f:

striving;

^
the Self, by whom, they mindless.

made

(purified),

not

irf this

f^fk

UR^ m ^ n
Me.
(

That splendour issuing from the sun that enlighteneth the whole world, that which is in the moon and
in fire, that
arq[

splendour
;

know

as from

12

which
;

snT^TTri =
thf

STTf^lTfl
;

T?T from the sun,

gone

( forth

%^:

splendour

PTl

the

world

267

arf^nre whole lightens irfft qq[ which -q- and


;
;
;

m which
in
fire
;

^rgpiriT

in

the

moon

?f?f

that

%5T:

splendour

know

^|H<4tH.

mine.

vital
I

Permeating the soil, I support beings by My energy, and having become the delicious Soma
'

nourish

all plants.

(13)
STITCTO having entered
;

TO
beings
;

the

earth

"ef

and
;

tjrrarr^
;

support

3T?

3fl-SR(1
;

by

vitality

(I)
5f<^r

nourish

^
it.

and; aqif^t: plants

^:

all;

^tT:
R2I

Soma;
sap,

having

become;

i^l^^: =rep ?IT^r

^:

nature, whose,

in ^ H
I, having become the Fire of Life, take possession of the bodies of breathing things, and united with the

life-breaths
3T3 I
;

digest the four kinds of food.


ifT^T

14

V*JPH: Vaishvanara;
;

having become;
;

of living beings

"^fH the body

^npSHT: sheltered in
^r*iia-H
;
:

JR^IIH^: = Jrojf
and, food
;

STTI^^ ^r

wit}l tlle in-breath,


(

with the ont-breath, and, united

qm^
is

I )

cook

3TO

^gft^l
"

fourfold.
the accepted translation

" Having become the watery moon

268

II

II

And
which
is

am

seated

in

the hearts of

all,

and from

Me memory

and wisdom and

their absence.

And
I
;

that
I

to be

known

in

all

the

Vedas am

and

indeed the Veda-knower and the author of the Vedanta.

(15
of
all
;

*T

and;
;

^9
:

ff| in the heart;


;

seated

JTrf
;

from

me
;

^f^ memory
by
the
to
;

jnqr
:

wisdom

3T'ttf . :

absence
all
;

^
:

and
<r*T

"%^:
;

3?% I
;

evgrl

^t

Vedas ^ and ; tflf: ( by ) be known ><tmf5?l Ved&nta


:

maker

%^f?Tfl

Veda-knower

^ even

and

?Tf

I.

There are two energies in this world, the destructible the destructible is all beings, and the indestructible
;

the unchanging
fr two;
ffpr

is

called the indestructible.

(.16)

world even
:

^IT:

(in) this; 5^<fr Purushas (two); ?yr% in destructible and 3T^T: indestructible q^
;

^ and ^:
;

the destructible

e^ffoT

all

*JrTTT%

beings

269

the
called.

rock-seated

^r^:

the

indestructible

=Rr

f3TC:
The
highest energy
is

verily

Another,
all,

declared
sustaineth
(

as the supreme SELF, He,

who pervading
spirit
;

the three worlds, the indestructible Lord.


:

17

the highest

5^:

ijideed;

Wf*: nnother;
|:

^ffrT: called; highest Self; ff% thns ^TTfWTO having entered triple world
; ;
:

who:

the imperishable

f>^: Lord.

Since

excel

the

destructible,

and

am more
(

excellent also than


in the

the indestructible, in the world and


Spirit.

Veda

am

proclaimed the supreme


$fi destructible; WTrfYrf:
;

18

whereas;

than the indestructible


?PT:

3?ft

'

so

*r

beyond; Tf I; and ; T?R: beat


;

hence
;

%ir%T
;

m ^r%
;
;

in

the world

>%

in th

Veda

^ and

nftRf: declared

3^irTr*r: the highest spirit.

ti

11

2 7o

He who
spirit he,

undeluded knoweth

being,
3:

all-knowing, worshippeth Bharata.


*TTH

Me thus as the Supreme Me with his whole


(

19

who;

me; q^

thus

ST^P^S':

undelnded

^MTl^
all-

knows;
with

SSsfprm* the
>T3t??r

highest

spirit; tf:
;

he;

^'n?q[

knowing;
(
) all,

worships;
;

HR. me

with being

nTrf

Bh&rata.

1 1

^o

(I

Thus by
told,

Me

this

most
This

secret teaching hath been

sinless

one.

known,
his work,
;

he hath become

illuminated,
ff?f

and hath finished


;

O Bharata.
;

20

)
;

thus
;

3JST?l4

most
;

secret

srrW* teaching
one
;

&
;

this

TW

spoken

mn

by

me

sr?Tq

sinless

^rq[ this

having known; ^f^TT^ wise ; ^[?J may become; *rrc?T O Bh&rata. t- work, done, by whom, he
;

Thus
entitled
:

in the glorious

BHAGAVAD

G|TA^,the fifteenth discourse,

THE YOGA OF ATTAINING PURUSHOTTAMA.

SIXTEENTH DISCOURSE.
I

Fearlessness, cleanness of

Yoga

life, steadfastness in the of wisdom, almsgiving, self-restraint and sacrifice

and study of the Scripture, austerity and


wardness,
<?r*rg[

straightfor(

fearlessness;
purity
;

fl-wy^R}'. =*r?^TO tf^rr^:

of

being

living

),

fTR^flo^falf^: = ?T^
and, fixity
q;

W*1
;

^ S'reffqTW:
^HS self-res-

in wisdom, and,
traint
;

in yoga,

^R

gift

^T
)
;

and;

?n^:

sacrifice;
;

and;

^fr^lRl:

study (of

Sh&stras

?nT : austerity

3T[^

rectitude.

n ^ n
Harmlessn^ss, truth, absence of wrath, renunciation, peacefulness, absence of crookedness, compassion to
living beings, uncovetousness, mildness, modesty, absence

of fickleness,
srffCT barmlessnesn
;

)
;

Octf truth

acr^rvr:

?nT: renunciation

compassion ; ^JjT ness ; n?t mildness


fickleness.

Sirf?T:

peace

Sft^pr
;

absence of anger absence of guile

among beings &' modesty

BTqfr^e^ uncovetona-y^iq^ absence of

II

II

Vigour,

forgiveness, fortitude,

purity,
is

absence of

envy and pride


divine properties,

the*e

ere.

his

who

born with the


(

Bharata.

%^:
purity
;

splendour; ^pn" forgiveness ; *jf?f: fortitude: ?j^%lf^HlKrfr over-pride ; acrftf absence of malice 5f not
: ;

*T*fW are

%qp? to endowment,
;

%5ftn

to

div'ne

of the born

VflTH

Bharata.

Hypocrisy, arrogance and conceit, wrath and also harshness and unwisdom, are his who is born, Pfcrtha,

O
;

with demoniacal properties.


t*: hypocrisy
stfq":
;

3^: arrogance
harshness
;

\vratb
;

qr^9
and
;

STRwrf: pride even and


;

^
;

and;

^flM
;

ignorance

STRHr^^
%rr^pl

of the born
(

TTU

Partha

^Pf? to the

endowment

to ) demoniacal.

n
The
ation, the

11

divine properties are

deemed

to be

for liber-

demoniacal

for

bondage.

Grieve not, thou art

273

born with divine properties,

Panclava.
for
is

">

%$
f^hn*
do not ;
:

divine;

g^g[ endowment;

liberation;

for bondage; 4||g{)


3j^". grieve
;

demoniacal;

thought;

Jfj
;

qi&
tuou

to
)

endowment
art;

(to) divine
Pandava.

born

?rf%

qnr^

ti

sun*

^^
ii

^H

Twofold
divine

and
at

the animal creation in this world, the the demoniacal the divine hath been
is
;

described

length

hear

from

Me,

Partha, the

demoniacal.
jJT

(6)
ft

two:
;

of

beings,

5fT% in world
cal
;

qq even
said
;

^Iri;:

this ; %^: divine ; \j: the divine ; f%^Q: in detail demoniacal Tr^T O Partha % of me ; 5J^J
( in )
;

emanations; ^rg^: demonia;

and

hear.

Demoniacal men know neither right energy nor nor purity, nor even propriety, nor right abstinence
;

truth

is in

them.

and; 3Rr: men; sff% forthgoing; -^and; f5fff% return; ^l^i|: demoniacal ; ?f not ; ^f^ purity ; r ?f not ; f%^: know and; 9Tr^T^: rigtt conduct; n not; 5Rt not; ?rfq also;
;

truth

%5 in
18

them

fq%ta

is.

274

basis," they say;

is without truth, without ( moral ) "without a God, brought about by mutual union, and caused by lust and nothing else." (8)

"

The

universe

9T33JT without-truth
3jTrq[

373133 without-foundation
;

they ;

^=

the world;
3T<TC:

SHf: say
**

T W>

m^

9T?fp^q; without-God;

STI^qt^fand, from

5=T'^ another, and, other,

them (two), born; f% whatj 3^*1


f^: 55CT Schist, cause, whose, that.

else;

Holding

this view, these ruined selves of small under-

standing, of fierce deeds, destruction of the world.


SrTT this ; |fgn view;

come

forth as

enemies

for the
( 9 ) =T5T:

aresm having held


whose,

fast; sfgreTPf

ruined, selves,
small, reason,
STrf%r

whose, they;
they
;

STrTfW = ST^F
come
forth
;

JT^tfrT

^?fl%

^n. %
;

fierce,

actions,
;

whose,

they

$T9r9 for

destruction

snTH'

of

the world

enemies.

II

II

275

ed

Surrendering themselves to insatiable desires, possesswith vanity, conceit and arrogance, holding evil

ideas

through
resolves.
desire;

delusion,

they

engage
based
^T

in

action with
(

impure
qjpi
fill;

10

srrHTCT having

on; <[wt
*J^1

hard to

7>wi*i*i3i?v3crT:

= ^TT ^
ir^f
;

TPHT

STf^rfT

by

vanity, and,

by

pride, and,

by

intoxication,

and,

pursued;

*t$r^ from delusion;

having

held;
action)
;

iHI< evil addictions

sn^ engage (in


impure,

vows, whose, they.

Giving themselves over to unmeasured thought whose


is death, regarding the gratification of desires as the highest, feeling sure that this is all, ( II )

end

care
".

*TTfwri unmeasurable

^ and
it;

sr3qfcTr^=

jj-?j^:

at dissolution, end, whose,

W
(

3m%rTr: refuged

in.

~tt
),

of (objects
;

of )

desires,

enjoyment, the supreme


( is all )
;

goal

whose, they

thus

much

fffi

thus

prfacir: assured.

II

II

Held

in

bondage by a hundred

ties

of expectation,

given over to lust and anger, they strive to obtain by

unlawful means hoards of wealth for sensual enjoyments.

(12)
armprrcrart:

= ^rr^rrar. TTSTRT
;

?re: of hope, of cords, (

by

hundreds
T^nr

*gj: bound

eKT*ra?NpmarTP =3fPT:

^ SFt^: ^

<TC*r

^TPT
;

%
(

desire, and, wrath,


)

and, highest, refuge, whose,

they

ff%

they

strive ( to secure ); qfnWfiTnJ

fSBTiiroF desire, of enjoyment. for the sake of;


injustice
:

?rira^ir^= ST^RT y-4^(^

of wealth, collections.

^ n
"

shall gain shall

This to-day by me hath been won, that purpose I this wealth is mine alread}% and also this
;

be mine

in future.
;

13

ff this; 3TSJ to-day


iffC^T ( I ) shall

rar

by ine;

srsq-

obtained; %q this;
this
;

obtain

HffrCTl desire
;

^f

unfa

is

&
v?^

this

arfr also

of

me

vrremfi shall be

$*. again

wealth.

Wft
"
slay.
I

have
I

slain

this

enemy, and others also


I

shall

am

the Lord,
:

am

the enjoyer,

am

perfect,
(

powerful,

happy
;

14

aqrcfr this

ror *>y
;

me

?rr slain
others
;

^Tf:

enemy
;

f RS%

( I )

shall elay

^ and

9T^r^

arf^ also

fj^;: rulei

277

enjoyer

,-

f^g: perfect ytf

^^

s f,

rong

happy.

"
is
I

am

wealthy, well-born

what other
I

is

there that
(

like

unto

me
"

will sacrifice,

will

give

alms
(

),

will rejoice.
3TT3i:

Thus deluded by unwisdom,


;

15

wealthy

3TPT3FTfI^ well-born
J

3jfl*I (I)

am

^f

who;

%PT: other; srf^f


sacrifice; ^re?rrrJr

S;

^^:

C I )

will

fTH

thus

STITRffSTfirir.

39% (I) will (I) w ^l rejoice; = ar^TRT f^itflrTT! by unwisdom


like;
q?ir

by

me

give;

*ffft^

deluded.

q^fit

web of
they

Bewildered by numerous thoughts, enmeshed in the delusion, addicted to the gratification of desire,
fall

downwards

into a foul hell.

16

^HehfaTimrerr =gT^%: HT%


thoughts,
of delusion,

bewildered;

f%imn (by Hf9Hr5TOTrf3T = Hf^


:

various, by

by the
of
>

net, covered; Jf^TrRT: attached

yTH<RI ^r*t*

desire, in the

enjoyments

q^fff^ fall

TC%

into

hell;

M^'4 impure.
i

273

Self-sufficing,

obstinate,

filled

with

the

pride and

intoxication of wealth, they

perform

lip-sacrifices for
(

ostentation, contrary to scriptural ordinance.

17

3TRW*Trf%rTn
stubborn;

= 3TF5*Rr SPTTIW' b ? spmrewfoan = >ret3 *TRT


by the
by nominal

self >

glorified

f*f*^r

T^r

Srf^rr- of
;

wealth, by the pride, and,

intoxication, and, filled


sacrifices;

qs(3

worship; ?TR3fr:
hypocrisy
;

they;

g^TT by

to rule. *rftft$fci3. contrary

Given over to egoism, power, insolence, lust and wrath, these malicious ones hate Me in the bodies of
others and in their own.
3T?3TK (to) egoism ;
(to) desire
;

18

TO

(to)
;

^I^T (to) wrath

power ^r and

(to)
:

insolence

q?R
JfRC

refuged in

me; ^|cH4<<^t| = ?tf3W'.


and,
in

=3 fc^f
Rff^rT'-

^ tfS
hating
;

self,

and, of others,

the

bodies,

carping

II

\\
(

II

These
world,
I

haters, evil, pitiless, vilest

among men
wombs.

in the

ever throw

down

into demoniacal

19

279

rTfl. these;

aqr? I

ff^<T=(the) hating (ones)


;

in

the worlds
(

TOW^ s^f
;
;

^jr^ cruel; 3TW*. among men,


; ;

worst

ftrnra
fl

I )

throw

snrsw always
;

OT^r^
wombs.

impure

demoniacal

q^ even

zfrf^rj

in

birth,

Cast into a demoniacal womb, deluded birth after attaining not to Me, O Kaunteya, they sink into
(
;

the lowest depths.


^IT^fr demoniacal
zjrR**
;

20
gjJT

)
'

womb
;

STR^T
;

fallen into

deluded

5fHR
;

in
;

birth

*RTf%

in birth

^t

me
;

STUI 1-^
;

not

having obtained
to the lowest

^fi%^l

Kaunteya <&' thence


(

2jfm go

if^ff path

goal

).

Triple
self
lust,

is

the gate of this


;

hell,

destructive of the

wrath and greed

therefore let

man renounce
(

these three.
frfrti triple
tructive
also
;
:

21

H<4>^1 of hell
of
;

this

$rc gate
;

ffra't des;

STTtfTJf :

the

self

SKpr:
;

desire

m*?'- wrath
;

?rm
;

9jr>T:

greed

rfWil therefore

f?T^ this

ra

triplet

let

him throw away.

280

|R ^ II
A man O
liberated from these three gates of darkness,

son of Kunt!, accomplisheth his

own

welfare and thus


(

reacheth the highest goal.


q%: by these
,

22

f^rfj:

liberated
;

^nro
;

Kaunteya
flfpt:
:

sfift;

ffc:=?R*r:
Sft:

fft:
;

of darkness

by gates
3TTc*pr

by

three
;

the
;

man

-MI-^f%
:

acts

own

Sfas

bliss

rft:

thence

?nf% goes

<m

highest;

n?^. path.

II

He who

having cast aside the ordinances of the


attaineth

Scriptures, followeth the promptings of desire,

not to perfection, nor happiness, nor the highest goal.

(23)
q:
3**|3Z!

who

5ir^r%=fmsrrjTT|lf%r' of the ShlLstras, the rale having cast away; ?m% goes; ^RgFRrl: from the
;

impulsion of desire obtains ? not


; :

?f

not

^f:

he

%f^<{
r

perfection

^^

pleasure;

not

q^f highest

path.

5RF1

Therefore let the Scriptures be thy authority, in determining what ought to be done, or what ought not to be

28 1

done.

Knowing what hath been

declared by the ordinin this


(

ances of the Scriptures, thou oughtest to work


world.
r1&n<l

24

therefore

sflTW

Shastra

jRnjj authority

of

thee; ?KT*H3il3feHftq<ft
duty, and,
of
;

- SRnfo
and,

^
in

3T?Kr&r *T sq*fcrelr
determination;

of

non-duty,

the

fTTCT

having known
by the
rule,

STTSTI^T'TrrK = *TrTTO f%viRT tPfE of Shllstra,


;

spoken

action

^f^q:

to

do

ff here;

oughtest.

Tbns
entitled:

in

the glorious BHAOAVAD-G|TX.<. the sixteenth discourse.

THE YOGA OF

DIVISION

BETWEEN THE DIVINE AND THE

DEMONIACAL.

282

SEVENTEENTH DISCOURSE.

Hill

Arjuna said

Those

that sacrifice

full

of

faith,

but casting aside the

ordinances of the Scriptures, what is verily their condition, O Krishna ? Is it one of Purity, Passion or Darkness?

CO
3|

who

mTCT^frqL the rule of the Shastras;


;

3*353 having
3T[?^HT: endow^jr
;

cast

ed;

away ?Wl.

q*ra
of
;

sacrifice

sr^r
state;

with faith

them; f%gr

indeed;

vvhat; ^?jj
?TH:

Krishna

3^

Satva

arrfr

or; ^T:

Rajah

Tamah.

n
The Blessed Lord
Threefold
is

said

by nature the inborn faith of the embodied pure, passionate and dark. Hear thou of these. (2) J trf'TT of the emSTOT faith frrcqr threefold *r^r% is
;
;

bodied;

ST

this;

ggmNgU^revrrent

5lRTr

from own nature,

283
rftjasic;
it
;

born

trrr?43ft satvic
;

tfSKft

timasic

^r

and

f|% thus; gf

and;
hear.

II

(I

The
Bharata.
his faith

faith

of each

is

The man
is,

consists of his faith


that.

shaped to his own nature, O 1 that which


;

he

is

even

?I^r5^:Tr
(according

= ^T^^

to)^^of

3TI^Tr of the being, following the form; Bharata; all; s^fffaith; H^I^ is *TR?f
;

"W^fPRi: faith-formed;
ZIF SIvSrr
:

rq this

5^: man
whose, he
;

^:

who;
;

^^t %' whatever,

faith,

^: that

W^g
even,

he.

II

II

Pure men worship the Gods the passionate the the the dark folk, worship and others, gnomes giants
; ;

ghosts and troops of nature-spirits.


worship
tfe
srcrr
;

tfrf^r: the

sfctvic

ltr%
hosts
:

^T Yakshas, and, Rakshasas.


:

$*p* the Gods qfttand


; ;

W
;

therajasic;
the
;

q?n^ ghosts
*f

rHrtJTn*=i

^RFl
;

TmJI. of

elementals,

and

e??q others

?ll!% worship

P tamasic
iThat
is,

inrr: people.
is

tlie

man's faith shows what

the man's character.

II

II

The men who perform

severe austerities, unenjoined

by the Scripture, wedded to vanity and egoism, impelled by the force of their desires and passions, ( 5 )
3TOT^rr%!?rT
tfre

= ?T

SiniraT

rert^ not, by the Shastras, ordained


?j

terrible
:

?fcif=f

endure;

who;

?fq;

austerity

inn:

people

?*nt*R*JgrKr:

=*5R
;

^ ?T5?IfKr ^ ^g=rKr:

with vanity,

and, with egoism, and, joined

?fiTWR?3TfKRr: = 5Fir*WI

^ WfW
filled.

of desire,

and, of passion, and, by force,

II

II

Unintelligent, tormenting the aggregated elements forming the body, and Me also, seated in the inner body, know these demoniacal in their resolves. ( 6 )
r:

tormenting

^rfiTW = snfR
of elements,

I?

HT in the body, seated assemblage; ?T%?T5r: un;

intelligent
rT

J?f

me;

^f

and

lf^

even
;

a^TSHrwf = 3TrT
;

?lftT
3JT-

within, in the body,

seated

HT^ them

f%f^f

know;

%
they.

of

asnras, resolve,

whose,

II

II

The

food also which

is

dear to each

is

threefold, as

also sacrifice, austerity and almsgiving.


distinction of these.
rr$TC:
f

Hear thou the


(

ood

g
is
;

indeed
fq?f:

rfq

also
|fp

*qtq

of

al!

fafw
;
;

threefold; *T^I%

dear;

sacrifice; a<y:

austerity

tfqtalso; $pf gift;

%qrl

of these, *fc distinction:

f% tins

ygl

hear.

The

foods

health, joy

that augment vitality, energy, vigour, and cheerfulness, delicious, bland, substantial
to the pure.
(

and agreeable, are dear

\1*i ^T
strength,
these,

*?f

^T q?f%:

^ m^fim^Tr:
;

vitality,

and, purity, and,


cheerfulness, and,
1

and,

health, and, pleasure, and,

the
;

increaseis

I&H:
;

delicious; fl'Tnn
;

bland;

substantial
:

fff: agreeable

arff Kf- foods

of the s&tvic, dear.

II

II

The
saline,

passionate desire

foods that are bitter, sour,

over-hot, pungent, dry

produce pain, grief and sickness.

and burning, and which ( 9 )

286

=q-

a?$tjr:

"ST

5^T:

f%?l^

bitter,

and, sour, and,

salt,

and,
;

very hot,
foods
;

and,

pungent, and, dry, and, burning,


of the rajasic
;

and

ST^W

?HRT^

&[:

desired

5:^-

*ftsf>rrairer:=3^
grief,

^^i^^^fm^ ^

irofir

?^r son-ow, and,

and, disease, give, thus.

That which is stale and flat, putrid and corrupt, leavings also and unclean, is the food dear to the dark.

(10)
^Rrwt = ^m:^ri5 lW?ni gone^a watch ( of ours ), whose, iraW = TrT: *: 5WHflgoe, taste, whose, it; qfn putrid;
stale; *r

it;

and

jq[

which;
fT5PT

sfi&mi
food;

left;

arf^

also.

andj

srlf^

unclean;

the tamasic, dear.

The

sacrifice

which

for fruit as enjoined

is offered by men without desire by the ordinances, under the, firm

belief that sacrifice

is

a duty, that
f>Tfwf*n

is

pure.
of
fruit,

gni5rnffn%rH:=sT
desirous;
ziff:

*&W
;

not,

by the

sacrifice: f%fw??s

=f%^?:
;

in the rule (of the


is offered
;

Shasfcra), seen ( pi escribed )

q: which

f 33%

287
;

ought to

be

offered

having fixed

q^ even *: that ;

ffrf thus

qf

the mind

srffcnfi:

sattvic.

The

sacrifice offered

also indeed for self-glorification,

with a view verily to fruit, and best of the Bharatas ;

know thou

that to be of passion.

(
qrsj fruit

12

having aimed at;


offered
;

indeed;
;

f*TTife =
;

hypocrisy, for the sake

*n?

also;

1& even ^rand;


;

35 which
^
that
;

f5Sl%

is

repVB

best of the Bharatas

55T sacrifice

fofe know ;

H The
sacrifice contrary to the ordinances,

ii

without dis-

tributing food,
gifts,

devoid of words of power and without ( 13 ) empty of faith, is said to be of darkness.


f*I*Fn
ffrt

b y rule, wanting

STftsnt

=T ^

WT
( of )

given,

food, in
'>

which, that;

H^R
'ifi^^JH

mantra-

without
faith,

3RT*tt!J* g if tless
;

*FZtftl&3 = *9?&l fttitf by


;

devoid

sacrifice

?rnW tamasic;

they

declare.

H*0J' 4 m*i I^THvsfl 5T

288

?v}

Worship given to the Gods, to the twice-born, to the and to the wise, purity, straightforwardness, continence and harmlessness, are called the austerity of
teachers

the body.

14

of the Gods,

and,

of

the twice-born, and, of the gurus, and,


;
;

of the

wise,

and, worship; ^ire purity


;

arrir^ rectitude

W3p6fili continence
?ni: austerity
;

atffCT harmlessness

^ and

^fftt bodily

^%?ai% is called.

Speech causing no annoyance, truthful, and beneficial, the practice of the study of the Scriptures, are called the austerity of speech. ( 15 )
r3$iT3ft =
;T

^*t

^frfgffRT not, excitement, causes, thus;


fsrarff?i

qiTO speech

HRf truthful;

= niai
;

ar

ffrf

beneficial, and; **

and;

qg which
;

^rcgtRTf ><TCR

^ pleasant, and, =H ^^
I

v>e

BTOCTT
speech
;

of the

study,
;

practice

*%

and

even

315^3

of

?PT: austerity

7%^ is called

Mental happiness, equilibrium,

silence,

self-control,

289

purity of nature

this

is

called the austerity of the mind.

(16)
TT-'TOR = ^T^T: >JW^; of the mind, happiness; 4f*3^ equanimity; JJRq silence; HTcHf^PTT^: self-restraint *U^f3T: ;

fe:

= >n?^T
;

^?Jt^T: of nature, purity

|f?f

thus

f?ff|

this

?f<|:

austerity

HTT^T 1!. meutal

g^saj^f is called.

This threefold austerity, performed by men with the

utmost

faith,

without desire for

fruit,

harmonised,

is
(

said

to be pure.

17

WW by
terity
(
;

faith
;

qro

by

highest
;

?iq[

that

f%m threefold

^[:

?m suffered ^j: ausby men 3T ?Wf?fin%ft: =


; ; (

by

notndesirous-of-fruit
(

g^: by

balanced

srf?^

sslttvic

they

declare.

The

austerity

which

is

practised with the object of

gaining respect, honour and worship^ and for osteutation, is said to be of passion, unstable and fleeting. ( 18 )

^rafKTRS^f = *!MRR:
amsterity
j

^ TTT: ^
;

1^1

*t

?Iim STiJ respect,


;

and, honour, and, worship, and, of these, for the sake

?n:
;

^fr

by hypocrisy

^ and

i& eren

wlucb

19

290
;

is

done

?f?|

that

%% here

iffr^ is said

CTW

rafasie

movable

3T^1 unsteady.
: \

II

II

That austerity done under a deluded understanding,


other, that

with self-torture r or with the object of destroying, anis declared of darkness. ( 19 )

q^^tjf = ^y^ JTffW by


5T?fR:
is

foolish,
;

seizing,

stubbornness
;

);

of

the self;
austerity

^?f which
;

cft^r with torture


or

done; 1?3 3T^


;

^:

<TCTO

of another- ^T?^Tfrr?J
3TT
;

=
;

of destruction, for the sake;.

?j?l

that

tamasic

5^T??T^

is

called.

li

one who does nothing in return. believing that a gift ought to be made, in a fit place and time, to a worthy person, that alms is accounted

That alms given

to

pure.

20

?m^HL ought to be given


is

ff?f

thus

^ff that
;

given

time
gift ;

; <**

^f^q^JTR^ to the non -requiting and ^r% in a right person ?


:

fpr gift
:

in place
>

^ff
;

and

that

ncf^5 satvic

^?r

is

remembered.

apt

That given with a view


looking ed of passion.
for fruit again, or

to

receiving in return, or
is

grudgingly, that alms

account(

21

W| which 3
or
;

indeed
;

benefit, for the sake

!f?f

qRm$
;
;

=>

!T*g<?3W$*l

?$

of returnfor
(
;

fruit

^fff^8(

having looked
TRf|5? painful

Sf

5*: again

jfaft

is

given

^r

and

grud-

gingly ); nq;that; ?pTgift; ^m?T


bered,

r4jasic;

f&Pl

is

remem-

II

^^

II

and time, and to unworthy persons, disrespectfully and contemptuously, that

That alms given

at unfit place

is

declared of darkness.

22

*^*lRf% = f
time,
is

fir

9fR
;

^ not, y^fight place,


;

and, in

right
;

and;
;

^
;

that

fR

gift; ?rTT^E[: to unfit persons

<?fa%
;

given

sr^r^rHi un honored

3T^TRT contemned

q<i that

1TROTL tamasic

^rgrT^

is called.

3Tf

"

AUM TAT

SAT,

"

this

has been considered to be

the threefold designation of the

ETERNAL. By

that were
(

ordained of old Brahmagas, Vedas and

sacrifices.

23

3TT rT?l *T?l

Aum, That, Being


nri%Wi

f f?f thus

f%?r: designation

of

Brahman;
;

threefold;
;

&&: remembered;
;

Brahmanas
sacrifices
;

%?f by this

%^f: Vedas
;

and

qjnr'-

^ and

f^ffrTT:

ordained

<y*T

formerly.

IRS
Therefore with the pronunciation of
of sacrifice,
gift
"

II

AUM

"

the acts
in

and

austerity, as laid

down

the

ordinances, are always

commenced by

the knowers of
(

the

ETERNAL.
?TWrl therefore
;

24

sffr

Aum

f |% thus

44l|c3

having
flRIT: of

said;

3^?Rrl7:plW=35rc*
and,

3l*&*

rTTH-'

^
;

sacrifice,

of gift, and, of austerity, and, acts

sn^w g
always
;

forth

j%qr%TKTs
of

= f%>jr^T &*!(' by

the rule, said

^r^

Brahman-declarers.

IR HH

without aiming at fruit are performed the various acts of sacrifice, austerity and gift, by those desiring liberation. ( 25 )
?Trl

With

the pronunciation of

"

TAT and

"

that
;

5RT thus

gHfi^qrq without having aimed


;

at

T5T

fruit

55fnrT5T%W: acts of sacrifice and austerity


;

acts of gift

^ and

f%f%^T: Tarious
of liberation,

nc^

are

done

by the

desirers.

293

"

SAT "

likewise,

is used in the sense of reality and goodness " " is used in the sense Partha, the word SAT
( )

of a good work.
3T3T3 in
(

26

reference to

reality
;

Errg*rfa in

reference to
this
rfrif
;

goodness
is

^
:

and

33
;

being

ffif
;

thus

^if
;

spoken
;

ST^f^f in praiseworthy

GRiffa actions
;

also

Being

^f

word

qr?}

Partha

f TSRT

is

used.

\\

(\

Steadfastness in sacrifice, austerity and gift is also " called " SAT, and an action for the sake of the supreme
is

also

named

"

SAT.
;

"
(

27

qjf in sacrifice
rPTf^T: firmness
5ff*T
;

rTTI% in austerity
true
q-^
it
;

fi% in gift

and

g-q[
;

?f?f
;

thus

q-

and

3*q~3
:

is

called

action

"^

and

even
;

33 ^fej = 5r:
Being
;

3f?f

^?5 H?l
;

that,

the meaning,
is

whose,

^pj;

^Rf

thus

even

named.

Whatsoever

is

wrought without

faith, oblation,

gift,

294
"
"

Asat austerity, or other deed, it is nought, here or hereafter.


aT I5nir^r

it is

called,

Partha
(

28

austerity

rfH

by wifchout-faith suffered $<j done


;

^
;
;

offered

ff

and

f^f given;
whicli
;

w. 3T^
;

untrue
tf

f Rf thus

^r^%

is

called

qrq(

Partha
)
;

and

that

>?g having gone

hereafter

% not % not &


;

here.

Thus

in the glorious

BHAGAVAD-GiTA.^the seventeenth
entitled:

discourse,

THE YOGA OF THE DIVISION OF THREEFOLD FAITH.

295

EIGHTEENTH DISCOURSE.

I)

II

Arjuna said
I

mighty -armed, to know severally the essense of renunciation, O Hrishikesha, and of relindesire,

quishment,

Keshinis;hCdana.
f

( I )

SmWTO
;

renunciation

JltflTFft

mighty-armed
;

^r^Hthe essence fE^rfH ( 1 ) wish ; '^fggn to know <m<|*3 of abandonment ^f and fS?%^T O Hrishikesha ; <J?T^ severally
;
;

^T

of Keshi,

slayer.

^PTT^^R

^ n
The
Blessed Lord said
:

Sages have known as renunciation the renouncing works with desire the relinquishing of the fruit of
;

of
all

actions

is

called relinquishment
;

by the

wise.
;

(2)
;

3>rwinTr (of) desiref al

3T*rni of actions

52jr^ renouncing
;

renunciation

^3:

poets

f%: know
all,

?[4^T*rq75r?rrT

3riTTl ^?5W

STT't

(of)

of works, of fruits,

2 96

renunciation
nise.

;'

sn^;

declare

?TTt abandonment

fw^rorft the

II

II

"

Action should be relinquished as an


"
;

evil,"

declare

some thoughtful men


rity

acts of sacrifice, gift

and auste(

should not be relinquished," say others.


??ryzi

should be abandoned
(

?TO3<1 full
Jfrf :
gift,
;

of evil
ifTfifclg:

fj% thus
t.he
sf

q%

ones

some

Zfff

action

say

wise

acts
to

of

sacrifice,
;

and
and

austerity
;

not

be abandoned

ffa thus

STU

others.

II

II

Hear

my

conclusions as to that relinquishment,


:

O
4
)

best of the Bharatas

since relinquishment,

O
;

tiger of
(

men, has been explained as threefold.


fasrei conclusion
(
;

J*joj

hear
;

% my

rfSf

there

?nJr

in
:

respect of

abandonment
;

^rf^TpT
;

best of the Bharatas

?srriT:
:

abandonment
threefold
;

ff

indeed
is

^^N^fST

tiger

of

men

^nraftffcP

declared.

cfc5[

ii

H n

297

Acts of
relinquished,

sacrifice,

gift

and austerity should not be


;

but

should be performed

sacrifice,

gift
( 5 )

and also austerity are the


:

purifiers of the intelligent.


;

3H53
that
;

^J3<MrfT ^fH acts of sacrifice, gift, and austerity H not should be abandoned even ?TJ[ cfi&H to be done
;

315-f

sacrifice

^
:

gift

srq:

austerity

and

^
I

even

qr^ttnr purifiers

JT^f^oTR
<R*T

of the wise.

^T^fT

'fi^STH
II

^
\

T%<T

*KTTR3;

If

aside attachment and

But even these actions should be done leaving fruit, Q Partha that is my certain
;

and best

belief.

6)

IJrnTJT

these;
:

arf<t

also;

indeed
;

^f*T?for

actions;
;

gt
;

attachment
^frfs^ri^ to

T^^T having abandoned


be done
(

TWTf'T fruits
;

^ and
;

obligatory
;

f i% thus
;

% my

qf?i

P&rtha

FTF%?T certain

JRT opinion

3TPTO

best.

II

II

Verily renunciation of actions that are prescribed is the relinquishment thereof from delusion is not proper said to be of darkness. ( 7 )
;

RlSRfW
j:

of
;

prescribed
*(

indeed
befits

^fZJTST-

renunciation

of action

not;

5qql%

Hr5T(l.from delusion

298
;

afar of that
is

<m3?fT: abandonment

ariST tamasic

declared.

He who

relinquisheth
"

an

action

from fear of

thus performing a passionate relinquishment, obtaineth not the fruit of


physical suffering, saying,
Painful,"

relin-quishment.
<:ig pain
;

ff^ thus

^
;

even
of

qjf which

action

Fr^5T*T^Tfl=^5R^ &*\& *W?l


3T^r
cZTft

body, of pain, from fear

may abandon

^p he
1

^Jr^T liaving

done

?M^

laiasic

abandonment; q not; q^ even; of abandonment, the fruit ?y*T% may obtain.


;

"

He who performeth ^ prescribed action, saying, ought to be done," O Arjuna, relinquishing attachment and also fruit, that relinquishment is regarded
It
(

as pure.
3nira ought to be done
Zffi
;

ffw thus;
jjfftft is

^
;

even

3if wliich

action

i^z^T prescribed
;

done

3T^T
;

Arjuna
;

^Tt attachment

T4ir having abandoned


that
;

f5T

fruit

^f

and
*T?f:

q^ even;
thought.

^f:

c*inT

abandonment;

5f|f?^gf: sattvic;

is

299

The relinquisher pervaded by purity, intelligent and with doubts cut away, hateth not unpleasurable
action nor
is

attached to pleasurable.
hates;
not
;

10

1 not;
in pleasant
;

ffgr

unpleasant; faction; ^395 3T|^ST% is attached wufr the abanSTfUffr*


;

doner

trVTOTfftg: satva-pervaded

*f*IFft

intelligent

[55f-

cat, doubt, whose, he.

II

3 9

II

Nor indeed can embodied beings completely relinverily he who relinquished the fruit of quish action
;

action he
?T

is

said to be a relinquisher.
;

( 1 1

not

ft indeed
;

f?1?rr by the embodied


;

^W possible
;

?q^5 to abandon 3THTPT actions ^r%qff: without remainder; ? ^ fjft of action, who f indeed qpfaoraPft s 3f:
; ;

^^ fW

of

fruit,

abandoner
is

^j:

he

cZJ|ift

abandouer

^r^ thus

i^

called.

II

II

Good,

evil

and mixed

threefold

is
;

the fruit of

action hereafter for the non- relinquisher

but there

is

300

none

ever for the renouncer.

12

3TRr
threefold
ners
;

unwished

& wished
;

foj mixed
;

^ and

f%f%>*

ff^of: the fruit

*HT%
(

is

'sjRZf

having departed

hereafter );

ST^tMRR. of non-abandf not.

ffflft

II

3 ^

II

These

five causes,

mighty- armed, learn of


for the

Me

as declared in the

Sankhya system
:

accomplish-

ment of
causes

all

actions

(13)
;

T^T five; lf?nR these


;

HfnrrfT

mighty-armed

^T^TJITR
;

f^WHf learn
9CTrT5

^f

of

me

f|f4p| in

the S&nkhya

<>rfR(
;

ai^f
)

rrfw^. of
;

action,

the end, where, in that


;

are

declared

fajg* success

( of ) all, of

actions.

The body, the actor, the various organs, the divers kinds of energies, and the presiding deities also, the
fifth.
(
-r*TT

14

)
:

srfagR the bodyg;


^T

also

^j the doer
various
;

and

TSTf^re* severally ; f^rt^T:


%fr:
activities
;

g^Jr organ ^ and


;

several

divinity

<*

and

^ even

here

T^H

fifth.

301

II? Ill

Whatever action a man performeth by his body, speech and rnind, whether right or the reverse, these five are the cause thereof. ( 15 )
*rttorr3FSFnf*r:

= *rflrcf

?rrrr

=*r

*R*TF

with speech, and, with mind,

and
;

^
jusfc
; ;

T with
;

body, and,
35% action
;

which
^r or

W*i%
3r or
;

undertakes
q=^ five
;

w-

man
;

-3|tq

these

^^q

of that

^f:

ca

That being
Reason

so,

he verily who

owing to untrained

looketh on his SELF, which is isolated, as the actor, he, of perverted intelligence, seeth not. ( 16 )

W
Self
;

there

<pr
;

thus

am in being
;

^rT?t actor

sn^ the

%^5T alone 3 indeed *: who qqf?f sees ^M^^N?' ^r? = f ^rfr^r: 'anr, ffW f^r^ not, achieved, intelligence, T not; ^: he; by whom, of him, from the condition
;

evil-minded.

He who
Reason
is

is

free

from

the egoistic notion, whose

not affected, though he slay these peoples, he slayeth not, nor is bound, ( ij )

302

lt*3 of

reason
slain
$f?f
;

whom ^ not q& of whom JT


;
;

*TPT also
;

tf:
;

he

*t&ft: egoistic Sfpf: notion not fi^ff is affected having not f *fl these ; peoples
;
; ;

siavs

^ not

R^Szj^

is

bound.

Knowledge, the knowable and the


threefold impulse to action
;

knower,

the

the organ, the action, the actor, the threefold constituents of action. ( 18 )
STtf

knowledge
;

the knowable
T

tm^r?Tr the

knower

threefold

^Tf Tf

to action, incentive
;

the organ

SR

the action

^f

the actor

^r% thus

threefold;

^TR?:

of

action,

the

assemblage.

cTT^TN
Knowledge,
of
qualities

action

and

actor

in

the

category
threefold,

are also said

to be
;

severally

from the difference of qualities


also.
^TJf f^T^t

hear thou duly these


(

knowledge
;

qfo action
;

^r

and

=?TH?

actor
"vrfrT:

^
of

19 and

)
;

threefold

1& even
ifit^lrf

gtjtfr^H:
is

= ^orr^fl
;

gunas
gf(%

from the division;


of ganas, in the

said
;

?JoTH*sTT%

= ?J17TT'Tni. ^i^^T%
W^l hear
;

enumeration

f^rr^l exactly

these

frft also,

303

That by which one


all

indestructible

Being

is

seen in
that
(

beings,

inseparate in the separated,


as pure.

know thou
one

knowledge

20

)
j

*r4*T^tf in all beings; s^f

by which
;

^
fsff^

*rNf
;

being

ST533 indestructible
in the

separate

f ^f% sees
;

3rfr*Tirf

inseparate

that

^H

wisdom ;

know

s&tvic.

manifold existences
ledge

But that knowledge which regardeth the several in all beines as separate, that know-

know thou

as of passion.
;

21

tnF%T by separateness 3 indeed; atfj which; gR wisdom *im various *repj. natures ^m'^^r't of various
; ;

kinds
5TT^

%f% knows
;

g%

in ) all
;

%^

in beings

*nj[

that;

knowledge

ftrg know

H3f^

r&jasic.

11

^u

II

While that which clingeth


it

to each

one thing as

if

were the whole, without reason, without grasping the reality, narrow, that is declared to be dark, ( 22 )

304
;

qi| which
in one
;

indeed
;

fj^^f

like
;

the

whole

SRT^ in action

Sfrfi

attached

jftg<E without cause


%r?<j

without essential significance;


that
:

small

*f

and

<TPT5T

tamasic

^fr?Hl.i8 called.

An
ous of
that
is

action which

is

ordained, done by one undesir-

fruit,

devoid of attachment, without love or hate,


*TUlf?T = *HTT tf?%
^TTlf|;
fjfj
;

called pure.
;

f33tf prescribed

by

of

attachment,

deToid
or,

^|i|*l^Sgr ;

=^

^T f5rr?l 31 ?T% not,

from

lore,

from

hate, or, thus

done

not, of fruit,

by desirer
;

anrfW^Tr = f <t^^ ^e^^[


;

action

which

?f?l

that

satvic

TEaiW It ealled.

(I

W
effort,
(

II

But that action that


is

is

done by one longing

for

desires, or again with egoism, or with

much

that

declared to be passionate.
|

24

which
;

indeed
;

^iqc^r = ttm& |C^T


:

of desire,

by desirer

gtf action
is

^Tf^lt^ = ?r?^K
;

R3| ^rRcf %*I egois,

ism, whose,

by him

^T or
?fq[

jpf:

again

f*<M

done

= ^f5T:
tkat
;

arram:

^IW<
;

great, labor,
called.

in which,

that;

CTWgf rijasic

T^f^t w

305

II

RH

II

The

action undertaken from delusion, without reloss

gard to capacity and to consequences toothers that is declared to be dark.


consequence
$ra
loss
;

and injury
(

25

fiNrPT

injury
f rom

without regarding;

^ and; qfarq

STFWt
tamasic

is

begun

exertion;

*TfijT?t
;

delusion
;

action

qq[ which

?f^ that

3^33

is called.

Liberated
with
firmness

from attachment, not egoistic, endued and confidence, unchanged by success


is

or failure, that actor

called pure.

26

he;

g^^iT :=,?: spT; *&& abandoned, attachment, by whom, = ST^t^r^ = T art ^FW f fa not, T, says, thus; ^ryi^HI^M'.
'**

v&n
and,
in

*mf%*
;

^T

^H^W:

with firmness, and, with confidence,


in success, and,
actor
;

endowed Rl^ll^^r- =RT^T ^ STmSfir ^ ^?rf Rrf^rr^: unchanged failure, and


; ; ;

satvic

^^%

is called.

20

306

Impassioned, desiring to obtain the


greedy, harmful,

fruit

'

of actions,

impure, moved by joy and

sorrow, such
(

an actor
^T*fV

is

pronounced passionate.

27

passionate; ^*f"JWSTC?j: of the fruit, desirous sjf^: greedy


;

= ^TT
;

<????1 ^frfjs
:

action,

f?STT^ra?

= ff^TT

STfWI ^
1

q&(

5f: cruelty, in self, whose,

he;

acrfjf^:
joy,
;

impure; ^^Tr^fland, with sorrow,

f3RT:

=^fT ^T

?fl%T "^ 8Tl*^P with


;

and, followed, 353? actor

?J5rcr: rajasic

TR^i?lrW?r: is

named.

Discordant, vulgar, stubborn, cheating, malicious,


indolent, despairful, procrastinating, that actor
is

called
(

dark.
STSrR: unbalanced; !TT?rT:

28

vulgar;

*?|SVf
;

stubborn
1

^y:
;

cheating

%cf5ffi3i: malicious
;

ar^f: lazy
;

R^I^I despairing
;

procrastinating

"^

and

^j?fr

actor

?Tn^r:

t&masic.

The
and

division of

Reason and of firmness

also, threefold

according to the qualities, hear thou related, unreservedly


severally,
5^f:
q?[

Dhananjaya.

29
and

of

reason;

Hf
(

division; >|%:
)

of

firmness;
j

q'
1

even
;

50^: from
;

according to

qualities
;

fiff^^

three-

fold

*&l hear

sff'esRR'l

being declared

^Rr^

without

307
;

remainder

f *&&*{

by severalness

^*ra

Dhananjaya.

That which knoweth energy and abstinence, what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation, that Reason is
pure,

Partha.
f orthgoing
;

30

if

and

frf f%

return

-ET

and ;

^rraf;

^
n^
that
liberation
;
;

wrong-doing, und fear, and, fearlessness, and ^vj bondage


right-doing, and,
; ;

^T

and
;

^r or

"%f^f

knows

51%: reason

q\

<rr?f

Partha

^rf^3FT satvic.

That by which one understandeth awry Right and Wrong, and also what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, that Reason, O Partha, is passionate.
;

(3O
1

f and ; qn$ 3WT by which ; ^4* right ; srefo wrong what should be done ; 'q and ; sr^rr^ what should not be done ; even ; ^ and ; ^[qvfttfi incorrectly ; JnTHrTrT understands ;

^fe: reason

w that

qrf

P&rtha

*T3fr

rijasic.

II

to be Right,

That which, en wrapped in darkness, thinketh Wrong and seeth all things subverted, that Reason
is

Partha,
3T>^r

of darkness.
;

32

wrong

q*f right
;

HTST
things

with darkness
; ;

fw

f|% thus covered ;


;

H\ which

*r^% thinks

fRftrTrJ|.

perverted

ffc: reason

^T that

P&rtha

m*?^? tamasic.

The unwavering firmness by which, through yoga, onerestraineth the activity of the mind, of the life-breaths and of the sense-organs, that firmness, O Partha, is
pure.
(

33

by firmness

*&f( (

by

which

^TTO^ holds

HT:-

of the

mind, and, of the life-breaths, and, of the sense-organs, and,


actions
;

^fit^T
;

by yoga
that
;

ST^m^TK^r
Partha
;

by

unwavering
sitvic.

^: firmness ^

^f

Slf^fft

II

^ ?||

But the firmness, O Arjuna, by which, from attachment desirous of fruit, one holdeth fast duty, desire

309

and wealth, that


?raT (
3T*f:

firmness,
;

O Partha,
;

is

passionals.
v

(34)
:

by

which

indeed

*r*rerRT*fR,=

^ ^^
and,
;

**
;

^T

rTP^ duty,
;

and,

pleasure,
;

and,

wealth,

them

by firmness ^IT^ holds ST^T attachment tjf^r^fffeft = <tt*3 ^n^TTsft of


\g3SR
;

Arjuna
fruit,

^TR
;

by

desirous

vffa:

firmness

w that

<n$

P4rtha

flSKft rdjasic.

sleep, fear, grief, despair,

That by which one from stupidity doth not abandon and also vanity, that firmness,
is

Partha,

dark.
;

35

33T by which
despair;
*ff

^c^

sleep

*T^f

fear

sfr*r grief

intoxication;
>fcT:

even;
^1%:

and; ^ not;

abandons;
Partha;

evil-witted;

firmness; ^T that;

rfrT^ft tamasic.

II

^||

And now
from Me,

the threefold kinds of pleasure hear tho u


bull of the Bharatas.

practice rejoiceth,
?j*?r

That in which one by and which putteth an end to pain (36)


;

pleasure
;

5
;

indeed

f ffiff now
bull of the

f%f^^r

threefold
;

^joj

hear

"%

of
;

me

^fKr* O
;

Bharatas

of pain, the

from practice ??T% rejoices; where; 5 *?rirr = end xf and Pnrsgrf?! goes.
;

:*

Which

at first
is

is

as

venom but

in the

end

is

as nectar;

that pleasure

said

to be pure, born of the blissful


(

knowledge of the SELF.


3KJ which
like
;

37
.

?f?j[

that
;

STO

in

beginning

f%T* poison
3*31
rT<f

f^

qftoft%

in
it

end
;

simile,
sfTrf?

whose,
called
;

aq^THI 3 3T^rj
that
;

3VIT
.

nectar,
satvic
;

g?t pleasure

^rfwl*>H.

is

> s= ?TTcH5f?rq'^r?^T l

3TnR: ^I

of the Self, of knowledge, from the placidity, born.

objects at

That which from the union of the senses with their first is as nectar, but in the end is like venom,
is

that pleasure

accounted passionate.

38

with
objects,
of the senses,
;

the
;

from union

aflj

which
;

<T?J
i

that
p - the

^JTT
;

in the beginning

ar^'TPTT'I Jjke nectar


;

7fr<JTT*t
;

end

poison

like

^^

that

g^ pleasure

?IRf

rajasic

remembered.

II

II

That pleasure which both

at first

and afterwards

is

delusive of the

self,

arising from sleep, indolence


is

and
(

heedlessness dark, that


8RJ which
;

declared tamasic.

39

consequence
of the self
;

srq in the beginning ; 5f and ; 3T-J^ in the and f-pjj pleasure ; Hf^^T delusive ;
;

3T?tnT sleep, and, sloth,

and,

heedlessness,
;

risen

and, from
called.

them,

that

rTPRni. tAmasic

?fTf TO

is

II

II

There
in

is

not an entity, either on the earth or again


is

heaven among the Shining Ones, that these three qualities, born of matter.
?T

liberated

from
(

40

)
.

not

flij
;

that

atflST is

^f^ff
)

in the earth
;

^f or

ff j% in

heaven
;

^%5 among
(
;

the Gods

qr or

flrf
3|q[

a being
;

7^f^%: by
from these
) qualities.

from
^rq;

nature-born

5^: again ifrF freed

which
(

qf*r:

may

be

f?rf?f:

from

three;

5%: by

from

Of Brahmanas, Khattriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, Parantapa, the duties have been distributed, accor(41 ) ding to the qualities born of their own natures.

grrsT<nsTRroft?TreL= STTSPTRT

^nr^mt

ffsri

**

of

Brahmanas, and, of Kahattriyas, and, of Vaishyas, and;

SJfT-

312
T*?PT
;

of

Shudras
(

^fand

Parantapa

i-fmffa actions

are

distributed

^>TT^JfH%: by own-nature-prod-

uced

gof: by qualities.

Serenity,

self-restraint,

austerity, purity, forgiveness


belief in
(

and also uprightness, wisdom, knowledge,


are the

God,
42
)

Brahmana
calm
;

duty, born of his


self-control
STr'Sf^'l.
;

own

nature.
;

W.
$TTf3T*

fT:
;

HT

austerity
;

^f^
;

purity
;

forgiveness
n'j^r'T

rectitude

TI^ even

and

^fi^

wisdom;
of the

knowledge; ?Trf??T^5[ Brahmana, the action.

belief;

flying

Prowess, splendour, firmness, dexterity, and also not from battle, generosity, the nature of a ruler, are

the Khattriya duty, born of his


?^r

own

nature.
firmness

43

prowess

%^f: splendour
;

f|%:
;

^r^
;

dex;

terity

*j^ in battle
;

^ and
1

^rrt also

STT^r^R^ not

fleeing

fR gift

f Jg-^TT^:

=f

^^ TR:

of a lord, the nature


;

Sfnf belonging to the Kshattriya


ture-born.

^T

and

action

^Tre*T own-ua-

313

||

g8

||

Ploughing, protection of kine, and trade are the Vaishya duty, born of his own nature. Action of the nature born of his own naof service is the Shudra duty
,

ture.

44

ploughing,
and, cow-protection, and, trade,

and

%?ZRR^ =%^[^f
;

3nft of

Vaishyas, the action


3TT?*Tr

^^^TT^'^'iL

own-nature-born

qfl'srqferaf
;

=
;

WQ ?T(l service,
;

nature, whose, that


;

qtf action

of the

Shudra

^"7

also

^^Tf^^ own-nature-born.

Man
own who
is

duty.

reacheth perfection by each being intent on his Listen thou how perfection is won by him

intent on his
;

own
own
;

duty.
3f4f% in action
;
;

45

^ in own
of

^[
;

in

srfiror:
;

engaged

perfection

5HT?t obtains
in action,
;

^:

man
;

^rt^rr:
perfection

own,
ds
;

enjoyed
J^TIJ

f?n%

also

ft^KT

fi

Hft that

hear.

firii:

fl^r%

He
all

from
is

whom

is

the emanation of beings, by

Whom
his

This

pervaded, by worshipping

Him

in

own

duty a
?HT S

man winneth
from

perfection.
q-^Rf: forthcoming
;

46

)
;

whom

IR by whom;
own-action
perfection
;

JJrTnni. of beings

all;

ft this;

rf?f

spread;,

^fifor by
;

?rq[

Him ;
;

f^fRfr finds

8T*^^4 having JfR^: man.

worshipped

Better

is

one's

own

than

the

well-executed
laid

duty, though destitute of merits, duty of another. He who


his

doeth the duty not sin.


tter
;

down by

own

nature

incurreth
(

47

^^4: own-duty

rlrgip

without quality

TTr?l of another,

well-practised;

than duty; ^frtrTri-t ( than ) ^HT^T^ri = ^TTr^I f%1?T by own-nature or;

dained

3f4 action

fj?4^ doing

5f

not

^rrJnfrf

obtains

II

%*

(I

Congenital duty, O son of Kuntf, though defective, ought not to be abandoned. All undertakings indeed are clouded by defects as fire by smoke. ( 48 )
congenital
1

3$
?r

action

5^3
5T^r^[ let

with fault; srfq even;

not;

Kaunteya (him) abandon;


;

[
=*

315

r
fault
;

3Tlt>TP
;

all,

undertakings

ff indeed

frq-or

by

1%fby smoke

srfff: fire;

f^

like; STTfrTP enwrapped.

f^Tcfl^TT

f^rRT

He whose Reason is everywhere unattached, the self subdued, dead to desires, he goeth by renunciation to the supreme perfection of freedom from obligation. ( 49 )
he
;

^q-rf>;arer:5raW ffe: TO! *r: unattached, reason, whose, nTcrrcTT^^rP W?Tr 2(^1 5f: conquered, 5T=br everywhere
;

self,

whose, he; f%in<I?:

= ftTHr ^?T

3&tt<l

W gone,
;

desires,

from whom, he;


?I?5
>TT5r :

%^J4
;

*(&(

RTRTI. gone, actions, from whom, he


the
c

his

condition

of that,
!

perfection
obtains.

<TC*rf

highest

by renunciation

?rfq'JT 5gf%

TTT

II

II

How
from

he who hath attained perfection

obtaineth
learn

the ETERNAL.that highest state of

wisdom

thou
(

Me
so
;

only succinctly,
;

Kaunteya.
;

50

f%|% perfection
rlZTf

JTTff:

attained

qqr
;

as
*f

S^T Brahman

3Trffrr%

obtains
;

f?T^r^ learn

of

me

of

summary ; wisdom

^
;

5Tn^T by
;

even
or
;

$tfW O Kaunteya

ftST state

2jf

<Kf highest.

II

II

United to the
firmness, having

Reason purified, controlling the self by abandoned sound and the other objects
laid

of the senses,

having

aside passion and

malice,

(SO
f^JT by reason RgJ^q| by firmness 3T[c{R the self
;

(
;

by

purified

grR: united

\^T
; ;

M4*4
)
;

Laving controlled ; ^f and


whose, they

[.= 513^:

SUR ^W11W[ hearing, beginning,


(

objects

of

the senses

^Tr^r having

abandoned

*nT

thrown

off

^ %T ^t passion, ^ and.

and, hatred,

and;

0^4^

having

Dwelling
taking refuge

in solitude,

abstemious, speech, body and


fixed in meditation

mind subdued, constantly


faf%rF
ff?T

and yoga,
(

in dispassion,

52

%^
5

ffw solitude, serves, thus


eats,
^T:

little,

thus;
speech, and, mind,
:

controlled,

whose, he
and,

vsqMifm're:

=g^pt

^ ^HT: ^ T^ ^^
in,

^f:
;

meditation,

yoga, and, supreme, whose, he; prer always


;

%^fT^

dis-

passion

^MlfHH:

taking refuge

Having
fit

cast

aside

egoism,

violence,

arrogance,

desire, wrath, covetousness, selfless

and peaceful

he
(

is
)
;

to

become

the

ETERNAL.
;

53

^efiK. egoism
J?rir

^55 violence

ft?
;

arrogance ;

gffpr

desire

ang^r;

f%^q having
srgpjairzi
fit.

abandoned

fafa: without-mineness
of

^frf:

peaceful;
;

= SgpJT: ^p?

Brahman,

for the

nature

WfP'jft is

n
Becoming Brahman, serene the same grieveth nor desireth
;

HS n

in the

to all

SELF, he neither beings, he obtain(

eth,

supreme devotion unto Me.


grgnj^:

54

Brahman-become
;

ircrffRJTr

= jj^PT:

arr^HT
5f

tranquil, self, whose, he

not

^E(f?r grieves ;
all
;
1

not

desires

5=TT:

equal
in

^5

among
;

^5

among beings
;

me, devotion

t^^

obtains

* highest.

By
what
I

devotion he knoweth

am

having thus known

Me in Me
;

essence,
in essence

who and
he forth(

with entereth into the Supreme.


by devotion
;

55

)
;

*ff
;

me

%|IH41Hlfrf
;

he

knows
;

ow much
essentially
;

^:

who
;

^
nt

and

arf^f

am

?T?r:

thence

me ;

rT^rf: essentially

having known
wards.

f%wl

he

enters

?fij[

that

3*?i?rc* after-

Though
in

Me, by

My

ever performing all actions, taking refuge grace he obtaineth the eternal indestruc(

tible abode.

56

Rffa^*rft5r

all >

actions;

^rffi

also;
I,

*T?r

always
obtains

^ftfa: doing

HAjmvro:

= 3T? s^TTT^:^ *T:


my, by
j

refuge,

whose, he; JI?JraTfni


;

= JW
;

5T5Trfr?t

favour;
indestructible.

^r^f

eternal

q^ij.

goal

ar33

flRffi

^
in
;

II

H^

II

Renouncing mentally Me, Me, resorting to the yoga of discrimination have thy thought ever on Me. ( 57 )
^rrar with the mind
3T*ZKq having renounced
;

all

works

intent on

sr^fJTffSf
HS<TC
:

all

actions

Jffa

in

me

intent

on me

gfgqfTqL the
;

yoga

of

reason

TTTfSrei having taken refuge in


in

qf^Tf:
;

me, mind, whose, he

^^ always

T^ be.

3i9

by

My grace

Thinking on Me, thou shalt overcome all obstacles but if from egoism thou wilt not listen,
;

thou shalt be destroyed utterly.


JffoTT. intent

58

on me

13T*n?rg[ by

now

<t5

if j
:

wilt listen

grace ; &( thou ; sr^CTUfl from egoism ; * not f%^$qrcT ( thou ) shalt be destroyed.

my

stgrffoi = ST^ffa ^Ifa all obstacles, ?rfi<*rf% ( thou ) shalt cross over ; %rq;
;

Entrenched
"

in egoism,

thou

"

thinkest,
;

will

not

fight

to

no purpose thy determination

nature will
(

constrain thee.
8KJ which
in
;

59

3T^nTflL egoism
( I ) will
;

STTl^R^ having taken refuge


;

5f

not
;

^^[
;

fight
;

f[?f

thus

H^lf
;

thou

)
;

thinkest
:

pr^r

vain

^
;

this

s^sro'

resolution

% thy

nature

*3\n thee

Rr^rflf%

will compel.

of thine

son of Kunti, bound by thine own duty, born own nature, that which from delusion thou

desirest not to do, even that helplessly thou shalt perform.

(60)

reMN^H
bound
;

by own-nature- born;
;

^fo
;

*ff by own

^Jjfoir

by action

Kaunteya; f%TO sjj^ to do ; 5f not

320
that
;

(
(

thou
)

wishest

zjq;

*ffer?l
;

from delusion
;

thou

shalt

do

3TW helpless

iffa also

?f?i that.

fcfgfcf

/v

*rrw
in the hearts

n
all all

** n
beings,

The Lord dwelleth


Arjuna, by

of

beings to revolve, as though mounted on a potter's wheel. ( 61 )

His

illusive

power,

causing

fs^*;: the

Lord
;

5r^w?TnTr*Lof all beings

ft?t = ff:^r of

heart, in place

^rgfqr
;

Arjuna

f?T5f?f sits

^TRa(^ turning
in (on)

^4w?rnW mounted

all
;

heings

rar^^Tr5T

= ^% ^I^<SIH

machine,

mum

by

illusion.

Flee unto

Him

for

shelter with all

thy being,

Bharata

by His grace thou

shalt obtain

the everlasting dwelling-place.


?f IT

supreme peace, ( 62 )

to

Him
(

^
) all,

even

srr* shelter
;

with
Tii;

with nature
;

*TTTH
;

irs^ go ; Bharata ;
^rff^

his,

by grace
) shalt

q^f highest
;

peace

place

Jn^lflf

thou

obtain

^ir^riH everlasting

||

321

Thus hath wisdom, more


been declared unto thee by
fully,

Me

secret than secrecy itself, having reflected on it


;

then act thou as thou


thus ;

listest.

63

fflf

to thee- ^fnre.
;

wisdom

srns^R
;

declared

than the

secret

SJfTrTt
;

more
;

secret

?zir

by me
;

having considered
as
;

ifQfl this

ST5Tr<JT

without remainder

5^r%

thou

wishest

rim

so

1^

do.

of

all

Listen thou again to My supreme word, most secret beloved art thou of Me, and steadfast of heart,
;

therefore will

speak for thy

benefit.
all,

64

)
;

SnHJSFSR = *(%**(: 3J?IH^ than


5jor listen
(
;

most
word
j

secret;
1

^:

again
;

thou

% my q"^t highest ; T3f: art % of me ?^ strongly


j
;

^g

heloved
?l?f:

%rffT
;

f?rf thus

thence

^TWrft <i; will speak;

thy

ffi benefit.

TWST%
to

Merge thy mind in Me, be My devotee, sacrifice Me, prostrate thyself before Me, thou shalt come even to Me. I pledge thee My troth thou art dear to
;

Me.
with mind
f

65

)
;

fixed

on

me *n
;

qsn* f ft to me,

sacrifices,

T3R?: my devotee thus "fl* me


be
;

21

322
;

salate

TTT to

me

IT?
;

even

qsqfa

thou

shalt

come

'truth;

%
thou

to
) art
;

thee

JnWTR (I)

promise.;

'fifr:

dear;

STKT

of me.

sr

<$[

fl^Tn
all
I

wqrm
will
all

*n

^nn^ ^
from

il

Abandoning
shelter
:

duties,

come unto Me alone


liberate thee

for

sorrow not,

all sins.

(66)

ST^TR^iEr^^l.
ed;
jf

duties
;

TR^T5^ having abandoncome; art I; ^t thee;


from sins
;

to

me; ^zj
;

refuge

5T3f

*r$^fti:-ff>C: TRi: (from)


^fSll|free ;'.jrr_noi
^pq-: grieve.

all,

^T

ft ^ HFdM^+W
who

Never
is

is

this to

be spoken by thee to anyone

without asceticism, nor without devotion nor to one who desireth not to listen, nor yet to him who speaketh

evil of

Me.
;

67
one

) )

f^ this % of without asceticism


tion
;

(
;

by
f

thee
;

Jf

not

4H 4Hil<U
(

to

not
;

^rHrFra to
?f

one
;

without devo^
(

3i?T

5R
;

at

any time
;

not

'q'

and

acf^P?^
if

one
;

not wishing to listen

^r&l

to -be
at.

spokea ;

not

^T

and

me

3* who

?f*2TO?rR cavils

323

He who

shall

declare this supreme secret

among

shown the highest devotion^for Me, without doubt he shall come to Me. ( 68 )

My

devotees, having

?j:

who

this

;.

qtf highest
;

aj$j secret
shall
;
;

*J4^ = *PT
>TFf?.,
;

*P?fiS

my, among
;

devotees
)

^ftroqflr
;

declare;

devotion

irfzi
;

in ( for

me

qjj

highest

fj^r having done

^TW to

me

<Jcf

even

^<s^f?T

shall

come

ST^^T: doubtless.

Nor

is

there any

among men who performeth

dearer

service to

beloved by
5T

Me than he, nor any Me on earth than he.


'BT

other shall be more


(

69

not

and;
;

rTfir?l

than he

H3^nj among men


;

sjrf^fj

any one

of

me
;

f^fTfTiT: most.well-doing

will

be; ^ not; ^r and another; fa^^Tf: dearer


;

of

me; rTWqr

than he

*jft,

in the earth.

l|vs.o-ik

And

he

who

shall

study this sacred; dialogue o&


sacrifice oft
( 7<>-)

ours, by him I shall be worshipped with the wisdom, Such is My mind.

324
:

shall study

^ and
us
;

zt

who fIT
;

this

vj*

sacred

?HT dialogue;
of

^mOt:

of

(two); ^FTOlR = ^FTC^ 3tR


%?f by

wisdom,
;

by the

sacrifice
;

him
;

art I

>

f 5: wor-

shipped

TOf^may be

f f^ thus ;%

my

HRT- opinion.

The man
unreviling,

also

who,
he,

full

of

faith,

merely heareth
obtaineth
(

it

even

freed

trom

evil,

the

radiant worlds of the righteous.

71

*^NI<
may hear;
5^;:

ful1 of faith
;

^HH^
who;

uncarping

<s{

and

arf^ also

^:

^: man;
%^f

ij:

he; sr

liberated;
;

^pm.
tr T

radiant; sfraTR. worlds;

obtain; 5<5l ?rjf whose, of them.

l=3 ^

^ ^f

meritorious,

action,

Has

this

been heard,

son of Pritha, with one-

pointed mind ? Has thy delusion, caused by unwisdom, been destroyed, O Dhananjaya ? ( 72 )
3)f%?[
r^zjf

whether;
;

q^f?j
(

this
)

*grT

heard; <n4
;

Partha

by thee

q^ffiT'T

by

one-pointed

ifagT by mind
of

qrf%fl

whether;
;

STicTR^'Tf^:

=3TJ3TT^

^f*frf.'

ignorance^

delusion

JTorg-;

destroyed

they

^ra

C Dhananjaya.

325

Arjuna said
Destroyed
is

my delusion.
I

through Thy grace, O doubts have fled away.

have gained knowledge Immutable One. I am firm, my


I

will

do according to Thy word

(73)
5fg;:

destroyed
;

$[%:

delusion

^f%:

memory
;

5T5Vj;I

obtained

c?T3T*rrfr^=?re JWF?T<|; of thee,


;

by grace
( I )

H3I
;

by
do
;

me ; ^grT O Achyuta T?T: ^ff HW * gone, word 3? Thy.


:

farf'- firm

^rfW
;

am
( I )

r?ig%5 ;
will

doubt, wbose, he

cRft<$

*Tf TcTO:

n
Sanjaya said
I
:

heard this marvellous dialogue of Vasudeva and of the great-souled Fartha, causing my hair to stand on

end

74

ff%

thus

s?t
;

3Tfrei

of

Vasudeva
;

qr^TO

of
j

P&rtha

and

nji?R: of the great-souled

*faf? dialogue

326

}
marvellous
;

3THTKR. hearct

ST^rt

of the hair, excitement,

from which^

that.

By the favour of Vyasa I listened to this secret and supreme yoga from the Lord of Yoga, Krishna Himself ( 75 ) speaking before mine eyes.
52ir*nraTg;rfl

Srer*3 JrerrST^of
;

Vy&sa, from the favour


3T
I
; :

^SHin; heard

^^ this
Krishna;

Jj^f secret;

yoga;
$50TTft

^rt3RT?f = 3rT*3

fJ^Tl of yoga,
m^trf. directly
;

q^ highest qjnfrom the Lord ^


(

from
;

gj^^rT:

from

the

declaring

?^(W Himself.

[\

O King, remembering, remembering this marvellous and holy dialogue between Keshava and Arjuna, I re( 76 ) joice again and again.
g^?f having remembered &<? having *T5n*.0 King remembered e^I^w dialogue f ^ this ; 3T^?T marvellous %^I^T^lf: = ^ra^i ^ 3T^?TW ^ of Kethava, and, of Arjuua, and ;
;
;

^05^

holy

f^iTF^

1 )

rejoice

and

again

5f

again.

327

Remembering, remembering,
lous form of Hari, great
is

also that

most marvelKing.
I

my

wonder,

re-

joke, again and again.


that

77

?T?J ; *[?$& having %*^T ; having remembered ^t the form 3T5^rf very marvellous ; ^r f*: of Hari* f%9TO: astni8bient my; <RfPJ great;
;
;

and

remembered

?T5f^
again.

King

m* ( I )

rejoice

and

5^: again

S?T.

Wherever is Krishna, Yoga's Lord, wherever is Partha, the archer, assured are there prosperity, victory and
happiness.
Zl^f
f3T

So

think.
the

78

where;
<rnf:
;

zif^P^:

Lord
the

of

yoga;

jn: Krishna
firm

where;

Partha;
;

^5^:
v[\^:

archer; ?HT there;


;

ift:

prosperity
policy
;

f^^rq: victory

happiness

^r

^f?f:

iffoi

opinion

fT my.

II

\<

II

Thus in

thejgtorious

Upani shuts of the

BUAAVAD-GiTA,

the

328

science of the ETERNAL, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Shri Kj-ishJja and Arjuna, the eighteenth discourse, entitled:

THE YOGA OF LIBERATION BY RENUNCIATION.

To

the Blessed Kfishna be homage.

May

there be

happiness.

Thus the BHAGAVAD-GITA hath ending.

PEACE BE TO ALL WORLDS.

APPENDIX.
The
following variations of the text and one or two

new

inter-

-pretations are printed as likely to be of use to the student.


different

readings have been mostly gathered


of

together by
different

The B&bu
com-

Govinda D&sa
mentaries.

Benares from various

MSS. and

The new

interpretations have been suggested by Pandit


of Benares,

Vrindavana SArasvata
year (1905 A. D.).

who passed away only

in this

The

interpretations are worthy

of attention

because of their prima Jade aptness. This gentleman used

to say

that he had practically studied only two works in the course of a


fairly

long

life,

the

Bhagavad-Qita and the Yoga-Vasishtha

and

the kind
that, as

of study

he gave to these

may

be inferred from the fact

he said shortly before his death, he had read the Yoffasixty-five

Vastshtha through one-hundred and

times

and the

work

consists of sixty-four thousand lines-while the OttA

was read
it

through too often to be counted.


is

Under

these circumstances

easy to see that his interpretations are at least as notable as


older ones.

many

330

FOR
i.

READ
^T
444gi|:

REMARKS.
Adds
the

8.

f&f

name

of

one of

the principal warriors.


i.

10.

^5T *0*nf*r^f^?T

<J*|frrfa^f%IT

Dhrishtadyumna was the


Commander-in-chief of the

PAndava army.
i.

19.

s*3-

s>*3

The
special

prefix

ft has no
here,

significance

while ?rfSr gives the sense


of
i.

"on

all

sides."

36.

VHKN^I"!

^^fw^l'i

The
scarcely

alternative
preferable,
'

here
as

is
it

means
tions
';

with

tLeir
text,

rela-

the
'

on the

other hand,
tives', is

our own rela-

stronger.

$i

"Not

thus"

(shouldst

thou grieve, even so).


ii.

53. Jgfrtf^rafrHSri Pt. Vrindivana interprets this as meaning: " , having,

by listening (to my teaching) acquired knowledge the true and particular significance of the Veda".
ii.

of

62. *5nft
63. lifreni

5TPT:

This

is

an

emendation

ii.

^*TT<1

suggested by Pandit Viin-^ davana. on the ground


that

anger does not arise from desire but from defeat

33i

of desire,

while pjfa

blind

craving,

is

the natural conof


desire.

sequence

The

emendation has a doubtful


value, however,
is

because

it

not

supported

by

any

manuscripts inspected, and " the addition of " defeat of


is

no very serious strain on


interpretation
of

the

the

verse.
iv.

23. iTffTO

3TR*

The context

refers to

one
after

who
to

is

still

striving

deliverance,

one

g^*q, and not who has already


grK?q.

attained
v.

it,

21.

K^

*: !J*T

In view of the following


?n,

q:

is

distinctly

the

better
cally
;

reading
sj?f

grammati-

confuses the prose


the
sense,

order and

and

does not

fit in.

The

alternative

is

correct

according to modern grammar, and the other incorrect,


because CTfra, with
the pronoun
is

which

is in

apposition,

masculine and not neuter,

332

vii.

19. gjpbr:

lET

1$*T :

"He
instead

is difficult

to find"

of

"

very difficult " un-

to find ".
viii.

5. 3re*ET3

WfaW

The
tive

text

means
the
of

doubtedly ";
" free

alterna-

doubt

thy-

self ".

The

text seems to

be the stronger reading.


viii.

8. <r||fi|i|rprTf

STRTTrf^Tr

The
more

alternative
of

makes no

change

in

meaning, but is accordance with

modern grammar.
viii.

20. SS^rRt eZRtHl ^TfrfS^TCTfl

"

(More

ancient)

than

both the manifested and the


(lower)

unmanifested." Of.

xv. 16
x.
7. sf?Ni<T?f

&

18, xi. 37.

SfteR5*iT

The
"

alternative

means

abstract, without Vikalpa,

without alternative, doubt,


or lower attraction ".
It
is

more
"

in

keeping with the

technicality of
xi.

Yoga.

28. 9Tf*rR5^t$f% STRTrft 5^?5Kr

Flaming on all sides." The alternative seems to

make

better sense.

The

text

has a superfluous and weak


prefix ft.
xi.

41.

ft

?Hl.

The

alternative

is

gramma-

333

tically correct, as the

is

which the pronoun masculine, not by

qualifies

neuter.

xiii.

5. ^ItqrftHL

here

is

interpreted

Pt. VrincUvana as

meaning the Linga Sharlra.


xiv.
1.

snfRf

STTRsri

"(The highest knowledge)


of the wise
all
'*

instead of " of
".

knowledges

xiv. 3. 4.

In these two shlokas, the current commentaries and regard it as interpret the word HfJJ as great
' '

qualifying myf, Brahman ; and further they construe both the shlokas as meaning that "the great Brahman the womb and I the depositor of the seed". is

Pt. VrindAvana says the construction should " follows mahat-tattva is womb and
:

be as

the

I,

Brahman,

am
xv.

the seed-giver

''.

23. ireRrenf

"

M4fg8frT

And

acts in pursuance."

This gives additional meaning


;

the other merely


5t*Tft.

re-

peats the sense of


xvii. 23.

HT&PTreN

WSPrr

%T

"

By

that

Brahma,

or by

that

Brahman."

Cf. iv. 32.

INDEX.
x. 41,
iv.

42
13

xv. 7.
v.

14

vii. 5. 6. 12. 25.

26

ix. 5. 9.

19

x.

6~

xi.37
ii.

xiii.
iii.

21. 31

xiv. 12. 19 16. 17. 18.

xviii. 14. 16.

47
24

5.

iv.

xvi.
'

xviii. 30.

31.

ii.

34.

iii.

18
29.

xv. 11
.

xviii. 6. 16.

iii.

vi. 1.

xvi. 2.
v.
iii.

31

x. 33.
viii.

15

3. 11. 13.

21

x. 25.

33

xi. .18.

37

xii.

1.

3
iv.

xv. 16. 18.

33

vii.
viii.

29

xv. 12.
ix.
vi.

-iv.

37

24

16
13

xi.
vii.

39
21

xv.
viii.

12
10

xviii.

48.

ii. iii.

24. 53.

70

xii. 3.

32

xv. 11
xi.

xvii. 6.
xviii. 73.

i.

21

42
vii.

ii.

21
vii.

iv.

25

x. 3.

12.

24

xi.

41
16

xiii.

25.
xiii.

iv.

42

v. 15.

x. 11

11

xiv. 8. 16. 17

xvi.

4.
;

15

xviii. 72.

viii. 9.

i.

40. 41
ii.

iv.
iv.

xviii. 31. 32.


v. 6.

71 30

39

24

vi.

15

xiv. 19

xviii. 49.
)

vii.
iii.

viii. 1. 4.

also Vfftiyr

^fr*W

40

iv. 6

xiii.

17

xv. 9

xviii. 14.

336
3

iii-

30

vii.

29

viii. 1.

x.

32

xi. 1

xv. 5

xiii.

11

XT. 5.
xi. 16. 38.
ii.

51
ii

xiv. 6.
11.

25

seq.

iv. 8.

viii. 7. 9. 13.

vi.
ii.

45

xi. 10. 13. 16.


v.

24
26

xvi. 16.
vii.

16.55.72

24

vi.

19.

28-

viii.

5. 6

x. 19.

32.
v.
iii.

40
24
14.
ii.

xi.
vi.

16

xv. 3.
xi.

47

20

xiii.

34.

xv. 14,

20
iv. 4.

ix. 58.

".
g.

22
14

25.

27-30

vi.

22

vii.

xiii.

24

xvi.

xviii. 3.

ii.

44
37

vii. 15.

xvii. 22.
vi.

ix.

xvi. 20.
xviii. 28.

xvii. 11.
x. 4
ii

17

xvi. 1

xviii. 30.

16.

66
14

x. 4.
vii.

iv.
vi.

13.

25

ix.

24

xviii. 55.
xviii. 36.

35.

44
8

viii.

xii. 9. 10.

12

viii.

xii. 9.

iiii

7.

xv. 5.

_ir. 31

ix.

19

x.

18

xiii.

12

xir, 20. 27.

xviii.

37, 38.

iv. 31.

I
vi.
ji.

337

37.

66

v 12

xviii. 28.

xviii. 23.

gprwj

ii

30.

iii.

5
ii

vi.

44

viii.

19

ix.

xviii. 60.

25.

xiii.
ii.

16

xviii. 20.
vii.

25. 28
5.

24

viii.

18.20. 21

ix.

xii. I. 3. 5.

xiii.
ii.

17.

21. 34

iv
xiii.

1.

13

vii. 13. 24.

25

ix.2 13. 18
xviii.
]

xi.
2->
r

4.

18

31

xiv. 5.

27

xv. 1. 5. 17

56.
ii.

41.

TSH??T

i'

66.
7. 19. xiii. 5.

iii.

25

v.21

ix.

xiii. 9'

14

xviii. 49.

i,

16

ix.

19

xi

37

xiii.

12

xvii. 28.

vi. 2.

^r_ii 48
xi.
ii,

iv.

22

xviii. 26.

22.

27

vii.

xiii.

xvi.

18

xvii.

xviii. 17.

58. 59.

_,i. 55
vi 5.
6.
.x.

iii.

13. 17.
8.

43
11.
x.

iv. 7.

35. 88. 19. 20.

42 26

v. 7.
vii.

16 21
18
viii.

7.
5.

10.

15. 18.

12

28.

34

15. 18.

20

xi. 3.

xiii. 24.

28J

29 32
ii

xv. 11

xvi. 21.

22

xvii.

19

xviii. 16. 39. 51,

45

iv. 41.

iii-

38. 39. 40

v.

15

xiv.

xviii. 32. 48.

22

338

vii.

15

ix.

19

xvi. 4. 5. 6. 7. 19.

20

xvii. 6.

xvii. 7. 8. 9.
ii

g. 58. 60. 61.


v. 9.
vi.

64 67
xii.

iii.

7.

34. 40. 41.

42

iv.

26.
33.

27
-

11

x.

22

14

xiii.

xv. 7

xviii.

38
iv.

24.
xiii.

28

xv. 8. 17

xvi. 14.

viii.
ii.

24.
iv.

3.

37

42~*i.
16

12. 53.

vii. 18.
vi.
ii-

ix.
iii.

9
2

xii.

xiv. 23.

41

v. 1. 4,

vi.

81

viii.

26
33

ix. 15.

x.

25.

42
66.
xvii.
iii.

xi-

7.

13. 20.

42

xiii.

5..30.

xviii. 3. 20. 22.

23 24.
iv:

24.27

13

v.

14

xiii.

20

xiv. 19

xviii. 14. 16.

18. 19. 26. 27. 28.


xviii. 18.
ii.
ii.

51

iv.

12 32.

47. 48. 49.

50

iii.

1. 4. 5. 8. 9.

15. 19. 20. 22. 23. 24.


18.

25. 27. 30. 31


33. 41
1

iv. 9. 12. 14. 15. 16. 17.


vi.

20.

21. 23.

v.l. 10 11. 14

1.

3.

4.

17

vii.

29
xvi.

viii.

ix.

xii. 6.

10

xiii.

29

xiv. 9. 12.

16

24

xvii
-23

26 27

xviii. 2. 3. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 15. 18. 19.

24. 25. 41. 43. 44. 45. 47. 48. 60.


.

__i v

14
3.

v.

12

vi. 1

xii. 11.

12

xviii. 11.

_iii
ii.

v 2
.

xiii.
iii.

24.

55. 62.

70.

71
5

37

vi.

24

vii. 11. 20.

22

xvi.

lu. 18. 21
vi.

xvii.

xviii. 34. 53.

xii.

TV. 16.

339

ii.

50.
iii.

ii.

62. 63

37

xvi. 4. 18.

21

xyiii. 53.

xiii. 1. 2. 3. 6. 18.
xiii. 1. 2.

26. 33. 34.

26. 34.

xii

16.

iii.

5. 27. 28.

29

iv.

13

xiii.

19. 21.

23

*iv.

5.

19.

20. 21. 23. 26


T

xviii.

29 40. 41.

x.
T

38
ix. 1

xi. 1

xviii. 63. 68. 75.

xv. 20

xyiii. 64.

vi. 26. 33. 34.


1

vii. vi. 18.


i.

16

xv. 14.
xii. 9.

!%TT

20
ii.

38

viii.

xviii. 57. 72.


vi.

r_ii. 23

iv.
5.

42
13

v.

25

38. 39

xv. 3

xviii. 10.

rvii.
29.

viii.

26

ix. 4. 10.

17

x.

42

xi. 7. 13.

30. 36

xv. 12
ii

xvi. 8. 9.
iii.

i.

41
iv

27

26
35

x.
v.

xiv. 12. 13. 15.


vii. 1.

_i. 38
ix.

15. 16. 32.


xi. 25.

3 29.

viii. 2.

27

13

54

xiii. 12. 16. 17.

18

xiv.l

xv. 19

xvi. 24
iii.

xviii. 18. 55. iv. 33. 34. 38.

39. 40. 41
i*.

39

v. 15.
xiii. 2.

16

vi.

vii.

x. 4. 38.

42

xii.

12

11. 17.

18

xiv.

1.2. 9. 11. 17
50. 63.
T

xv. 15

xvi. 1

xviii. 18. 19. 20. 21. 42.

iv.
iii-

33

ix.

15

xviii. 70.
vi.

39

iv.
ix.

34
24

46

vii. 16. 17. 18.

vi.

21

xi.

54

xviii. 1.

340
xviii.
8. 9.

iv. 9.

vii.

x. 7

55.
xvi.

- x.

11

xiii.

17

xiv.

10.J3. 15. 16. 17

52

xvii. 1
xii.

xviii. 32.

19
21

xiv. 24. 25.


xvii. 2. 7. 17.
x.
5.

xvi.
viii.

23
53

xviii. 4. 12. 18. 29. 36.

28

xi

48.

xvi. 1

xvii. 7. 20.

21.22.

24. 25.
.

27

xviii. 3. 5. 43.

14.

ii.
ii.

56

vi 22. 23.

32

x.

xiii. 6.

xiv.

16

xvii. 9.

13. 18.

30

iv. 9

viii. 2. 4.

13

xi. 7.

15

xiii.

22. 32

xiv. 5. 11
viii.
ii.

xv. 14.
xviii. 11.
iii.

xiv. 14

]3. 22. 30.

59
ix.
vi.

40

xiv. 5. 7.

20

xvii. 2.

_j v<
ii.

25 57

vii.
.

14

13
iv.

xvi. 3. 5. 6

xviii. 14.

v 3

29

xii.

17

xiv.

22

xvi. 19

xviii. 10.

_i. 40

ii.
.

7.

40
iv.

iv. 7.

ix.

xiv. 27

xviii. 31. 32. 34.

30
"i.

21

vi.

10.

". 71
ii.

30

xviii. 53.

45.
xviii. 13. 15.
v. 4. 1 2.
vii.

xiii.
ii.

47. 49 51.
21. 25

23

ix.

26

xiv. 16

xvii. 12.

xviii.

6. 6.

9.

12.

_iv. 14.
v.

xiv.

xvi. 12.

3.

xviii. 30.
iv.

%
vii.
(

vii.

19.

10
:

ix.

18

x. 39.
)
ii.

xiv. 4

and derivatives

39. 41. 44. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 65.

34i

66.

iii.

1.

8. 26. 40. 42. 43.

iv.

17.

8.

19

v. xii.

11 8

vi.
xiii.

21.22. 25. 43 vii. 4. 10 x. 4. 8. 9. 10 xv. 20 5. xviii. 17. 29. 30. 32. 51. .57.
xviii. 42.
iv.

24.

xvii. 14.
vi. 14.
Hi.

15

iv.

24. 31. 32
x.

v.

6 10. 19

vi.

38

vii.

29

viii.

1.3.

17. xvii.
ii.

24

12

xi. 15.

37

xiii. 12.

30

xiv. 3. 4.

27

23

xviii. 50.
v.

72
16.
vi.

24. 25. 26.

viii.

v.

24

27

xviii. 54.

xiv. 26
v. 21.
ii.

xviii. 53.

24.

viii.

24.
28.

vi.
xiii
iv.
-

24. 25.

ii.

72.

ii.

46
k

v.

18

ix.

33

xvii.

23
xi.

xviii. 41.

viii.

o.

22

ix. 14.

26. 29
xiii.

54

xvi.i. 55.

ix.
T

26

xii.

17. 19

10

xviii.

54. 68

xiv. 26.
ix.

HTfj-ix.3-vii. 21
iv.

23.31. 33. 34

xii. 1.

20

37.

342

_ii. 16
17. 20.
r
ii.

vii.

12. 13. 15. 24

viii.4.

5.6.20

x.5. 17

xviii.

28. 34.

69 25

iii.

14.

33

iv. 6.

35

vii.

II. 26
xiii.

viii.

20. 22
27.

is. 5.

x. 5.

20. 22.
xvi.

39
2

xi.
xviii.

2.

15. 16.

30
xiii.

xiv.

xv. 13. 16

21. 46. 54.

34.

v.
i'.

29
61

ix.
vi.

24
14

xiii.

22.

xii.

xviii.

57.

x '- 55
.

xii.

20.

34.
15.

ix. 4. 5. 6.
j

vii.

23
10

ix.

34
6

xi.
xiii.

55 18

xii. 14.

16

xiii.

18

xviii.

65. 68.

iv.

x.
xi.

xiv. 19.

jp^
*T?T

iii.

28

41.
vi.

iii.

1. 31.

32

32.46.47

vii.

18

viii.

26

xi.

18

xii.

2~xiii. 2

xvi. 5

xviii. 6. 9.

xvii. 16.
7
i.

30.

60

ii.

55.67
8
iv.

iii.

6. 7. 40.
vii.

42

v.

11. 13.
ix.

19
x.

vi.

12. 14. 24. 25.26. 34. 35


xi.

4
11

viii.

10

34

22

45

xii. 2.
iii.

xv. 9

xvii.
vii.

xviii. 15. 33. 65.

_i. 44

23

18

xviii. 69.

2.
T

ix.
iv.

34

xviii.

65.

10
21.
.

3.

343

xiv. 4.
vii.
iii.

19
37.

viii.

15

ix.

18

xi. 12. 20. 37.

50

xviii. 74.

xiii. 5.

v.
i.

29

x. x. 7

xiii.

22.

47

xvii. 16.
xviii.

vii.

14. 15
9.

61.

iii.

xviii. 26.

iii.

13. 31.
xii.

v.

28
viii.

15

xviii. 40.

71.

5.

xiv. 15.
iv. 4.

xv. 2.
T
ii.

26. 27.

f
fr^
iffa

ii.

27
iv.

ix

3 19
ix. 28.

x.

34
84

xii.

xiii. 8.

25.

xiv. 20.

16
vii.
ix.

7.
iii

28
16

29
12.

xiii.

xvii.

25

xviii.

30.

^_iv
Jihg*f5l4
T

35
ii

xi. 1

xiv. 13. 17.

22

xri.

10

xvdi.

7.

25. 6U.73.

52.

xvi. 16.

ix.
T

12

xiv. 8
xii.

xviii.

39.

x.

38
iv.

19

xvii. 16.

12

ix.

15.23

xvi. 15. 17
iv.

xvii. 4. 11. 12

xviii.70.
v.

iii.9. 12.
viii.

13 14. 15
ix.

23. 25. 30. 31. 32. 33

29
7.

28

16.

20

x.

25

xi.

43

xvi. 1

xvii.

11.

344

12. 13. 23. 24. 25.

27

xviii. 3. 5.

iv.

v.

26.
v.

28
vi.

26 47

viii. 11.
vii. 18.
iii.

17.
B

30
iv.

xii. 2.

i.

i4_ii

39. 61

26

18 23
xvii.

v. 8. 12.

23

vi.

8.

14 J8
ii.

vii.

22

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