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Villalobos Eamon Barkhordarian

Period C 3/3/09

Review Questions pg. 316 and 319


Page 316
1. Reading Focus
a. What were the causes of the “new imperialism?”
i. The industrial revolution created need and desires that spurred
overseas expansion. Manufacturers wanted access to natural
resources such as rubber, petroleum, manganese for steel, and palm
oil for machinery. They also hoped for new markets where they
could sell their factory goods. Steam-powered merchant ships and
naval vessels needed bases around the world to take on coal and
supplies. Ruling a global empire increased a nation’s prestige around
the world. Many westerners felt a genuine concern for their “little
brothers” beyond the seas. Missionaries, doctors, and colonial
officials believed that they had a duty to spread their blessings of
western civilization. Europeans argued that European races were
superior to others, and imperial conquest and destruction of weaker
races were simply nature’s way of improving human species. This
concept was known as Social Darwinism.
b. Why was western imperialism so successful?
i. Several older civilizations were in decline while European nations
had grown. In West Africa, wars among African peoples and the
draining effect of the slave trade had undermined established
empires, kingdoms, and city-states. Newer African states were not
strong enough to resist the western onslaught. Europeans had the
advantage of strong economies, well organized governments, and
powerful armies and navies. Superior technology and improved
medical knowledge also played a role. Advances such as the Maxim
gun persuaded Africans and Asians to accept western control.
c. How did governments rule their empires?
i. The French practiced direct rule, where they sent officials and
soldiers from France to administer their colonies. Their goal was to
impose French culture on their colonies and turn them into French
provinces. The British, on contrast, relied on indirect rule, where
they used sultans, chiefs, or other local rulers. They encouraged the
children of the local ruling class to get an education in Britain. In a
protectorate, local rulers were left in place but were expected to
follow the advice of European advisers on issues such as trade or
missionary activity. A protectorate cost less than a colony did, and
usually didn’t require a large commitment of military forces. The
sphere of influence was an area in which an outside power claimed
exclusive investment or trading privileges.
2. Identify
Villalobos Eamon Barkhordarian
Period C 3/3/09

a. New Imperialism
i. By the 1800s, Europe had gained considerable power. Strong
centrally governed nation states had emerged, and the industrial
revolution had greatly enriched European economies. Encouraged by
their new economic and military strength, European embarked on a
path of aggressive expansion called the “new imperialism.” The new
imperialism exploded out of a combination of causes.
b. Direct Rule
i. The French practiced direct rule, where they sent officials and
soldiers from France to administer their colonies. Their goal was to
impose French culture on their colonies and turn them into French
provinces.
c. Indirect Rule
i. The British, relied on indirect rule, where they used sultans, chiefs,
or other local rulers. They encouraged the children of the local ruling
class to get an education in Britain.
3. Define
a. Imperialism
i. Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural
life of another region.
b. Protectorate
i. In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place but were expected to
follow the advice of European advisers on issues such as trade or
missionary activity. A protectorate cost less than a colony did, and
usually didn’t require a large commitment of military forces.
c. Sphere of Influence
i. The sphere of influence was an area in which an outside power
claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.

Page 319
1. Reading Focus
a. What forces were shaping Africa in the early 1800s?
i. On the grasslands of West Africa, an Islamic reform movement had
brought change. Leaders like Usman dan Fodio preached jihad to
revive and purify Islam. In the forest regions, strong states like the
Asante Kingdom had arisen. The Asante traded with European and
Muslims, and had controlled several smaller states. Islam had long
influenced the east coast of Africa, where port cities like Mombasa
and Kilwa carried on profitable trade. The cargoes were often slaves.
Captives were marched from the interior to the coast to be shipped
as slaves to the Middle East. In the early 1800s, southern Africa was
in turmoil. Shaka united the Zulu nation, yet he set off mass
Villalobos Eamon Barkhordarian
Period C 3/3/09

migrations and wars, creating chaos. By the 1830s, the Zulus were
also battling the Boars, who were migrating north from the Cape
Colony. While European nations began to outlaw the transatlantic
slave trade, the east Africa slave trade continued to the Middle East
and Asia.
b. How did European contact with Africa increase?
i. European explorers began pushing into the interior of Africa. Daring
adventurers like Mungo Park and Richard Burton set out to map the
course and sources of the great African rivers. Catholic and
protestant missionaries followed the explorers. All across Africa,
they sought to win people to Christianity. They built schools and
medical clinics alongside churches. The best known explorer-
missionary was David Livingstone. For 30 years he crisscrossed
Africa. He wrote about the many peoples he met with more
sympathy and less bias than did most Europeans. He relentlessly
opposed the slave trade, which remained a profitable business for
some African rulers and foreign traders. The only way to end this
cruel traffic was to open to interior of Africa to Christianity and
trade.
c. How did Leopold II start a scramble for the colonies?
i. In the Berlin conference, European powers met and called for free
trade on the Congo and Niger rivers. They further agreed that
European powers could not claim any part of Africa unless they set
up a government office there. These principles led European to send
officials to exert their power over local rulers and peoples. Leopold
and other wealthy Belgians exploited the riches on Congo, including
copper, rubber, and ivory.
d. How did Africans resist Imperialism?
i. The Algerians battled the French for years. The British battled the
Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa. Successful
resistance was mounted by Ethiopia. In the late 1800s, a reforming
ruler, Manelik II began to modernize his country of Ethiopia. He
hired European experts to plan modern roads and bridges and set up
a western school system. He imported the latest weapons and
European officers to help train his army. Thus when Italy invaded
Ethiopia, Manelik was prepared. At the battle of Adowa, Ethiopians
smashed the invaders. Ethiopia was the only African country other
than Liberia that preserved its independence. During the age of
imperialism a western-educated African elite emerged. Some middle
class Africans admired western ways and rejected their own culture.
2. Identify
a. Asante
i. In the forest regions, strong states like the Asante Kingdom had
arisen. The Asante traded with European and Muslims, and had
controlled several smaller states. However, these tributary states
Villalobos Eamon Barkhordarian
Period C 3/3/09

were ready to turn to Europeans or other that might help them defeat
their Asante rulers.
b. Liberia
i. Some free blacks from the United States settled in nearby Liberia.
By 1847 Liberia became an independent republic. Liberia was the
only African country other than Ethiopia that preserved its
independence.
c. David Livingstone
i. The best known explorer-missionary was David Livingstone. For 30
years he crisscrossed Africa. He wrote about the many peoples he
met with more sympathy and less bias than did most Europeans. He
relentlessly opposed the slave trade, which remained a profitable
business for some African rulers and foreign traders. The only way
to end this cruel traffic was to open to interior of Africa to
Christianity and trade.
d. Berlin Conference
i. In the Berlin conference, European powers met and called for free
trade on the Congo and Niger rivers. They further agreed that
European powers could not claim any part of Africa unless they set
up a government office there. These principles led European to send
officials to exert their power over local rulers and peoples.
e. Boer War
i. In the early 1800s, southern Africa was in turmoil. Shaka united the
Zulu nation, yet he set off mass migrations and wars, creating chaos.
By the 1830s, the Zulus were also battling the Boars, who were
migrating north from the Cape Colony.
f. Nehanda
i. A woman who became a military leader of the Shona in Zimbabwe.
Although a claver tactician, she was captured and executed.
However, the memory of her achievements inspired later generations
to fight for freedom.
g. Manelik II
i. In the late 1800s, a reforming ruler, Manelik II began to modernize
his country of Ethiopia. He hired European experts to plan modern
roads and bridges and set up a western school system. He imported
the latest weapons and European officers to help train his army. Thus
when Italy invaded Ethiopia, Manelik was prepared. At the battle of
Adowa, Ethiopians smashed the invaders. Ethiopia was the only
African country other than Liberia that preserved its independence.
3. Define
a. Jihad
i. A holy struggle
b. Missionary
i. Someone sent on a religious mission
c. Elite
Villalobos Eamon Barkhordarian
Period C 3/3/09

i. Upper class

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