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Lecture 05

Examples
UCF
Example 109 (1)
Assume that vector field exists in a region surrounding the origin of a
spherical coordinate system. Find the value of the closed-surface integral
over the unit sphere.
UCF
Example 109 (2)
Solution:
The closed-surface integral is given by
In this integral, we have used the differential surface area in spherical coordinates
that has a unit vector a
r
. If the vector A had any additional components directed in
the a
u
or a
|
directions, their contribution to this surface integral would be zero,
since the scalar product of these terms will be equal to zero.
( )
2
0
2
0
2
0 0
sin 4
A
r d d A
r
| t u t
| u
u u | t
= =
= =
| |
= =
|
\ .
}} } }
r r
A ds a a

2
sin d r d d u u | =
r
s a
UCF
Example 110 (1)
Assume that the vector field
is defined in a region
Find the value of the closed-surface integral
over the surface of this region.
1 3 x s s , 2 4 y s s and 1 2 z s s
2
5 4
x y z
xy xy z = + + A a a a

}}
A ds

UCF
Example 110 (2)
Solution:
The region has six surfaces. On the front surface, x=3 and is the only
component perpendicular to that surface. Therefore,
3
2 2
2 4 2
1 2 1
| |
5 3 15
4 ( 2)
| 15 15 270
2
front x x
front
d A dydz
ydydz ydydz
d ydydz dz
=

=
= =

= = =
}} } } }
A s
A s
On the back surface, x=1 and is the only component perpendicular to that
surface. Therefore,
1
2 2
2 4 2
1 2 1
| | ( )
5 1 5
4 ( 2)
| 5 5 90
2
back x x
back
d A dydz
ydydz ydydz
d ydydz dz
=

=
= =

= = =
}} } } }
A s
A s
UCF
Example 110 (3)
On the right surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that surface.
Therefore,
4
2
2 2
2 3 2
1 1 1
| |
4 16
3 1
| 16 16 192
2
right y y
right
d A dxdz
x dxdz xdxdz
d xdxdz dz
=

=
= =

= = =
}} } } }
A s
A s
On the left surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that surface.
Therefore,
2
2
2 2
2 3 2
1 1 1
| | ( )
( 2) ( ) 4
3 1
| 4 4 48
2
left y y
left
d A dxdz
x dxdz xdxdz
d xdxdz dz
=

=
= =

= = =
}} } } }
A s
A s
UCF
Example 110 (4)
On the top surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that surface.
Therefore,
2
4 3
2 1
| |
4 2 8
| 8 96
top z z
top
d A dxdy
dxdy dxdy
d dxdy
=

=
= =
= =
}} } }
A s
A s
On the bottom surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that
surface. Therefore,
1
4 3
2 1
| | ( )
4 ( 1)( ) 4
| 4 48
top z z
top
d A dxdy
dxdy dxdy
d dxdy
=

=
= =
= =
}} } }
A s
A s
The closed surface integral can be obtained by the summation of the above six
surface integrals as:
270 90 192 48 120 60 468 d = + + + =
}}
A s

UCF
Example 111 (1)
Find the volume of a cylinder that has a radius a and a length l.
UCF
Example 112
Find the total charge within a volume defined by
1 5, /6 / 2, / 4 3 / 4 r t u t t | t s s s s s s
if the charge density is given as:
cos
v
r | =
/2 5
2
/4 /6 1
cos sin 39 6
v
V
Q dv r r dr d d
t t
t t
| u u | = = =
}}} } } }
Solution:
UCF
Example 113
Assume that there exists a surface that can be modeled with the equation
( )
2 2
x y
z e
+
= .
Calculate Vz at the point (x =0, y =0). In addition, use MATLAB to illustrate the
profile and to calculate and plot this field.
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
x y x y
z xe y e
+ +
V =
x y
a a . At the point (x =0, y =0), Vz =0.
UCF
Example 114
Find the divergence of the vector A =3xa
x
+xy
2
a
y
2xye
z
a
z
at the point (1, 1, 2).
Solution:
Using equation (1.95), we find
( )
( ) ( )
2
3 2
3 2 2
z
z
x xy xye
x y z
xy xye

c c c
V = +
c c c
= + +
A

At the point (1, 1, 2) this gives V A =3 2 2e
2
=0.7293.
UCF
Example 115
Find the divergence of the vector field
( )
2
e
o

= A a , where o is a constant.
Solution:
Fromequation (1.96), we have
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1 1 1
2 2
2 1
A e e e
e
o o o

o o

c c
| | | |(
V = = =
| |
(
\ . \ . c c
(
| |
=
|
(
\ .

A

UCF
Example 116
Evaluate both sides of the divergence theorem for the vector field
2
5 4
x y z
xy xy z = + + A a a a defined in the region 1 3 x s s , 2 4 y s s and
1 2 z s s .
Solution:
Using equation (1.95), we find
( ) ( ) ( )
2
5 4
5 2 4
xy xy z
x y z
y xy
c c c
V = + +
c c c
= + +
A

The volume integral is given by
2 4 3
1 2 1
(5 2 4) 468
V
dv y xy dx dy dz

V = + + =
}}} } } }
A
The closed-surface integral has already been calculated in Example 1.10. We have
468
S
=
}}
A ds

As we expected, the two answers are the same.

UCF
Example 117
Find the curl of the vector field
( )
2
e
o
|
e

= A a , where o and e are constant

Solution:

Fromequation (1.107), the curl is given by
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
0 0
1
0 0 e
2 1
z
z
z
z
e
e
|
o
o
|
o

|
e

e
o

c c c
V =
c c c
c
(
= + + e
(
c

(
| |
=
|
(
\ .

a a a
A
a a a
a

UCF
Example 118 (1)
UCF Example 118 (2)
Matlab
Solutions:
0
x
A =
0
y
A =
2 2
9 x y + =
0 3
3 0
2 check stokes's theorem
0 0,
2
x y
arc
xy x
d d d A dx A dy
xydx xdy
=
= + + = +
= +
} }
} }
x y
A a a
A l A l A l

2
9 x
2
9 y
2
3 9
0 0
[ , , ]
( )
x y z
y
z
B B B
d dxdy B dx dy

= V =
= =
}} }} } }
z
B A
B S B
=
n z
a a
UCF
Example 119 (1)
2
2
min max min max min max
min 1 min
m 2 max
min 3
20
(sin sin(2 ) )
1)
2) ( )
for a closed region defined as , ,
:
, ,
, ,
, ,
z
n
ax n
n
z
d
dV
z z z
NOTE
d d dz
d d dz
d d d
|

|
| |

| | |
|
|
| |
= + +

V
s s s s s s
= = =
= = =
= = =
}}
}}}
D a a a
D S
D
a a S a
a a S a
a a S

m 4
min 5
max 6
, ,
, ,
, ,
ax n
n z z
n z z
z
d d dz
z z d d d
z z d d d
|
| |
| |
|
|
= = =
= = =
= = =
a
a a S a
a a S a
a a S a
UCF
General Orthogonal Coordinate System
v
3
v
1
v
2
UCF
Differential Length
Cartesian coordinate system Cylindrical coordinate system
Spherical coordinate system
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z
v = [x y z]
h = [1 1 1]
v = [r theta phi]
h = [1 r r*sin(theta)]
v = [rho phi z]
h = [1 rho 1]
UCF
Differential Operators
The gradient of a scalar field
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 1 V V V
V
h v h v h v
c c c
V = + +
c c c
a a a
The divergence of a vector field
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
1
Fh h F h h F h h
h h h v v v
(
c c c
V = + +
(
c c c

F
The curl of a vector field
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1
h h h
h h h v v v
h F h F h F
c c c
V =
c c c
a a a
F
The Laplacian of a scalar field
2
2 3 3 1 1 2
1 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
1 h h h h h h V V V
V V
h h h v h v v h v v h v
(
| | | | | |
c c c c c c
V = V V = + +
( | | |
c c c c c c
(
\ . \ . \ .

UCF MatLab Vector Analysis Tools

Integration
int1D, int2D, int3D (numerical)
Coordinate and Field Transformation
car2cyl, car2sph, cyl2car,
cyl2sph, sph2car, sph2cyl (coordinate,numerical)
Scar2cyl, Scar2sph, Scyl2car,
Scyl2sph, Ssph2car, Ssph2cyl (field, symbolic)
Differentiation
grad, div, rot (symbolic)