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BUILD BRIGHT UNIVERSITY

The Report of Teaching Practicum at Kong Ren International Center


Prepared by:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Guided by:

SOM PISETH CHHOUK ROTH KRY PISETH TUN BORETH PHIN PHAL OUCH CHEASOPHEARY Advisor

Lecturer:

NHEM BORA

The Formal Report of Teaching Practicum Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in Teaching English as Foreign Language (FEFL) of the Students in Promotion VIII

Academic Year 2007-2011

BUILD BRIGHT UNIVERSITY

The Report of Teaching Practicum at Kong Ren International Center


Prepared by:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Guided by:

SOM PISETH CHHOUK ROTH KRY PISETH TUN BORETH PHIN PHAL OUCH CHEASOPHEARY

Lecturer:

NHEM BORA.......................... Advisor

The Formal Report of Teaching Practicum Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in Teaching English as Foreign Language (FEFL) of the Students in Promotion VIII

Academic Year 2007-2011

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALARITY
We declare that this is an original study of our own work that we have not submitted to any other tertiary of research institution to pursue a degree. We take a high responsibility and accept that if the university found any fraud, cheating, copying from other students work or achievement, our final practicum report paper will be given failed and invalid. Phnom Penh Date//2011 Students signature and name ......................................... Som Piseth ......................................... Chhouk Roth ......................................... Kry Piseth ......................................... Tun Boreth ......................................... Phin Phal ......................................... Ouch Cheasopheary

Contents
Contents...................................................................................................................ii Title Page............................................................................................................................... iv 1.1 Background............................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Significance of Report ..............................................................................................2 1.3 Purpose of Report.....................................................................................................2 1.4 Scope and Limitation.................................................................................................3 1.5 Key words.................................................................................................................3 II Methodology............................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Data collection techniques......................................................................................5 2.2 Sample description...................................................................................................6 2.3 Data analysis............................................................................................................6 III Result and Discussion........................................................................................7 3.1 Schools Profile........................................................................................................ 7 3.2. Students background..............................................................................................9 3.2.1 Demographic profile .......................................................................................9 3.2.2 English language background.......................................................................10 3.3 Teaching practicum ................................................................................................27

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3.3.1 Pre-teaching..................................................................................................27 3.3.1.1 Group assignment and schedule..............................................................27 3.3.1.2 Lesson plan ..............................................................................................27 3.3.2 Interactive teaching..............................................................................................29 3.3.2.1 Attendance.................................................................................................29 3.3.2.2 Learning and acquisition............................................................................30 3.3.2.3 Classroom management ...........................................................................32 3.3.2.4 Teaching technique for four macro-skills, and grammar.............................34 3.3.2.4.1 Reading skill............................................................................................35 3.3.2.4.2 Speaking skill..........................................................................................36 3.3.2.4.3 Listening skill...........................................................................................36 3.3.2.4.4 Writing skill..............................................................................................37 3.3.2.4.5 Grammar...............................................................................................38 3.3.3 Post-teaching ..............................................................................................38 IV Conclusion and Recommendation......................................................................40 4.1 Conclusion..............................................................................................................40 4.2 Recommendation...................................................................................................41 References.............................................................................................................43 Appendix................................................................................................................44 Appendix 1: Questionnaire ...........................................................................................44

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Appendix 3: Teacher Evaluation Sheet.........................................................................57

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Contents...................................................................................................................ii Title Page............................................................................................................................... iv 1.1 Background............................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Significance of Report ..............................................................................................2 1.3 Purpose of Report.....................................................................................................2 1.4 Scope and Limitation.................................................................................................3 1.5 Key words.................................................................................................................3 II Methodology............................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Data collection techniques......................................................................................5 2.2 Sample description...................................................................................................6 2.3 Data analysis............................................................................................................6 III Result and Discussion........................................................................................7 3.1 Schools Profile........................................................................................................ 7 3.2. Students background..............................................................................................9

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3.2.1 Demographic profile .......................................................................................9 3.2.2 English language background.......................................................................10 3.3 Teaching practicum ................................................................................................27 3.3.1 Pre-teaching..................................................................................................27 3.3.1.1 Group assignment and schedule..............................................................27 3.3.1.2 Lesson plan ..............................................................................................27 3.3.2 Interactive teaching..............................................................................................29 3.3.2.1 Attendance.................................................................................................29 3.3.2.2 Learning and acquisition............................................................................30 3.3.2.3 Classroom management ...........................................................................32 3.3.2.4 Teaching technique for four macro-skills, and grammar.............................34 3.3.2.4.1 Reading skill............................................................................................35 3.3.2.4.2 Speaking skill..........................................................................................36 3.3.2.4.3 Listening skill...........................................................................................36 3.3.2.4.4 Writing skill..............................................................................................37 3.3.2.4.5 Grammar...............................................................................................38 3.3.3 Post-teaching ..............................................................................................38 IV Conclusion and Recommendation......................................................................40 4.1 Conclusion..............................................................................................................40 4.2 Recommendation...................................................................................................41

References.............................................................................................................43 Appendix................................................................................................................44 Appendix 1: Questionnaire ...........................................................................................44 Appendix 3: Teacher Evaluation Sheet.........................................................................57

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This practicum report was conducted to fulfill the requirement for Bachelor Degree of Arts (B.A) in Teaching English as Foreign Language (FEFL). It would not have been possible without the support of many people. For our academic performance development and achievement, we would like to express our profound and deep gratitude to the following people who devoted their time and energy to help us complete this project paper successfully. Firstly, we would like to express our thanks to Faculty of Science of Education and Language at Build Bright University for providing the fruitful and skillful education and fulfilling the career of teaching as foreign language. Moreover, we are also deeply indebted to all lecturers at Build Bright University who disseminated their knowledge to us and provided us with their fruitful advice to display our way to the bright future. Secondly, our deep sincere thanks also go to our helpful advisor, Mr. Nhem Bora who has given his valuable time to assist, guide, encourage, supervise and edit our final report project paper. Thirdly, our thanks are due to all colleagues, classmates and all our friends who helped us find the relevant books, sources, and documents to complete this project paper successfully. Especially, we also express high respect and appreciation to the colleague

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and associate trainees in constantly cooperating and helping us survey and collect data related to our topic. Finally, we would like to show highly sincere gratitude to unforgettable person, our parents, who have sacrificed their mental and physical energy in order to bring us up properly without fear and exhaustion and provide financial support for our educational development and academic achievement.

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ABSTRACT
The practicum is an excellent and practical way to gain work experiences and teaching-related skills in a wide variety of professional settings. It also provides an opportunity to explore career familiarity and advancement within the lifelong teaching profession. This teaching practicum is intended to provide general background of the designs, processes and purposes regarding the teaching practice portion of the Bachelor of Education in Teaching English as Foreign Language (TEFL) programs at Build Bright University (BBU). Furthermore, this practicum is also designed to provide students with the opportunity to work in a professional environment under the supervision of experienced teaching specialists and some additional guidance of homeroom or associate teachers. Its aims are to provide students-teachers (trainees) an opportunity to integrate the theory and knowledge of the already-covered course contents with the application of principles practices in a teaching environment. In order to fulfill the Bachelor of Education in Teaching English as Foreign Language (TEFL) at Build Bright University (BBU), a group of eleven trainees is compulsory to conduct teaching practicum at Kong Ren International Centre (KRIC) which is assigned by Faculty of Science of Language and Education. Practically, each trainee in the group has to practice teaching consecutively, and they are also need to work in group to develop and control the class which comprises observation, class management, material development, experience reflection, class evaluation, and report writing. One of the most important task a group report have to dealt is to collect students information related to their demographic profile, English language background, learners strength and weakness in four macro-skills, purpose of studying English via selfcompletion questionnaires which are needed for data analysis. In short, Practicum is a practical way to provide students with opportunities to gain experiences in professional teaching practice. The Practicum provides students the opportunity to accomplish the program objectives in a professional practice setting.

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: number of courses and students at KRIC...................................................8 Table 2: numbers of employees at KRIC..................................................................8 Table 3: Student gender...........................................................................................9 Table 4: number of fulltime and part-time students.................................................10 Table 5: Purpose of learning English .....................................................................11 Table 6: four macro-skills perception......................................................................12 Table 7: perception of students on easiness and difficulties in four skill learning....13 Table 8: Subject of Writing.....................................................................................16 Table 9: Subject of Reading ..................................................................................20 Table 10: Place of listening ...................................................................................22 Table 11: Listening Materials ................................................................................22 Table 12: Reason for Listening to English..............................................................24 Table 13: Solutions for listening Difficulties.............................................................26

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Age of Students......................................................................................10 Figure 2: Learning duration of students..................................................................10

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Figure 3: Learning motivation.................................................................................11 Figure 4: students perception on four skills...........................................................13 Figure 5: perception of students in four skill learning..............................................14 Figure 6: speaking frequency of the student..........................................................14 Figure 7: place of speaking and person for conversation.......................................15 Figure 8: how the students learn writing.................................................................15 Figure 9: Writing frequency....................................................................................16 Figure 10: Writing motivation..................................................................................17 Figure 11: Writing difficulties..................................................................................18 Figure 12: Reading frequencies.............................................................................19 Figure 13: Purpose of Reading..............................................................................19 Figure 14: Percentage of Reading Subject.............................................................20 Figure 15: Reading Difficulties...............................................................................21 Figure 16: Listening Skill Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction ......................................22 Figure 17: Listening Materials................................................................................23 Figure 18: Listening frequencies............................................................................24 Figure 19: Percentage of Reason for Listening to English......................................25

Figure 20: Listening Difficulties...............................................................................25 Figure 21: Solutions to listening difficulties.............................................................26

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ABREVIATION
B.Ed CamTESOL

: Bachelor of Education : Teaching English to Speakers of other Languages in

Cambodia
MoEYS T Ss STT TTT BBU TEFL TESL

: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport : Teacher : Students : Student Talking Time : Teacher Talking Time : Build Bright University : Teaching English as Foreign Language : Teaching English as Second Language

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I Introduction
1.1 Background
In the last a few decades, English Language is becoming the world leading language because most countries around the world using it as second or foreign language for business, education and so on. To develop the country, many counties decided to incorporate English Language into the educational field and other sectors due to its benefits. More specifically, many students are interested in pursuing Bachelor Degree in English in order to study English as foreign language, it requires more time and effort to study in all skills-peaking, reading, listening, and writing with deferent contexts. Since Cambodia has become a peaceful country, which is more open to foreign investors as well as tourists. Therefore, English has become increasingly more important and popular in Cambodia, and most people want to learn this language. Obviously, learning a foreign language, especially English is one way to have a better career in Cambodia. In addition, English major prepares the students for the success in various fields since the professional world increasingly demand the people who are proficient in listening, writing, reading, and speaking with insightful thinking. As a matter of fact, English does not only provide the students the ability to succeed in the careers of teaching, translation, and interpretation, publishing, and journalists, but also enhances the mechanism to pursue the education in the professional, master, doctor degree as well as scholarships. Indeed, English is a real international language improving our interactions and helping us change the world in which we live. As for nonnative speakers, they must be aware to maintain their qualification unless they learn a foreign language where English-based education as instructional language. The main purpose is any school curriculum must be eligible and international standard, particularly English. After English learners have been through any courses in English, they may adapt the language very well so that they will be able to apply it accuracy and fluency in career. As the result, in order to provide Cambodians with educational services, Ministry of Education Youth and Sport (MoEYS) of Cambodia included English program since high school to university in order to help students to prolong their study and search their relevant documents in English related to the future skills. So far, the Royal Government of Cambodia has been 1

conducive to holding three seminars on Teaching English to Speakers of other Languages in Cambodia (CamTESOL) which provide both local and international teachers and learners with numerous valuable experiences in teaching and learning English alike. Specifically, Build Bright University which is one of private universities plays an important role in building human resource in Cambodia. In the last 10 years, it has built up thousands of students every year especially students specializing in English as Foreign Language. In this faculty, students who are taking TEFL course have to conduct a compulsory teaching practicum to fulfill partially in their degree.

1.2 Significance of Report


It has been recognized that practicum report is the practical experience, and it plays an important role in reflecting the real teaching environment and capacity. This practicum report may be useful for the several reasons. Firstly, it complete and fulfill the school requirement for whom taking TEFL in bachelor and contribute the total mark of school criteria. Secondly, the school could use as the reference for the next generation who taking a bachelor in TEFL.

1.3 Purpose of Report


The overall purpose of this report paper is to fulfill the requirements of Bachelor of Education in Teaching English as Foreign Language (TEFL), putting theories we have learned into practice, discovering how students learn English as a foreign language, evaluating the work we have done, seeking experience in writing such a work paper as this one, strengthening our skills, and making us become real bachelor holder. Specifically we are intended: 1- To put training, understanding and technique into practice 2- To become accustomed to teaching in classroom setting 3- To develop and expand each trainees expertise and confidence

1.4 Scope and Limitation


The teaching practicum lasted 6 weeks, started from 06 February to 13 March, 2011 at the Kong Ren International Center (KRIC). During practicum the teacher trainees were designed to teach New Snapshot Intermediate Level. All teacher trainees had to teach at least four times during this practicum, and students were selected by the KRIC director. There were about eight to fifteen students in each class. The teacher trainees were responsible for researching and observing during the teaching practicum at least ten times based on the university requirement. While one was teaching, other members also came to observe and took note all the activities that the teacher trainees did during the teaching time.

1.5 Key words


Assessment Acquisition Data collection methods a process in which you make a judgment about a person or thing a process in acting to gain knowledge and skills techniques used to collect information, from both Primary and secondary sources, so as to amalgamate analyses Record them as our report writing basis information responds to what learners say or do, e.g. a nod, smile, puzzled frown, or clarifying question is all useful feedback to learners assessment of quality of something which have been done Instructional guide of teaching implementation conscious process, usually involving with formal study kinds of internal and external factor and drive that encourage somebody to pursue a course of action they linguistically refer to four main skill, namely Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. a list of questions used to collect or gather information and data the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time. the techniques and pedagogical practice which are used practically and theoretically for teaching performance a teaching practice which particular trainee conducted so as to put theory into practice in the real teaching environment a teaching approach that students talking time take over teacher talking time a teaching approach that teacher talking time is less than student talking time 3

Feedback Evaluation Lesson plan Learning Motivation Macro-skills Questionnaire Observation Teaching Methodology Practicum Student centered Teacher centered

Report Student Talking Time (STT) Teacher Talking Time (TTT)

a written information of the teaching activities and teaching practicum The opportunities provide to student to practice all required acidities in learning process. The chances that teacher control the opportunities of his/her teaching activities.

II Methodology
2.1 Data collection techniques
Our report is based on teaching practice. In order to achieve practicum report, there are two main divisions of data sources to be completed. Primary data is collected from the students by using questionnaire, trainees evaluation and observation sheet. However, secondary data is collected from internet, journal, or library which related to education especially teaching English as Foreign Language (TEFL). The practicum report is synthesized in the diagram below.
Practicum Report

Data Collection

Primary Data

Secondary Data

Questionnaires

Evaluation Sheet

School Background Students Profile Books on internet and Library

Students Profile 4 skills Learning and Acquisition Teaching Strength and Weaknesses Data Analysis

Result and Discussion

Final Report

Diagram 1: Practicum Report Procedure

2.2 Sample description


The teaching practicum took place at Kong Ren International Center with sixweek performance in which each group of trainees carried out teaching responsibilities consecutively based on schedules designed by the Build Bright University (BBU) in English Department for Bachelor of Education. There were eleven teacher-trainees in the group and a supervisor who plays a vital role in assessing the teaching and giving some comment or feedback as well as mark. However, there were only seven students in the intermediate class. As a result, the group report decided to select other students in other classes for the data analysis. To be more concise and reliable, roughly 25 students were selected randomly in the other classes in intermediate level because the number of students in intermediate is not enough for target sample.

2.3 Data analysis


For the data analysis, both qualitative and quantitative data are needed. Our data analysis is conducted with the support of data or information which is gathered directly by questionnaires provided to the students in the fourth week of teaching performance. In addition, the documents regarding to school background, the observation and evaluation sheets, and record of each group member are qualitative data which is the main source of data. All these data were analyzed and represented by using Microsoft Word, Excel, and SPSS application to present in tables and charts.

III Result and Discussion


3.1 Schools Profile
Founded in May 06, 2002 and accredited by the Phnom Penh Municipal Education, Youth and Sports Department, Kong Ren International Centre visualizes being a leading centre and recognized by all environment around Cambodia. Currently, it is building its potential to provide knowledge and skills on foreign languages and computer so as to meet the requirement of local and international standard. The Head Quarter of KRIC is located in #393, street 907, Sangkat Toulsangke, Khan Russey Keo, and Phnom Penh, Cambodia. KRIC has developed and extended other five operational branches: 1. Toulsanke branch is located in #393, street 907, Sangkat Toulsangke, Khan Russey Keo, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Tel: 023 632 5225. 2. Russeykeo branch is located in #615, national road 5, Sangkat Russeykeo, Khan Russeykeo, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Tel: 023 632 7227 3. Ponheakraek branch is located in #22, 23, 24c, street 93, Sangkat Toulsangke, Khan Russeykeo, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Tel: 023 632 8228 4. Chamroenphal branch is located in #80, Sangkat Boengtumpon, Khan Mean Chaey, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Tel: 023 632 9229 5. Preakleap branch is located along antional road 6A, Sangkat Prekleap, Khan Russeykeo, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Tel: 023 632 1221 Toulsangke Head Quarter with a total area of 1920 square meter consists of two histories, four office rooms, a computer laboratory, a reception, a teacher room, and 18 English classrooms, and each room can load 30 students. The schedule is available from Monday-Friday and on Weekend class with part-time and full-time English and other short courses. Currently KRIC is offering the following course: a. Khmer General Education(Kindergarten and primary) b. Pre-school of English (K1-K8) c. General English Program (12 Levels) d. English for Specific Purpose e. TESOL training course 7

f. Computer Course In addition, according to KRIC documentation (January, 2011) provided by academic office has shown that there 55 operational classes with a total of 1000 students who are studying in different courses. Table 1: number of courses and students at KRIC
N0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Program English for Kindergarten program Intensive English Program (Full-time) Part-time English Program Chinese Korean Computer Total Number of classes 19 4 24 3 1 4 55 classes Number of students 538 39 353 16 7 47 1000 students

Related to staffs statistic (January, 2011), there are two kind of staff_ academic staff and non-academic staff with a total of 45 employees. Table 2: numbers of employees at KRIC
N0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Position Branch Executive Director Branch Executive Director Receptionist Security Guards Cleaner English Kindergarten teachers ESL teachers Chinese teacher Korean teacher Computer teacher Total Number of employee 1 1 3 3 2 14 16 2 1 2 45 employees

KRIC has vision to build up, to educate the people who want to study a second language and provide the knowledge, skill, and ability to many children students and as well as adult students such as English, Chinese, Korean language, computer skill and some other courses. All in all, KRICs aim is to provide Cambodian students of all kinds and interests with high quality education to contribute to the development of human resources in our society. 8

3.2. Students background 3.2.1 Demographic profile


There are 25 students who have been selected for students background representation. During our teaching practicum, 25 students were selected from other classes as well. According to the table below, 16 students are female, and 9 students are male. Majority of students are female because they are made up of 64 percent whereas male students account for 36 percent of the total students. Table 3: Student gender Description Male Female Total Number of students 9 16 25 Percentage (%) 36 64 100

Not surprisingly, all the students are in the age group of younger than 15 years old, 15-20 years old, and 21-25 years old. There are 16 students who are in age group of below 15 years old, and 7 students in the age group of 15-20 years old. However, there are only 2 students whose age is in the range of 21-25 years old. So, majority of the students are dominated by the age group of below 15 years old which is account for 64 percent of the total students.

Figure 1: Age of Students

The students who participated during teaching practicum could be fulltime students and part-time student. There are 20 students who are part-time students whereas other 5 students are fulltime students. Some students are taking a fulltime courses at Kong Ren International Centre, and they come to study in the teaching practicum at the weekend. Table 4: number of fulltime and part-time students Description Fulltime Student Part-time Student Total Number of Students 5 20 25 Percentage (%) 20 80 100

3.2.2 English language background


According to the analysis, it has been shown that individual students have different learning background. Among 25 students, there are only 4 students who have learnt English lest than a year, but other 15 student have leant English more than 3 years. It is clear that majority of students have learnt English for long period of time which represents 60 percent. Figure 2: Learning duration of students

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In accordance with purposes of learning, each student has distinct objectives based on their interest. According to analysis, it has been noted that 25 students have 6 main different purposes and interests in job advancement, communication, parents advice and business. However, it is remarkably illustrated that there are only 2 major purposes of learning English (Table 5). They are job advancement and English teacher. So, the students learn English so as to get a better job and to become English teachers. Table 5: Purpose of learning English Purposes Job advancement Communication English Teacher Parents' advice Business Total Number of Student 9 1 10 2 3 25 Percentage (%) 36 4 40 8 12 100

Regarding to English learning motivation, the students learn English because they have different motivations. According to analysis, it has been indicated in figure 3 that all 25 students want to learn English due to the motivation form teacher, parents and friends which account by 56 percent, 40 percent, and 4 percent respectively. In short, they feel motivated to learn English because of parents and teacher. Figure 3: Learning motivation

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3.2.3

Learners strength and weakness in four macro-skills

General perception of students toward the four macro-skills is different. In term of speaking, writing, listening, and reading skills are the significant components of English language learning, but they have their own functions for any purposes. In the meanwhile, according to analysis, it has been illustrated that all four main skills play a vital role in their learning and acquisition process; consequently, they put effort to study all these skills relatively. Majority of the students are perceived to consider four major skills important for their learning success (table 6 and figure 4). Table 6: four macro-skills perception Four Skills Speaking Writing Listening Reading Very important number % 23 16 14 18 88 64 56 64 Important number % 2 8 10 8 12 32 40 32 Not important number percent 0 1 1 1 0 4 4 4 Total N % 25 25 25 25 100 100 100 100

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Figure 4: students perception on four skills

Similar to students perception on four major skills, easiness and difficulties are also perceived by individual student. According to the analysis, it is found that speaking, writing, listening, and reading skills similarly causes the students feel easy and difficult to learn them. Not surprisingly, it may be inferred that listening skill is the most challenging problem for majority of the students because roughly 72 percent of student considers it hard to learn whereas 28 percent feel easy to learn (table 7 and figure 5). Table 7: perception of students on easiness and difficulties in four skill learning four skills Speaking Writing listening Reading Hard to learn Easy to learn number Percent number percent 13 52% 12 48% 10 40% 15 60% 18 72% 7 28% 10 40% 15 60% Total 25 25 25 25 100% 100% 100% 100%

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Figure 5: perception of students in four skill learning

a. Speaking Skill
Speaking skill is one the most interesting skills that most of the students are fount of learning. Regarding to analysis, it has shown the result that there is no students who never speak English. There are three students who occasionally and always speak English equal to 12 percent. Majority of the students sometime speak English that equal to 52 percent of total students. Figure 6: speaking frequency of the student

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The table 7 shows the speaking activities taking place and the person who students usually spoke with. According to the table below, students have many opportunities to speak English. But there are 2 students who could speak English at home with their parents, whereas a total of 20 students enjoy speaking English in classroom with their friends and teacher during the learning time. In addition, there are so few students who have had opportunities to speak with foreigners. Figure 7: place of speaking and person for conversation Description in class at home at work place Total Parents 0 2 0 2 Friend 14 0 0 14 Teacher 6 0 0 6 Foreigner 1 1 1 3 Total 21 3 1 25

b. Writing Skill
Writing skill is also the most important reproductive skill that the students are willing to learn. In figure 8, it has been shown that the students have different ways of learning writing English. Majority of students learn mostly with teacher which equal to roughly 80 percent. This means that writing process learning was taking place in the class activities, while other 24 percent could possibly improve their writing ability with their friends. It is also remarkably noted that 8 percent of students learn writing skill individually. Figure 8: how the students learn writing

In accordance with writing skills, the writing frequencies also vary from individual students. In figure 9, it indicates that some students try hard to write in 15

English language, whereas some students are careless of writing activities. Based on the analysis, there is few student are never write any English. However, majority of them are trying hard write all most every day. Figure 9: Writing frequency

In addition to writing frequency and ways of writing, students practice writing about different things such as story, general things, and homework which provided by teacher. In table 10, it illustrates subject of writing. There are 12 students practice their writing with their assigned homework that is equal to 48 percent of total student. Some students also enjoy writing about story equal to 32 percent, but they never wrote about personal record. Table 8: Subject of Writing
Description personal record Story general thing homework/class work Total Number of student 0 8 5 12 25 Percentage (%) 0 32 20 48 100

According to the analysis, it has been indicated that students attempt to write about particular subject because they have their internal and external motivations. Figure 10 shows the writing motivation. There are 44 percent of students writing English with 16

encouragement from teacher, whereas other students practice writing in order to appreciate with themselves and their friends which account 20 percent and 32 percent correspondently. Figure 10: Writing motivation

According to the data analysis, it has been clearly illustrated that obstacle for students in writing English is vocabulary that is perceived by 52 percent, whereas 36 percent of students think that grammar is difficult for them to write English. But, there are several students who think that their writing ability is challenging with sentence structure and idea deficiency which is account for 16 percent and 8 percent respectively

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Figure 11: Writing difficulties

c. Reading Skill
Reading skill is one of the most important skills that some students have

commonly enjoyed learning as well. Figure 12 show the reading frequencies of the students. According to analysis, it indicates that some students try hard to read English; however, 48 percent of students sometime read in English. In addition, there are 20 percent students who spend more time on reading because they usually read, whereas other 20 percent of students read English every day. students are font of reading. It is also noted that there few student who never read English which is account for 8 percent. In brief, majority of the

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Figure 12: Reading frequencies

In additional to reading frequency, the students have different perspectives of reading activities. According to analysis, it has been illustrated that students are willing to read because of 4 main different reasons. Figure 14 shows that 11 students participate in read activities so as to improve or build more vocabularies. However, reading improvement and general knowledge are the purposes of 6 and 7 students respectively. Figure 13: Purpose of Reading

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Regarding to data analysis, the students are similarly reading a variety of subjects such as course book, story, magazine, newspaper and journal. The table 10 shows that students like reading story books that is equal to 28 percent. Moreover, course book is the part of materials use for reading which has percentage of 28 percent. If we mention about newspaper and magazine have equal percentage of 16 percent, whereas only 12 percent of students select journal as subject of their reading (figure 13). Table 9: Subject of Reading Subject of Reading course book newspaper magazine Journal Story Total Number of student 7 4 4 3 7 25 Percentage (%) 28 16 16 12 28 100

Figure 14: Percentage of Reading Subject

In relation to reading skill, the students face several difficulties. According to the data analysis, it could be inferred that majority of students who account for 60 percent

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meet vocabulary difficulties. Furthermore, 28 percent of students are challenging with complex structure, whereas other 12 percent have limited understanding while reading. Figure 15: Reading Difficulties

d. Listening Skill
Similar to other skills, listening skill is also the most important and difficult skill for students. In figure 16, it has been shown that the students have different points of view on this skill. According to the data analysis, Majority of students reply with the satisfaction with listening skill which equal to 72 percent of total students; however, 28 percent of the students dont have any satisfaction for reading skill because it is hard to listen.

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Figure 16: Listening Skill Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

In additional to the listening skill satisfaction, students normally practice listening to English at different places (table 11). According to data analysis, it could be said that 64 percent of students normally practice listen English at school. However, other 36 percent of students try to listen at home because they may have their own listening materials. Table 10: Place of listening Place of listening at home at school Total Number of students 9 16 25 Percentage (%) 36 64 100

In term of listening materials, table 12 shows the listening materials used by the students to practice their listening. It is also clearly indicated that they listen to variety of listening materials such as radio, TV, Cassette recorder, CD/DVD player. There are 12 students which equal to 48 percent of students have commonly used CD/VCD player to listen to English. It is also note that radio and TV are popular for the students because they are used by student with the same percentage which is equal to 24 percent (figure 17). Table 11: Listening Materials Listening Materials Number of Student 22 Percentage (%)

Radio TV Cassette Recorder CD/DVD player Total Figure 17: Listening Materials

6 6 1 12 25

24 24 4 48 100

In the meanwhile, the students have different times and duration for individual listening practice. The graph below describes about the frequency of students listen to above listening materials in English. Regarding to data analysis, there are few students whose responses are never and occasionally listening to English. On the other hand, 60 percent of the students replied that they sometimes listen to English. Not surprisingly, there are several students always listen to English.

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Figure 18: Listening frequencies

The figure and table below shows about the purpose of students listens in English. Regarding to the responses of the students, we possibly infer that approximately 50 percent of students prefer listening because they want to more information. Similarly, other students who represent 32 percent of students listen to English in order to improve their listening skill. It is also noted that several students enjoy with listening for their entertainment. Table 12: Reason for Listening to English Reason for Listening listening skill improvement gaining information Entertainment familiarity with different accents Business Total Frequency 8 12 4 1 0 25 Percentage (%) 32 48 16 4 0 100

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Figure 19: Percentage of Reason for Listening to English

Regarding to listening difficulties, students face variety of challenges such as understanding ability, vocabulary, accent, and inaudible speech. Figure 20 indicates the difficulties of students that they usually face. According to data analysis, it could be stated that 44 percent of the students have difficulties in listening because of too fast speech so that they are unable to catch up with the listening. Similarly, different accents also cause difficulties for students because 20 percent of students encounter accent difficulties for listening. Figure 20: Listening Difficulties

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In correspondence with listening issues, table 14 and figure 20 indicate the solutions that the students have used when they encountered the difficulties. According to the analysis, it is clearly students usually deal with the problem by asking the teacher because there 64 percent of students who need the help from teacher when they faced difficulties. In additional to teacher support and help, other 32 percent of total students try hard to listen over again so that they could compromise the problem. Fortunately, there is no student who ignores the learning difficulties. Table 13: Solutions for listening Difficulties Solutions ask teacher listen again Ignorance reading text prior to listening Total Number of Students 16 8 0 1 25 Percentage 64 32 0 4 100

Figure 21: Solutions to listening difficulties

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3.3 Teaching practicum

3.3.1 Pre-teaching 3.3.1.1 Group assignment and schedule


The teaching practicum lasted 6 weeks, starting from 06 February to 13 March, 2011 at Kong Ren International Center (KRIC) in which each group of trainees carried out teaching responsibilities consecutively based on schedules designed by the Build Bright University (BBU) in English Department for Bachelor of Education. During practicum, a group of eleven teacher trainees was designed to teach New Snapshot Intermediate Level with 15 students in this class. In addition, teacher trainees had to teach at least four times during this practicum, the teacher trainees were responsible for observing other trainees during the teaching practicum at least ten times based on the university requirement. While one was teaching, other members also came to observe and took note all the activities that the teacher trainees did during the teaching time.

3.3.1.2 Lesson plan


Lesson plan plays a significant role in our teaching practicum, and it is a compulsory for each teacher trainees. Prior to teaching, the group teaching members had to discuss and divide lesson into different parts for individual trainees. After that they had to prepare lesson plan individually on the part which is required by teaching group members. The good teacher must have the lesson plan before teaching students in the classroom. A lesson is an extremely useful tool that serves as a combination guide, resource and techniques. In addition, teacher trainees have to prepare instructional plans that have to conclude the chronological components: 1. The title or aim of the lesson 2. Duration for Teaching practice 3. A list of required material 4. Skill focus which clearly stated for students

27

5. The instructional components which illustrate the sequent of techniques including the instructional input (presentation), and guided practice (an opportunity). 6. Independent practices (production). This component allows student to enhance their knowledge both in production and comprehension. 7. The summary which is normally raised in the closing part of the instructional plan to summarize and suggest the further studies for the students. The book we used in teaching practicum was New Snapshot Intermediate. In correspondence to the classroom requirement, we have bought a set of materials (student book, teacher book, and other extra materials) for our teaching. Moreover, we produced many activities and supplementary material which made our teaching effective enough to meet the learner need, ability and expectation. Moreover, the success of the lesson plan is not solely based on the above components, but majority of the success is resulted from previous trainees abilities, motivation, flexibilities, understanding, and training. And, in order to be successful, we had to make good decision on a number of factors such as: Lets now look more closely at the three points in making a good lesson plan. However, according to the teaching practice setting, the trainees in the teaching group were working hard to prepare the lesson plan because of the importance in class evaluation and monitoring how a trainee could succeed his/her time and teaching techniques to reach the underlying objectives. In the process of observation, it is remarkably recommended that they concentrated primarily on three main points in their instructional plan. Aim of the lesson: this is the first thing to come into consideration, for it holds the way the lesson goes or is conducted in every step. In fact, we can make a lesson aim long or short, simple or complicated, but we do not go beyond the lesson real nature. Objective of the lesson: this is often confusedly considered as a point with the same nature as aim .Really, objective of the lesson in what we expect SS will be able to archive at the end of the lesson-skill, abilities, proficiency. Also, we expect SS to be able to demonstrate these effectively in their real lives after they are taught. 28

Technique for activities in the lesson: they are very important instrument to guide us to conduct each activity correctly and efficiently. Technique are, in the simplest sense, way to work in each step. Extra technique and material: it has been recognized that majority of the trainees not only prepare the instructional plan but also try very hard to find extra technique and materials to maintain the class in a smooth manner. The following item is the sample of lesson plan.

3.3.2 Interactive teaching


Interactive or while-teaching activities are the most important parts for teachers. In the practicum period, the trainees paid much attention to the class interaction and setting. Consequently, there are several aspects to be taken into account. They are class attendance, learning and acquisition, classroom management, and teaching technique for four macro-skills, vocabulary and grammar.

3.3.2.1 Attendance
Attendance plays a significant role and factor in learning and teaching success. It has been clearly stated that the success of students academic preparation is consistently correlated with the class participation. While the teaching performance is in progress, the useful features and activities are provided to the students so that they feel easier to understand and participate in learning process. However, for those who never get involved the class, they face many difficulties for learning. Consequently, they participate less in the classroom. According the real class setting in the observational record, all the trainees firstly took the attendance into account because teacher trainees always checked Ss attendance in every first session. As the example, there are 15 students listed in students name list for intermediate level, but in reality there are only 7 students participated in classroom. This indicated that roughly 50 percent of students are absent. In additional to class participation, the students who were absent have caused the difficulties for the teacher trainees because they could not experience with large class management and preparation. It is clear that Absenteeism has negative impacts on students learning and class participation. 29

3.3.2.2 Learning and acquisition


According to the class observation, it has been recognized that the students are enthusiastic to learn all the class activities. In term of learning and acquisition, the students put more effort to learn all the skills. They always participated in learning because teacher arranged the either individual or pair work for them. In addition, they can answer the question the answer from the book and from the teacher question. It also noted that the teacher trainees committed to speak English as much as possible so that students were accepted to speaking with the teacher trainees as well. It is clear that learning process of students are improved which is consistent with teaching approach and methodology. Regarding to English language acquisition, students got involved in the teaching practicum with a variety of interests, backgrounds, and motivations consequently, their competency and capacity to learn and acquire knowledge of the English language are also distinct. According to data analysis, it is clearly illustrated that learning and acquisition of English language are taken place in different places based on students learning strategy and opportunities. For instance, some students are try hard to learn at school, other student give more time opportunities to practice and comprehend at home. In the meantime, learning and acquisition process of the students depends on class participation, classroom management, teaching approaches, and class activities which are prepared and provide by individual teacher trainees.

a. Class participation
As mentioned earlier, class participation is a key factor that every learner has to get involved successfully in learning process. However, according to attendant list there are fifteen students in the class, but the real figure are seven students who attend class in every session until the end of teaching practicum. The students involvement and participation during the practicum have been illustrated both negative and positive consequences for learning and teaching. The positive result is that teacher trainees have much more time to control the students so that students felt motivated to learn. With a seven-student classroom, the trainees didnt face many difficulties because they could facilitate and monitor them very well. In contrast, teacher trainees didnt learn much 30

about a large classroom management because they enjoyed teaching small number of students. It is good idea that a trainee have experienced in a large classroom environment because the practicum is the lesson learnt for them.

b. Teaching Approaches
There are many different approaches have been used by individual trainee in every session. Those approaches are classified into two main categories, namely student centered and teacher centered approach. According to the observation, these two main approaches are used differently based on the skill focus. For example, while the trainee was teaching reading and writing, he/she preferred the Ss to work in pair rather than working in group because of the time limitation and seat arrangement. However, it has been recognized that most of the trainees were try hard to activate the students by providing more opportunities to practice. This means that student talking time (STT) is higher than teacher talking time (TTT). Similarly, there were many things to deal with teacher centered approach. Some teacher trainees enjoyed using this to activate the students when they taught grammar because they need to spend more time on rule and principle of particular usages. Consequently, students talking time was overlapped by teacher talking time. Not surprisingly, this approach was applicable for grammar instruction, presentation, and practice. In brief, both student centered and teacher centered approaches were applied in the period of teaching practicum.

c. Use of language
According to observation, it was so surprising that every trainee put more effort to speaking everything in English which met the course requirement and students expectation. Even though some of the trainees could not speaking English accurately and fluently, they still practice and motivated students to speak English as much as possible. This indicated that they are able to teach and master the practicum quite well in term of English speaking competency and accessibility.

d. Class activities
In accordance with class activities, the teacher trainees had their own technique and activities to perform their teaching go smoothly, so we saw the variety of the 31

techniques and activities appeared in the classroom in the each session .The technique we mostly used in the classroom when we taught were: pair work, individual work, whole class activities. The teacher use brainstorming, guess the meaning, Bing Go, Rub Out and recall to present new vocabularies. The students work in pair, individual to ask and answer question from the reading text. In grammar teaching, the teacher used Cover (deductive) and Overt (inductive) to explain students, but majority of activities provided by trainees is individual work in doing exercise after that they comprehended in a whole class. Similarly, in the action of teaching speaking and writing, trainees allowed students to look at the model paragraph which is understandable for them with some further explanation. So, they were assigned to individually or collectively on the similar writing.

3.3.2.3 Classroom management


Classroom management is one the most important aspect of teaching performance because it is closely connected with learning and teaching success. Classroom management is very important that can lead the class have a very good environment and comfortable as well. In order to have discipline in class teacher have very important role and obligations, as in the class teacher is the controller, he or she not control only what the students do, and also what they speak and what language they use, it is vital that control should be relaxed if students are to be allowed a chance to learn rather than be tough. To teach effectively and efficiently, the teachers has to manage a well-organized classroom which they could maintain and keep the class move on smoothly and successfully. Class management deals with the moods of mastering and controlling the students work and performance in a controlled manner. As a matter of fact, teacher as the assessor, and a major part of the teachers job is to assess the student work, to see how well they are performing or performed. This case we must make a difference between correction and organizing feedback. As the suggestion, when the students have mistakes or errors, the teacher function is to show what they are wrong so that they can find the right one. Other style of correction called gentle correction, no need to make seriously damage the atmosphere to the students. Organizing feedback occurs when students have performed some kind of task and intention of assessment is for them to see 32

the extent of their success or failure and to be given ideas as to how language problems might be solved. Teacher as a prompter, often teacher need to encourage the students to participate or need to make suggestion about how student may proceed in an activity when there is a silence or when they are confuse about what to do next. The teacher might need to prompt the students with information they have forgotten. This is the important one called rule of prompter. Teacher as a participant, all occasion it will be difficult to do as equal, teacher might join simulations as participants, sometimes playing rule themselves. The teacher as a resource, the teacher should always be ready to offer help if students need. Thus we make ourselves available so that students can consult us when they wish. Teacher as a tutor, the teacher would be able to help them clarify ideas and limit the task. This tutorial rule approximately counseling function is often in intermediate and advanced levels. Teachers also have to act themselves as the investigator all the rule above have to do with the teachers behavior as it relates to the students. But teacher themselves will want to develop their own skills and they will hope for a gradually developing insight into the best ways to foster language learning, teacher who do not investigate who do not actively seek their own personal and professional development, may find the job of teaching increasingly monotonous. So, when we mention about classroom management, there several important points to take into account. During the practicum, there were 4 main components that have been observed so as to judge the classroom management of individual trainee.

a. Seating
There has been recognized that the classroom is large enough for a comfortable leaning environment. There are suitable tables which each student can sit easily. However, there are some difficulties in arranging the seats for student because all the tables are wide tables which are a bit hard to move and organize the task in group. So the students are arranged to seat in row. No matter how the seat is organized, we still taught the class well. 33

b. Posture
There have been noted that posture helps teachers to control the class. To be more enjoyable and well-prepared, a teacher who was the dominator in the classroom should produce a movement to any particular points that they want to monitor the class. Positions that teacher stand could possibly affect students learning process. This means that a teacher should walk around to check and comfort the student learning. During the practicum, there were some notifications that the trainee were performing well with posture in classroom without any standstill. However, there were some weak performance in posture due to poor preparation with the instructional plan and trainees ability. In brief, owing to the first experience in teaching, some trainees are not prepared well so that they had some difficulties in class management in term of movement. As a point of view, they conducted a good job in way of classroom management.

c. white board
Regarding with white board uses, all the trainees have followed very well. It is an easy task that they can do without face any difficulties. The white board division has been used all the time of teaching because the teacher trainees want to practice managing the white board and writing in clear and neat manner. It has been recommended that individual trainee implement the teaching principles in practical way.

d. Time Management
Time management is a challenge for every trainee. We found hard to assess the time for teaching because the time or duration we set in the instructional plan are more flexible than reality was. In the practicum period, the time allowed is 45 minutes for their teaching, but some trainees didnt teach on time because of the difficulties in focusing points particularly grammar point. However, they could teach successfully and effectively even thought they finished the lesson in 5 or 10 minutes late.

3.3.2.4 Teaching technique for four macro-skills, and grammar


During the teaching practicum, we were focusing much on four macro-skills namely, Reading, Speaking, Writing, and Listening. In addition, the practicum also concentrated on grammar which is most challenging for students. In the meanwhile, all trainees came up with some difficulties; however, they put more effort to compromise 34

all those challenges by using teaching method and doing more research on extra teaching materials. The four macro-skills and grammar conducted by different techniques in accordance with trainees skill and competency.

3.3.2.4.1 Reading skill


Reading is the most common skills that majority of the trainees taught during practicum period. The main purpose of reading is to provide the students vocabulary building and text concept understanding. According to the observation, there were some difficulties for some trainee because they are lack of vocabulary and ability to explain to the student. Not surprisingly, they still maintained and taught the class smoothly and effectively. + Warm Up At the beginning of the lesson, the trainees greeted his students by asking them some questions before checking students attendance to ensure that students are given enough attention for attending his class. Then he reviewed previous lesson and told students what they are going to learn. + Pre-reading In pre-reading activities, the trainees usually prepared the brainstorming activities to give some background information related to topic of reading. They naturally ask the real experience of student and let them answer freely. After that trainees got into the points. They selected one or two students to read out to the class. In the meanwhile, they are assigned to look and comprehend vocabulary in context which could help students understand and cope with difficult words that can slow down their reading. + Main reading In main reading activities, trainees not only ask students to read the text again for detail but also to find the main idea of the articles. In this, stage trainees tried to ask the main points of the reading text to emphasis and give some cues to students proceeding by true or false question or/and comprehension question which students could work individually or collectively. 35

+ Post-reading After students completed all the tasks in main reading, trainee let the students write the answer to the class or compare the answers with their peers.

3.3.2.4.2 Speaking skill


As a matter of fact, during the teaching practicum at Kong Ren International Centre, we intended to focus on speaking skill as well. Speaking skill was one of the skills with the purposes to improve in English speaking by asking students to make conversation or communication with each other. Some teacher trainees encountered some difficulties to instruct this skill because they need more research, practice, clear instruction and time consuming. Moreover, according to teaching observation, some teacher trainees couldnt find good method to teach students smoothly, and they couldnt attract the student attention. Fortunately, intermediate students are willing and enthusiastic to participate all learning activities. Consequently, we still maintained and achieved in teaching this skill to the students. Moreover, it could be mentioned that speaking skill need more active participation for the students. So, students can make conversation consistent with text book or other speaking materials such as the sample of conversation in Cambodia context that makes sense for student to practice their creative conversation. They can improve their English speaking by discussing or working with their friends day to day.

3.3.2.4.3 Listening skill


Listening is kind of receptive skills, and it is very important for communication processes that are suitable for students all levels. After conducting a teaching practice at Kong Ren International Centre, it could be said that listening skill is also difficult for learning and teaching. Even though listening skill was also taught at Kong Ren International Center, the inadequacy and difficulties still remain for students learning process because listening material is not available for in-class teaching; therefore, we decided to make a copy of listening parts for student to read rather than listening due to the unavailability of listening aids such as VCD, tape Recorder, or cassette. Furthermore, the school did not have listening aids or materials to play the listening 36

session. It is clear that listening is the most challenging skill for teacher trainees and student in the period of teaching practicum because of inaccessibility of listening materials at Kong Ren International Centre.

3.3.2.4.4 Writing skill


It is generally stated that the objective of writing skill is to get the learners to acquire the abilities and skills they need to produce a range of different kinds of writing competency. So we shall look at some writing tasks and examine what each in fact does for the learners. First, does it really teach writing or just use writing as a means to teach some other aspect of language like grammar for example. If it does focus on writing itself, what short of a balance does it maintain between micro aspect (spelling, punctuation, etc) and macro (content, organization). Here, writing as a means refer to process that focus on instruction like get student note down new vocabulary, copy out grammar rule, write out answer to reading or listening comprehension questions, do writing tests. Writing as an end focuses on objective and content such as micro level and macro level. Sometime, teacher can use both mean and end that is the third kind of activities combines purposeful and original writing with the learning or practice of some other skill or content. For writing for content and/or form, the purpose of writing, in principle is the expression of ideas, the conveying of a message to the reader; so the idea themselves should arguably be seen as the most important aspect of the writing. One of problems in teaching writing is to maintain a fair balance between content and form when defining requirement and assessing. According to the teaching observation and feedback, writing skill was also conducted for teaching at Kong Ren International Centre. During the teaching practicum, writing skill was applied in accordance with intermediate level. It generally consists of writing skill at the end of each lesson. Therefore, the responsible teacher trainees always taught this skill because it aimed to improve students response in production. As a matter of fact, it may be inferred that the students seemed to be more well-prepared and familiar with writing because they have enough ability produce the similar sentence or paragraph with the compliance to the sample writing paragraph given by the teacher trainees. 37

3.3.2.4.5 Grammar
Grammar is one of the most important and difficult skills that many teacher trainees have taught to students. The students who participated during the teaching practicum were very interested in learning grammar because they want to improve their ability to deal with grammatical aspects. Grammar can be defined as grammatical structure and grammatical meaning. Grammatical structure refers to form as we make a sentence, for example its can be tenses, plural and singular verb or noun, the comparison of adjectives and so on. According to observation, it could be stated that grammatical lesson is the most difficult skills that majority of trainees faced during the teaching practicum because the grammar in the intermediate class quite difficult for the trainees; therefore they have to be prepared both lesson and extra-materials in advance. Even though some trainees faced the difficulties in teaching grammar, they put much effort to do more research to teach students. Consequently, they could achieve a good result of teaching at the end of the day. For instance, it could be said the trainee have used variety of techniques to teach grammar focus such as Meaning to Form and Form to Meaning which could be more convenient to students comprehension. To be more practical and effective for grammar focus teaching, the trainees have to enhance the comprehensive capability for their teaching performance; nonetheless, they are not be able to teach grammar effectively and efficiently.

3.3.3 Post-teaching
One again, after teaching practicum, it was found that the teaching practicum went smoothly despite it lasted in a short period of time. One of the most significant evaluations is that the teacher trainees had good personality and preparation. In response to teaching practicum, individual trainee tried the best to convey professional that can impress the students comfort in learning. Moreover, classroom preparation and management also show a good image because individual trainees could manage and control the class properly. This might be resulted from the number of 7 students involving in classroom. More importantly, all the students were satisfied with learning environment because they could enjoy doing the classroom activities which were 38

required by individual trainee. Another productive notification is that prior to participate in learning New Snapshot Intermediate Course, the students had already taken this class; as a result, it makes an ease for teacher trainee teaching process. As a matter of fact, there are some difficulties for some teacher trainees because they have limited ability to reveal ability and skill to impress the student confident but students still motivated to learn because other observed trainees could facilitated and gave him/her a hand to solve the difficulties during his/her teaching responsibility. It is clear that the mutual cooperation can improve the teaching improvement. More significantly, it is clearly noted that the teacher trainees activated the students to speak English in class all the time. This is long term impact for students in new learning habit of speaking English as much as possible in spite of teaching trainees limited ability. In according to lesson preparation, it was a good idea that every trainee decided to prepare instructional plan and guide for their teaching. It could be said that they conducted a well-performed tasks in applying the teaching activities consistent with a prepared lesson plan. In contrast, it is admittedly stated that majority of trainee have encountered some difficulties in time management. This may be resulted from a short duration (45 minutes) for each session, so they cannot balance the good time for each technique. Sometime, they could not complete the lesson they have planed. Regarding to four macro skills, vocabulary and grammar teaching, there are several difficulties and solutions to the problem which are implemented during the practicum. According to the analysis, it has been illustrated that the teacher trainees have different techniques to implement their own teaching practice. For instance, reading skill was taught with different stage of pre-reading activities and while-reading and postreading technique. Brainstorming was used for students to warm up and built up some basic information related to the reading. In the meanwhile, vocabulary also provided with word hunting or vocabulary matching that was commonly used in correspondence to reading skills. Similarly, speaking and writing skills were more difficult than reading because they are quite challenging both students and trainees. Some trainees could not write and speak well so that they could not teach very well because they followed the books. However, in order to solve the problem, the teacher trainees have changed and 39

chosen the extra topic and materials to teach instead of following everything in the course book. In addition to four macro skills, grammar skills also caused more difficulties for the trainees. It required more time and ability to explain the students. However, some trainee decided to meaning to form or form to meaning teaching technique with supplement exercises at the end of teaching presentation.

IV Conclusion and Recommendation


4.1 Conclusion
After fully completed the practicum for six weeks at Kong Ren International Centre, it could be mentioned that practicum have provided opportunities to teacher trainees to integrate the theory and knowledge of the learning course contents with the application of principles practices in a real teaching environment. One of the most important things of the practicum is that the trainees leant to observe, inspect, check, examine, notice, and analyze the activities of teaching practice. In complementarity to teaching methodology and theory, the trainees are exposed to gain experience-based teaching activities and performance. This means that they start teach in the real teaching environment; therefore, they go accustomed to perform more effectively and efficiently. Even thought teaching practicum which was assigned for the trainees had a short duration, the trainee have learnt to conduct teaching preparation, reflection, assessment, evaluation, and analysis in all phase of pre-teaching, interactive teaching, and postteaching stage. In term of pre-teaching activities, each trainee had conducted acceptable teaching preparation because they prepared the instructional plan in advanced. In addition, they tried very hard to do more research for their teaching responsibilities. In accordance with the while-teaching stage, it was also remarkably noticed that the trainees have dealt with classroom management, class participation, and four macro skills concentration in a very acceptable manner. As a matter of fact, the numbers of the students are only seven students; however, the trainees had more convenience with class management and class participation for an enjoyable teaching environment.

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Regarding to four macro skills performance, it is surprisingly indicated that the experiences of teaching reading, listening, writing, speaking, vocabulary and grammar were productive for both students academic performance and trainees teaching performance. All these skills have been taught conscientiously even though there were some difficulties for listening skill owing to listening material unavailability. More importantly, there were some satisfactions expressed by individual students toward the teacher trainees academic teaching performance in consistence with teacher studentbased evaluation and assessment.

4.2

Recommendation
To be more effective and efficient for the next teaching practicum, there have

been some recommendations and suggestions toward the following stakeholders:

Teacher Trainee should


Improve the teaching capacity and more prepared for teaching Try to cooperate with other trainees because all trainees have to teach

consecutively; therefore, you will have a good cohesion in teaching


Should pay much attention and participate in other trainees as much

as possible because it is the opportunities for each trainee to learn from each other and give some feedbacks for improvement
Put more effort to do more research on extra material because it is

targeted for student s interest and concentration


Illustrate the teaching approaches that have been learnt in school-

based teaching course because it can complement to the teaching improvement

Kong Ren International Centre should


Prepare and arrange more students to participate in teaching practicum Equip the other learning facilities such as listening materials

Build Bright University should

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Inform the trainees in advance about teaching schedule and course that the teaching group has to take responsibility because it might be more convenient for teaching preparation Provide more staff to supervise the trainees teaching performance and give more feedback for next improvement

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References
BBU Publication, 2009-2010, Teaching Methodology, Year Four Semester One, Cambodia. BBU Publication, 2009-2010, Foundation of Education, Year Four Semester One, Cambodia. BBU Publication, 2009-2010, Foundation of Education, Year Four Semester Two, Cambodia. BBU Publication, 2009-2010, Applied Linguistics, Year Four Semester One, Cambodia. BBU Publication, 2009-2010, Applied Linguistics, Year Four Semester Two, Cambodia. BBU Publication, 2009-2010, Report Writing, Year Four Semester One, Cambodia.

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Appendix
Appendix 1: Questionnaire I. Students profile
Sex: Male
Female

Age: Below 15 Job: fulltime student Level: beginner

15-20

21-25

Over 25

part-time student pre-intermediate intermediate

elementary

II. Learning Background


2.1 How long have you learnt English? Below 1year Interest/pleasure English Teacher Teacher 1-2 years 2-3 years Over 3 years 2.2 Why do you want to learn English? Job advancement Communication
Parents advice Business

2.3 Who motivate you to learn English? friends or peers Parents colleague

III. Leaning macro-skills


3.1 Which skills do you think are important for your study/work? Skills Speaking Writing Listening Reading Very important Important Not important

3.2 What skills you think it is hard or easy to learn? Skills Speaking Writing Listening Reading Hard to learn Easy to learn

IV. Perception and learning hobbies a. Speaking


44

1. How often do you speak English? never in class parents pleasure occasionally at home friends sometime at workplace teacher foreigner business usually always 2. Where do you speak English? 3. Who do you speak English with? 4. Why do you want to speak English ? study purpose communication

b. Writing
5. How do you learn to write? with teacher never with friend individual sometime usually always 6. How often do you write in English? occasionally 7. Why do you want to write in English? Improve writing skill to practice writing naturally easy to take note in English 8. What do you normally write about? personal thing teacher Vocabulary story friends Grammar general thing parents homework/classwork 9. Who motivate you to write? myself Lack of ideas 10. What is your obstacle in writing English? Sentence Structure

c. Reading
11. Do you like reading in English? Yes No

12. How often do you read? never occasionally sometime usually always 13. Why do you want to read? pleasure reading improvement improve vocabulary general knowledge 14. What do you normally read? 45

Course Book Newspaper Magazine journal 15. What are your difficulties in reading? Understanding vocabulary

story other ......

complex structures/sentences

d. Listening
16. Do you have good listening skills? Yes No

17. How often do you listen in English? Never Radio At home occasionally TV at school sometime usually always 18. From what do you normally listen to? Cassette Recorder CD/DVD player at work entertainment 19. Where do you normally listen in English? 20. Why do you listen in English? Improve listening skill Get more information

To be familiar with different accents 21. What are your difficulties in listening in English? Understanding Ask teacher vocabulary accent too fast speak get to know the context before 22. How can you solve the problem in listening? listen more than once

listening practice speaking with foreigner

Trainee: Som Piseth Level: Intermediate 46

Class: D1-4

Date: 20/02/2011

Duration: 45mn

Textbook: Snapshot,

CH. 3, pp20-2Time:7:00-8:00 am

Aim: To practice reading skill on the topic of Glassgow Boys Amazing Win Objective: at the end of the lesson, students will be able to: build up their reading skill on the reading text through skimming the context from reading do comprehension based on the reading text Technique/Activities Time Materials Comment

Topic/scheme

Unit 3: Lucky Day!

+Opening: Greeting Check attendance +Warm up: 5 revise previous lesson 5 mn What did you learn in Unit 2? Pre-teaching: Brainstorm -T lets Ss brainstorm lucky day -Do you know anyone 5 mn who has won a large sum of money? -If so, how did they win it and what did they do? +While-Teaching task1 (Reading) -T select SS to read text for detail -T lets student ask the difficult words or phrase task 2 (choose the Best Answers) 20 mn 1. a 2. d Task3( Comprehension) -T assign Ss to work in group on Kelvins Win His father Reaction 47

T and Ss

Teacher/S S WhiteBoar d/marker

Teacher/S S Board/mar ker

His mother . His teacher ... Kalvin ... Stranger . -T let Ss write on the board +Post-teaching task1 (Surveying for Speaking) -T asks Ss to work in group or individual responding to the condition that if you win a lottery with 3 million dollars, what will you do for your future? 1 1. buy a new house 10 mn 2. open restaurant 3. getting married 4. assist my parents 5. giving to orphan 6.spendingon university 7. buy a new car - T gives small piece of paper to Ss to write the best 3 priorities they love - T asks the Ss to count the frequencies on the board +Closing: thank for participation Encourage SS to read at 5 home because it is interesting 5 mn

Teacher/S S Board/mar ker

T and Ss

Name: Chhouk Roth Number of Student.....

Class: B7 Date: 20 Feb 2011 48

Level: Starter Time: 45 mn

Objectives Topic/scheme

at the end of the lesson, students will be able to: Recognize and understand the singular noun and plural nouns change from singular nouns to plural nouns Technique/Activities Time Materials Comment Opening 5 mn T and Ss

Unit 3: Lucky Day!

- Greeting and chatting - Check attendance Warm up - T asks the Ss to count things in their house? Ex: How many dogs and cats do you have at home? How many cars and motors do you have? Transition: Well today were going to study about plural noun. What is the noun? - Singular noun: indicates one thing plural noun: indicate more than one noun Ex: A house A car A shop 4 houses 5 cars 3 shops

5 mn

10mn

49

Presentation T shows the rule of changing from singular nouns to plural noun: 1- Singular Noun to Plural Noun + add (S) to change from Singular noun to plural nouns -T give an example to students a chair a flower a shop two chairs three flowers five shops T/SS White Board Marker 20mn

+ The noun ends with a ch, s, sh, x, or o, add an es a churches a box a tomato a class 5 churches 3 boxes 2 tomatoes 6 classes

+ the nouns finishing with Y should change Y to ies Singular Plural a city 4 cities a family 3 families 2. Irregular plural nouns : some nouns are not followed the rule above Singular a child a man a woman a perosn Plural 3 children 5 men 6 women 2 people 50

Post-teaching Activities Singular Plural a man a book 10 mn A child a shop A bus A actress A house An ox Closing Remark thank for participation Encourage SS to review the 5 mn lesson at home

T/SS Board/ marker

T/SS

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Name: Phin Phal Objectives

Class: A4

Level: Pre-Intermediate Time: 45 mn

Number of Student.....

Date: 27 Feb 2011

: At the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

- know the past simple and continuous form, - use it properly even writing and speaking, and - know the rule of using past simple and continuous. Topic/scheme Unit 6: Grammar: Past Simple& Continuous Page: 38 Technique/Activities i. Opening ii. T Greeting T Chatting T Checking Students Attendance Warm Up Review the previous lesson by asking Ask students some questions relating to the Unit. Example: Have you ever studied Past Grammar Focus Regular/Irregular verbs Form simple and continuous? Why did you use it for? Main Activities: Activities 1: Observe the past simple and continuous T writes some sentences that are Explain the past simple and continuous related to the lesson on the board and ask them to point/underline those tenses. Activities 2: T explains how to use the past simple & continuous to students: 52 20mns 5mns T/SS White Board Marker 5mns Time Materials Comment

1.

Definition:

Past Simple It was used for completed action in the past, a series of completed action, duration in past, habits in the past, past facts, generalizations. Past Continuous It was used for interrupted action in the past, specific time as an interruption, parallel action, atmosphere, repetition and irritation with always 2.Structure Past Simple Positive Form: S + V2 + Obj Negative Form:
S + did + not + Vo + Obj

Question Form: Did + S + Vo + Obj Past Continuous Positive Form: S +Was/Were+ Vo + ing + Obj Negative Form:
S + Was/Were + not + Vo + ing + Obj

Question Form: Was/Were + S + Vo +ing + Obj Activities 3: Practice writing by following the rule ask students to follow the rule and write their own sentences Activities 4: Practice doing exercises 53

T/SS White Board Marker 10mns

Let students complete/choose the right form/answer to correct the sentences iii. Closing Overall the lesson and urge students to keep practicing and speaking English anytime when they travel to somewhere. Lastly, teacher say thank and goodbye to the observers and all the students. 5mns T/SS

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Appendix 2: Pictures of Teaching Activities

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Appendix 3: Teacher Evaluation Sheet I. Students profile


Female

Sex: Male

Age: Below 15 Job: fulltime student Level: beginner

15-20

21-25

Over 25

part-time student pre-intermediate intermediate

elementary

II.

Impression of the Teachers


Please rate the teachers by using the following scale: 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57 4. Agree 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5. Strongly Agree 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1. Strongly Disagree 1. Sim Phalthida

My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 2. So Sreyda My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class.
3. Sok Sopheak

My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 4. Som Piseth My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand.

My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 5. Sroeun Ratha My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 6. Taing Dany My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 7. Tiev Visal My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 8. Tun Boreth My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 9. Un Sopharath My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. 58

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 10. Vorng Kunthea My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class. 11. Yi Sengthai My teacher has a good knowledge of English. My teacher is easy to understand. My teacher makes the lesson interesting. My teacher is friendly. My teacher seems to be prepared before the class.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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