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Thin-Layer Drying of Grains and Crops

Developed by the ASAE Grain and Feed Processing and Storage Committee; approved by the Food and Process Engineering Institute Standards Committee; adopted by ASAE December 1993; reafrmed for one year December 1998.
preferred. A dried sample should be reconstituted only once. Frozen samples should be thawed and used only once. 4.3 Drying. Particles in the thin layer should be exposed fully to the airstream. The airstream approaching the sample should be as uniform as possible in temperature and humidity at a given cross section parallel to the thin layer so that the air contacts sample particles uniformly. Care should be exercised to prevent displacement of particles in the thin-layer holder during a test. This situation may arise in a vertical thin-layer in which airstream ows horizontally through the product, or in a horizontal thin-layer in which airstream ows upward through the product. The air velocity approaching the product should be at least 0.3 m/s. 4.4 Measurements. Nearly continuous recording of the sample mass loss during drying is required. The corresponding records of particle temperature (surface or internal) are optional but preferred. The time interval between recordings depends on the mean dry bulb air temperature. Higher temperatures require shorter time intervals between readings. A typical time interval for drying with 60 C dry-bulb air temperature is as follows: every 5 s during the rst 5 min, every 1 min during the next hour, and every 15 min thereafter. It is recommended to divert the airow away from the sample occasionally to record the sample mass with no airow. This no airow mass should be determined 3 to 4 times during a drying test. Other parameters such as mean dry bulb air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity should be measured occasionally to assure consistent operation of the dryer. 4.5 Accuracy of measurements. Temperature sensors shall be accurate to 1 C. Mass shall be measured with an accuracy of 0.2% of sample mass so that the calculated moisture content is within 0.002 (decimal dry basis) of the products actual moisture content. Relative humidity may be measured directly or computed from measurements of dry bulb temperature and wet bulb (or dew point) temperature; it shall be accurate to within 3 percentage points. The air velocity measurement shall be accurate within 5%. 4.6 Duration of experiment. In most cases the experiment should continue until the moisture ratio, MR, dened in clause 6 equals 0.05. Me should be determined experimentally or numerically from equation in 3.4.

1 Purpose and scope

1.1 The purpose of this Standard is to provide a unied procedure for determining and presenting the drying characteristics of grains and crops. 1.2 The drying data determined and presented according to this Standard can be used in characterizing the drying rate of product, product drying computer simulation, performance testing of drying equipment, and product quality evaluations. 1.3 This Standard applies specically to grains and crops that are dried by forced air convection.

2 Normative references
The following standard contains provisions which, through reference in this text, constitutes provisions of this Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent edition of the standard indicated below. Standards organizations maintain registers of currently valid standards. ASAE D245.4 DEC93, Moisture Relationships of Grains

3 Denitions
3.1 thin-layer: A layer of material exposed fully to an airstream during drying. The depth (thickness) of the layer should be uniform and should not exceed three layers of particles. 3.2 initial moisture content, Mi : Moisture content of a product prior to the start of drying, expressed as a decimal on a dry basis. 3.3 nal moisture content, Mf : Moisture content of a product at the completion of drying, expressed as a decimal or a dry basis. 3.4 equilibrium moisture content, Me : Moisture content of a product in equilibrium with mean dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the drying air, expressed as a decimal on a dry basis. Equations given in ASAE D245 should be used whenever possible.

5 Reporting
5.1 Sample identication shall consist of type (preferably botanical name) and variety; year; location of harvest; harvest moisture content; storage conditions and history; sample purity; sample preparation (see 4.2). 5.2 Drying conditions used shall be specied. These conditions include: initial and nal moisture contents (decimal, dry basis); drying time (h, min or s); approaching air velocity (m/s); mean dry bulb temperature (C); relative humidity (%). All air-condition data shall include mean and standard deviations computed for the duration of the drying test. 5.3 Drying rate data reported shall consist of either of the following two

4 General requirements
4.1 Start-up. Tests should be conducted after drying equipment has reached steady-state conditions. Steady state is achieved when the approaching airstream temperature variation about the set-point is less than or equal to 1 C and approaching airstream relative humidity variation about the set point is less than or equal to 3 percentage points. 4.2 Sample. The sample shall be clean and representative in particle size. It shall be free from broken, cracked, weathered, and immature particles and other materials that are not inherently part of the product. The sample should preferably have its natural moisture content. In the absence of a fresh sample, the moisture content of the sample may be reconstituted either by wetting with water spray or by conditioning in a humid environment. Reconstituted samples shall be conditioned at room temperature in a sealed container for at least 24 h. Water should not be added directly to the sample if this causes physical or chemical changes that signicantly affect drying rate of the product. In such cases, reconstituting the sample by placing it in a humid environment is

forms: the numerical values of moisture content versus time; the estimated values of k and n including standard errors of estimates in Pages equation


MMe exp kt n M i M e


appears to be an inadequate representation of the drying behavior of most crops especially in high temperature drying applications (dry bulb air temperature higher than 40 C for grains). 5.5 Previously determined values of k and n are reported in table 1 for grain products. The range of test conditions is also shown. For those products for which equation 2 was found in the literature, it is assumed n equals 1.

The units for parameters k and n shall be consistent with the unit of t (h, min, or s) and shall include the standard deviation of each. The range of equation 1 (ranges of temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content) shall be clearly stated. See 3.6 for the duration of experiment. If drying is terminated prior to MR equals 0.05, the ending moisture content on which the model is based should be specied. 5.4 Reporting additional forms of drying equations such as those involving diffusion theories is optional. The simple rst order equation

6 Notation
6.1 The following notation is used in this Standard: A B k M Mi constant; constant; constant; instantaneous moisture content, decimal dry basis; initial moisture content, decimal dry basis;

d . b . dry basis;

MMe MR exp kt M i M e


M e equilibrium moisture content, decimal dry basis;

Table 1 Constants k and n in the thin-layer drying equations 1 and 2. Equations and constants are given for other drying models (see notation in clause 6).

Product Barley Corn


t unit
min h

Range 50 T 150 0.215 M i 0.41 2.2T71.1 3 rh 83 0.18 M i 0.60 T 200 23 T 80 5 rh 70 27 T 35 26 rh 47 0.59 M i 0.77 30 T 60 0.21v0.53 13.7 M i 0.25 32 T 51 19 rh 85 17.3 T 40.2 25 rh 51 26.5 T 71 71 T 115.5 26.5 T 115.5 32 T 49 34 rh 65 27 T 93 0.26 M i 0.33 27 T 43.2 25 rh 76

Source Bruce (1985) Misra and Brooker (1980)

k 0.0462 exp(0.0154T ) n 0.492 3.84 10 5 ( T 123) 2 k exp(7.1735 1.2793 ln T0.1378v ) n 0.0811 ln(rh)0.78 M i k 0.34 10 3 exp(0.02028T ) n1 k 0.182626 0.0043T n 0.527 k exp(0.780523 0.144026T 0.358 10 2 T 2 2.13941rh 0.71599M i 0.137131T rh ) n 0.98867 0.019836T 0.608 10 3 T 2 1.033613 rh 0.6382401M i 0.0499769T rh k 1.3552 0.00301M i 0.00751T 0.5112v n 0.5068 0.0015M i 0.0103T 0.2440v k 0.02958 0.4456rh 0.01215T n 0.13365 1.93653rh 1.77431rh 2 0.009468T MR 0.134 exp(5105 kt ) 0.586 exp(5104 t ) 0.28 exp( 8 103 kt ), k exp( 3590/[ T 273]) t A ln MRB(ln MR)2 A 25.87 0.3354 0.001075T 2 A 0.054 0.0017T B 30.5 exp(0.018T ) k 0.033 0.0003T n 0.3744 0.00916T rh k 5.66 10 4 T 1.271 n 0.8281 0.004T 0.000091T M i k exp(0.681 0.011M i 0.952 ln(Mi ) 0.000152(1.8T 32) 2 n1 k 139.3 exp(4426/[ T 273]) n1 k 0.0466 0.0104rh n 0.4002 0.00728rh T

Grass (fresh ryegrass) Lentils Peanut pods (Virginia type)

s h h

OCallaghan et al. (1971) Tang et al. (1989) Kulasiri et al. (1989)


Patil and Ward (1989)

Rice, rough Rice, parboiled Sorghum

h h h

Agrawal and Singh (1977) Byler and Brook (1984) Paulsen and Thompson (1973)

Soybeans Sunower (oilseed) Walnuts

min min h

Hutchinson and Otten (1982) Li et al. (1987) Anigbankpu et al. (1980)

Wheat White beans

s min

T 100
32 T 49 34 rh 65

OCallaghan et al. (1971) Hutchinson and Otten (1982)



MR moistureratio M M e / M i M ; n constant; rh relative humidity, %;

T temperature, C; t time, s, min, h; v air velocity, m/s.

Annex A (informative) Bibliography

The following documents are cited as reference sources used in development of this Standard: Anigbankpu, C. S., T. R. Rumsey, and J. F. Thompson. 1980. Thin layer drying and equilibrium moisture content equations for Ashley walnuts. ASAE Paper No. 80-6507. Agrawal, Y. C. and R. D. Singh. 1977. Thin layer drying studies for short grain rice. ASAE Paper No. 77-3531. Bruce, D. M. 1985. Exposed layer barley drying: three models tted to new data up to 150 C. J. Agric. Engng. Res. 32:337347. Byler, R. K. and R. C. Brook. 1984. Thin layer model, temperature and relative humidity variable. ASAE Paper No. 84-2535. Hutchinson, D. and L. Otten. 1982. Thin layer drying of soybeans and white beans. ASAE/CSAE Paper No. 82-104.

Kulasiri, D. G., D. H. Vaughan, J. S. Cundiff and W. F. Wilcke. 1989. Thin layer drying rates of Virginia type peanuts. ASAE Paper No. 89-6600. Li, Y., V. Morey and M. Anrud. 1987. Thin layer drying rates of oilseed sunower. Transactions of the ASAE 30(4):11711175, 1180. Misra, M. K. and D. B. Brooker. 1980. Thin layer drying and rewetting equations for shelled yellow corn. Transactions of the ASAE 23(5):1254 1260. OCallaghan, J. R., D. J. Menzies and P. H. Bailey. 1971. Digital simulation of agricultural drier performance. J. Agric. Engng. Res. 16:223244. Paulsen, M. R. and T. L. Thompson. 1973. Drying analysis of grain sorghum. Transactions of the ASAE 16(3):537540. Patil, B. G. and G. T. Ward. 1989. Heated air drying of rapeseed. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. 20(4):52 58. Tang, J., S. Sokhansanj and F. W. Sosulski. 1989. Thin-layer drying of lentil. ASAE Paper No. 89-6540.