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Brett Anderson
REVIEW: EQUILIBRIUM 10/2/2002
Equations:




v w
: v
c
r
f
c
: v
r
v w
f
B A
D C
k
k
k
k r Rate f Rate
D C k r Rate
B A k f Rate
:D vC xB wA
=
= =
=
=
+ +
and ) ( ) (
) (
) (
: true is Iollowing The
: m equilibriu at equation Given the


) (
2
1 n
3 2 1
n
3
new
n
n
) ( : gases Eor
: eq g Subtractin
... : eq Adding
1
k : by eq Divide
: by eq Multiply
gas
n
c p
new
n new
old
n
old new
RT k k
k
k
k
k k k k k
k
n
k k n

=
=
=
=
=
Definitions:
1- Equilibrium
A state in which all change has ceased (static) or all change appears to have
ceased (dynamic).
2- Dynamic Equilibrium
Eorward and reverse rates oI reaction are equal. Also, macroscopic properties do
not change (e.g. pressure, temperature).
3- Saturated Solution
No more solvent can be dissolved in the solute.

Key Concepts:
Characteristics of a System at Equilibrium (P. 3)
1- Closed system (no adding or removing(
2- Constant pressure
3- Constant temperature
4- Constant Colour
5- Can be approached Irom either direction
6- Constant concentration (though not necessarily 50/50)
7- Microscopic properties are continuous
Heat Content
reaction exothermic then , H II
reaction. c endothermi then , II
0 Assume
rxn
x
x H
x
rxn
= A
+ = A
>
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Brett Anderson
REVIEW: EQUILIBRIUM 10/2/2002
Factors that Affect Equilibrium (P. 3-5)
Factor Effect on
Temperature
Rate of Reaction Effect on
Equilibrium
Concentration
Reactant
Product
--- Reactant
--- Product
None
None
None
None
Easter
Easter
Easter
Easter
Right
LeIt
LeIt
Right
Temperature

---

--
Easter
Slower
Eavour endo.
Eavour exo.
Pressure

---
None
None
Easter
Slower
--- mol. Iavoured
mol. Iavoured
Catalyst None Easter None
Volume

---
Noble Gas
None
None
None
Easter
Easter
None
mol. Iavoured
--- mol. Iavoured
None
Le Chaterliers Prcinciple (P. 6-7)
'II an equilibrium is subjected to a change, processes occur that tend to counteract
partially the imposed change.
The Equilibrium Constant (K

)
1- Varies depending on temperature.
2- Units vary depending on equation.
3- Large value predominantly Iorward reaction
4- Small value predominantly reverse reaction
5- Only gases and aqueous solutions are taken into account
Why? Solids do not vary in concentration.
6- Does not vary with concentration or changes in pressure.
Be able to interpret equilibrium graphs:

Note, no change if same number of molecules on both sides of equation.


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Brett Anderson
REVIEW: EQUILIBRIUM 10/2/2002
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Brett Anderson
REVIEW: EQUILIBRIUM 10/2/2002
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Brett Anderson
REVIEW: EQUILIBRIUM 10/2/2002