Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8





OBJECT:-To study experiments on P,PI,PD,PID controller with process simulation. THEORY:P controller:The proportional controller produces an output signal (pressure in the case of a pneumatic controller, current or voltage for an electronic controller) that is proportional to the error E. This action may be expressed asP = KcE + ps where p = output signal from controller, psig or ma K, = gain, or sensitivity E = error = set point - measured variable ps = a constant The error E, which is the difference between the set point and the signal from the measuring element, may be in any suitable units. However, the units of set point and measured variable must be the same, since the error is the difference between these quantities. In a controller having adjustable gain, the value of the gain K, can be varied by moving a knob in the controller. The value of ps is the value of the output signal when E is zero, and in most controllers ps can be

adjusted to obtain the required output signal when the control system is at steady state and E = 0.
PI CONTROLLER:-. This mode of control is described by the relationship

(1) where K, = gain r1 = integral time, min ps = constant In this case, we have added to the proportional action term, K& another term that is proportional to the integral of the error. ,Thevalues of K, and qmay be varied by two knobs in the controller. To visualize the response of this controller, consider the response to a unit-step change in error, as shown in Fig. 1. This unit-step response is most directly obtained by inserting E = 1 into IQ. 1, which yields



Notice that p changes suddenly by an amount K,, and then changes linearly withtime at a rate Kc/q. To obtain the transfer function of Eq. 2, we again introduce the devia-tion variable P = p - ps into Eq. 2 and then take the transform to obtain-

.(3) (PD) CONTROLLER:-. This mode of control may be represented by

(4) where K, = gain = derivative time, min

ps = constant In this case, we have added to the proportional term another term, &Q d cldt , which is proportional to the derivative of the error. The values of K, and 70 may be varied separately by knobs on the controller. Other terms that are used to describe the derivative action are rate control and anticipatory control. The action of this controller can be visualized by considering the response to a linear change in error as shown in Fig. 2. This response is obtained by introducing the linear function e(t) = At into Eq. 4 to obtain:.(5)

Fig.- 2

Notice that p changes suddenly by an amount AK,TD as a result of the derivative action and then changes linearly at a rate AK,. The effect of derivative action in this case is to anticipate the linear change in error by adding additional output Due to the proportional action.

To obtain the transfer function from Eq. 4. we introduce the deviation variable P = p - ps and then take the transform to obtain:-

(PID) CONTROLLER:-. This mode of control is combination of the previous modes and is given by the expression-

(6) In this case, the controller contains three knobs for adjusting K,, Q, and 71. The transfer function for this controller can be obtained from the Laplace transform of Eq. 5.:-

..(7) Motivation for Addition of Integraland Derivative Control Modes:Having introduced ideal transfer functions for integral and derivative modes of control, we now wish to indicate the practical motivation for use of these modes. The curves of Fig. 3. show the behavior of a typical, feedback control system using different kinds of control when it is subjected to a permanent disturbance. This may be visualized in terms of the tank-temperature control system of Chap. 1 after a step change in Ti. The value of the controlled variable is seen to rise.


at time zero owing to the disturbance. With no control, this variable continues to rise to a new steady-state value. With control, after some time the control system begins to take action to try to maintain the controlled variable close to the value that existed before the disturbance occurred. With proportional action only, the control system is able to arrest the rise of the controlled variable and ultimately bring it to rest at a new steady-state value. The difference between this new steady-state value and the original value is called o&?. For the

particular system shown, the offset is seen to be only 22 percent of the ultimate change that would have been realized for this disturbance In the absence of control. As shown by the PI curve, the addition of integral action eliminates the off-set; the controlled variable ultimately returns to the original value. This advantage of integral action is balanced by the disadvantage of a more oscillatory behavior. The addition of derivative action to the PI action gives a definite improve-ment in the response. The rise of the controlled variable is arrested more quickly,and it is returned rapidly to the original value with little- or no oscillation. Dis-cussion of the PD mode is deferred to a later chapter. The selection among the control systems whose responses are shown in Fig. 3 depends on the particular application. If an offset of 22 percent is tolerable, proportional action would likely be selected. If no offset were tolerable, integral action would be added. If excessive oscillations had to be eliminated, derivative action might be added. The addition of each mode means, as we shall see in later chapters, more difficult controller adjustment. Our goal in forthcoming chapters will be to present the material that will enable the reader to develop curves such as those of Fig. 3 and thereby to design efficient, economic control systems. *THE END*