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Yonas Seifu, PhD Research Proposal

Hybrid Brillion/FBG Sensors for Simultaneous Distributed Temperature and Dynamic Strain Sensing on Single Mode and Multimode Fibers
The proposed research work focuses on contributions on new schemes in distributed sensors based on Brilloin Scattering and Hybrid Brilloin/FBG sensors, that utilize the benefits of optical pulse coding techniques for performance enhancement over single-mode and multimode fibers. After a brief introduction to fiber-optic sensors and the current state of the art of research in the field, the areas of focus of the proposed research is explained, in each case providing the ground that motivated the work including some related, previously made contribution. The measurement of physical parameters such as temperature and strain in fiber-optic sensors is based on two basic type of sensing, namely distributed and discrete sensing ([2]). In distributed sensing, scattering phenomena in the fiber such as Raleigh, Raman and Brilloin Scatteirng are used to determine the measurand (temperature, strain) and the fiber is used to continuously determine the value of the parameter along the entire sensing span. In discrete (point) sensing, however, the measurement of parameters is performed at predetermined points along the fiber where Fiber Brag Gratings (FBGs) are placed. Fiber-optic sensors could also be static or dynamic based on whether or not they can capture fast changes in the measurand. So far, all the above types of sensing systems were widely studied, with spatial and measurand resolution, acquisition time and the sensing length being the main parameters of improvement among subsequent implementations. The study of distributed and FBG-based sensors includes different schemes for the source and receivers, frequency and time domain multiplexing of a number of FBGs as well as hybrid distributed/FBG sensor schemes using common set of source and receiver. Most notably, recent developments include the use of optical pulse codes, instead of a single pulse in conventional sensing systems, to improve the SNR of the reflected signal at the receiver, there by significantly enhancing the sensing distance or the spatial/measurand resolution. Recently, in [3] a novel technique is introduced that uses 63- bit distributed cyclic codes in SMF to reduce the attainable dynamic strain resolution to 380 n/Hz from 1.40 u/Hz, while the sensing distance is increased by 15km due to coding. The proposed research work includes investigating and developing Brilloin based distributed sensors that utilize pulse coding over SMF, which makes it possible that fiber already deployed for telecom applications could be used for sensing without redeployment. Most previously implemented distributed temperature sensors used MMFs, which are characterized by higher back-scattering coefficients and also allow for higher input peak power levels before the onset of non-linear effects. The use of optical pulse coding on SMF is already demonstrated to be very important in distributed temperature sensing (DTS) as shown in [4], where a long range Raman DTS with meter-scale spatial resolution is shown over 26km SMF. Another component of the proposed work includes the theoretical and experimental demonstration of the application of different types of pulse coding techniques to distributed temperature and dynamic strains sensors based on Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in both SMF and MMF. These types of distributed sensors, including Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometery (BOTDR)

Yonas Seifu, PhD Research Proposal


and Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) techniques have wide spread applications, because of the higher back-scattered power than Raman Scattering and the lower sensitivity to wavelength dependent losses. For instance, A long range BOTDA system employing pulse coding is demonstrated in [5], where an enhanced SNR for measuring the Brilloin Gain Shift along the sensing fiber is obtained. The use of coding helped extend the sensing range by about 40km while maintaining high spatial resolution compared to conventional single pulse systems, without significant modification of the setup. The proposed work includes investigating methods to avoid the use of heuristics in determining the type of pulse codes utilized in the BOTDR/BOTDA sensors so that it is possible to algorithmically determine the coding scheme that gives the best performance from among a number of possible coding types. A very important part of of the proposed work , however is the study of long range Hybrid Brillouin based/FBG sensors that share similar resources at the transmitter and receiver to simultaneously measure distributed temperate along the fiber and dynamic strain or temperature at distinct points along the sensing span. The scheme is much more compact compared to two separate sensing schemes and also more cost effective since the optical source, the sensing fiber and receiver stage are all shared among two separate schemes. So far, hybrid sensors based on Brillouin scattering have been based only on BOTDA ([6]), which requires a number of averaging for several minutes for determining the temperature along the span, while there were no previous demonstrations of hybrid BOTDR/FBG sensors based on optical pulse coding in SMF. A related work, which is one of the motivations to the work proposed above, is given in [7] but based on Raman, as opposed to Brillouin, Scattering where a novel technique is implemented that uses optical pulse coding. The scheme combines Raman DTS using OTDR techniques with TDM multiplexed FBG-based point sensors for simultaneous temperature and dynamic strain measurement. It is shown that cyclic pulse coding enables a temperature and dynamic strain resolutions of 3K at 10 km and 60 n/(Hz)1/2 at 250 Hz, respectively. Hence, the proposed work aims at theoretical and experimental demonstration of the choice of (sets) of suitable optical coding techniques and their integration in to the hybrid Brillouin/FBG sensor scheme that is to be newly designed, for achieving optimum performances in terms of reachable distance, acquisition time and resolution. The scheme will benefit from the gains of optical pulse coding to enhance the sensing distance and resolution in simultaneous temperature and strain measurement, while at the same time extending the utilization of existing source, receiver and fiber infrastructure for hybrid sensing. The effects of including TDM multiplexed FBGs along the fiber and the interaction with the Brillouin scattering effects, including its impact on over all sensing performance is also to be studied carefully. A common challenge in the implementation of Raman based sensors is the need for a high power source or an amplifier due to the relatively low back-scattered power, while Brillouin based sensors are known to have higher back scattered power, allowing the wide application of the system to be designed using relatively simpler configurations

Yonas Seifu, PhD Research Proposal


Finally, since the availability of compact interrogation units (sources and receivers) is key to the wide spread use of the sensors schemes that are to be demonstrated, an important extension to the work can be the design of efficient and low-cost photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for the respective components of all the schemes described above. To recapitulate, the proposed research work includes major contributions in enhanced application of optical pulse coding techniques in BOTDR/BOTDA systems in MMF, the study of such systems over SMF, in-depth investigation of new long range hybrid Brillouin/FBG sensors using optical pulse coding techniques for improved performance over SMF and design of PICs for interrogation units. The completion of the proposed project is expected to have ample contribution to the widespread demand for distributed and hybrid sensors in such areas as structural health monitoring in smart structures, industrial setting with high voltage and high power machinery, electrical power lines, environmental control and monitoring and public transportation.

References
[1]. K.T.V Grattan, Dr. T. Sun Fiber optic sensor technology: an overview Sensors and Actuators 82, 40-61 (2000) [2]. Farhan Zaidi, Tiziano Nannipieri,Alessandro Signorini, Mohammad Taki, Valentina Donzella, Fabrizio Di Pasquale (2012), FBG in High performance time domain FBG dynamic interrogation technique based on cyclic pulse coding [3]. Alan D. Kersey, Michael A. Davis, Heather J. Patrick, Michel LeBlanc, K. P. Koo,C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. Joseph Friebele, Fiber Grating Sensors, Journal of Light wave Technology Vol. 15, No. 8 August 1997. [4]. Marcelo A. Soto Tiziano Nannipieri, Alessandro Signorini, Andrea Lazzeri, Federico Baronti, Roberto Roncella, Gabriele Bolognini,, and Fabrizio Di Pasquale Raman-based distributed temperature sensor with1m spatial resolution over 26 km SMF using low-repetition-rate cyclic pulse coding [5]. Marcelo A Soto,Gabriele Bolognini,Fabrizio Di Pasquale and Luc Thevenaz, Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques, Measurement Sceience and Technology, 2010.
[6].Tiziano Nannipieria, Mohammad Taki, Farhan Zaidi, Alessandro Signorini , Marcelo A. Soto, Gabriele Bologninic, Fabrizio Di Pasquale. Hybrid BOTDA/FBG sensor for discrete dynamic and distributed static strain/temperature measurements

Iacopo Toccafondo, Mohammad Taki, Alessandro Signorini, Farhan Zaidi, Tiziano Nannipieri, Stefano Faralli, and Fabrizio Di Pasquale, Hybrid Raman/FBG Sensor for Distributed Temperature and Discrete Dynamic Strain Measurements
[7].