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Post-colonial perspectives in (world) politics Theory, IPE and (World) Politics Theory is always for someone or for some

me purpose. They give perspective. Two types of theory: problem solving (liberalism, realism) takes the status quo for granted, finds the negative aspects to fix, dont ask questions about why the market economy is and how to change, work out the givens and work within it to ensure a fairer distribution of resources; critical theory (neoGramscian, Marxist, world systems, post-colonial) dont take the market/state/liberal democracy for granted, ask questions about the system, historically interested, developed analysis about the conditions that reproduce the inequalities that demarcate the systems, multiplicities of differences, dont take the system as universal/natural/ahistorical, develop different strains and give key emphasis in explaining power asymmetries. Eduardo Galeano If you do not leave us to dream, we will not rest you to sleep. Utopia is on the horizon. Utopia is used to walk.

Emergence of postcolonial perspectives Postcolonialism is used to develop new theories and enables voices that havent been heard. Makes theory relevant to everyday life. Puts into practice new political horizons. Postcolonial perspective emerges from testimonies and discourses of minorities (Aboriginal and other silenced communities). Minorites speak the emergence of these voices overridden by modernity and development is essential to postcolonialist theory. No to liberalisms economic rationalist acceptance of the status quo against these frameworks that disadvantage minorities. The language/practice of postcolonialism is uncompromising. Constitutes a threat to privilege to power and privilege. Historical emergence is essential to these voices being heard. The invention of the west and its others: Post-colonial critique Transformation has to come from those colonised. Premised on the reconstruction of other histories, other knowledges, other practices of development and modernrity. Post-Colonial Critique: Deconstruction and Reconstruction Poco critique has two methods:

o Deconstruction of dominant discourse of modernity and development: site of enunciation/location of discourse matters; West represents itself as the ideal of modernity and development and its knowledge as universal and neutral o Construction of multiple modernities from the experiences of the excluded from modernity: social movement; communities that otherwise considered underdeveloped; practices of politics beyond market, state and liberalism Colonisers justify their ways as a way to solve inequality; poco theory answers that they ignore those on the darker side because of how they work within the status quo. The conditions in which a theory is developed helps us to unravel how the theory comes from a particular perspective. Intellectual elites become gatekeepers who exclude others. Language influences and shapes actual theories and policies. Neutrality is a myth because there are many exclusions and silences. Focus on work with social movements and the underdeveloped people. Develop alternatives to the market and state. Deconstruction Exposing the elisions, violences, erasures and exclusions constitutive of modernity and capitalism. Invention of the West through History I: speak from the excluded spaces. Emergence of capitalism is framed around primitive accumulation: what explains the conditions of the emerging capitalist class. Liberals say it emerges naturally as were naturally rational people who barter and exchange. Realists believe the system needs to stay so that natural order remains: the state maintains this need for civilisation. Traditional Marxists believes it to be a historically specific process bound up with power; the removal of peasants from their land when land becomes private property as opposed to the existence of commons (allowed the peasants their existence and not have to rely on a feudal landlord to make a living). The removal of lands from the peasants is essential to the formation of the proletariat. Enslaved by lack of choice. Inherent to the formation of the emergence of capitalism is not

rationality, but a particular social class combined with other political forces that remove the capacity/ability for the working class to work for them. Postcolonialist view would add geography: very true, but there are relations to other peoples and other lands which allowed colonialism to flourish within Europe because of other countries. The emergence of capitalism is premised on violence in Europe, also premised on similar processes in colonised nations. Part of this was dependent on resources and labour, and the bodies of the colonised to salve. Access to land and resources of colonies. The West devours itself and the rest of the world (Gamble). Invention of the West through History II: ontological violence. The emergence of capitalism isnt just about land, but also cultures, spiritualties, cosmologies. Colonised internalise these attitudes that theyre barbarians who are inferior. Impoverished colonised and colonisers by stopping colonisers from developed creativity and their ability to grow. Colonisation is not accidental; works on multiple levels. Invention of the West in Politics of Coloniality until the Present Day West: believes it to be the pinnacle of rationality and politics. That liberal political culture and institutions bring democracy and democratisation to the world. An example of rationality to the global sphere. Impacts on politics in international/national/regional arenas. Justifies these political practices. How do these sites of knowledge construct themselves as the pinnacle of politics. Has to construct the Other. The opposite of the pinnacle of politics is the barbarians: illiberal, authoritarian states, corrupt, needs the West to support them. The Other need the experts who will come in and develop democracy and higher forms of politics. Discourse in West represents themselves as pinnacle of history and represents the underside the Other as illiberal barbarians who need political intervention. Deconstruction of Discourse Modernity results from continued relationship of exploitation and violence towards the South. Affirmative (re)construction

The Other appears disempowered. The poco perspective wants to expose the silences, but also highlight the stories of the Other and construct other modes of modernity.

Elements of an other world politics Decentring privilege: to take apart hierarchical privilege on which IR and political science legitimises its privileges. Power connected to discourse and science: experiences are excluded other stories have to be integrated with other stories for practical politics. Opening a dialogue between other histories. Horizontal multiplicity. Recalling other kinds of memories and stories to tell: poco critique is about presenting another narrative. Historical emergence of capitalism is another voice. An affirmative critique would be talking about those historically marginalised because of capitalism. The history of their communities, their medicine, their knowledges, their stories of survival and expulsion from their land. Involves a call to no longer forget. A call to remember. Reciprocal participation and listening: enables decentring. Enables dialogue and to tell other stories. Create the conditions for participation and listening. Hard to be heard by institutional democracies and centres of powers. Internalisation of inferiority and trauma. Given the chance to speak, you cant always speak because its been taken away from you. How can you create a safe space so that marginalised can feel comfortable to share their invaluable stories and gems of wisdom? Recognition of multiple sources of knowledge and understandings of the world: knowledge does not merely take the form of the written word. Rich traditions of collective knowledge based on oral traditions, poetry, dance, ritual. The idea is that you open yourself up to recongising that knowledge can take multiple forms and that the ways to produce knowledge is multiple: photography, video, reflection. Poco theory enables creativity and re-embed theory with creativity. Theory is a way to understand and shape the world. Asking open questions not proposing universal solutions: Be wary of misrepresenting the Other. Re-imaging theory building

Shifting the political economy and practices of knowledge production from the centre to the margins Integrating the epistemologies and ontologies of the non-Western other into theory-building and political activism Democratising research from design, implementation to outcomes: opens it to plurality. What should universities, safe teaching spaces, classes look like? Unless we decentre the privilege, then it becomes invisible. Can be seen as terroristic, illiberal, barbaric. Reconstitute networks from the low to the high.

An Other World Politics Rich traditions of politics, culture premised upon forms of direct and participatory democracy Other forms of knowledge and ways of constructing knowledge Cosmologies and world views that are not about accumulation, power and control Usefulness of post-colonial theory Complex understanding of power Denaturalises current organisations of IPE, (World) Politics and TheoryMaking Opens up possibilities of imaging multiple modernities and selves